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1.
Analyst ; 144(17): 5261-5270, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364612

RESUMO

In this work, an enrichment approach for the profiling of N-linked glycans was developed by utilizing a highly porous 3D graphene composite fabricated from graphene oxide nanosheets and a phenol-formaldehyde polymer via graphitization and KOH activation. In tailoring the large surface area (ca. 2213 m2 g-1) and 3D-layered mesoporous structure, the 3D graphene composite demonstrated not only high efficiency in glycan enrichment but also the size-exclusion effect against residual protein interference. For a standard protein ovalbumin digest, 26 N-linked glycans were identified with good repeatability, and the detection limit was as low as 0.25 ng µL-1 with the identification of 13 N-linked glycans (S/N > 10). When the mass ratio of the ovalbumin digest to the interfering proteins, i.e., bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin was 1 : 2000 : 2000, 18 N-linked glycans could still be detected with sufficient signal intensities. From a 60 nL minute complex human serum sample, up to 53 N-linked glycans with S/N > 10 were identified after the 3D graphene enrichment, while only 20 N-linked glycans were identified by the porous graphitized carbon material used for comparison. In addition, the application of the 3D graphene composite in profiling the up-regulated and down-regulated N-linked glycans from the real clinical serum samples of ovarian cancer patients confirmed the potential of the 3D graphene composite for analyzing minute and complicated biological samples.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Ovalbumina/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Albumina Sérica/química , Feminino , Formaldeído/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Oxirredução , Fenol/química , Fenóis/química , Polímeros/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Porosidade , Soro
2.
Food Chem ; 301: 125255, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377617

RESUMO

Craterellus tubaeformis (Funnel Chanterelle) is among the most abundant wild mushrooms in Finland. Three polysaccharide fractions were sequentially extracted from the fruiting bodies of C. tubaeformis, using hot water, 2% and 25% KOH solutions, respectively, and purified. The monomer composition, molecular weight, and chemical structure were determined using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed as well. The hot water extract consisted mainly of high-molecular weight → 2,6)-α-Man-(1 → and → 6)-α-Gal-(1 → chains, covalently bound to proteins. The alkali extracts consisted of acidic → 6)-ß-Glc-(1→, with branches of short → 3)-ß-Glc-(1 → chains or single ß-Glc residues. The use of alkali influenced the glycosidic linkages, molecular mass and thermal stability of the polysaccharide fractions. The use of KOH 2% increased the amount of low molecular weight polysaccharides, resulting in bimodal molecular weight distributions, with little impact on the thermal stability. Conversely, extraction with KOH 25% provided low molecular weight polysaccharides with substantially reduced thermal stability.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Agaricales/química , Carpóforos/citologia , Peso Molecular , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2835-2840, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359698

RESUMO

SATB1 plays a crucial role in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer,and inhibition of SATB1 expression can effectively control breast cancer metastasis. In this study,homogeneous polysaccharides were isolated from Poria cocos and their sulfated derivatives were prepared to screen out the polysaccharide compositions with inhibitory effects on SATB1 expression. Smal-molecule components were removed from P. cocos by ethanol extraction,and P. cocos crude polysaccharide PPS was obtained by water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Then PPS was successively separated by DEAE Sepharose fast flow anion-exchange and Superdex-75 gel permeation chromatographic steps to give PPSW-1. The structure of PPSW-1 was identified and its sulfated derivatives were prepared. Then their inhibitory effects on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were investigated. A kind of polysaccharide,PPSW-1 with inhibitory effect on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells,was obtained from P. cocos,with a relative molecular weight of 3. 06×104,and structure of 1,6-branched 1,3-α-D-galactan. PPSW-1 and its sulfated derivative Sul-W-1 showed good inhibitory effect on cells migration,and the water solubility of Sul-W-1 was better than that of PPSW-1. In addition,it was found that polysaccharide of P. cocos and its sulfated derivative can inhibit expression of SATB1. In this study,a kind of homogeneous polysaccharide with inhibitory effect on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells was isolated from P. cocos,and its sulfated derivative with similar efficacy but better solubility was prepared,laying the foundation for the substance basis study of P. cocos.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Wolfiporia/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Sulfatos
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 219: 181-190, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151515

RESUMO

Water-soluble fraction (WSF), CDTA-soluble fraction (CSF), sodium carbonate-soluble fraction (SSF), loosely-bonding KOH-soluble fractions (LKF) and tightly-bonding KOH-soluble fractions (TKF) were sequentially extracted from tomato cell wall polysaccharides. Physicochemical properties and functional bioactivities of these different bonding state tomato fruit polysaccharides (DBTP) were investigated. WSF, CSF and SSF were identified as pectic polysaccharides, while LKF and TKF were identified as hemicellulose. WSF, possessing plenty of galacturonic acids, was considered as an aggregative of linear homogalacturonan with extremely high molecular weight. CSF and SSF, rich in neutral sugars side chains, contained abundant rhamnogalacturonan regions. These polysaccharides exhibited distinct surface morphology and special FTIR spectrums. Thermal analysis manifested that LKF and TKF exhibited higher thermal stability. WSF and SSF showed higher apparent viscosity and elasticity. Assays for functional bioactivities suggested that CSF and SSF displayed stronger antioxidant activities, while CSF, SSF and TKF exhibited higher hypolipidemic activities.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Frutas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Polissacarídeos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Elasticidade , Frutas/citologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/citologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 220: 247-255, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196547

RESUMO

A water-soluble polysaccharide (type II arabinogalactan-protein) extracted from the gum exudate of the native New Zealand puka tree (Meryta sinclairii), was characterised for its molecular, rheological and physicochemical properties. In 0.1 M NaCl, the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of puka gum is 5.9 × 106 Da with an RMS radius of 56 nm and z-average hydrodynamic radius of 79 nm. The intrinsic viscosity of the polysaccharide is 57 ml/g with a coil overlap concentration 15% w/w. Together, the shape factor, p, of 0.70 (exponent of RMS radius vs. hydrodynamic radius), Smidsrød-Haug's stiffness parameter B of 0.031 and Mark-Houwink exponent α of 0.375 indicate that the polysaccharide adopts a spherical conformation in solution, similar to gum arabic. The pKa is 1.8. The polysaccharide exhibits a Newtonian to shear-thinning behaviour from 0.2 to 25% w/w. Viscosity of the polysaccharide (1 s-1) decreases with decreasing concentration, increasing temperature, ionic strength, and at acidic pH.


Assuntos
Araliaceae/metabolismo , Mucoproteínas/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Árvores/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Mucoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Nova Zelândia , Gomas Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Reologia , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110539, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158404

RESUMO

The chemical characterization and protective role against ethanol-induced gastric ulcerated rats of a polysaccharide fraction from Bletilla striata (BSP) collected by ultrafiltration membrane approach were evaluated. This BSP faction was consisted of mannose and glucose at a molar ratio of 2.4:1 approximately, with a molecular weight of 146 KDa. FT-IR, NMR and XRD spectra indicated that BSP faction contained α-Man and ß-Glc residues with low overall crystallinity. The polysaccharide exhibited significant scavenging activities of ABTS and FRAP, as well as non-toxicity against human gastric epithelial GES-1 cells. Oral administration with 100 mg/kg of BSP for 3 days continuously could significantly prevent the formation of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion. It could also reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-18, and MPO activity in gastric tissue. Additionally, the BSP faction exhibited antioxidant activity, increased the content of PEG2 as a defensive factor, and suppressed MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in gastric tissue. These results indicated that the gastroprotective activity of BSP faction could be attributed to the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress and the inhibition of MAPK/NF-κB pathways. Our results provided substantial evidence that BSP could be a promising phytomedicine for gastric ulcer prevention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Orchidaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Etanol , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/toxicidade , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/toxicidade , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/toxicidade , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(27): 7755-7764, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251611

RESUMO

Pectic polysaccharides from New Zealand (NZ) spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides) and karaka berries (Corynocarpus laevigatus) were extracted and analyzed. NZ spinach polysaccharides comprised mostly homogalacturonan (64.4%) and rhamnogalacturonan I (5.8%), with side chains of arabinan (8.1%), galactan (2.2%), and type II arabinogalactan (7.1%); karaka berry polysaccharides comprised homogalacturonan (21.8%) and rhamnogalacturonan I (10.0%), with greater proportions of side chains (arabinan, 15.6%; galactan, 23.8%; and type II arabinogalactan, 19.3%). Screening of gut commensal Bacteroides showed that six were able to grow on the NZ spinach extract, while five were able to grow on the karaka berry extract. Analysis of the polysaccharides remaining after fermentation, by size-exclusion chromatography and constituent sugar analysis, showed that the Bacteroides species that grew on these two substrates showed preferences for the different pectic polysaccharide types. Our data suggest that, to completely degrade and utilize the complex pectin structures found in plants, members of Bacteroides and other bowel bacteria work as metabolic consortia.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Bacteroides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnoliopsida/química , Pectinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nova Zelândia , Pectinas/análise , Pectinas/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 216: 204-212, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047058

RESUMO

Sulfated polysaccharides (SPSs) are polysaccharides (PSs) with high sulfate functionalization and possess bioactivities. This study aimed to increase the sulfate content of SPSs in Antrodia cinnamomea through sulfate feeding. Feeding A. cinnamomea with sodium thiosulfate was found to increase yields of PSs and SPSs in A. cinnamomea. The SPSs thus obtained (ST-SPS) were further isolated, showing enhanced sulfate content of 2.5 mmol/g. Sodium thiosulfate induced changes in molecular weight from 320 kDa to 1342 kDa, and area percentage of low-molecular-weight ST-SPS (< 20 kDa) was decreased. Functional studies revealed that sodium thiosulfate increased the ST-SPS anticancer efficacy in cancer cells via inhibition of EGFR/AKT signaling. Moreover, the ST-SPS enhanced synergistically cisplatin-, gefitinib- and 5 FU-induced cytotoxic effects in lung cancer H1975 cells and colon cancer CT26 cells. This study is the first to demonstrate that sodium thiosulfate induced changes in properties of A. cinnamomea with the anticancer mechanisms of ST-SPS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antrodia/química , Antrodia/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/farmacologia , Tiossulfatos/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/química , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/metabolismo
9.
Carbohydr Res ; 478: 18-24, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048118

RESUMO

The brown seaweed Scytosiphon lomentaria produces moderate amounts of fucoidans. By cetrimide fractionation, typical heavily sulfated galactofucans are obtained, with no major signs of chemical heterogeneity, together with fractions with higher proportions of xylose, mannose and uronic acids. Anyway, fucose is the most important monosaccharide in most of the subfractions of the subsequent extracts. The fucan moieties appear to be mostly as 3-linked α-l-fucopyranosyl units, with several patterns of sulfate and branching. Galactose is mostly 6-linked, whereas mannose appears to be 2-linked, and xylose appears mostly as terminal stubs. Small amounts of 2-O-acetylated fucose units appear. A high and selective antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 was determined for the galactofucan fractions whereas the uronofucoidans were inactive.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Fucose/farmacologia , Galactose/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Configuração de Carboidratos , Fucose/química , Fucose/isolamento & purificação , Galactose/química , Galactose/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Feófitas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Mar Drugs ; 17(5)2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137530

RESUMO

Water extracts and polysaccharides from Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. were tested for their activity against the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Water extracts at 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/mL inhibited B. cinerea growth in vitro. Antifungal activity of polysaccharides obtained by N-cetylpyridinium bromide precipitation in water extracts was evaluated in vitro and in vitro at 0.5, 2.0, and 3.5 mg/mL. These concentrations were tested against fungal colony growth, spore germination, colony forming units (CFUs), CFU growth, and on strawberry fruits against B. cinerea infection with pre- and post-harvest application. In in vitro experiments, polysaccharides from Anabaena sp. and from Ecklonia sp. inhibited B. cinerea colony growth, CFUs, and CFU growth, while those extracted from Jania sp. reduced only the pathogen spore germination. In in vitro experiments, all concentrations of polysaccharides from Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. reduced both the strawberry fruits infected area and the pathogen sporulation in the pre-harvest treatment, suggesting that they might be good candidates as preventive products in crop protection.


Assuntos
Anabaena/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Feófitas/química , Rodófitas/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Botrytis/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2137, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086181

RESUMO

The in-depth, high-sensitivity characterization of the glycome from complex biological samples, such as biofluids and tissues, is of utmost importance in basic biological research and biomarker discovery. Major challenges often arise from the vast structural diversity of glycans in combination with limited sample amounts. Here, we present a method for the highly sensitive characterization of released N-glycans by combining a capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) approach with linkage-specific derivatization of sialic acids and uniform cationic reducing end labelling of all glycans. This method allows the analysis of glycans at the attomole level, provides information on sialic acid isomers and enables the in-depth characterization of complex samples, even when available in minute amounts.


Assuntos
Glicômica/métodos , Polissacarídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Isomerismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Siálicos/química
12.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(4): 823-839, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091972

RESUMO

Ginseng root has been used in traditional oriental medicine for the enhancement of immune system function. The immunostimulatory effects of ginseng berry polysaccharides, however, remain unclear. Effects of polysaccharides from ginseng berry on the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and inhibition of tumors are reported. A crude polysaccharide was isolated from ginseng berry as a ginseng berry polysaccharide portion (GBPP) and was further fractionated using gel filtration chromatography to obtain the three polysaccharide fractions GBPP-I, -II and -III. GBPP-I consisted of mainly galactose (46.9%) and arabinose (27.5%). GBPP-I showed a high dose-dependent anticomplementary activity. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophages by GBPP-I showed the greatest enhancement of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α production. In addition, an ex vivo assay of natural killer (NK) cell activity showed that oral ( p.o.) administration of GBPP-I significantly increased NK cell cytotoxicity in YAC-1 tumor cells and production of granzyme B. Prophylactic intravenous ( i.v.) and p.o. administration of GBPP-I significantly and dose-dependently inhibited lung metastatic activity in B16BL6 melanoma cells. Depletion of NK cells after injection of rabbit anti-asialo GM1 partially abolished the inhibitory effect of GBPP-I on lung metastasis, indicating that NK cells play an important role in anticancer effects. GBPP-I exerts a strong immune-enhancing activity and can prevent cancer metastasis through activation of NK cells and other immune-related cells.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento , Frutas/química , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2739-2751, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038490

RESUMO

Screening aimed at the evaluation of the presence of small RNAs with anticancer properties in three mushrooms species, besides Boletus edulis, namely Boletus spretus (current name Baorangia emilei), Boletus pinophilus and Cantharellus cibarius, was conducted. All mushrooms yielded an ethanol insoluble and water soluble small RNA fraction purified from co-extracted polysaccharides by anion-exchange chromatography. Small RNAs from B. spretus and C. cibarius showed strong antiproliferative activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (IC50 of 5.6 µg mL-1 and 11.1 µg mL-1 for LS180 and 1.9 µg mL-1 and 12.6 µg mL-1 for HT-29 cell lines, respectively) while those isolated from B. pinophilus showed a much lower antiproliferative activity in these cells. All RNA fractions were nontoxic against CCD841 CoTr human colon epithelial cells. A detailed study of the anticancer mechanism of C. cibarius small RNAs showed that their antiproliferative activity was due to p53-dependent cell cycle arrest mediated by p21, while the proapoptotic effect was mostly dependent on the enhancement of p53 expression. Overall, small RNA fractions isolated from some edible mushrooms, namely C. cibarius, show potent antiproliferative activity without cytotoxicity to normal cells, being a potential new anticancer agent naturally present in mushrooms that we eat.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , RNA Fúngico/farmacologia , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/isolamento & purificação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 294: 539-546, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126497

RESUMO

Banana has non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in its cell wall similar to dietary fiber from cereals like oats. These NSP could be used as potential functional ingredient due to their prebiotic action and potential food immuno-modulators. However, NSP purification is limited due to high quantities of soluble sugars accumulate during banana ripening. The aim of this study was to extract soluble sugars from ripe banana (Musa cavendishii var. Nanicão) to obtain a purified NSP matrix. Two different extraction methodologies (solid-liquid extraction SLE and ultrasound-assisted extraction UAE) were tested using ethanol (99.5 mL/100 mL) as solvent. Soluble sugars were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SLE and UAE showed to be effective in extraction process of soluble sugars. Best results were obtained with SLE at sample/solvent ratio of 1:5, 65 °C and 30 min of extraction time. A solid residue with NSP was obtained, that could be used as a functional ingredient.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Musa/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/análise , Parede Celular/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida , Solubilidade , Sonicação
15.
J Food Sci ; 84(5): 1216-1223, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066927

RESUMO

Our previous study characterized the structure-associated immunomodulatory effects of an edible Dendrobium aphyllum polysaccharide (DAP), and the in vitro gastrointestinal digestions highlighted DAP could be digested by the GI tract in some extent. Therefore, the present study further explored the digestive properties in vivo to infer the metabolic pathway with health mice model. Results revealed that DAP-treated group showed slightly lower blood glucose levels and significantly higher (P < 0.05) enzyme activities, namely G6Pase and GDH with an increment of about 0.4 to 0.9 and 45 to 91 U/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, DAP up-regulated the expression of glucose transporters, GLUT1 and GLUT2 in the increment rates of 56.34% to 68.28% and 76.63% to 83.03%, in colon. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of DAP on colon were confirmed by the increment of four types short chain fatty acids and the health-promoting microbiota diversity. The above results successfully identify the metabolic pathways after the oral administration of bioactive DAP. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The metabolic pathways of Dendrobium aphyllum polysaccharide, after artificially stimulated oral administration, were characterized. The most of the unabsorbed portion of DAP were utilized by the colon microbiota, resulting in the significantly increasing production of four health-promoting SCFAs. The unabsorbed portion of DAP upregulated the diversity of various beneficial microbiota genus, and meanwhile downregulated kinds of harmful microbiota genus.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Carboidratos da Dieta , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
16.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934819

RESUMO

Sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumbers possess distinct chemical structure and various biological activities. Herein, three types of polysaccharides were isolated and purified from Pattalus mollis, and their structures and bioactivities were analyzed. The fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (PmFG) had a CS-like backbone composed of the repeating units of {-4-d-GlcA-ß-1,3-d-GalNAc4S6S-ß-1-}, and branches of a sulfated α-l-Fuc (including Fuc2S4S, Fuc3S4S and Fuc4S with a molar ratio of 2:2.5:1) linked to O-3 of each d-GlcA. The fucan sulfate (PmFS) had a backbone consisting of a repetitively linked unit {-4-l-Fuc2S-α-1-}, and interestingly, every trisaccharide unit in its backbone was branched with a sulfated α-l-Fuc (Fuc4S or Fuc3S with a molar ratio of 4:1). Apart from the sulfated polysaccharides, two neutral glycans (PmNG-1 & -2) differing in molecular weight were also obtained and their structures were similar to animal glycogen. Anticoagulant assays indicated that PmFG and PmFS possessed strong APTT prolonging and intrinsic factor Xase inhibition activities, and the sulfated α-l-Fuc branches might contribute to the anticoagulant and anti-FXase activities of both PmFG and PmFS.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Animais , Anticoagulantes/isolamento & purificação , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Química Física , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfatos/química , Sulfatos/isolamento & purificação , Sulfatos/farmacologia
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 112: 108709, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poria cocos polysaccharide (PCP) is the major active ingredients of P. cocos and possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidative and anti-apoptosis effects and activity against cancer. This study investigated the immunomodulatory mechanism by which PCP acts on RAW 264.7 macrophages and LLC tumors in mice. METHODS: The concentrations of nitric oxide, and Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines were examined by Griess reaction and using a bead-based cytokine assessment kit. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to investigate relevant signaling molecule expression. RESULTS: Levels of nitric oxide, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17 A, TNF, and IFN-γ were increased by PCP while levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were unaffected. The addition of TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) or assessment in C57BL/10ScNJ (TLR4-deficient) mice markedly reduced this effect. In C57BL/10 J (TLR4+/+wild-type) mice, the indices of organ immune activity were all elevated, and oral PCP delivery resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume over a 25 day period. Relative to controls, TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, p-NF-κB and p-c-JUN expression significantly increased, while TRAM expression did not change. Nevertheless, there was no PCP-dependent activation of MyD88, TRAF-6, TRAM, p-NF-κB or p-c-JUN in TLR4-deficient mice. CONCLUSION: These results support the concept that PCP may exhibit immunomodulatory activity through TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB signaling both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Wolfiporia/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/imunologia
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 112: 108741, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970528

RESUMO

Seaweeds are excellent source of bioactive compounds and seaweed-derived polysaccharides have demonstrated an array of biological effects. Here, we investigated the effect of polysaccharide of Sargassum weizhouense (PSW) on the inflammatory response in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infected mice and the underlying mechanism was studied according to the histone acetylation. After PCV2 infection, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, COX-1, COX-2 and HAT in both serum and spleen were significantly increased (P <0.05). The mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and NF-κB p65 were elevated in PCV2 infected mice (P <0.05). The HDAC content in both serum and spleen as well the mRNA expression of HDAC1 were greatly decreased (P <0.05). PSW treatment dramatically inhibited the secretions of inflammatory cytokines and HATs, reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and NF-κB p65, but promoted HDAC secretion and mRNA expression of HDAC1 in PCV2-infected mice. The acetylation of both H3 and H4 was significantly up-regulated in PCV2-infected mice, and strongly inhibited by PSW treatment (P <0.01). These results suggested that PCV2 mediate the equilibrium between HATs and HDACs, alternate the histone acetylation and thus DNA packaging, and then activate the transcription of inflammatory cytokines. PSW could inhibit the histone acetylation and the production of inflammatory cytokines, showing excellent potentials in improving the resistance of host against PCV2 infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Circoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Histonas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Sargassum/química , Acetilação , Animais , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Baço/imunologia
19.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987249

RESUMO

Seaweeds, which have been widely used for human consumption, are considered a potential source of biological compounds, where enzyme-assisted extraction can be an efficient method to obtain multifunctional extracts. Chemical characterization of Sargassum muticum and Osmundea pinnatifida extracts obtained by Alcalase and Viscozyme assisted extraction, respectively, showed an increment of macro/micro elements in comparison to the corresponding dry seaweeds, while the ratio of Na/K decreased in both extracts. Galactose, mannose, xylose, fucose, and glucuronic acid were the main monosaccharides (3.2-27.3 mg/glyophilized extract) present in variable molar ratios, whereas low free amino acids content and diversity (1.4-2.7 g/100gprotein) characterized both extracts. FTIR-ATR and 1H NMR spectra confirmed the presence of important polysaccharide structures in the extracts, namely fucoidans from S. muticum or agarans as sulfated polysaccharides from O. pinnatifida. No cytotoxicity against normal mammalian cells was observed from 0 to 4 mglyophilized extract/mL for both extracts. The comprehensive characterization of the composition and safety of these two extracts fulfils an important step towards their authorized application for nutritional and/or nutraceutical purposes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rodófitas/química , Sargassum/química , Alga Marinha/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/toxicidade , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Subtilisinas/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 166(6): 766-769, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028586

RESUMO

The effect of sulfated polysaccharide from brown alga Fucus evanescens (fucoidan) administered via different routes (peroral and parenteral) on the dynamic of some lipid metabolism parameters and markers of systemic inflammation in mice with experimental dyslipidemia induced by prolonged administration of poloxamer P-407. It was found that fucoidan corrected the main parameters of lipid metabolism, reduced the level of endothelial dysfunction marker endothelin-1 and proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IFNγ in blood serum in animals with experimental dyslipidemia. These findings open prospects for using fucoidan in the complex treatment of metabolic disorders and atherosclerotic inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Fucus/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Dislipidemias/genética , Dislipidemias/imunologia , Endotelina-1/genética , Endotelina-1/imunologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Poloxâmero/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
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