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1.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424155

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an economically important coronavirus, causing damaging losses to the poultry industry worldwide as the causative agent of infectious bronchitis. The coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein is a large type I membrane protein protruding from the surface of the virion, which facilitates attachment and entry into host cells. The IBV S protein is cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2, the latter of which has been identified as a determinant of cellular tropism. Recent studies expressing coronavirus S proteins in mammalian and insect cells have identified a high level of glycosylation on the protein's surface. Here we used IBV propagated in embryonated hens' eggs to explore the glycan profile of viruses derived from infection in cells of the natural host, chickens. We identified multiple glycan types on the surface of the protein and found a strain-specific dependence on complex glycans for recognition of the S2 subunit by a monoclonal antibody in vitro, with no effect on viral replication following the chemical inhibition of complex glycosylation. Virus neutralization by monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies was not affected. Following analysis of predicted glycosylation sites for the S protein of four IBV strains, we confirmed glycosylation at 18 sites by mass spectrometry for the pathogenic laboratory strain M41-CK. Further characterization revealed heterogeneity among the glycans present at six of these sites, indicating a difference in the glycan profile of individual S proteins on the IBV virion. These results demonstrate a non-specific role for complex glycans in IBV replication, with an indication of an involvement in antibody recognition but not neutralisation.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Peso Molecular , Testes de Neutralização , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Transporte Proteico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443587

RESUMO

Panax spp. (Araliaceae family) are widely used medicinal plants and they mainly include Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng). Polysaccharides are the main active ingredients in these plants and have demonstrated diverse pharmacological functions, but comparisons of isolation methods, structural features, and bioactivities of these polysaccharides have not yet been reported. This review summarizes recent advances associated with 112 polysaccharides from ginseng, 25 polysaccharides from American ginseng, and 36 polysaccharides from notoginseng and it compares the differences in extraction, purification, structural features, and bioactivities. Most studies focus on ginseng polysaccharides and comparisons are typically made with the polysaccharides from American ginseng and notoginseng. For the extraction, purification, and structural analysis, the processes are similar for the polysaccharides from the three Panax species. Previous studies determined that 55 polysaccharides from ginseng, 18 polysaccharides from American ginseng, and 9 polysaccharides from notoginseng exhibited anti-tumor activity, immunoregulatory effects, anti-oxidant activity, and other pharmacological functions, which are mediated by multiple signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, or redox balance pathways. This review can provide new insights into the similarities and differences among the polysaccharides from the three Panax species, which can facilitate and guide further studies to explore the medicinal properties of the Araliaceae family used in traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
3.
FEBS J ; 288(16): 4728-4729, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398531

RESUMO

With the current issue of The FEBS Journal, we are introducing a new category of invited review article contributions on Emerging Methods and Technologies. These articles provide an overview and discussion of recent, emerging methods that significantly advance and improve research efforts in the different fields of molecular and cellular research of our The FEBS Journal authors and readers. Deputy Editorial Manager Manuel Breuer and our Emerging Methods and Technologies Commissioning Editor Eric Chevet introduce the series.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Polietilenotereftalatos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Neoplasias/terapia , Polissacarídeos/química
4.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105700, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364068

RESUMO

In this study, microcapsules were prepared by spray drying and embedding hemp seed oil (HSO) with soy protein isolate (SPI) and maltodextrin (MD) as wall materials. The effect of ultrasonic power on the microstructure and characteristics of the composite emulsion and microcapsules was studied. Studies have shown that ultrasonic power has a significant impact on the stability of composite emulsions. The particle size of the composite emulsion after 450 W ultrasonic treatment was significantly lower than the particle size of the emulsion without the ultrasonic treatment. Through fluorescence microscopy observation, HSO was found to be successfully embedded in the wall materials to form an oil/water (O/W) composite emulsion. The spray-dried microcapsules showed a smooth spherical structure through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the particle size was 10.7 µm at 450 W. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis found that ultrasonic treatment would increase the degree of covalent bonding of the SPI-MD complex to a certain extent, thereby improving the stability and embedding effect of the microcapsules. Finally, oxidation kinetics models of HSO and HSO microcapsules were constructed and verified. The zero-order model of HSO microcapsules was found to have a higher degree of fit; after verification, the model can better reflect the quality changes of HSO microcapsules during storage.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Modelos Químicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Cápsulas , Cinética , Oxirredução
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443344

RESUMO

Surface modification of electrodes with glycans was investigated as a strategy for modulating the development of electrocatalytic biofilms for microbial fuel cell applications. Covalent attachment of phenyl-mannoside and phenyl-lactoside adlayers on graphite rod electrodes was achieved via electrochemically assisted grafting of aryldiazonium cations from solution. To test the effects of the specific bio-functionalities, modified and unmodified graphite rods were used as anodes in two-chamber microbial fuel cell devices. Devices were set up with wastewater as inoculum and acetate as nutrient and their performance, in terms of output potential (open circuit and 1 kΩ load) and peak power output, was monitored over two months. The presence of glycans was found to lead to significant differences in startup times and peak power outputs. Lactosides were found to inhibit the development of biofilms when compared to bare graphite. Mannosides were found, instead, to promote exoelectrogenic biofilm adhesion and anode colonization, a finding that is supported by quartz crystal microbalance experiments in inoculum media. These differences were observed despite both adlayers possessing thickness in the nm range and similar hydrophilic character. This suggests that specific glycan-mediated bioaffinity interactions can be leveraged to direct the development of biotic electrocatalysts in bioelectrochemical systems and microbial fuel cell devices.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Polissacarídeos/química , Adesividade , Biofilmes , Eletrodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
6.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436245

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) is a novel coronavirus strain that emerged at the end of 2019, causing millions of deaths so far. Despite enormous efforts being made through various drug discovery campaigns, there is still a desperate need for treatments with high efficacy and selectivity. Recently, marine sulfated polysaccharides (MSPs) have earned significant attention and are widely examined against many viral infections. This article attempted to produce a comprehensive report about MSPs from different marine sources alongside their antiviral effects against various viral species covering the last 25 years of research articles. Additionally, these reported MSPs were subjected to molecular docking and dynamic simulation experiments to ascertain potential interactions with both the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS CoV-2's spike protein (S-protein) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). The possible binding sites on both S-protein's RBD and ACE2 were determined based on how they bind to heparin, which has been reported to exhibit significant antiviral activity against SARS CoV-2 through binding to RBD, preventing the virus from affecting ACE2. Moreover, our modeling results illustrate that heparin can also bind to and block ACE2, acting as a competitor and protective agent against SARS CoV-2 infection. Nine of the investigated MSPs candidates exhibited promising results, taking into consideration the newly emerged SARS CoV-2 variants, of which five were not previously reported to exert antiviral activity against SARS CoV-2, including sulfated galactofucan (1), sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) (2), sulfated mannan (3), sulfated heterorhamnan (8), and chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E) (9). These results shed light on the importance of sulfated polysaccharides as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Antivirais/química , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Heparina/química , Heparina/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Polissacarídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfatos/química
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(64): 7863-7868, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287441

RESUMO

Drawing on independent work carried out by academic and industrial researchers using the immobilized TEMPO catalyst SiliaCat TEMPO, in this study we show how shifting the carboxylation process mediated by TEMPO in solution to a process mediated by the above-mentioned hybrid sol-gel catalyst allows the synthesis of insoluble polysaccharide nanofibers of superior quality, eliminating waste. This will dramatically reduce the polysaccharide nanofiber production costs opening the route to large-scale production and uptake of these versatile nanofibers in a variety of functional products where their use has been limited by high cost. The results of this study will be useful for catalysis and biotechnology researchers as well as for chemistry educators teaching green chemistry, nanochemistry, and catalysis using the outcomes of recent research.


Assuntos
Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Nanofibras/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Radicais Livres/química , Humanos , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4813-4830, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290504

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses present a substantial global disease burden, causing damage to populations' health, economy, and social well-being. Glycans are one of the main structural components of all microbes and organismic structures, including viruses-playing multiple essential roles in virus infection and immunity. Studying and understanding virus glycans at the nanoscale provide new insights into the diagnosis and treatment of viruses. Glycan nanostructures are considered potential targets for molecular diagnosis, antiviral therapeutics, and the development of vaccines. This review article describes glycan nanostructures (eg, glycoproteins and glycolipids) that exist in cells, subcellular structures, and microbes. We detail the structure, characterization, synthesis, and functions of virus glycans. Furthermore, we describe the glycan nanostructures of different human coronaviruses, such as human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), the Middle East respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and how glycan nanotechnology can be useful to prevent and combat human coronaviruses infections, along with possibilities that are not yet explored.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Nanoestruturas/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Humanos
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(31): 12014-12024, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328324

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes an extensively glycosylated surface spike (S) protein to mediate host cell entry, and the S protein glycosylation plays key roles in altering the viral binding/function and infectivity. However, the molecular structures and glycan heterogeneity of the new O-glycans found on the S protein regional-binding domain (S-RBD) remain cryptic because of the challenges in intact glycoform analysis by conventional bottom-up glycoproteomic approaches. Here, we report the complete structural elucidation of intact O-glycan proteoforms through a hybrid native and denaturing top-down mass spectrometry (MS) approach employing both trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) quadrupole time-of-flight and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS. Native top-down TIMS-MS/MS separates the protein conformers of the S-RBD to reveal their gas-phase structural heterogeneity, and top-down FTICR-MS/MS provides in-depth glycoform analysis for unambiguous identification of the glycan structures and their glycosites. A total of eight O-glycoforms and their relative molecular abundance are structurally elucidated for the first time. These findings demonstrate that this hybrid top-down MS approach can provide a high-resolution proteoform-resolved mapping of diverse O-glycoforms of the S glycoprotein, which lays a strong molecular foundation to uncover the functional roles of their O-glycans. This proteoform-resolved approach can be applied to reveal the structural O-glycoform heterogeneity of emergent SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD variants as well as other O-glycoproteins in general.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/análise , SARS-CoV-2/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Polissacarídeos/química , Domínios Proteicos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299113

RESUMO

The cell surface is covered by a dense and complex network of glycans attached to the membrane proteins and lipids. In gliomas, the aberrant sialylation, as the final stage of glycosylation, is an important regulatory mechanism of malignant cell behavior and correlates with worse prognosis. Better understanding of the role of sialylation in cellular and molecular processes opens a new way in the development of therapeutic tools for human brain tumors. According to the recent clinical observation, the cellular heterogeneity, activity of brain cancer stem cells (BCSCs), immune evasion, and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are attractive targets for new therapeutic strategies. In this review, we summarize the importance of sialic acid-modified nanoparticles in brain tumor progression.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Glioma/patologia , Glicosilação , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 1000-1013, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197847

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (D. officinale) is used as herbal medicine and new food resource in China, which is nontoxic and harmless, and can be used as common food. Polysaccharide as one of the main bioactive components in D. officinale, mainly composed of glucose and mannose (Manp: Glcp = 2.01:1.00-8.82:1.00), along with galactose, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose in different molar ratios and types of glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides of D. officinale exhibit a variety of biological effects, including immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, gastro-protective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and vasodilating effects. This paper presents the extraction, purification, structural characteristics, bioactivities, structure-activity relationships and analyzes gaps in the current research on D. officinale polysaccharides. In addition, based on in vitro and in vivo experiments, the possible mechanisms of bioactivities of D. officinale polysaccharides were summarized. We hope that this work may provide helpful references and promising directions for further study and development of D. officinale polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sequência de Carboidratos , China , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206735

RESUMO

The impact of key classes of compounds found in wine on protein removal by the ion-exchange resin, Macro-Prep® High S, was examined by adsorption isotherm experiments. A model wine system, which contained a prototypical protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), was used. We systematically changed concentrations of individual chemical components to generate and compare adsorption isotherm plots and to quantify adsorption affinity or capacity parameters of Macro-Prep® High S ion-exchange resin. The pH (hydronium ion concentration), ethanol concentration, and prototypical phenolics and polysaccharide compounds are known to impact interactions with proteins and thus could alter the adsorption affinity and capacity of Macro-Prep® High S ion-exchange resin. At low equilibrium protein concentrations (< ~0.3 (g BSA)/L) and at high equilibrium protein concentrations in model wines at various pH, the adsorption behavior followed the Langmuir isotherm, most likely due to the resin acting as a monolayer adsorbent. The resulting range of BSA capacity was between 0.15-0.18 (g BSA)/(g Macro-Prep® High S resin). With the addition of ethanol, catechin, caffeic acid, and polysaccharides, the protein adsorption behavior was observed to differ at higher equilibrium protein concentrations (> ~0.3 (g BSA)/L), likely as a result of Macro-Prep® acting as an unrestricted multilayer adsorbent at these conditions. These data can be used to inform the design and scale-up of ion-exchange columns for removing proteins from wines.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Proteínas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Vinho/análise , Adsorção , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Catequina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Fenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Soluções/análise , Soluções/química , Espectrofotometria , Água/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200163

RESUMO

Tea polysaccharides (TPSs) are one of the main bioactive constituents of tea with various biological activities such as hypoglycemic effect, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulatory. The bioactivities of TPSs are directly associated with their structures such as chemical composition, molecular weight, glycosidic linkages, and conformation among others. To study the relationship between the structures of TPSs and their bioactivities, it is essential to elucidate the structure of TPSs, particularly the fine structures. Due to the vast variation nature of monosaccharide units and their connections, the structure of TPSs is extremely complex, which is also affected by several major factors including tea species, processing technologies of tea and isolation methods of TPSs. As a result of the complexity, there are few studies on their fine structures and chain conformation. In the present review, we aim to provide a detailed summary of the multiple factors influencing the characteristics of TPS chemical structures such as variations of tea species, degree of fermentation, and preparation methods among others as well as their applications. The main aspects of understanding the structural difference of TPSs and influencing factors are to assist the study of the structure and bioactivity relationship and ultimately, to control the production of the targeted TPSs with the most desired biological activity.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Monossacarídeos/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204669

RESUMO

Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) is an important vegetable crop, widely cultivated around the world due to its high nutritional significance along with several health benefits. Different parts of okra including its mucilage have been currently studied for its role in various therapeutic applications. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize the okra mucilage biopolymer (OMB) for its physicochemical properties as well as to evaluate its in vitro antidiabetic activity. The characterization of OMB using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that okra mucilage containing polysaccharides lies in the bandwidth of 3279 and 1030 cm-1, which constitutes the fingerprint region of the spectrum. In addition, physicochemical parameters such as percentage yield, percentage solubility, and swelling index were found to be 2.66%, 96.9%, and 5, respectively. A mineral analysis of newly developed biopolymers showed a substantial amount of calcium (412 mg/100 g), potassium (418 mg/100 g), phosphorus (60 mg/100 g), iron (47 mg/100 g), zinc (16 mg/100 g), and sodium (9 mg/100 g). The significant antidiabetic potential of OMB was demonstrated using α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory assay. Further investigations are required to explore the newly developed biopolymer for its toxicity, efficacy, and its possible utilization in food, nutraceutical, as well as pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/isolamento & purificação , Abelmoschus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Biopolímeros/análise , Biopolímeros/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199586

RESUMO

Natural polymer is a frequently used polymer in various food applications and pharmaceutical formulations due to its benefits and its biocompatibility compared to synthetic polymers. One of the natural polymer groups (i.e., polysaccharide) does not only function as an additive in pharmaceutical preparations, but also as an active ingredient with pharmacological effects. In addition, several natural polymers offer potential distinct applications in gene delivery and genetic engineering. However, some of these polymers have drawbacks, such as their lack of water retention and elasticity. Sacran, one of the high-molecular-weight natural polysaccharides (megamolecular polysaccharides) derived from Aphanothece sacrum (A. sacrum), has good water retention and elasticity. Historically, sacran has been used as a dietary food. Moreover, sacran can be applied in biomedical fields as an active material, excipient, and genetic engineering material. This article discusses the characteristics, extraction, isolation procedures, and the use of sacran in food and biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Indústria Farmacêutica , Elasticidade , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203999

RESUMO

Human skin acts as a physical barrier; however, sometimes the skin gets infected by fungi, which becomes more severe if the infection occurs on the third layer of the skin. Azole derivative-based antifungal creams, liquids, or sprays are available to treat fungal infections; however, these formulations show various side effects on the application site. Over the past few years, herbal extracts and various essential oils have shown effective antifungal activity. Additionally, autoxidation and epimerization are significant problems with the direct use of herbal extracts. Hence, to overcome these obstacles, polysaccharide-based nanohydrogels embedded with natural plant extracts and oils have become the primary choice of pharmaceutical scientists. These gels protect plant-based bioactive compounds and are effective delivery agents because they release multiple bioactive compounds in the targeted area. Nanohydrogels can be applied to infected areas, and due to their contagious nature and penetration power, they get directly absorbed through the skin, quickly reaching the skin's third layer and effectively reducing the fungal infection. In this review, we explain various skin fungal infections, possible treatments, and the effective utilization of plant extract and oil-embedded polysaccharide-based nanohydrogels.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Géis/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/química , Azóis/química , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos/química
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 804-812, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229016

RESUMO

Aloe polysaccharides (APs) are acetyl polysaccharides. It has been reported APs could protect mice from ulcerative colitis (UC), but the complex interactions between APs and the intestinal barrier were unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between APs and UC, and determined the synergistic effects of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) metabolism on protecting intestinal barrier in acute UC mice. Results showed APs could scavenge free radicals in vitro. In vivo, APs had the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect both in serum and colon. Besides, the pathological results showed APs could alleviate colonic lesions. Furthermore, our study indicated treatment with APs effectively increased SCFAs production. The inhibition of acute UC in mice was correlated with the APs-mediated effects on improving the expression of ZO-1, occludin, Nrf2, HO-I, and NQO1. Thus, APs effectively promoted the intestinal barrier via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and SCFAs metabolism, effectively ameliorating acute colitis in mice.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sequência de Carboidratos , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/síntese química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 983-996, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229018

RESUMO

A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-negative electrospray-mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI--MS) coupled with microwave assisted mild acid (MAMA) depolymerization is proposed here for unusual discrimination and characterization of plant polysaccharides: a case study of fruit polysaccharides in Schisandra chinensis and S. sphenanthera (SCP and SSP). The optimized MAMA hydrolysis procedure was proposed for sample preparations of low-polymerization saccharides (Mw < 5000 Da) released in SCP and SSP. In addition, HILIC-MS/MS was employed for elucidation of isomeric glycosidic linkages in terms of 18O labelling. The MAMA hydrolysates showed that the amount of neutral →(4Hex1)n→ moiety is confirmed to be more bigger than that of acidic →(4HexA1)n → in SCP, whereas the amount of acidic →(4HexA1)n→ moiety seems to be more bigger than that of neutral →(4Hex1)n→ in SSP. The resulting low-polymerization compositional fingerprinting (LCF) showed the performance on rapid visualization of SCP and SSP by HILIC-MIM-MS. Principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) further unveils several key Q-markers (e.g., m/z 503, 369, 665, 827, 989, 1151 and 735) for rapid discrimination of SCP and SSP. This practical study showed that the LCF with PCA and HCA could effectively reflect structural differences and could rapidly achieve discrimination of SCP and SSP.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Schisandra/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise por Conglomerados , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 679-687, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216666

RESUMO

Chitosan/fucoidan nanoparticles were created using two fucoidans from the Fucus evanescens algae. One of them was a regular fucoidan obtained for the first time from the alga harvested at the reproductive growth stage, using only standard extraction methods, without additional modifications. Its structure was established via NMR spectroscopy to consist of the repeating →3)-α-L-Fucp-(2,4SO3-)-(1 â†’ 4)-α-L-Fucp-(2SO3-)-(1→ fragment. Such fragment also coustituted 55% of the other fucoidan's structure, however it also included long sequences of α-L-fucopyranose residues sulfated only at C2. The nanoparticles were re-dispersed in water and the influence of fucoidan/chitosan mass ratio on the nanoparticles' size and zeta potential was investigated. 3D models of the regular fucoidan and chitosan's sections were created and their molecular docking was performed, showing that either polymer could occupy the exterior of the complex, depending on their ratio. Thermodynamic parameters of fucoidan-chitosan binding process were accessed, with the results indicating that significant conformational changes of fucoidan and chitosan molecules take place during the interaction, presumably to allow for more effective binding.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Fucus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
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