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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 106-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016362

RESUMO

Plant nursery runoff commonly contains pesticides and nutrients that often threaten aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands could be a tool to remove pesticides and nutrients from nursery runoff but have not been extensively studied in this setting. Two field-scale constructed wetlands (one subsurface-flow constructed wetland [SFCW] and one free-surface constructed wetland [FSCW]) were implemented and monitored for water quality improvement. The SFCW demonstrated significant mass reduction of 78% or greater for nitrate, orthophosphate, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The SFCW also demonstrated significant mass reduction of 79% or greater for 10 of the 12 pesticide compounds detected in over half of the collected samples. The FSCW demonstrated significant mass reduction of 46% or greater for all nonpesticide analytes except total nitrogen. Loading rate and actual storage volume compared with inflow volume likely affected performance. Reduced size and increased loading rate of the FSCW likely reduced its ability to effectively reduce pesticides. Results from this study indicate that constructed wetlands are likely an effective tool for nursery runoff management. When designing and implementing constructed wetlands, it is important for practitioners to consider the tradeoff between system size (additional cost and land otherwise dedicated to production) and performance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Áreas Alagadas , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Fósforo
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 688, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030595

RESUMO

We assessed the levels of Pb, Cd, and Mn in contour feathers of the feral pigeon (Columba livia) and house crow (Corvus splendens) obtained from five urban/suburban locations across Sri Lanka, using the AAS following wet digestion. Our key objectives were to compare accumulation levels in the two avian species with different foraging habits and living in common locations, and to establish baseline information on the presence of these metals in multiple locations in Sri Lanka with varying levels of urbanization. Owing to reservations that have been expressed by previous workers regarding the use of feathers for assessing heavy metal pollution, we first tested the efficacy of contour feathers by using our data for comparing the coefficients of variation in metal levels within and between locations. This showed that in over 95% of the cases, variations within locations were lower than between locations, indicating that freshly shed contour feathers that were used in the present study were reliable indicators of the status of bioaccumulation of the heavy metals in the environment. In interspecific comparisons, other than in the two suburban locations, Pb was present at much higher levels in the house crow than in the feral pigeon, whereas accumulation patterns with respect to Cd and Mn were inconsistent, suggesting that granivores may not, in all situations, accumulate lower levels than scavengers in the same environment. Owing to such interspecific variations in the patterns of accumulation of different heavy metals, the selection of a single species for assessing levels of pollution from heavy metals may not be prudent. Pb and Cd levels in both species were strongly and positively associated with human population density. The levels of Pb and Cd were highest in Colombo (commercial capital). In Colombo and Kalutara, the recorded levels in the house crow exceeded the thresholds that have the potential to inflict adverse impacts on avian species.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Plumas/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Sri Lanka
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110974, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888622

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3), an environmental pollutant, poses a serious threat to human and avian health. Although previous studies have showed that NH3 caused kidney injury, the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity induced by NH3 remain unclear. To explore the mechanisms of NH3 nephrotoxicity, a total of 36 broiler chicks at one day of age were exposed to NH3. After 42 days of exposure, blood samples were collected to determine creatinine and uric acid; and kidney samples were weighted and then collected to detect ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress parameters, ATPases, necroptosis- and mitochondrial dynamics-related genes. The results showed that chickens exposed to NH3 showed lower relative kidney weight and an increase concentration in serum creatinine and uric acid. NH3 exposure caused nephrocyte necrosis and increased the expression of necroptosis-related genes (TNF-α, RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL, and JNK). Besides, the activities of antioxidant systems (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and T-AOC) were reduced, whereas the concentrations of H2O2 and MDA were elevated. Lower activities of ATPases were obtained in NH3 treatment groups. Furthermore, the mitochondrial fission-related genes drp1 and mff were activated, and mitochondrial fusion-related genes opa1, mfn1 and mfn2 were suppressed after NH3 exposure. Based on the above results, we conclude that NH3 caused-oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated nephrocyte necroptosis in chickens. This study may provide new insight into NH3 nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim/ultraestrutura , Testes de Função Renal , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 624, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895739

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) concentrations are affected by anthropogenic emissions and sand transport jointly; however, the relative contributions from those two aspects are usually unknown. In our work, statistical analysis and back trajectories model were used to identify the dominant source in such area, by taking Yumen City as an example. We come to the conclusion that local emissions dominate the concentration of airborne pollutants, while sand transport plays a significant role on PM concentration. The conclusions were supported by the following results. (1) PM monthly mean concentrations at the two air quality stations, which are 70 km far away from each other, have the similar levels and variation trend; furthermore, a regression analysis of PM2.5 and PM10 daily concentrations between both stations indicated a significant correlation, suggesting that PM at both locations was influenced by the same emission sources; (2) statistical analysis results revealed that PM concentration has a positive correlation with wind speed, indicating the wind-blown dust and sand contribute mainly on PM concentration; (3) back-trajectory clustering analysis indicates that long-distance transport particulates from dust sources and their pathways had a significant impact on local PM concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140439, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887003

RESUMO

Hydrophobic pollutants have become widely distributed across the world. From an agricultural perspective, their accumulation in crops from contaminated soil threatens food security and quality, leading to many diseases in humans. The Cucurbitaceae family can accumulate high concentrations of hydrophobic pollutants in their aerial parts. The Cucurbitaceae family contains major latex-like proteins (MLPs) as transporting factors for hydrophobic pollutants. MLP genes are expressed in the roots in which the MLPs bind hydrophobic pollutants. MLPs transport these hydrophobic pollutants to the aerial parts of the plant through the xylem vessels. As a result, hydrophobic pollutant contamination occurs in the Cucurbitaceae family. In this study, we suppressed the expression of MLP genes in the roots and reduced the amounts of MLPs with pesticide treatments. First, the fungicides Benlate and Daconil that deceased the hydrophobic pollutant, perylene, concentration in the xylem sap of zucchini plants were selected. Daconil suppressed the transcription activity of MLP in the roots. In the Daconil treatment, the amount of MLPs in the roots and xylem sap of zucchini plants was decreased, and the concentrations of the hydrophobic pollutants, pyrene and dieldrin, were significantly decreased. Our research contributes to the production of safer crops.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Produtos Agrícolas , Dieldrin , Raízes de Plantas/química
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111487, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892921

RESUMO

Human activities in coastal catchments can cause the accumulation of pollutants in seafood. We quantified the concentration of heavy metals, pesticides and PFASs in the flesh of the fisheries species yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (n = 57) and mud crab Scylla serrata (n = 65) from 13 estuaries in southeast Queensland, Australia; a region with a variety of human land uses. Pollutants in yellowfin bream were best explained by the extent of intensive uses in the catchment. Pollutants in mud crabs were best explained by the extent of irrigated agriculture and water bodies. No samples contained detectable levels of pesticides, and only six samples contained low levels of PFASs. Metals were common in fish and crab flesh, but only mercury in yellowfin bream from the Mooloolah River breached Australian food safety standards. High pollutant presence and concentration is not the norm in seafood collected during routine surveys, even in estuaries with highly modified catchments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesqueiros , Humanos , Queensland , Urbanização
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111037, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888596

RESUMO

Glacier studies as of late have ruffled many eyeballs, exploring this frigid ecology to understand the impact of climate change. Mapquesting the glaciers led to the discovery of concealed world of "psychrophiles" harboring in it. In the present study, the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs) were evaluated through both the culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Samples were collected from two different glaciers, i.e., debris-covered glacier (Changme Khangpu) and debris-free glacier (Changme Khang). Functional metagenomics of both the glacier samples, provided evidence of presence of resistant genes against various antibiotic groups. Bacitracin resistant gene (bacA) was the predominant ARG in both the glaciers. MRGs in both the glacier samples were diversified as the genes detected were resistant against various heavy metals such as arsenic, tungsten, mercury, zinc, chromium, copper, cobalt, and iron. Unique MRGs identified from Changme Khangpu glacier were resistant to copper (cutA, cutE, cutC, cutF, cueR, copC, and copB) and chromium (yelf, ruvB, nfsA, chrR, and chrA) whereas, from Changme Khang glacier they showed resistance against cobalt (mgtA, dmef, corD, corC, corB, and cnrA), and iron (yefD, yefC, yefB, and yefA) heavy metals. ARGs aligned maximum identity with Gram-negative psychrotolerant bacteria. The cultured bacterial isolates showed tolerance to high concentrations of tested heavy metal solutions. Interestingly, some of the antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates also showed tolerance towards the higher concentrations of heavy metals. Thus, an introspection of the hypothesis of co-occurrence and/co-selection of ARGs and MRGs in such environments has been highlighted here.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Adaptação Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Camada de Gelo/química , Índia , Metagenômica , Siquim
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111041, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888612

RESUMO

Although the production and use of PCB153 have been banned globally, PCB153 pollution remains because of its persistence and long half-life in the environment. There is ongoing evidence that exposure to PCB153 may influence gut microbiota health and increase the risk of host health. It is needed to illuminate whether there are associations between gut microbiota dysregulation and PCB153-induced host diseases. Importantly, it is urgently needed to find specific strains as biomarkers to monitor PCB153 pollution and associated disorders. The work aims to investigate the change of gut microbiota composition, structure and diversity and various host physiological indexes, to ravel the chain causality of PCB153, gut microbiota health and host health, and to find potential gut microbiota markers for PCB153 pollution. Here, adult female mice were administrated with PCB153. Obtained results indicated that PCB153 led to gut microbiota health deterioration. PCB153 exposure also induced obesity, hepatic lipid accumulation, abdominal adipose tissue depots and dyslipidemia in mice. Furthermore, specific gut microbiota significantly correlated with the host health indexes. This work provides support for the relationship between gut microbiota aberrance derived from PCB153 and risk of host health, and offers some indications of possible indicative functions of gut microbiota on PCB153 pollution.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Colo/microbiologia , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/microbiologia , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140136, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927574

RESUMO

Children are exposed to many potentially toxic compounds in their daily lives and are vulnerable to the harmful effects. To date, very few non-invasive methods are available to quantify children's exposure to environmental chemicals. Due to their ease of implementation, silicone wristbands have emerged as passive samplers to study personal environmental exposures and have the potential to greatly increase our knowledge of chemical exposures in vulnerable population groups. Nevertheless, there is a limited number of studies monitoring children's exposures via silicone wristbands. In this study, we implemented this sampling technique in ongoing research activities in Montevideo, Uruguay which aim to monitor chemical exposures in a cohort of elementary school children. The silicone wristbands were worn by 24 children for 7 days; they were quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for 45 chemical pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), and novel halogenated flame-retardant chemicals (NHFRs). All classes of chemicals, except NHFRs, were identified in the passive samplers. The average number of analytes detected in each wristband was 13 ±3. OPFRs were consistently the most abundant class of analytes detected. Median concentrations of ΣOPFRs, ΣPBDEs, ΣPCBs, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) were 1020, 3.00, 0.52 and 3.79 ng/g wristband, respectively. Two major findings result from this research; differences in trends of two OPFRs (TCPP and TDCPP) are observed between studies in Uruguay and the United States, and the detection of DDT, a chemical banned in several countries, suggests that children's exposure profiles in these settings may differ from other parts of the world. This was the first study to examine children's exposome in South America using silicone wristbands and clearly points to a need for further studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Praguicidas , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Silicones , América do Sul , Uruguai
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 54-66, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933740

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and is extensively used in electronic equipment, furniture, plastics, and textiles. It is frequently detected in water, soil, air, and organisms, including humans, and has raised concerns in the scientific community regarding its potential adverse health effects. Human exposure to TBBPA is mainly via diet, respiration, and skin contact. Various in vivo and in vitro studies based on animal and cell models have demonstrated that TBBPA can induce multifaceted effects in cells and animals, and potentially exert hepatic, renal, neural, cardiac, and reproductive toxicities. Nevertheless, other reports have claimed that TBBPA might be a safe chemical. In this review, we re-evaluated most of the published TBBPA toxicological assessments with the goal of reaching a conclusion about its potential toxicity. We concluded that, although low TBBPA exposure levels and rapid metabolism in humans may signify that TBBPA is a safe chemical for the general population, particular attention should be paid to the potential effects of TBBPA on early developmental stages.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Humanos
11.
Rev Prat ; 70(4): 434-439, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877104

RESUMO

Environmental endocrine disruptors, what risks for children? Not all chemicals around us are endocrine disruptors. The effects of endocrine disruptors go through mechanisms that are probably more complex than those of conventional toxicity. A number of convergent data seem to confirm for some of them the possibility of deleterious effects on the male and female reproductive organs, as well as on the thyroid function. Sensitivity to these products is maximum during embryonic life, involving great caution regarding their use in pregnant women, young children and pubertal period. Many uncertainties persist regarding the consequences of their use. An enlightened discernment is therefore necessary when there is a possible toxicity, which will require a lot of studies.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Genitália , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Incerteza
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105620, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932042

RESUMO

The 20th Pollutant Responses in Marine Organisms (PRIMO 20) conference provided a forum for scientists from around the world to communicate novel toxicological research findings specifically focused on aquatic organisms, by combining applied and basic research at the intersection of environmental and mechanistic toxicology. The work highlighted in this special issue of Aquatic Toxicology, a special issue of Marine Environmental Research, and presented through posters and presentations, encompass important and emerging topics in freshwater and marine toxicology. This includes multiple types of emerging contaminants including microplastics and UV filtering chemicals. Other studies aimed to further our understanding of the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. Further research presented in this virtual issue examined the interactive effects of chemicals and pathogens, while the final set of manuscripts demonstrates continuing efforts to combine traditional biomonitoring, data from -omic technologies, and modeling for use in risk assessment and management. An additional goal of PRIMO meetings is to address the link between environmental and human health. Several articles in this issue of Aquatic Toxicology describe the appropriateness of using aquatic organisms as models for human health, while the keynote speakers, as described in the editorial below, presented research that highlighted bioaccumulation of contaminants such as PFOS and mercury from fish to marine mammals and coastal human populations such as the Gullah/GeeChee near Charleston, South Carolina, USA.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Peixes , Água Doce , Humanos , Plásticos
13.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(10): 1176-1184, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964808

RESUMO

The effect of biochar on the removal of organic and nitrogen contaminants from leachate in a semi-aerobic aged refuse biofilter (SAARB) was investigated. A preset amount of biochar was mixed with the aged refuse to explore the enhancement ability of pollutant removal by characterizing the leachate effluent and gas. The results showed that biochar contributed to the removal of organic and nitrogen pollutants from the leachate and that increasing the amount of biochar added led to higher colour number, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen removal efficiencies. Furthermore, the addition of biochar significantly increased the removal of large molecule organic pollutants from the leachate. The improved removal of organics was due to the considerable number of surface functional groups and the large surface area of the biochar, which effectively absorbed and removed a significant amount of the organic matter from the leachate. Biochar elevated the dissolved oxygen concentration in the semi-aerobic system, which facilitated the completion of the nitrification reaction. It also promoted denitrification by acting as a supplementary carbon source. The nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions decreased as the amount of biochar added increased. When the biochar proportion reached 3%, the N2O emission was only 1.11% of the original total nitrogen and the di-nitrogen emission was 19.61%. The findings of this study can be used to improve the treatment of leachate using biochar combined with a SAARB.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Vegetal , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127310, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947673

RESUMO

We characterized the aerosol composition and sources of particulate matter (PM) in Sanmenxia, a polluted city located in the Fen-Wei Plain region of Central China. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by 18% from 72 µg m-3 in 2014 to 59 µg m-3 in 2019. All chemical species presented pronounced seasonal variations, with their highest concentrations in winter due to enhanced emissions and the frequent stagnant meteorological conditions. Nitrate was the major fraction of PM2.5 during all seasons (35-41%) except summer (25%), while sulfate was a dominant species in summer (29%) compared to other seasons (16-18%) from July 2018 to June 2019. The detailed analysis of a wintertime severe haze episode that lasted for approximately half a month demonstrated that secondary aerosols, including secondary organic aerosol, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, contributed 89% to non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1), indicating the remarkable role of secondary aerosol formation in air pollution in Sanmenxia. Positive matrix factorization analysis further showed considerably enhanced low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and hydrocarbon-like OA during severe haze episodes, while significant contributions in semi-volatile oxygenated OA and coal combustion OA during clean periods. Severe pollution events in the city were generally associated with air masses from the southwest, and we also found that aerosol species, especially secondary aerosol species, showed distinct forenoon increases that were caused by the subsidence of air pollutants aloft. Our results highlight that future air quality improvement would benefit substantially from a more efficient control of gaseous precursors, particularly the NOx emissions from industry and vehicle emissions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127342, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947679

RESUMO

Environmental contaminations by potentially toxic metals (PTMs) are associated with energy exploitation and present a significant problem in urban areas due to their impacts on human health. The PTMs status in Urumqi total environment inevitably impacted by extensive development of coal and oil industries has been lack of understanding comprehensively. A series of PTMs (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr) in the soil-dust-plant (foliage of Ulmus pumila L.) system of Urumqi (NW China) were screened by XRF and ICPMS. Multivariate statistics, risk models, GIS-based geostatistics, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modelling and blood lead levels of 0-6 aged children evaluated by IEUBK model are used to determine the priority pollutants, sources and health effects of the investigated elements. The spatial distribution of PTMs in soil-dust-plant system significantly coincides with coal combustion, traffic emission, and industrial activity. Although all PTM toxicants in soil, dust and tree foliage show some effects, the priority contaminants are observed for Cu, Pb and Zn as single element. The total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks from PTMs are beyond the tolerance range of 0-6 year's old children, and the dust (TCR = 1.07E-04) PTMs pose approximatively equivalent carcinogenic risk to soil PTMs (TCT = 1.09E-04). The predicted BLLs (75-83 µ g·L-1) of 1-2 years children are most strongly influenced by Pb in soil and dust, and therefore more attention should be focused on sources of Pb to support the primary health care of the toddlers in Urumqi.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/sangue , Carcinógenos , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Indústrias , Chumbo/sangue , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110928, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888618

RESUMO

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is seriously harmful to ecosystems and living organisms due to its strong toxicity. Role of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and Drp1-associated mitochondrial fragmentation in mitophagy and cytotoxicity after Cr(VI) exposure has not been clarified so far. We confirmed that Cr(VI) caused mitochondrial fission by up-regulating Drp1 expression and enhancing Drp1 mitochondrial translocation. By applying the intracellular Ca2+ antagonist BAPTA-AM and mitochondrial Ca2+ antagonist Ru360, we demonstrated that Cr(VI)-induced excessive mitochondrial fission was in a Ca2+-Drp1 dependent manner. The administration of Drp1 siRNA significantly suppressed the overactivation of mitophagy in Cr(VI)-induced hepatotoxicity. The specific Drp1 inhibitor mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (Mdivi-1) blocked the overactive mitophagy and subsequently ameliorated hepatotoxicity caused by Cr(VI) in vivo. We reached the conclusion that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission contributes to Cr(VI)-induced mitophagy and hepatotoxicity, which may provide experimental basis for the study of chromium-associated toxicity, especially for the prevention of health damage in chromium-exposed population.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Cromo/toxicidade , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Ecossistema , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 655, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968858

RESUMO

It is known that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are used worldwide, and these pollutants are dangerous for human health. However, there are still countries where measurements of these pollutants have not been adequately measured. Although many studies have been published for determining the concentrations of POPs in Turkey, there are limited studies in Latin American countries like Peru. For this reason, it is essential both to conduct a study in Peru and to compare the study with another country. This study is aimed at determining the atmospheric POPs such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), organochlorine pesticide (OCP), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations using passive air samplers in Yurimaguas (Peru) and Bursa (Turkey). Molecular diagnosis ratios and ring distribution methods were used to determine the sources of PAHs. According to these methods, coal and biomass combustions were among the primary sources of PAHs in Peru, while petrogenic and petroleum were the primary sources of PAHs in Turkey. Then, α-HCH/γ-HCH and ß-/(α+γ)-HCH ratios were used to determine the sources of OCPs. According to the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios, the primary sources of OCPs in both countries were lindane. Similarly, according to ß-/(α+γ)-HCH ratios, the HCHs have been historically used in Peru while they were recently utilized in Turkey. Finally, homologous group distributions were used to determine the sources of PCBs. Similar distributions of homologous groups were observed in the sampling sites in both countries. Also, the homologous group distributions obtained have been determined that industrial activities could be effective in the sampling areas in both countries. When the cancer risks that could occur via inhalation were evaluated, no significant cancer risk has been determined in both countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Peru , Medição de Risco , Turquia
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 317: 124029, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916457

RESUMO

Duckweed is a potential biomass source for alternative energy production. This work reports the effects of trophic modes on growth rates, biomass accumulation, and removal rates of pollutant by duckweed. Glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, and maltose all supported heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth of duckweed. The mixotrophic growth rate was 4.98 and 6.22 times higher than those in heterotrophic and photoautotrophic conditions, respectively. Notably, mixotrophy produced more biomass than the simple sum of the biomass accumulation during heterotrophy and photoautotrophy. Mixotrophy was also superior in starch and protein production, as well as in removal rates of nutrients and organic carbon from the growth medium. However, the starch content of duckweed grown heterotrophically was 2.06 times higher than in mixotrophy, suggesting a combination of mixotrophy and heterotrophy as an effective strategy for starch-rich biomass production. This study thus provides a paradigm for future studies supporting duckweed-based biomass production and organic wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Araceae , Poluentes Ambientais , Biomassa , Carbono , Processos Heterotróficos
19.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 94, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various risk factors influence obesity differently, and environmental endocrine disruption may increase the occurrence of obesity. However, most of the previous studies have considered only a unitary exposure or a set of similar exposures instead of mixed exposures, which entail complicated interactions. We utilized three statistical models to evaluate the correlations between mixed chemicals to analyze the association between 9 different chemical exposures and obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We fitted the generalized linear regression, weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to analyze the association between the mixed exposures and obesity in the participants aged 6-19 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010. RESULTS: In the multivariable logistic regression model, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) (OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.11, 1.40)), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58)), and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) (OR (95% CI): 1.42 (1.07, 1.89)) were found to be positively associated with obesity, while methylparaben (MeP) (OR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.68, 0.94)) was negatively associated with obesity. In the multivariable linear regression, MEP was found to be positively associated with the body mass index (BMI) z-score (ß (95% CI): 0.12 (0.02, 0.21)). In the WQS regression model, the WQS index had a significant association (OR (95% CI): 1.48 (1.16, 1.89)) with the outcome in the obesity model, in which 2,5-DCP (weighted 0.41), bisphenol A (BPA) (weighted 0.17) and MEP (weighted 0.14) all had relatively high weights. In the BKMR model, despite no statistically significant difference in the overall association between the chemical mixtures and the outcome (obesity or BMI z-score), there was nonetheless an increasing trend. 2,5-DCP and MEP were found to be positively associated with the outcome (obesity or BMI z-score), while fixing other chemicals at their median concentrations. CONCLUSION: Comparing the three statistical models, we found that 2,5-DCP and MEP may play an important role in obesity. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of the three statistical models, our study confirms the necessity to combine different statistical models on obesity when dealing with mixed exposures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Pediátrica/induzido quimicamente , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(8): 1107-1116, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970279

RESUMO

Researchers were asked to contribute new results addressing questions about the exposure and effects of mercury (Hg) in North American songbirds, a rapidly declining group of species that is the subject of enduring interest for millions of birdwatchers, the general public and conservation scientists. Important questions to be answered include: Is Hg causing or exacerbating songbird population declines? Which North American songbirds are at most risk and in which landscapes? Are there aspects of songbird natural history that pre-dispose them to risks of Hg exposure and effects, in particular, their migratory behavior? In all, 61 authors contributed 15 studies addressing aspects of these questions. Articles in this special issue address an array of topics including: (1) three studies on health effects in the laboratory using a domesticated songbird model species, the zebra finch; (2) three studies on changes in songbird exposure to Hg over time spans from less than a decade to more than a century; (3) five studies on landscape characteristics or management practices that cause the oft-noted spatial variation in Hg accumulation by resident songbirds, from the subarctic tundra to high-elevation tropical forests; (4) three papers examining the recently recognized role of migration behavior in predicting risk to songbirds from Hg; and (5) one paper on the potential pitfalls of using feather Hg concentration as a bioindicator for Hg exposure. In summary, although there are many questions still to be answered, it is clear that the effects of Hg are persistent long after exposure, Hg exposure of North American songbirds is not improving, predicting exposure requires a detailed understanding of ecosystem processes beyond simply the amount of Hg present at a site, migration behavior predisposes songbirds to risk of Hg exposure and effects, and carefully selecting appropriate bioindicator sites, species, and tissues is critical to any monitoring efforts.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Mercúrio , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , Estados Unidos
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