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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361549

RESUMO

In the present study, the influence of five drying techniques on the structural and biological properties of polysaccharides from lotus leaves (LLPs) was investigated. Results revealed that the yields, contents of basic chemical components, molecular weights, and molar ratios of compositional monosaccharides of LLPs varied by different drying technologies. Low molecular weight distributions were observed in polysaccharides obtained from lotus leaves by hot air drying (LLP-H), microwave drying (LLP-M), and radio frequency drying (LLP-RF), respectively. The high contents of bound polyphenolics were measured in LLP-H and LLP-M, as well as polysaccharides obtained from lotus leaves by vacuum drying (LLP-V). Furthermore, both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of LLPs were similar, indicating that drying technologies did not change their basic chemical structures. Besides, all LLPs exhibited obvious biological properties, including in vitro antioxidant capacities, antiglycation activities, and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase. Indeed, LLP-H exhibited higher 2,2-azidobisphenol (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging ability (IC50 values, LLP-H, 0.176 ± 0.004 mg/mL; vitamin C, 0.043 ± 0.002 mg/mL) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrate phenyl) hydrazine radical scavenging ability (IC50 values, LLP-H, 0.241 ± 0.007 mg/mL; butylated hydroxytoluene, 0.366 ± 0.010 mg/mL) than others, and LLP-M exerted stronger antiglycation (IC50 values, LLP-M, 1.023 ± 0.053 mg/mL; aminoguanidine, 1.744 ± 0.080 mg/mL) and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase (IC50 values, LLP-M, 1.90 ± 0.02 µg/mL; acarbose, 724.98 ± 16.93 µg/mL) than others. These findings indicate that both hot air drying and microwave drying can be potential drying techniques for the pre-processing of lotus leaves for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Lotus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos , Água/química , Dessecação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443587

RESUMO

Panax spp. (Araliaceae family) are widely used medicinal plants and they mainly include Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng). Polysaccharides are the main active ingredients in these plants and have demonstrated diverse pharmacological functions, but comparisons of isolation methods, structural features, and bioactivities of these polysaccharides have not yet been reported. This review summarizes recent advances associated with 112 polysaccharides from ginseng, 25 polysaccharides from American ginseng, and 36 polysaccharides from notoginseng and it compares the differences in extraction, purification, structural features, and bioactivities. Most studies focus on ginseng polysaccharides and comparisons are typically made with the polysaccharides from American ginseng and notoginseng. For the extraction, purification, and structural analysis, the processes are similar for the polysaccharides from the three Panax species. Previous studies determined that 55 polysaccharides from ginseng, 18 polysaccharides from American ginseng, and 9 polysaccharides from notoginseng exhibited anti-tumor activity, immunoregulatory effects, anti-oxidant activity, and other pharmacological functions, which are mediated by multiple signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, or redox balance pathways. This review can provide new insights into the similarities and differences among the polysaccharides from the three Panax species, which can facilitate and guide further studies to explore the medicinal properties of the Araliaceae family used in traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(7): e2100130, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080308

RESUMO

The polysaccharides of the Chinese herbal medicine Dendrobium huoshanense exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in multiple organs through regulating the immune responses. In the present study, we constructed ulcerative colitis (UC) model rats using dextran sulfate sodium to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of D. huoshanense polysaccharides (DHP). After oral administration of DHP for two weeks, the indices of UC symptoms, including the ratio of colon weight to length, Disease Activity Index (DAI), and Colon Mucosal Damage Index (CMDI), all decreased significantly compared with the UC model group. The histological sections also revealed better cell orders in DHP treatments than in the UC model rats. Moreover, in treatment with high dose of DHP (200 mg/kg), the treatment efficacy arrived the similar levels to those in the treatment with 300 mg/kg sulfasalazine, which is a typical medicine to treat UC. These results indicated that DHP has a high efficacy to treat UC in model rats. Furthermore, serum levels of interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17, and transforming growth factor-ß were assessed using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and the levels of nuclear factor-κB in colon tissue sections were determined using the immunohistochemical method. The results showed that all these indices decreased significantly after administration of DHP in UC model rats, which might be the mechanisms underlying the DHP-suppressed UC inflammation. Overall, this study indicated that DHP might be directly used to treat UC and is a promising source to develop novel drugs against UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Dendrobium/química , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 194-205, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166690

RESUMO

Steam explosion (SE) was a friendly environmentally pretreatment method. In this study, the effect of steam explosion (SE) pretreatment on structure and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Ampelopsis grossedentata polysaccharides was evaluated. Two novel polysaccharides (AGP and AGP-SE) were extracted, isolated, purified and analyzed by NMR, FT-IR and methylation. The results indicated that AGP mainly consisted of Rha, Xyl, Glc, and Ara with a molecular weight of 2.74 × 103 kDa and AGP-SE mainly consisted of Man, Ara, and Gal with a molecular weight of 2.14 × 103 kDa. Furthermore, the backbone of AGP and AGP-SE were mainly composed of 5)-Araf-(1→, -Glcp-(1→, 6)-Glcp-(1→, 6)-Galp-(1→, 3,6)-Manp-(1→, and 2,3,6)-Glcp-(1→. Finally, we demonstrated that all polysaccharides exhibited obviously α-glucosidase inhibition activity and mixed type inhibition. AGP-SE had better α-glucosidase inhibition activity and the binding affinity KD on α-glucosidase by using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) than AGP. Overall, SE pretreatment is an effective method for extracting polysaccharide and provides a new idea into the improvement of biological activity.


Assuntos
Ampelopsis/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Sequência de Carboidratos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Metilação , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vapor , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 2262-2271, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062158

RESUMO

Degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and antimicrobial resistance are becoming prominent health problems needing utmost public health attention. Curative interventions such as the use of pharmaceutical drugs and alternative plant medicines are increasingly being explored. Plant polysaccharides have gained attention for their promising bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Bioactive plant polysaccharides are also being preferred for their relatively few side effects compared to conventional pharmaceuticals. The elucidation of the bioactive potential of plant polysaccharides in disease treatment entails an understanding of the factors that determine their biofunctional properties using functional and mechanistic assays. This review summarizes the literature on the composition, structural, functional, and mechanistic determinations of the antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial activities of plant polysaccharides. The outcome of this review highlights the leading trends in the elucidation of the antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial activities of plant polysaccharides and underscores the promising health benefits of plant polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Água/química
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 2337-2353, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090852

RESUMO

Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) is one of the main active components of Angelica sinensis (AS) that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. ASP is water-soluble polysaccharides, and it is mainly composed of glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), arabinose (Ara), rhamnose (Rha), fucose (Fuc), xylose (Xyl) and galacturonic acid (GalUA). The extraction methods of ASP include hot water extraction and ultrasonic wave extraction, and different extraction methods can affect the yield of ASP. ASP has a variety of pharmacological activities, including hematopoietic activity, promoting immunity, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-virus, liver protection, and so on. As a kind of natural polysaccharide, ASP has potential application as drug carriers. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the latest extraction and purification methods of ASP, the strategies used for monosaccharide compositional analysis plus polysaccharide structural characterization, pharmacological activities and drug carrier applications, and it can provide a basis for further study on ASP.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis/química , Portadores de Fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3082-3096, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146417

RESUMO

The present study discussed the optimization of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from daylily polysaccharides (DPs). The extracted crude polysaccharides were further separated and purified, and the antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-111 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities of the obtained fractions were also evaluated. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters with DPs yield of 15.25 ± 1.13% were water to powder ratio of 25 ml/g, extraction power of 694 W, extraction temperature of 71°C, extraction time of 38 min, and three times extraction. By DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, four water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (DP-1, DP-2, DP-3, and DP-4) were successfully obtained. Monosaccharide component analysis showed that the four obtained fractions were all hetero-polysaccharides that mainly contained rhamnose, arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid in different molar ratios. All the four DP fractions did show obvious antioxidant activities in vitro, and the DP-3 component had relatively high ABTS free radical scavenging activity. Overall, our research showed that DPs could provide cheap raw materials for the development of natural antioxidants in medicines, functional foods, and even cosmetics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This article deals with the optimization of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from daylily and its antioxidant activities. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction yield of DPs was 15.25 ± 1.13%. By DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, four water-soluble polysaccharide fractions were successfully obtained, and all the four DP fractions did show obvious antioxidant activities in vitro. Daylily polysaccharides could provide cheap raw materials for the development of natural antioxidants in medicines, functional foods, and even cosmetics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hemerocallis/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ultrassom/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Hemerocallis/efeitos da radiação , Polissacarídeos/química
8.
Mycopathologia ; 186(3): 377-385, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956292

RESUMO

Glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) participates in several immunoregulatory mechanisms, which makes it an important Cryptococcus virulence factor that is essential for the disease. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon mucoides share with Cryptococcus species the ability to produce GXM. To check whether other opportunistic species in the Trichosporonaceae family produce GXM-like polysaccharides, extracts from 28 strains were produced from solid cultures and their carbohydrate content evaluated by the sulfuric acid / phenol method. Moreover, extracts were assessed for cryptococcal GXM cross-reactivity through latex agglutination and lateral flow assay methods. Cryptococcus neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. In addition to T. asahii, the species Trichosporon inkin, Apiotrichum montevideense, Trichosporon japonicum, Trichosporon faecale, Trichosporon ovoides, Cutaneotrichosporon debeurmannianum, and Cutaneotrichosporon arboriformis are also producers of a polysaccharide immunologically similar to the GXM produced by human pathogenic Cryptococcus species. The carbohydrate concentration of the extracts presented a positive correlation with the GXM contents determined by titration of both methodologies. These results add several species to the list of fungal pathogens that produce glycans of the GXM type and bring information about the origin of potential false-positive results on immunological tests for diagnosis of cryptococcosis based on GXM detection.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota , Cryptococcus neoformans , Humanos
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1317-1326, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933541

RESUMO

A novel polysaccharide (GLP) with a molecular weight of 1.37 × 105 Da was purified from the roots of G. littoralis. Using monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, the structure of GLP was determined to be a 1 → 4)-α-D-Glcp glycoside linkage, while the terminal group of 1→)-α-D-Glcp was bonded to the main chain via O-6. Then, GLP-NPs were prepared by nano-precipitation method, the particle size of GLP-NPs was 288.4 nm and PDI was 0.340. GLP-NPs-AgNPs were prepared using GLP-NPs as reducing agent. GLP-NPs-AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The yield of GLP-NPs-AgNPs was 38.77%, the particle size was 12.5 nm and the chelation rate of silver nanoparticles with polysaccharides was 67.5%. GLP-NPs-AgNPs had better antioxidant and antibacterial activities than GLP and GLP-NPs. In the present work, a simple and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using G. littoralis polysaccharides nanoparticles (GLP-NPs) as reducing agent.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apiaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Carboidratos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Peso Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
10.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(5): 432-443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952853

RESUMO

Ulvan is a natural sulfated polysaccharide obtained from marine green algae composed of 3-sulfated rhamnoglucuronan as the main component. It has a unique chemical structure that rich of L-rhamnosa, D-glucuronic acid, and L-iduronic acid. Ulvan has a similar structure to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in mammals including chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate that has broad range applications for many years. Here, we provide an overview of ulvan based hydrogels for biomedical applications. Hydrogels are one of ulvan advances in polymer science for application in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and wound healing. This review presented an overview about functional information of ulvan based hydrogels and the promising potential in biomedicals collected from published papers in Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Other important aspects concerning properties, hydrogel-forming mechanisms, and ulvan based hydrogel developments were reported as well. As conclusion, ulvan showed interesting properties in forming hydrogels and promising advances in biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Clorófitas/química , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1774-1783, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022314

RESUMO

The structural characteristics and biological activity of polysaccharides were influenced by different extraction methods. In this study, polysaccharides from mulberry fruits (Murus alba L., which were pre-treated with superfine grinding process) (MFP) were exacted using hot-water extraction (HWE), enzyme-assisted hot water extraction (EAHE), ultrasonic-assisted hot water extraction (UAHE), and high-speed shear homogenization-assisted hot water extraction (HSEHE). The extraction yield, structure, rheological properties and antioxidant activities of MFPs were investigated. MFP extracted using the HSEHE method have the highest extraction yields than other extraction methods. The smaller particle size of mulberry powder was found to improve the extraction yields. The MFPs were obtained by the combination between different extraction methods and superfine grinding pretreatment (through 100 mesh sieve) (MFP-HWE100, MFP-EAHE100, MFP-UAHE100, MFP-HSEHE100) showed the same levels of monosaccharide compositions and glycosyl linkages, However, these methods can produce MFP with different monosaccharide proportions, branching degree, different molecular weight, particle size and microstructure. MFP-HSEHE100 achieved the lowest molecular weight and particle size, which exhibited better thixotropy and antioxidant activities than other MFPs. This study identified that HSEHE was the most suitable extraction method for MFP.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Morus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fracionamento Químico , Temperatura Alta , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Água/química
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1548-1559, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029582

RESUMO

In this study, hot water, 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M NaCl solution were separately used for extraction of blackberry polysaccharides (BPs: Hw, Ac, Al and Na). The physicochemical properties and biological activities were then investigated and compared. Results showed that the extraction yield, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, particle size, triple-helical structure, surface morphology and rheological properties of BPs were greatly affected by extraction solvents. Bioactivity assays implied that the four BPs showed that the polysaccharides (Hw and Na) with higher molecular weight had stronger antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Moreover, anti-glycated assay indicated that BPs with higher molecular weight and higher content of galacturonic acid possessed better inhibition of AGEs formation. These results suggested that the higher molecular weight of blackberry polysaccharide could be developed as a beneficial bioactive ingredient for diabetes mellitus and complications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Configuração de Carboidratos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Água/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
13.
Carbohydr Res ; 505: 108326, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015720

RESUMO

The viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has increased the mortality rate and engaged several adverse effects on the affected individuals. Currently available antiviral drugs have found to be unsuccessful in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The demand for efficient antiviral drugs has created a huge burden on physicians and health workers. Plasma therapy seems to be less accomplishable due to insufficient donors to donate plasma and low recovery rate from viral infection. Repurposing of antivirals has been evolved as a suitable strategy in the current treatment and preventive measures. The concept of drug repurposing represents new experimental approaches for effective therapeutic benefits. Besides, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits several complications such as lung damage, blood clot formation, respiratory illness and organ failures in most of the patients. Based on the accumulation of data, sulfated marine polysaccharides have exerted successful inhibition of virus entry, attachment and replication with known or unknown possible mechanisms against deadly animal and human viruses so far. Since the virus entry into the host cells is the key process, the prevention of such entry mechanism makes any antiviral strategy effective. Enveloped viruses are more sensitive to polyanions than non-enveloped viruses. Besides, the viral infection caused by RNA virus types embarks severe oxidative stress in the human body that leads to malfunction of tissues and organs. In this context, polysaccharides play a very significant role in providing shielding effect against the virus due to their polyanionic rich features and a molecular weight that hinders their reactive surface glycoproteins. Significantly the functional groups especially sulfate, sulfate pattern and addition, uronic acids, monosaccharides, glycosidic linkage and high molecular weight have greater influence in the antiviral activity. Moreover, they are very good antioxidants that can reduce the free radical generation and provokes intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, polysaccharides enable a host-virus immune response, activate phagocytosis and stimulate interferon systems. Therefore, polysaccharides can be used as candidate drugs, adjuvants in vaccines or combination with other antivirals, antioxidants and immune-activating nutritional supplements and antiviral materials in healthcare products to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/patologia , Plaquetas/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Feófitas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Rodófitas/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/química , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(6): 1929-1938, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid deposition, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the arterial intima. Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs) and polysaccharides (GLPs) are traditional Chinese medicines with potential cardiovascular benefits. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate the effect of GLTs and GLPs on atherosclerosis and the associated underlying mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Japanese big-ear white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of blank, model, and treatment, and the treatment group was fed with GLSO and GLSP (0.3 g/kg body-weight/day) for 4 months. Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in GL treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group. The area of aortic plaques was significantly reduced in the treatment group. Further, GL administration in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) by inhibiting the upregulation of the nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB p65 and the relative receptor LOX-1. In THP-1 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate, GL inhibited the inflammatory polarization of macrophages (as evidenced by reduced TNF-α levels) via regulation of Notch1 and DLL4 pathways. Ox-LDL-stimulated THP-1 cells treated with GL showed an increase in the apoptosis of foam cells. CONCLUSIONS: GLTs and GLPs attenuated the progression of atherosclerosis by alleviating endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory polarization of macrophages, thus promoting apoptosis of foam cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Células Espumosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reishi/química , Células THP-1 , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947023

RESUMO

Among the various natural polymers, polysaccharides are one of the oldest biopolymers present on the Earth. They play a very crucial role in the survival of both animals and plants. Due to the presence of hydroxyl functional groups in most of the polysaccharides, it is easy to prepare their chemical derivatives. Several polysaccharide derivatives are widely used in a number of industrial applications. The polysaccharides such as cellulose, starch, chitosan, etc., have several applications but due to some distinguished characteristic properties, seaweed polysaccharides are preferred in a number of applications. This review covers published literature on the seaweed polysaccharides, their origin, and extraction from seaweeds, application, and chemical modification. Derivatization of the polysaccharides to impart new functionalities by chemical modification such as esterification, amidation, amination, C-N bond formation, sulphation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and graft copolymerization is discussed. The suitability of extraction of seaweed polysaccharides such as agar, carrageenan, and alginate using ionic solvent systems from a sustainability point of view and future prospects for efficient extraction and functionalization of seaweed polysaccharides is also included in this review article.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Alga Marinha/química , Ágar/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Carragenina/química , Carragenina/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Químicos , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Sefarose/química , Solventes/química
16.
Food Chem ; 359: 129899, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965763

RESUMO

A low methyl-esterified pectin (33.2% methyl-esterification degree) was isolated from the tuber of Dioscorea opposita Thunb., which was an edible and medicinal material in China. This pectin (Mw of 1.3 × 104 g/mol) contained the ~59.1% homogalacturonan (HG) and ~38.1% highly branched rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region with possible side chains embracing arabinogalactan II, arabinan or arabinogalactan I. The fragments including HG backbone consisting of â†’ 4)-α-GalpA-(1 â†’ and â†’ 4)-α-GalpA-6-O-methyl-(1 â†’ with molar ratio of ~2:1, and repeating unit of arabinogalactan II side chain composed of α-Araf-(1 â†’ and â†’ 3,6)-ß-Galp-(1→, were speculated through methylation analysis and NMR spectra. However, the linkage pattern for RG-I backbone and side chains were indiscernible due to limited resolution of NMR spectra. Besides, the pectin adopted a flexible chain conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution. These results provided a structural basis for study on polysaccharide from D. opposite, which was benefit for development of functional food of yam.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Configuração de Carboidratos , China , Galactanos/análise , Galactanos/química , Galactanos/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/análise , Pectinas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 264: 118010, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910714

RESUMO

Green seaweeds of the genus Ulva are rich in the bioactive sulfated polysaccharide ulvan. Herein we characterise ulvan from Ulva species collected from the Bay of Plenty, Aotearoa New Zealand. Using standardised procedures, we quantified, characterised, and compared ulvans from blade (U. australis, U. rigida, U. sp. B, and Ulva sp.) and filamentous (U. flexuosa, U. compressa, U. prolifera, and U. ralfsii) Ulva species. There were distinct differences in composition and structure of ulvans between morphologies. Ulvan isolated from blade species had higher yields (14.0-19.3 %) and iduronic acid content (IdoA = 7-18 mol%), and lower molecular weight (Mw = 190-254 kDa) and storage moduli (G' = 0.1-6.6 Pa) than filamentous species (yield = 7.2-14.6 %; IdoA = 4-7 mol%; Mw = 260-406 kDa; G' = 22.7-74.2 Pa). These results highlight the variability of the physicochemical properties of ulvan from different Ulva sources, and identifies a morphology-based division within the genus Ulva.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Alga Marinha/química , Ulva/química , Parede Celular/química , Ácido Idurônico/análise , Peso Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Nova Zelândia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Reologia/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Sulfatos/química
18.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13550, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899985

RESUMO

This research aimed to determine whether the astragalus polysaccharide (AP) can improve the production performance and gut microbiota in Chongren hens.120 Chongren hens (240-d old) were randomly allocated into 4 treatments with 30 hens and fed with a control basal diet (CON) or CON supplemented with the different levels of AP (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 56 d. The egg production and feed conversion ratio were decreased (p < .05) with the levels of AP. The yolk weight, yolk color, eggshell thickness, eggshell redness index and egg shell yellowness were increased (p < .05). AP supplementation increased CAT and T-AOC and SOD, and decreased MDA (p < .05). Supplementation of AP decreased IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels (p < .05), but increased the IL-4 level in the liver (p < .05). The villus heights of duodenum, jejunum ileum, the crypt depth and V/C in the jejunum were increased (p < .05). Dietary supplementation of 200 mg/kg AP increased (P relative abundances of Firmicutes and Lactobacteriaceae in the cecum of Chongren hens. In conclusion, addition of AP improved the production performance, egg quality, antioxidant function, and intestinal morphology in hens, which might be associated with the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ovos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas/sangue , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
19.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2000947, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848051

RESUMO

The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters of total water-soluble polysaccharides (TABPs) from Acanthopanaxbrachypus fruit were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Physicochemical, structural, and functional properties of TABPs were investigated by chemical analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC), emulsion capacity (EC), emulsion stability (ES), as well as DPPH. and ABTS.+ scavenging assays. The results showed that the maximal UAE-yield of TABPs was 3.81±0.18 % under the optimal conditions (ultrasonic power 325 W, extraction temperature 47 °C, extraction time 22 min). TABPs was rich in some beneficial element (Mg, K, Fe, Zn and Na) but little in harmful elements (Hg, Cd, As and Pb), and displayed rough surface with flake-like features and large dents, contained 93.89±0.08 % of total carbohydrate with more different monosaccharides including glucose, galactose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, xylose, and uronic acid in a molar ratio of 8.83 : 7.90 : 4.74 : 4.55 : 2.80 : 2.39 : 1.00, respectively. TABPs exhibited broad weight distribution (11.2-133.5 kDa), excellent thermal stability (>280 °C), WHC (0.61±0.08 g water/g sample) and OHC (4.53±0.12 g oil/g sample), as well as higher EC (43.75±1.23 %) and ES (38.32±1.50 %). Furthermore, TABPs also displayed remarkable scavenging activities on DPPH. and ABTS.+ in vitro. These findings provide a scientific basis for the applications of TABPs in functional additives for food, medicine, and cosmetics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Eleutherococcus/química , Frutas/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fenômenos Químicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Água/química
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2001010, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861503

RESUMO

In the present study, a novel cold water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LGP) with the average molecular weight of 1.78×106  Da was extracted and purified from Leucopaxillus giganteus and its primary structure as well as in vivo antitumor activity was evaluated. The monosaccharide composition of LGP was determined by ion chromatography to be galactose, xylose, glucose and fucose in a molar ratio of 2.568 : 1.209 : 1 : 0.853. Its backbone was composed of α-D-Glu, α-D-Xyl, α-D-Gal and α-L-Fuc. The results of in vivo antitumor experiment demonstrated that LGP could effectively protect immune organs, has excellent antitumor activity, and inhibit the proliferation of H22 solid tumors in a dose-dependent manner. By analyzing Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential detection assay, we concluded that LGP induced apoptosis of H22 cells via S phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Our results could provide valuable information for the potential application of LGP as an anti-hepatoma agent.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Água/química
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