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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 106: 147-160, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210430

RESUMO

The extensive use of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) poses a threat to human health and the aquatic environment. Here, magnetic p-n Bi2WO6/CuFe2O4 catalyst was fabricated to efficiently remove TCH. The obtained Bi2WO6/CuFe2O4 exhibited 92.1% TCH degradation efficiency and 50.7% and 35.1% mineralization performance for TCH and raw secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in a photo-Fenton-like system, respectively. The remarkable performance was attributed to the fact that photogenerated electrons accelerated the Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Cu(II)/Cu(I) conversion for the Fenton-like reaction between Fe(II)/Cu(I) and H2O2, thereby generating abundant •OH for pollutant oxidation. Various environmental factors including H2O2 concentration, initial pH, catalyst dosage, TCH concentration and inorganic ions were explored. The reactive oxidation species (ROS) quenching results and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra confirmed that •O2- and •OH were responsible for the dark and photo-Fenton-like systems, respectively. The degradation mechanisms and pathways of TCH were proposed, and the toxicity of products was evaluated. This work contributes a highly efficient and environmentally friendly catalyst and provides a clear mechanistic explanation for the removal of antibiotic pollutants in environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ferro , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Se Pu ; 39(2): 184-196, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227351

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are environmentally persistent and biomagnified along food chains. They have been widely detected globally, even in the human body, and their potential toxicity has attracted great attention. Eggs are the origin of new life of ovipara and are rich in nutrients, thus they serve as one of the main protein sources for humans. Therefore, the level of pollutants in eggs can affect the reproduction of ovipara, and it is also related to human health by food intake. In recent years, poultry egg samples have been widely used in the assessment of biological and ecological pollution as a non-invasive biota matrix. At the same time, recent studies have used eggs to evaluate the developmental toxicity and associated health risks based on the pollutant levels in egg samples. In this study, the methods of sample pretreatment and instrumental detection of PFASs for egg samples are summarized. In addition, the application of eggs as a pollutants bioindicator of PFASs contamination has been discussed.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Se Pu ; 39(1): 34-45, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227357

RESUMO

Aquatic products, which are among the most important sources of animal protein, contain proteins, vitamins, and a variety of trace elements, thus occupying an indispensable part of a reasonable diet. China is the largest consumer market of aquatic products in the world. The quality and safety of aquatic products are closely related not only to the healthy development of the aquaculture industry, but also to people's health. However, the presence of harmful substances has a bearing on the quality and safety of aquatic products in the overall process, including breeding, processing, storage, and transportation. These harmful substances are enriched in aquatic products and are transferred to humans via the food chain. Accurate determination of such harmful substances in aquatic product samples is imperative because of their complex matrices and extremely low concentrations. Many efficient sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, and QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method) with different configurations have been developed and widely employed for preconcentration in different matrices of aquatic products. Meanwhile, solid-phase microextraction has been demonstrated to be advantageous for some volatile and ultra-trace harmful substances. Suitable sample preparation techniques are important for effectively removing matrix interferences as well as for improving the sensitivity and accuracy of the method. It is important to develop appropriate sample preparation techniques for different target compounds in aquatic products. The harmful substances in aquatic products can be segregated into three categories according to their sources: (1) environmental pollutants in aquatic products; (2) substances acquired during aquaculture, transportation, and processing; (3) biotoxins in aquatic products. This article reviews the progress in sample pretreatment techniques for three harmful substances in aquatic products over the past decade. Various sample pretreatment techniques have been summarized and described, including liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, QuEChERS, and magnetic solid-phase extraction. In addition, the merits and demerits of these techniques and future research directions are discussed. Finally, we reviewed the progress in functionalized materials for the preparation of aquatic product samples. With the increasing demand for aquatic products, quick, sensitive, and practical detection methods, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are gaining importance. SERS has great potential for fast and accurate on-site detection of harmful substances in aquatic products. Several nondestructive sample pretreatment techniques have also been developed for harmful substances in aquatic products. The application and development of these techniques will guarantee the safety of aquatic products. Moreover, in vivo solid-phase microextraction is a potential method for aquatic product analysis. This technique integrates sampling, extraction, and enrichment into a single step, thus significantly reducing the processing time, labor, and cost. Overall, with the development and application of sophisticated materials and techniques, we can expect theoretical and practical advances in aquatic product analysis.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , China , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Extração em Fase Sólida , Microextração em Fase Sólida
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203038

RESUMO

Heavy metals are toxic environmental pollutants associated with severe ecological and human health risks. Among them is mercury (Hg), widespread in air, soil, and water, due to its peculiar geo-biochemical cycle. The clinical consequences of Hg exposure include neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, increased risk for cardiovascular diseases is also reported due to a direct effect on cardiovascular tissues, including endothelial cells, recently identified as important targets for the harmful action of heavy metals. In this review, we will discuss the rationale for the potential use of erythrocytes as a surrogate model to study Hg-related toxicity on the cardiovascular system. The toxic effects of Hg on erythrocytes have been amply investigated in the last few years. Among the observed alterations, phosphatidylserine exposure has been proposed as an underlying mechanism responsible for Hg-induced increased proatherogenic and prothrombotic activity of these cells. Furthermore, following Hg-exposure, a decrease in NOS activity has also been reported, with consequent lowering of NO bioavailability, thus impairing endothelial function. An additional mechanism that may induce a decrease in NO availability is the generation of an oxidative microenvironment. Finally, considering that chronic Hg exposure mainly occurs through contaminated foods, the protective effect of dietary components is also discussed.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 125960, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229405

RESUMO

The pollution of aquatic systems with noxious organic and inorganic contaminants is a challenging problem faced by most countries. Water bodies are contaminated with diverse inorganic and organic pollutants originating from various diffuse and point sources, including industrial sectors, agricultural practices, and domestic wastes. Such hazardous water pollutants tend to accumulate in the environmental media including living organisms, thereby posing significant environmental health risks. Therefore, the remediation of wastewater pollutants is a priority. Adsorption is considered as the most efficient technique for the removal of pollutants in aqueous systems, and the deployment of suitable adsorbents plays a vital role for the sustainable application of the technique. The present review gives an overview of polyurethane foam (PUF) as an adsorbent, the synthesis approaches of polyurethane, and characterization aspects. Further emphasis is on the preparation of the various forms of polyurethane adsorbents, and their potential application in the removal of various challenging water pollutants. The removal mechanisms, including adsorption kinetics, isotherms, thermodynamics, and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between polyurethane adsorbents and pollutants are discussed. In addition, regeneration, recycling and disposal of spent polyurethane adsorbents are reported. Finally, key knowledge gaps on synthesis, characterization, industrial applications, life cycle analysis, and potential health risks of polyurethane adsorbents are discussed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Descontaminação , Poliuretanos , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209443

RESUMO

In the last years, the issue of exposure assessment of airborne pollutants has been on the rise, both in the environmental and occupational fields. Increasingly severe national and international air quality standards, indoor air guidance values, and exposure limit values have been developed to protect the health of the general population and workers; this issue required a significant and continuous improvement in monitoring technologies to allow the execution of proper exposure assessment studies. One of the most interesting aspects in this field is the development of the "next-generation" of airborne pollutants monitors and sensors (NGMS). The principal aim of this review is to analyze and characterize the state of the art and of NGMS and their practical applications in exposure assessment studies. A systematic review of the literature was performed analyzing outcomes from three different databases (Scopus, PubMed, Isi Web of Knowledge); a total of 67 scientific papers were analyzed. The reviewing process was conducting systematically with the aim to extrapolate information about the specifications, technologies, and applicability of NGMSs in both environmental and occupational exposure assessment. The principal results of this review show that the use of NGMSs is becoming increasingly common in the scientific community for both environmental and occupational exposure assessment. The available studies outlined that NGMSs cannot be used as reference instrumentation in air monitoring for regulatory purposes, but at the same time, they can be easily adapted to more specific applications, improving exposure assessment studies in terms of spatiotemporal resolution, wearability, and adaptability to different types of projects and applications. Nevertheless, improvements needed to further enhance NGMSs performances and allow their wider use in the field of exposure assessment are also discussed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 483, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241745

RESUMO

This work investigated heavy metal and cyanide pollution in surface soils and edible plants around Yanzhuang gold tailings ponds in the region of Yanzhuang Village in Pinggu District, Beijing. Surface soil samples were collected from 33 sites around gold tailings ponds, and concentrations of seven heavy metals (i.e., Sb, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg) and cyanide were analyzed to determine their spatial distributions, pollution degrees, and sources. The potential ecological risks of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg were preliminarily assessed. The results showed that the mean cyanide, Sb, As, Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations were higher than the standard values. The pollutant concentrations around the tailings ponds were high and decreased with increasing distance from the ponds. The single pollution index indicated that cyanide, As, and Cd were the main pollutants. The Nemerow pollution index revealed a large region and serious degree of heavy metal pollution in soils. The potential ecological risk level of the study area was moderate, with Cd and As posing the main risks. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that the heavy metal and cyanide pollution present mainly derived from gold tailings, with agricultural pollution also had a certain effect. However, the 12 edible plants sampled were basically not polluted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ouro , Metais Pesados/análise , Lagoas , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130984, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289628

RESUMO

To attain elevated class MXene (Ti3C2Tx) through a homemade kitchen blender method, high shear mechanical exfoliation is highly required for the efficient delimitations of MXene nanosheets from bulk MAX (Ti3AlC2). We examine large-scale industrial productions of the MXene nanosheets, where combing the predicted 2D materials using a blender is a first-time novel approach with the delaminating solvent as a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). And also manually created layered MXene systems (handmade) delaminating MXene sheets (MX-H) was furthermore employed for environmental dye-degradations applications. The materials characterizations was done for both the bulk MAX, MX-H and the MX-B. Additionally, the surface morphological studies like scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated for both MX-H and MX-B as-prepared samples. SEM images indicated the high shear blander technique formations highly expanded/delaminated MXene (Ti3C2Tx) nanosheets compared to MX-H samples. FTIR technique is employed to identify -OH, C-H, C-O stretching vibrations for both materials. Raman spectroscopy analysis of MX-H and MX-B revealed 484.80 cm-1 Raman shift assigned to E1g phonon mode of (Ti, C, O). The ultraviolet UV visible absorption spectra explored pure and catalyst added Methylene Blue (MB) dye stock solution using annular type photoreactor with visible light source of 300 W. The comparatives of MAX, MX-H and MX-B samples was investigated as photocatalytic activity, The blender made (MX-B) sample revealed 98% of efficiency.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Catálise , Luz , Azul de Metileno , Titânio
9.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130997, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289635

RESUMO

The development of defective structure in MOFs can offer a novel approach to tailor the properties of MOFs-type adsorbent for better adsorption performance. In this study, the contribution of defective structure in UiO-66 to the adsorptive removal of pharmaceutical pollutants from aqueous solution was investigated. The results showed that the controlled defects in UiO-66 greatly affected adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption capacity and adsorption selectivity. Slightly defected UiO-66 contained more open frameworks, and it exhibited faster adsorption equilibrium. However, a high degree of destruction to the amorphous state resulted in a longer equilibrium time, due to the interference in the diffusion process as the result of severe structural collapse and interpenetration. Moreover, a higher degree of structural damage of UiO-66 led to a higher adsorption capacity because of the increased active sites. The maximum adsorption capacity was 321 mg/g for the as-prepared defective UiO-66, which was much higher than that of perfective UiO-66 (54.5 mg/g). Furthermore, defective UiO-66 had a higher adsorption affinity for diclofenac sodium than other studied pharmaceutical pollutants. This study could provide insight into the relationship between defective property and adsorption performance. The results will deepen the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of MOFs-type adsorbents, and help the design of MOFs-type adsorbents with fast adsorption equilibrium, higher adsorption capacity and adsorption selectivity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção
10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 3092197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306050

RESUMO

With the development of the automobile industry, artificial intelligence, big data, 5G, and other technologies, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) industry has entered a stage of rapid development. In this paper, a pollutant diffusion model based on an artificial neural network is designed in the context of a vehicle network. The application of artificial neural networks in haze prediction is studied. This paper first analyzes the causes and influencing factors of haze and selects the most representative and relatively large meteorological factors from temperature, wind, relative humidity, and several pollutant factors. Through training and simulation, a haze prediction model in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei regions of China is established. Finally, according to the collected meteorological data, the pollutant diffusion model is established. The model is deduced by a standard mathematical formula, which makes the prediction results more accurate and rigorous, and the main conclusions and feasible scientific suggestions are obtained. The simulation results show that the method is effective. By strengthening the service system of the IoV, meteorological services can be more intelligent, and the information acquisition and service ability of the vehicle network can be effectively improved.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Inteligência Artificial , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Internet , Redes Neurais de Computação , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204413

RESUMO

Excessive traffic pollutant emissions in high-density cities result in thermal discomfort and are associated with devastating health impacts. In this study, an improved data analytic framework that combines geo-processing techniques, social habits of local citizens like traffic patterns and working schedule and district-wise building morphologies was established to retrieve street-level traffic NOx and PM2.5 emissions in all 18 districts of Hong Kong. The identification of possible human activity regions further visualizes the intersection between emission sources and human mobility. The updated spatial distribution of traffic emission could serve as good indicators for better air quality management, as well as the planning of social infrastructures in the neighborhood environment. Further, geo-processed traffic emission figures can systematically be distributed to respective districts via mathematical means, while the correlations of NOx and mortality within different case studies range from 0.371 to 0.783, while varying from 0.509 to 0.754 for PM2.5, with some assumptions imposed in our study. Outlying districts and good practices of maintaining an environmentally friendly transportation network were also identified and analyzed via statistical means. This newly developed data-driven framework of allocating and quantifying traffic emission could possibly be extended to other dense and heavily polluted cities, with the aim of enhancing health monitoring campaigns and relevant policy implementations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Ciência de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 126084, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229388

RESUMO

Microplastics have become predominant contaminants, attracting much political and scientific attention. Despite the massively-increasing research on microplastics effects on organisms, the debate of whether environmental concentrations pose hazard and risk continues. This study critically reviews published literatures of microplastics effects on organisms within the context of "dose". It provides substantial evidence of the common occurrence of threshold and hormesis dose responses of numerous aquatic and terrestrial organisms to microplastics. This finding along with accumulated evidence indicating the capacity of organisms for recovery suggests that the linear-no-threshold model is biologically irrelevant and should not serve as a default model for assessing the microplastics risks. The published literature does not provide sufficient evidence supporting the general conclusion that environmental doses of microplastics cause adverse effects on individual organisms. Instead, doses that are smaller than the dose of toxicological threshold and more likely to occur in the environment may even induce positive effects, although the ecological implications of these responses remain unknown. This study also shows that low doses of microplastics can reduce whereas high doses can increase the negative effects of other pollutants. The mechanisms explaining these findings are discussed, providing a novel perspective for evaluating the risks of microplastics in the environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Organismos Aquáticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199698

RESUMO

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. Recent experimental studies suggested that phthalates might induce NAFLD. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between phthalates metabolites and NAFLD in the human population. This cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey II (2012-2014) among Korean adults (n = 5800). NAFLD was diagnosed using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver diseases. Among the participants (mean age 46 years, 47.5% male), the prevalence of NAFLD was associated with urinary levels of mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) compared to the reference group. In the multivariate model, the odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (CI) for NAFLD were 1.33 (1.00-1.78) and 1.39 (1.00-1.92) in the 3rd and 4th quartile of MEHHP, respectively. Based on the study findings, high levels of urinary phthalates are associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in Korean adults. Further investigation is required to elucidate the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3316-3327, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212657

RESUMO

In semi-arid and semi-humid areas, the occurrence of non-point source nutrient pollution is mainly driven by rainfall-runoff events, and nutrient loss under rainfall events determines annual total pollution load. Therefore, research on riverine nutrient dynamics under rainfall-runoff events in flood seasons is critical for simulating and controlling pollution load in semi-arid and semi-humid areas. The Chaohe River watershed, upstream watershed of Miyun Reservoir in Beijing was considered as study area, water quantity and quality of rainfall-runoff process at Gubeikou and Xiahui stations were monitored synchronously in flood seasons in 2018 and 2019. The results indicated the following:① Among the three rainfall events (E1, E2, and E3), E1 had the highest precipitation and rainfall intensity, and the corresponding discharge and pollutant concentrations were the highest. ② Under different rainfall events, the pollutant concentrations and their variations were different. The variations of concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia (NH4+-N), nitrate (NO3--N), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended solids (TSS) were similar to the discharge process under the heavy rainstorm event (E1) and the rainstorm event (E3). The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia (NH4+-N), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended solids (TSS) were similar to the discharge process under the heavy rain events (E2), but the variations of nitrate (NO3--N) concentrations were opposite to those in the discharge process. ③ The concentrations and variations of different forms of pollutants were different under different rainfall events. Under the event of strong rainfall erosion (E1 and E2), the concentrations of particulate pollutants varied significantly, being positively correlated with that of total suspended solids (TSS). For the rainfall event that did not cause soil erosion (E3), the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus were dominated by total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) respectively, whose variations were mainly related to discharge. ④ The discharge and pollutant concentrations at each station varied under different rainfall events. Heavy rainfall erosion was more obvious at Gubeikou station, causing significant variations in discharge, TP, and TSS. Therefore, these results can be used to determine migration patterns of non-point source pollutants caused by rainfall-runoff events and provide references for water quality prediction and control in flood seasons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Chuva , Rios , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198930

RESUMO

Besides our current health concerns due to COVID-19, cancer is a longer-lasting and even more dramatic pandemic that affects almost a third of the human population worldwide. Most of the emphasis on its causes has been posed on genetic predisposition, chance, and wrong lifestyles (mainly, obesity and smoking). Moreover, our medical weapons against cancers have not improved too much during the last century, although research is in progress. Once diagnosed with a malignant tumour, we still rely on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The main problem is that we have focused on fighting a difficult battle instead of preventing it by controlling its triggers. Quite the opposite, our knowledge of the links between environmental pollution and cancer has surged from the 1980s. Carcinogens in water, air, and soil have continued to accumulate disproportionally and grow in number and dose, bringing us to today's carnage. Here, a synthesis and critical review of the state of the knowledge of the links between cancer and environmental pollution in the three environmental compartments is provided, research gaps are briefly discussed, and some future directions are indicated. New evidence suggests that it is relevant to take into account not only the dose but also the time when we are exposed to carcinogens. The review ends by stressing that more dedication should be put into studying the environmental causes of cancers to prevent and avoid curing them, that the precautionary approach towards environmental pollutants must be much more reactionary, and that there is an urgent need to leave behind the outdated petrochemical-based industry and goods production.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Ambientais , Neoplasias , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204586

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones are necessary for the normal functioning of physiological systems. Therefore, knowledge of any factor (whether genetic, environmental or intrinsic) that alters the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones is crucial. Genetic factors contribute up to 65% of interindividual variations in TSH and thyroid hormone levels, but many environmental factors can also affect thyroid function. This review discusses studies that have analyzed the impact of environmental factors on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in healthy adults. We included lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and exercise) and pollutants (chemicals and heavy metals). Many inconsistencies in the results have been observed between studies, making it difficult to draw a general conclusion about how a particular environmental factor influences TSH and thyroid hormone levels. However, lifestyle factors that showed the clearest association with TSH and thyroid hormones were smoking, body mass index (BMI) and iodine (micronutrient taken from the diet). Smoking mainly led to a decrease in TSH levels and an increase in triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels, while BMI levels were positively correlated with TSH and free T3 levels. Excess iodine led to an increase in TSH levels and a decrease in thyroid hormone levels. Among the pollutants analyzed, most studies observed a decrease in thyroid hormone levels after exposure to perchlorate. Future studies should continue to analyze the impact of environmental factors on thyroid function as they could contribute to understanding the complex background of gene-environment interactions underlying the pathology of thyroid diseases.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Tireotropina/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais , Patrimônio Genético , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Tireotropina/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067438

RESUMO

Human biomonitoring (HBM) monitors levels of environmental pollutants in human samples, which often is a topic of concern for residents near industrially contaminated sites (ICSs). Around an ICS area in Menen (Belgium), including a (former) municipal waste incinerator and a metal recovery plant, increasing environmental concentrations of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed, causing growing concern among residents and authorities. The local community succeeded in convincing the responsible authorities to investigate the problem and offer research funding. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in two consecutive HBM studies (2002-2006 and 2010-2011), in the context of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS), as well as in soil and locally produced food. Meanwhile, local authorities discouraged consumption of locally produced food in a delineated area of higher exposure risk. Ultimately, HBM and environmental data enabled tailored dietary recommendations. This article demonstrates the usefulness of HBM in documenting the body burdens of residents near the ICS, identifying exposure routes, evaluating remediating actions and providing information for tailored policy strategies aiding to further exposure reduction. It also highlights the role of the local stakeholders as an example of community-based participatory research and how such an approach can create societal support for research and policy.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Bélgica , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Políticas , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported associations between maternal exposure to atmospheric pollution and lower birth weight. However, the evidence is not consistent and uncertainties remain. We used advanced statistical approaches to robustly estimate the association of atmospheric pollutant exposure during specific pregnancy time windows with term birth weight (TBW) in a nationwide study. METHODS: Among 13,334 women from the French Longitudinal Study of Children (ELFE) cohort, exposures to PM2.5, PM10 (particles < 2.5 µm and <10 µm) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) were estimated using a fine spatio-temporal exposure model. We used inverse probability scores and doubly robust methods in generalized additive models accounting for spatial autocorrelation to study the association of such exposures with TBW. RESULTS: First trimester exposures were associated with an increased TBW. Second trimester exposures were associated with a decreased TBW by 17.1 g (95% CI, -26.8, -7.3) and by 18.0 g (-26.6, -9.4) for each 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, and by 15.9 g (-27.6, -4.2) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2. Third trimester exposures (truncated at 37 gestational weeks) were associated with a decreased TBW by 48.1 g (-58.1, -38.0) for PM2.5, 38.1 g (-46.7, -29.6) for PM10 and 14.7 g (-25.3, -4.0) for NO2. Effects of pollutants on TBW were larger in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support an adverse effect of air pollutant exposure on TBW. We highlighted a larger effect of air pollutants on TBW among women living in rural areas compared to women living in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073581

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a common plasticizer, has been detected in breast milk in many countries; however, whether phthalate metabolite concentration and the detection rate in breast milk change postpartum is still unknown. We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in breast milk in the first 6 months postpartum in women enrolled in the E-Da hospital from January to July 2017. A total of 56 breastfeeding mothers and 66 samples were included in this study. We analyzed the samples' concentration of eight phthalate metabolites using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was significantly higher in the first month, and then decreased over time. The detection rate of ono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) was low in the first month and then increased over time. Compared with a previous study published in 2011, the levels of MEHP and MiBP in breast milk were much lower in the present study, suggesting an increased awareness of the health risks of phthalate exposure after a food scandal occurred in Taiwan. This study provides information for evaluating newborns' exposure to different kinds of phthalate through human milk in the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Período Pós-Parto , Taiwan
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