Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.833
Filtrar
1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 688, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030595

RESUMO

We assessed the levels of Pb, Cd, and Mn in contour feathers of the feral pigeon (Columba livia) and house crow (Corvus splendens) obtained from five urban/suburban locations across Sri Lanka, using the AAS following wet digestion. Our key objectives were to compare accumulation levels in the two avian species with different foraging habits and living in common locations, and to establish baseline information on the presence of these metals in multiple locations in Sri Lanka with varying levels of urbanization. Owing to reservations that have been expressed by previous workers regarding the use of feathers for assessing heavy metal pollution, we first tested the efficacy of contour feathers by using our data for comparing the coefficients of variation in metal levels within and between locations. This showed that in over 95% of the cases, variations within locations were lower than between locations, indicating that freshly shed contour feathers that were used in the present study were reliable indicators of the status of bioaccumulation of the heavy metals in the environment. In interspecific comparisons, other than in the two suburban locations, Pb was present at much higher levels in the house crow than in the feral pigeon, whereas accumulation patterns with respect to Cd and Mn were inconsistent, suggesting that granivores may not, in all situations, accumulate lower levels than scavengers in the same environment. Owing to such interspecific variations in the patterns of accumulation of different heavy metals, the selection of a single species for assessing levels of pollution from heavy metals may not be prudent. Pb and Cd levels in both species were strongly and positively associated with human population density. The levels of Pb and Cd were highest in Colombo (commercial capital). In Colombo and Kalutara, the recorded levels in the house crow exceeded the thresholds that have the potential to inflict adverse impacts on avian species.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Plumas/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Sri Lanka
2.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127310, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947673

RESUMO

We characterized the aerosol composition and sources of particulate matter (PM) in Sanmenxia, a polluted city located in the Fen-Wei Plain region of Central China. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by 18% from 72 µg m-3 in 2014 to 59 µg m-3 in 2019. All chemical species presented pronounced seasonal variations, with their highest concentrations in winter due to enhanced emissions and the frequent stagnant meteorological conditions. Nitrate was the major fraction of PM2.5 during all seasons (35-41%) except summer (25%), while sulfate was a dominant species in summer (29%) compared to other seasons (16-18%) from July 2018 to June 2019. The detailed analysis of a wintertime severe haze episode that lasted for approximately half a month demonstrated that secondary aerosols, including secondary organic aerosol, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, contributed 89% to non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1), indicating the remarkable role of secondary aerosol formation in air pollution in Sanmenxia. Positive matrix factorization analysis further showed considerably enhanced low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and hydrocarbon-like OA during severe haze episodes, while significant contributions in semi-volatile oxygenated OA and coal combustion OA during clean periods. Severe pollution events in the city were generally associated with air masses from the southwest, and we also found that aerosol species, especially secondary aerosol species, showed distinct forenoon increases that were caused by the subsidence of air pollutants aloft. Our results highlight that future air quality improvement would benefit substantially from a more efficient control of gaseous precursors, particularly the NOx emissions from industry and vehicle emissions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 655, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968858

RESUMO

It is known that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are used worldwide, and these pollutants are dangerous for human health. However, there are still countries where measurements of these pollutants have not been adequately measured. Although many studies have been published for determining the concentrations of POPs in Turkey, there are limited studies in Latin American countries like Peru. For this reason, it is essential both to conduct a study in Peru and to compare the study with another country. This study is aimed at determining the atmospheric POPs such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), organochlorine pesticide (OCP), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations using passive air samplers in Yurimaguas (Peru) and Bursa (Turkey). Molecular diagnosis ratios and ring distribution methods were used to determine the sources of PAHs. According to these methods, coal and biomass combustions were among the primary sources of PAHs in Peru, while petrogenic and petroleum were the primary sources of PAHs in Turkey. Then, α-HCH/γ-HCH and ß-/(α+γ)-HCH ratios were used to determine the sources of OCPs. According to the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios, the primary sources of OCPs in both countries were lindane. Similarly, according to ß-/(α+γ)-HCH ratios, the HCHs have been historically used in Peru while they were recently utilized in Turkey. Finally, homologous group distributions were used to determine the sources of PCBs. Similar distributions of homologous groups were observed in the sampling sites in both countries. Also, the homologous group distributions obtained have been determined that industrial activities could be effective in the sampling areas in both countries. When the cancer risks that could occur via inhalation were evaluated, no significant cancer risk has been determined in both countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Peru , Medição de Risco , Turquia
4.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115096, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806402

RESUMO

In this study, levels of dechlorane plus (DP) in breast milk and matched adipose tissue samples were measured from 54 women living in Wenling, China. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured simultaneously for comparison. The levels of ∑DPs/∑PBDEs varied from less than one to several dozens of ng g-1 lipid weight (lw) in matrices and the levels of ∑PCBs varied between several to hundreds of ng g-1 lw. In the same matrix, ∑DPs and ∑PCBs/∑PBDEs showed a significant relationship (p < 0.05), indicating that they shared common sources. Accordingly, there was a strong association of lipid-adjusted concentrations of individual compounds (BDE-209 excluded) between matrices (p < 0.001), suggesting that breast milk could be a proxy for adipose tissue in human bioburden monitoring of these compounds. The predicted lipid-adjusted milk/adipose ratios varied from 0.62 to 1.5 but showed significant differences (p<0.001) between compounds, suggesting a compound-specific transfer between milk lipids and adipose tissue lipids. Specifically, the milk/adipose ratios for syn-DP and anti-DP (-1.40 and 1.3, respectively) were significantly higher than those of CB congeners and hexa/hepta-BDE congeners (p < 0.05). In addition, unlike PCBs/PBDEs (excluding BDE-209), DP's hydrophobicity might not be responsible for its preferable distribution in milk lipids. Instead, the interaction with nonlipid factors played a key role. The fraction of anti-DP between the two kinds of matrices was not significantly different, suggesting that the biochemical transfer processes may not be efficient enough to distinguish DP isomers. Nevertheless, the congener patterns of PCBs/PBDEs gave a clue about the compound-specific transfer between milk and adipose tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first to report the relationships of DP between adipose tissue and breast milk. These results could provide useful and in-depth information on biomonitoring of DP and facilitate the understanding of the accumulation and excretion potentials of DP and its distribution-related mechanism in humans.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Leite Humano/química , Tecido Adiposo/química , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Compostos Policíclicos
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110905, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800240

RESUMO

The group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are particularly dangerous for the environment and by consequence for human health because of the risk to be transmitted in the food chain. Among them, the urgent problem of obsolete and forbidden organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) needs a rigorous management in many countries, including Kazakhstan. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides content in food products on the genetic status and health of the population living on the contaminated areas near destroyed warehouses for OCPs (4 villages of Talgar district and 1 control site, Almaty region). The food products sampled in Taukaraturyk (control site), and in 4 villages where non-utilized obsolete pesticides were discovered: Beskainar, Kyzylkairat, Amangeldy, and Belbulak. The contents of 24 pesticides in food products from plant (apples, pears, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet peppers) and animal (beef meat, cow milk, honey) origin, that grown in places of localization of non-utilized OCPs, were determined, sometimes in high and unacceptably high concentrations (before 2500 times over MRL). In pears, the pesticides content (especially DDT, γ-HCH, ß-HCH, endosulfan, and aldrin pesticide group), was higher than in other fruits. Among vegetables, the highest levels of all groups of pesticide were found in cucumbers. Beef meat samples demonstrated increased contents of ß-HCH, γ-HCH, endrin and dieldrin. In cow milk samples only the high concentration of dieldrin was found. The content of pesticides in meat was 4-5 times higher than in milk. The medical examinations, carried out among the cohorts living around the polluted by pesticides territories and control cohort from ecologically favorable village, showed that there were more individuals with high and middle levels of somatic health in the control group than in groups exposed to OCPs. The long-term effect of the pesticide contamination of the environment on genetic status of the population was assessed by chromosomal aberration (CA) frequencies. The highest level of chromosomal aberrations was identified for the examined residents of Kyzylkairat (41%) and Belbulak (38%), a high level in Amangeldy (12%), and middle level in Beskainar (6.5%). The association between the CA frequency, health status and the pesticides contents in food were assessed by a Spearman rank correlation. The low indicators of somatic health status were strictly associated with high levels of CA, and good health status indicates that the CA rates did not exceed the spontaneous level of mutagenesis. The strongest correlation was shown between high levels of chromosomal aberrations and the content of different pesticides in pears (Cr = 0.979-0.467), tomatoes (Cr = 0.877-0.476), cucumbers (Cr = 0.975-0.553) and meat (Cr = 0.839-0.368). The obtained results highlight the need to improve health protection by increasing the public awareness to the security of the storage of obsolete OCPs in order to strengthen food safety by efficient control services.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Aldrina/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieldrin/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Hexaclorocicloexano , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110910, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800245

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and more abundant in the marine environment. Consequently, increasing focus has been put on MPs in oceans and seas, while little importance has been attached to their presence in freshwaters and soils. Therefore, this paper aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the occurrence, analysis and ecotoxicology of MPs. The abundance and distribution of MPs in several typical freshwater systems of China were summarized. It suggested that the surface water of Poyang Lake contained the highest concentration of 34 items/L MPs among all the 8 freshwater systems, and the content of MPs in sediments were higher than that of the surface water. Net-based zooplankton sampling methods are the most frequently utilized sampling methods for MPs, and density separation, elutriation and digestion are three major pretreatment methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are often used to identify the polymer types of MPs. Besides, MPs might damage the digestive tract of various organisms and negatively inhibit their growth, feeding and reproduction. The ways of human exposure to MPs are by ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, digestive and respiratory system might be adversely influenced. However, potential health risks of MPs to humans are remained insufficiently researched. Overall, by showing the presence of MPs in freshwaters and soils as well as possible ecotoxicological effects on the environment and humans, this paper provided a framework for future research in this field.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Animais , China , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lagos/química , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/química , Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton
7.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 453-459, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840649

RESUMO

In this study, organic compounds were screened in surface water collected from Xujiahe basin, China by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 51 compounds were identified including 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 9 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 chlorobenzene (CBs). The concentrations of OCPs, PAHs and CBs were generally low. The concentrations of OCPs in Xujiahe reservoir ranged from N.D. to 35.6 ng/L, the concentrations of PAHs ranged from N.D. to 19.8 ng/L and the concentrations of CBs ranged from 10.3 to 124.6 ng/L. The Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) model was employed to directly predict the integrated toxicity indexes of 51 organic pollutants. The risk quotient (RQ) values of most of the organic compounds in the water samples were acceptable for their ecological risk.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Água/análise
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461362, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797841

RESUMO

Exploring new material as adsorbent for the efficient enrichment of pollutants is always of great significance in analytical chemistry. In this work, a magnetic azobenzene framework (labeled as MAzo) was constructed as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent by a simple and environmentally benign strategy. The MAzo exhibited the attractive features of strong magnetism, outstanding adsorption performance, as well as good reusability. Combining MAzo-based MSPE with high performance liquid-phase chromatography, a simple and effective method was developed for simultaneous determination of four phenylurea herbicides in pear juice and apple juice samples. Under optimized experimental conditions, the method offered low limits of detection of 0.05-0.15 ng mL-1, high recoveries of 86.7-109.2% with RSD less than 7%. Density functional theory calculation indicated that the good adsorption performance of MAzo for PUHs can be ascribed to the strong H-bonding forces and weak π-π interactions. The facile, green, low-cost synthesis method together with the excellent adsorption performance endows the MAzo great application prospect in sample preparation.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Compostos de Fenilureia/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Malus , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Compostos de Fenilureia/isolamento & purificação , Pyrus
9.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127599, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758775

RESUMO

Mercury, particularly methylmercury, can accumulate through food webs and generate high risks for species at higher trophic levels. Inorganic mercury can be methylated into the organic species methylmercury if suitable reducing conditions exist, for example, in hotspots like oilfields. We developed a conceptual model to conduct an ecological risk assessment based on the food web structure of the Shengli oilfield area, China. The model can identify species at risk and elucidate the sources of risks according to their diet. A risk rating criteria was developed based on the food web structure to categorize the different levels of risks for different species. As expected, the results indicate increasing risks for the biota higher in the food web hierarchy. Grasshoppers were mostly at no risk throughout the study area, whereas grubs at southwest were at minimal risks due to local high Hg concentration in the soil. Mantises, which are insect predators, were also at minimal risk. Herbivorous birds with similar feeding habits than grasshoppers were at no risk, but omnivorous and carnivorous birds were at moderate risk. The conceptual model is a useful tool to improve pollution remediation and establish risk control strategies based on ecological risks of the food web rather than just Hg concentrations in the environment.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Animais , China , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1628: 461447, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822986

RESUMO

Waterfowl populations have been decreasing in Europe for the last years and pollution appears to be one of the main factors. This study was conducted to develop a single sensitive and robust analytical method for the monitoring of 2 fungicides, 15 herbicides, 3 insecticides and 24 transformation products in wild bird eggs. One of the major challenges addressed was the characterization of chemicals with large logP range (from -1.9 to 4.8). A total of 11 different extraction parameters were tested in triplicate to optimize the extraction protocol, on generic parameters, buffer addition and use of clean-up steps. Quantification was based on matrix-match approach with hen eggs as reference matrix (34 analytes with r²>0.99). Particular attention was payed to matrix effects (-28% on average), quantification limits (0.5 to 25 ng.g-1 dry mass / 0.2 to 7.5 ng.g-1 fresh mass) and extraction yields (46 to 87% with 25 analytes up to 70%) to ensure the relevance of the method and its compatibility with ultra-trace analysis. It led to a simple solid/liquid low temperature partitioning extraction method followed by LC-MS/MS. Analysis of 29 field samples from 3 waterfowl species revealed that eggs were slightly contaminated with pesticides as only one egg presented a contamination (terbutryn, herbicide, 0.7 ng.g-1) and confirmed the relevance of the method.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Ovos/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Aves , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Europa (Continente) , Praguicidas/química
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140495, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758811

RESUMO

The Inuit of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada) are exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) through their consumption of marine country foods. A temporal trend study was initiated in 1992 to monitor circulating levels of PCBs and Hg in pregnant Inuit women, since the fetus is most at risk of adverse health effects. We set out (1) to describe temporal trends of PCBs and Hg levels in pregnant Nunavik women between 1992 and 2017; (2) to determine the prevalence of participants exceeding the guidance values in 2017; (3) to investigate relations between marine country food intake and contaminant levels over the study period. A total of 559 pregnant women provided a blood sample for contaminant analysis from 1992 to 2017. PCB congeners were quantified in plasma (serum) by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electron capture detection or mass spectrometry (MS). We determined whole blood mercury concentration by cold vapor atomic absorption or inductively-coupled plasma MS. We performed multilevel modeling to assess temporal trends in contaminant levels and relations with marine country food consumption. Concentrations of total PCBs and Hg decreased by 84% and 65% between 1992 and 2017, respectively. Nevertheless, 10% and 22% of women in 2017 exceeded guidance values for PCBs and Hg, respectively. While the decline in marine country food intake is the only factor associated with decreasing Hg levels, other factors may explain the decline in PCB levels. Despite the significant decline in PCBs and Hg levels from 1992 to 2017, exposure to these contaminants is still quite prevalent among pregnant Nunavik women. Most of the decline in Hg exposure is likely due to a shift away from marine country foods to store-bought foods, which is a concern given the cultural and nutritional importance of country foods and the high food insecurity that prevails in Nunavik.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Canadá , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Inuítes , Gravidez , Quebeque
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140613, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human placenta is vulnerable to environmental pollutants, but the associations between exposure to multiple, correlated metals and placental characteristics have not been studied. METHODS: The current study population was derived from the Hangzhou Birth Cohort Study. Whole blood and urine samples were collected from mothers during 20-28 gestational week. The concentrations of 11 metals in blood and 11 metals in urine were evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data on placental characteristics and birth weight were retrieved from medical records. The elastic net (ENET) model combined with unpenalized regression model was employed to estimate the relationship between levels of metals and placental characteristics (placental weight, chorionic disc area, chorionic disc eccentricity, placental thickness, placental-fetal birth weight ratio) and birth weight. Mediation analysis was performed to explore the mediated effect of placenta on the association of prenatal metals exposure with birth weight. RESULTS: Among 512 participants with urine metal levels, the ENET model retained Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) for placental weight. Further unpenalized regression model including Cd and Se simultaneously showed that one-unite increased natural-logarithm (ln)-transformed urine creatinine corrected (CC) Cd levels was associated with reductions in placental weight of -7.2 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -14.0, -0.4). Among 483 participants with blood metal levels, similarly, blood Cd levels were negatively associated with placental weight (ß = -7.5, 95% CI: -17.0, 1.9). Furthermore, mediation analysis demonstrated that urine CC-Cd level was associated with a 21.3 g decrease (95% CI: -42.0, -2.5, p = 0.024) in birth weight through a reduction in placental weight, while blood Cd levels presented a negative association at borderline significance. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a mediation effect of the placenta in the relationship between prenatal Cd exposure and lower birth weight. Additional studies with repeated assessment of exposure and more placental parameters are warranted to confirm this relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais Pesados , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Placenta/química , Gravidez
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 38200-38211, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617820

RESUMO

Honeybees forage a large spatial area around the hives. In addition, honey production takes place in various environments, and polluted environment is often hard to detect. It impacts both human and beehive health, especially through honey which is used for human consumption. Pollen analysis was conducted by a novel approach through a multivariate principal component analysis where it was possible to obtain grouping patterns related to foraging plant species. Samples of honey were acquired from three different environmental production systems: (i) honey from the apiaries in the vicinity of thermal power plant, (ii) apiary of certified organic production and (iii) the conventional production with semi-controlled production. Significantly higher contents of the Pb, Cd and Zn are found in the analysed honeys taken near the thermal power plant compared with those of the other analysed honeys. The origin of Zn, Pb and Cd in the honey is the contaminated forage plants and foraging honeybees. Honey from certified organic production differentiated significantly from other two types of production by the water content, electrical conductivity and total soluble solids and notably it contained significantly less ash and lead. There is a clear advantage of certified organic honey in terms of heavy metal residues as the most prominent pollution factor in honey. Therefore, honey can be used as the broad range environmental pollution indicator, as bees will forage on polluted plants and bring the pollutant from a wide spatial range inside the hive, where it can be traced in the honey. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mel/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Abelhas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Pólen/química
14.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115138, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717635

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetically manufactured chemicals recognized to be toxic, bioaccumulative, and persistent. Previous studies on PFAS exposure and serum lipid levels have mainly focused on individual PFASs; however, the influence of multiple-PFAS exposure on the serum lipid profile remains unclear. This study was performed to evaluate the combined effects of multiple PFASs on serum lipid levels. Based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2011-2014), we first established a linear regression model to estimate the association between single-PFAS exposure and the serum lipid profile. Then, a weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression model and a Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) model were used to evaluate the effects of multiple-PFAS exposure on the serum lipid profile. A mediating effect model was used to assess how albumin mediates these effects. We found that PFASs were significantly associated with the levels of serum lipids, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC). The WQS index was significantly correlated with the levels of HDL (ß: 2.03, 95% CI: 0.74-3.32, P-value = 0.002), LDL (ß: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.07-7.24, P-value = 0.008) and TC (ß: 6.54, 95% CI: 3.00-10.1, P-value < 0.001). In the BKMR analysis, our results demonstrated that the effect of PFASs on serum lipids increased significantly when the concentrations of the PFASs were at their 60th percentiles or above compared to those at their 50th percentile. Mediation analysis showed that albumin mediated the effects of selected PFASs on the levels of serum lipids except for triglycerides (TG). PFAS exposure was correlated with the levels of serum lipids, and this correlation was mediated by albumin. Our results suggest that a comprehensive evaluation of multi-PFAS exposure could better characterize real-life exposure compared with single-PFAS exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos , Teorema de Bayes , Lipídeos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Albumina Sérica
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110997, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684518

RESUMO

A novel study on biodegradation of 30 mg L-1 of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) mixture (celecoxib, diclofenac and ibuprofen) by two wood-rot fungi; Ganoderma applanatum (GA) and Laetiporus sulphureus (LS) was investigated for 72 h. The removal efficiency of celecoxib, diclofenac and ibuprofen were 98, 96 and 95% by the fungal consortium (GA + LS). Although, both GA and LS exhibited low removal efficiency (61 and 73% respectively) on NSAIDs. However, 99.5% degradation of the drug mixture (NSAIDs) was achieved on the addition of the fungal consortium (GA + LS) to the experimental set-up. Overall, LS exhibited higher degradation efficiency; 92, 87, 79% on celecoxib, diclofenac and ibuprofen than GA with 89, 80 and 66% respectively. Enzyme analyses revealed significant induction of 201, 180 and 135% in laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) by the fungal consortium during degradation of the NSAIDs respectively. The experimental data showed the best goodness of fit when subjected to Langmuir (R2 = 0.980) and Temkin (R2 = 0.979) isotherm models which suggests monolayer and heterogeneous nature exhibited by the mycelia during interactions with NSAIDs. The degradation mechanism followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.987) indicating the strong influence of fungal biomass in the degradation of NSAIDs. Furthermore, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses confirmed the degraded metabolic states of the NSAIDs after treatment with GA, LS and consortium (GA + LS). Hence, the complete removal of NSAIDs is best achieved in an economical and eco-friendly way with the use of fungi consortium.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ganoderma/enzimologia , Ganoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lignina/metabolismo , Madeira/microbiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Lacase/biossíntese , Modelos Biológicos , Peroxidases/biossíntese
16.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 271-275, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651990

RESUMO

Lead exposure is associated with impaired neurodevelopment among children. House dust is recognized as one of the important secondary sources of lead exposure in children. We assessed the relationship between lead contamination in house dust and blood lead level in Pakistani children. We investigated lead contamination in house dust samples collected from 59 houses in Karachi, Pakistan. The lead content of house dust in Pakistan was relatively higher than that reported in previous studies. Weekly lead intakes from house dust were considerably higher among Pakistani children. In Pakistani children, 12% (7 of 58) showed lead intake values greater than the previous Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of lead. A correlation (Pearson's correlation = 0.37) was found between weekly lead intake from house dust and blood lead level in Pakistani children. In addition, blood lead levels were significantly higher in children with high lead intakes than in children with low and medium lead intakes. Thus, house dust is an important source of lead exposure in Pakistani children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Chumbo/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paquistão
17.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127401, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682128

RESUMO

Fecal matter is a useful noninvasive/nondestructive media for evaluating contaminants in wildlife, as residues therein have been observed to correlate with body burdens. Conservation detection dog-handler teams can be used to optimize the acquisition of fecal samples. To build on previous work, sentinel-species' (i.e. mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lontra canadensis)) fecal matter was opportunistically located by a detection dog team along the tri-river system of Missoula, Montana, USA. Sediments were also collected. Samples were used to develop an analytical method from fecal matter to determine habitat exposure to the brominated flame-retardants (BFRs): polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), 2-ethylhexyl 2, 3, 4, 5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), di (2-ethylhexyl)-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). Sediments contained PBDEs (BDE-99 and BDE-209) and EH-TBB at detection rates of 67%, 33% and 67%, respectively. BDE-99, -209 and EH-TBB were also detected in mink and otter feces, at rates of 81%, 25% and 81%, respectively; plus BEH-TEBP at 13%. BFR levels correlated positively with human population density except along the lower Bitterroot River, where BDE-209 sediment and feces levels exceeded other sites by several orders of magnitude. Fecal matter body burden estimates indicated marginal PBDE exposure. However, exposure to their replacements, EH-TBB and BEH-TEBP, were at levels that may adversely affect healthy Mustelidae populations. Proof-of-concept was achieved; validation results were within established standards for the development of analytical methods. The established application of conservation dog-handler teams to facilitate the collection of fecal matter for BFR analysis represents a valuable, but currently underutilized environmental monitoring tool.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Animais , Cães , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Halogenação , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Montana , Rios
18.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127619, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683027

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination poses considerable threats to various ecosystems, yet little is known about the assembly and adaptation of microbial communities at sites with combined heavy metal(loid) pollution. Here, we examined metal(loid) pollutants and bacterial communities in three zones (Zones Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ) of an abandoned sewage reservoir with different usage years. The contamination level of multiple metal(loid)s was higher in Zone Ⅰ than in the other zones, and arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), tin (Sn), molybdenum (Mo), antimony (Sb), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), thallium (Tl), and nickel (Ni) were the major contaminants (pollution load index > 1). Bioavailable forms of titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), Sn, and cobalt (Co) played essential roles in shaping the microbial structure, and physicochemical properties, especially organic matter (OM) and pH, also mediated the microbial diversity and composition in the metal(loid) contaminated zones. Metal-microbe interactions and heatmap analysis revealed that the bioavailability of metal(loid)s promoted the niche partitioning of microbial species. Metal-resistant species were abundant in Zone Ⅰ that had the highest metal-contaminated level, whereas metal-sensitive species prevailed in Zone Ⅲ that had the lowest pollution level. The bioavailable metal(loid)s rather than physicochemical and spatial variables explained a larger portion of the variance in the microbial community, and the homogeneous selection was the dominant ecological process driving the assembly of the microbial community. Overall, our study highlighted the importance of metal(loid) bioavailability in shaping microbial structure, future bioremediation, and environmental management of metal(loid) contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Metaloides/análise , Microbiota , Arsênico/análise , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Interações Microbianas , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127634, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683032

RESUMO

Endosulfan I, II, and sulfate were detected in the atmosphere and surface seawater on a global scale during three Chinese National Arctic-Antarctic Research Expeditions in 2016 and 2017. Concentrations of the three species displayed seasonal variations in seawater in the Northern Hemisphere but remained steadily low on Antarctic coasts. Endosulfan sulfate was predominant in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas isomer I was more abundant in the Southern Hemisphere. Endosulfan was detected in the atmosphere over the western Pacific Ocean but rarely in the central Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. Its concentration in seawater increased with increasing latitude in the Southern Ocean. Although fugacity ratios indicate a strong potential for deposition of endosulfan, air-seawater exchange may be slow, as suggested by the large differences between atmospheric and seawater concentrations. Ocean current endosulfan loads varied markedly between seasons. Three-day backward trajectories indicate that Northeast Asia is the major source of atmospheric endosulfan in the western Pacific Ocean, whereas the central Arctic and North Atlantic oceans are affected more by local air masses.


Assuntos
Endossulfano/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Regiões Árticas , Oceano Atlântico , Atmosfera/química , Endossulfano/análogos & derivados , Oceano Pacífico , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127605, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688319

RESUMO

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors - pentachlorophenol (PCP) and triclosan (TCS), constitute a group of persistent, highly toxic multimedia pollutants, being easily transported via atmosphere over long distances, thus particularly threatening to the polar areas. The global fate of PCDD/Fs is temperature-dependent, and their transfer and immobilization at the Poles are described by the grasshopper effect and the cold trap phenomenon. The aim of this interdisciplinary study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the present state of pollution of Arctic and Antarctic marine sediments by PCP and TCS along with determination of PCDD/Fs contamination by immunoassay. Sediments from 20 stations were collected during two polar expeditions (2013-2016). The study area covered Hornsund Fjord and the southwest coast of Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Arctic) - Skodde Bay, Nottingham Bay, Isbjørnhamna Bay and Admiralty Bay (Antarctica) - Suszczewski Cove, Halfmoon Cove and Herve Cove. The studied contaminants were quantified in 60% of the collected sediments, with almost half exceeding the environmentally safe levels according European regulations and worldwide literature. The determined levels of PCP, TCS and PCDD/F in Arctic and Antarctic sediments were to be comparable to those reported in the southern Baltic Sea located in the intense industrialized mid-latitudes. Maximum concentrations were observed in the vicinity of retreating, marine terminating glaciers. This observation confirms reemission of POPs into the global cycle with respect to the worldwide ocean warming. The results of this study should gain attention of the international and regional environmental agencies as well as the main chlorine production decision makers.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Benzofuranos/análise , Mudança Climática , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas , Poluição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Pentaclorofenol
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA