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1.
Anal Chem ; 93(24): 8656-8662, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110153

RESUMO

Owing to its unique chemical structure, natural pores, high structure defects, good surface hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, and favorable electrical conductivity, nitrogen-doped graphdiyne (NGDY) has been attracting attention in the application of electrochemical sensing. Taking advantage of these fascinating electrochemical properties, for the first time, two types of electrochemical enzymatic biosensors were fabricated for the respective detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and phenols based on the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase or tyrosinase with NGDY. Results revealed that the sensitivities of the NGDY-based enzymatic biosensors were almost twice higher than that of the matching biosensor in the absence of NGDY, proving that NGDY plays a vital role in immobilizing the enzymes and improving the performance of the fabricated biosensors. The effects of nitrogen doping on improving the biosensing performance were studied in depth. Graphitic N atoms can enhance the electrical conductivity, while imine N and pyridinic N can help to adsorb and accumulate the substance molecules to the electrode surface, all of which contribute to the significantly improved performance. Furthermore, these two types of biosensors also demonstrated excellent reproducibility, high stability, and good recovery rate in real environmental samples, which showed a valuable way for the rapid detection of OPs and phenols in the environment. With these excellent performances, it is strongly anticipated that NGDY has tremendous potential to be applied to many other biomedical and environmental fields.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Poluentes Ambientais , Grafite , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Nitrogênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073581

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a common plasticizer, has been detected in breast milk in many countries; however, whether phthalate metabolite concentration and the detection rate in breast milk change postpartum is still unknown. We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in breast milk in the first 6 months postpartum in women enrolled in the E-Da hospital from January to July 2017. A total of 56 breastfeeding mothers and 66 samples were included in this study. We analyzed the samples' concentration of eight phthalate metabolites using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was significantly higher in the first month, and then decreased over time. The detection rate of ono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) was low in the first month and then increased over time. Compared with a previous study published in 2011, the levels of MEHP and MiBP in breast milk were much lower in the present study, suggesting an increased awareness of the health risks of phthalate exposure after a food scandal occurred in Taiwan. This study provides information for evaluating newborns' exposure to different kinds of phthalate through human milk in the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Período Pós-Parto , Taiwan
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462311, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146960

RESUMO

Compound-specific isotope analysis of chlorine (CSIA-Cl) is a practicable and high-performance approach for revelation of transformation processes and source identification of chlorinated organic pollutants. This study conducted CSIA-Cl for typical polychlorinated organic pollutants using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GCHRMS) with an alternate injection mode using perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) as model analytes. PCE and TCE standards from two manufacturers were employed for method development, and chlorine isotope ratio calculation schemes were evaluated by experiment and numerical simulation. The achieved precision (standard deviation of isotope ratios) was up to 0.21‰ for PCE and 0.43‰ for TCE. The limits of detection for CSIA-Cl of were 0.05 µg/mL (0.05 ng on column), and the linearities were 0.05-1 µg/mL. Two isotope ratio calculation schemes, i.e., one using complete molecular isotopologues and another using the first pair of neighboring chlorine isotopologues of each analyte, were evaluated in terms of accuracy and precision. The complete-isotopologue scheme showed evidently higher precision and was more competent to reflect trueness than the isotopologue-pair scheme and the two schemes could present completely different outcomes. The method has been successfully applied to PCE and TCE reagents from different suppliers, a trichloromethane reagent, and a plastic material. The relative isotope ratio variations (Δ37Cl) of PCE and TCE in the reagents and plastic material were from -1.84±0.7‰ to 15.12±0.85‰. The analytes from different sources could mostly be discerned from each other by chlorine isotope ratios. This study will be conducive to transformation process elucidation and source identification of for PCE and TCE, and facilitate CSIA-Cl using GC-MS for more polychlorinated organic pollutants, particularly in selection and optimization of isotope ratio calculation schemes.


Assuntos
Cloro/análise , Simulação por Computador , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Halogenação , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Indicadores e Reagentes , Isótopos , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Plásticos/química , Padrões de Referência , Tricloroetileno/análise , Tricloroetileno/química
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8691-8699, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100289

RESUMO

Nontarget screening studies have recently revealed the accumulation of typically unmonitored organohalogen compounds (OHCs) in various marine animals, but information for terrestrial food chains is still lacking. This study investigated the accumulation profiles of known and unknown OHCs in the liver of representative wild bird specimens from Osaka, Japan using nontarget analysis based on two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A large number of unmonitored OHCs were identified, including anthropogenic contaminants and marine halogenated natural products (HNPs), and their accumulation profiles were considered to be influenced by terrestrial and brackish water-based diets. Anthropogenic OHCs were highly accumulated in terrestrial predator species (peregrine falcon, hawks, and black kite), and some unmonitored highly chlorinated contaminants reached the levels of microgram per gram lipid in the liver, i.e., C10-/C15-based chlordane related compounds (CHLs) and their epoxides, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) homologues, and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs). In contrast, HNPs were accumulated at higher levels in piscivorous birds (gray heron and common cormorant). Considering the enrichment of the unmonitored C10-/C15-based CHLs, PCTs, and DDE homologues relative to structurally similar persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in high trophic-level species such as raptors, further studies are needed to elucidate their environmental levels, behavior in terrestrial food chains, and ecotoxicological impacts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Japão , Fígado/química
5.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062889

RESUMO

The pollution of arable lands and water with petroleum-derived products is still a valid problem, mainly due the extensive works aimed to improve their production technology to reduce fuel consumption and protect engines. An example of the upgraded fuels is the BP 98 unleaded petrol with Active technology. A pot experiment was carried out in which Eutric Cambisol soil was polluted with petrol to determine its effect on the microbiological and biochemical properties of this soil. Analyses were carried out to determine soil microbiome composition-with the incubation and metagenomic methods, the activity of seven enzymes, and cocksfoot effect on hydrocarbon degradation. The following indices were determined: colony development index (CD); ecophysiological diversity index (EP); index of cocksfoot effect on soil microorganisms and enzymes (IFG); index of petrol effect on soil microorganisms and enzymes (IFP); index of the resistance of microorganisms, enzymes, and cocksfoot to soil pollution with petrol (RS); Shannon-Weaver's index of bacterial taxa diversity (H); and Shannon-Weaver's index of hydrocarbon degradation (IDH). The soil pollution with petrol was found to increase population numbers of bacteria and fungi, and Protebacteria phylum abundance as well as to decrease the abundance of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria phyla. The cultivation of cocksfoot on the petrol-polluted soil had an especially beneficial effect mainly on the bacteria belonging to the Ramlibacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Mycoplana, and Sphingobium genera. The least susceptible to the soil pollution with petrol and cocksfoot cultivation were the bacteria of the following genera: Kaistobacter, Rhodoplanes, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus, Phenylobacterium, and Terracoccus. Cocksfoot proved effective in the phytoremediation of petrol-polluted soil, as it accelerated hydrocarbon degradation and increased the genetic diversity of bacteria. It additionally enhanced the activities of soil enzymes.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Actinomycetales/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição por Petróleo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gasolina , Hidrocarbonetos , Metagenoma , Microbiota
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(6): 792-796, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139822

RESUMO

Concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) in 26 serum samples of the residents from Hubei Province were analyzed via high-resolution gas chromatograph tandem high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS) method. Total concentrations of twelve dl-PCBs (Σdl-PCBs) were in range of 366.30-4 945.77 pg/g fat, with the mean value (2 093.76 pg/g fat), and PCB 118 was the predominant congener. For six ndl-PCBs, total concentrations (Σndl-PCBs) were in range of 2 671.32-20 626.26 pg/g fat (mean 12 505.45 pg/g fat), and PCB 153 was the predominant congener. Mean concentration of Σdl-PCBs were significantly and positively associated with age (rs=0.574, P=0.002). The mean World Health Organization toxicity equivalent (WHO-TEQ) of dl-PCBs (ΣTEQdl-PCBs) were range from 0.07 to 8.69 pg/g fat.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dioxinas/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130479, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126691

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread, persistent in the environment, and classified as global pollutants. Their presence has been confirmed in various types of food which adversely affect human health when consumed in sufficient amounts. Although milk has advantageous nutritional qualities and there are health benefits associated with its consumption, it could also contain toxic PBDEs. The aim of the study was the determination of the concentrations of ten congeners (BDE -28, -47, -49, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, -183, and 209) in cow's, sheep's, and goat's milk obtained from Polish farms and their determination in infant formula. A total of 103 samples of raw milk and infant formula were tested using an accredited high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method. PBDEs were detected in all analyzed samples, the highest concentration being found in sheep's milk (11.9 ng g-1 fat), and cow's milk containing the least contamination. BDE-209 makes the predominant contribution to the sum of the ten congeners, constituting at least 38%. The profiles of PBDEs were dependent on the milk type and the differences between its varieties are discussed. The highest median concentration of the sum of ten PBDEs (0.473 ng g-1 fat) was determined in infant formula, which was identified as an important source of infants' exposure (5.48 ng kg-1 b.w. day-1 calculated based on P95 concentration). Milk is a source of PBDE in the diet; however, considered in isolation its consumption does not pose a risk to either adults' or children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Animais , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Fórmulas Infantis , Leite Humano/química , Medição de Risco
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4535-4550, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076715

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), a new sort of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are globally prevalent and recalcitrant toxic environmental pollutants. HBCDs have been found in many environmental media and even in the human body, leading to serious health concerns. HBCDs are biodegradable in the environment. By now, dozens of bacteria have been discovered with the ability to transform HBCDs. Microbial debromination of HBCDs is via HBr-elimination, HBr-dihaloelimination, and hydrolytic debromination. Biotic transformation of HBCDs yields many hydroxylated and lower brominated compounds which lack assessment of ecological toxicity. Bioremediation of HBCD pollution has only been applied in the laboratory. Here, we review the current knowledge about microbial debromination of HBCDs, aiming to promote the bioremediation applied in HBCD contaminated sites. KEY POINTS: • Microbial debromination of HBCDs is via hydrolytic debromination, HBr-elimination, and HBr-dihaloelimination. • Newly occurred halogenated contaminants such as HBCDs hitch the degradation pathway tamed by previously discharged anthropogenic organohalides. • Strategy that combines bioaugmentation with phytoremediation for bioremediation of HBCD pollution is promising.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067438

RESUMO

Human biomonitoring (HBM) monitors levels of environmental pollutants in human samples, which often is a topic of concern for residents near industrially contaminated sites (ICSs). Around an ICS area in Menen (Belgium), including a (former) municipal waste incinerator and a metal recovery plant, increasing environmental concentrations of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed, causing growing concern among residents and authorities. The local community succeeded in convincing the responsible authorities to investigate the problem and offer research funding. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in two consecutive HBM studies (2002-2006 and 2010-2011), in the context of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS), as well as in soil and locally produced food. Meanwhile, local authorities discouraged consumption of locally produced food in a delineated area of higher exposure risk. Ultimately, HBM and environmental data enabled tailored dietary recommendations. This article demonstrates the usefulness of HBM in documenting the body burdens of residents near the ICS, identifying exposure routes, evaluating remediating actions and providing information for tailored policy strategies aiding to further exposure reduction. It also highlights the role of the local stakeholders as an example of community-based participatory research and how such an approach can create societal support for research and policy.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Bélgica , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Políticas , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065793

RESUMO

The global use of psychopharmaceuticals such as antidepressants has been steadily increasing. However, the environmental consequences of increased use are rarely considered by medical professionals. Worldwide monitoring efforts have shown that pharmaceuticals are amongst the multitude of anthropogenic pollutants found in our waterways, where excretion via urine and feces is thought to be the primary mode of pharmaceutical contamination. Despite the lack of clarity surrounding the effects of the unintentional exposure to these chemicals, most notably in babies and in developing fetuses, the US Environmental Protection Agency does not currently regulate any psychopharmaceuticals in drinking water. As the underlying reasons for the increased incidence of mental illness-particularly in young children and adolescents-are poorly understood, the potential effects of unintentional exposure warrant more attention. Thus, although links between environmental contamination and physiological and behavioral changes in wildlife species-most notably in fish-have been used by ecologists and wildlife biologists to drive conservation policy and management practices, we hypothesize that this knowledge may be underutilized by medical professionals. In order to test this hypothesis, we created a hierarchically-organized citation network built around a highly-cited "parent" article to explore connections between aquatic toxicology and medical fields related to neurodevelopment. As suspected, we observed that studies in medical fields such as developmental neuroscience, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and psychiatry cite very few to no papers in the aquatic sciences. Our results underscore the need for increased transdisciplinary communication and information exchange between the aquatic sciences and medical fields.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adolescente , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes , Humanos , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(11): 7521-7530, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983718

RESUMO

Increasing pollution in the Arctic poses challenges in terms of geographical and ecological monitoring. The Baffin Bay-Davis Strait (BBDS) region in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is of particular concern due to the potential for increased shipping traffic and oil exploration. However, data on background contaminants associated with oil exploration/spills/natural seeps (e.g., polycyclic aromatic compounds [PAC]) and measures of potential effects for Arctic birds are limited. We developed a toxicogenomics approach to investigate the background gene expression profiles for two Arctic-breeding seabirds, the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) and the black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), which will aid effects-based monitoring efforts. Chemical burdens (53 PACs and 5 trace elements) and transcriptomic profiles (31 genes using a ToxChip PCR array) were examined in liver tissues (n = 30) of each species collected from the Qaqulluit and Akpait National Wildlife Areas in the BBDS region. While chemical and transcriptomic profiles demonstrated low variability across individuals for each species, gene expression signatures were able to distinguish guillemots collected from two distinct colonies. This toxicogenomics approach provides benchmark data for two Arctic seabirds and is promising for future monitoring efforts and strategic environmental assessments in this sensitive ecosystem and areas elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic that are undergoing change.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Poluentes Ambientais , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Aves , Cruzamento , Canadá , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112375, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051662

RESUMO

129 Shenzhen residents' hair samples were collected and the metal/metalloid concentrations of Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Ni were detected. Meanwhile, the relationships between metal/metalloid contents in human hair and gender, age, seafood diet habit, smoking habit, as well as the housing type (dwelling environment) were analyzed. Results showed that the average content of Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Ni in human hair of Shenzhen residents was 0.76 ± 0.96, 0.10 ± 0.04, 5.25 ± 4.88, 0.25 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31, 13.84 ± 3.67, 2.82 ± 2.01, 196.90 ± 145.01, 12.20 ± 5.10 and 0.34 ± 0.32 µg/g, respectively. Compared with other regions at home and abroad, most metal/metalloids in Shenzhen residents were at a moderate level, and the highly toxic elements (i.e. Pb, Cd, As and Hg) didn't exceed the upper limit of normal values in China. Statistical analysis showed that the young male people contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) level of Pb (in age group of 20-30 years old) and Fe (in age group of 20-40 years old) in hair than the female people. Smokers had significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of Cd (0.35 µg/g) but lower level of Zn (101.24 µg/g) than non-smokers (Cd: 0.17 µg/g; Zn: 252.63 µg/g). Hg and Pb contents in hair of Shenzhen people were positively related with the frequencies of seafood consumption and the age, respectively. Moreover, residents lived in private buildings (well decorated house) accumulated significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of Pb, Cr, Fe and Ni as compared with those lived in public rental house and village house (no decoration or simple decoration), suggesting that decoration material was also an important way for human exposure to heavy metals.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cabelo/química , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China , Cidades , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alimentos Marinhos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112373, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058675

RESUMO

The electronic conductivity of the metal oxides is generally increased by hybridization of highly conductive carbon supportive materials. In this present work, we have demonstrated a novel one-pot preparation of cerium niobate (CeNbO4) nanoparticles embedded with graphene oxide (GO/CeNbO4) composite, for ultrasensitive detection of the photographic developing agent, metol (MTL). The as-prepared GO/CeNbO4 was analyzed by various characterization techniques. The intensive characterization techniques were used to affirm the detailed structural moiety, size, morphology, and surface area of GO/CeNbO4. The GO/CeNbO4 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) affords a superior electrocatalytic activity toward MTL. The obtained amperometric response on the GO/CeNbO4/GCE holding an extremely low level detection of 10 nM and superior sensitivity of 10.97 µA µM-1 cm-2 toward MTL detection. Besides, the GO/CeNbO4/GCE also gives excellent selectivity, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility. We achieved excellent recovery results in real photographic solution and river water samples analysis with great accuracy. This work offers a novel insight into the growth of the carbon-based niobate family with electrochemical sensor applications.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Nanocompostos/química , Rios/química , Sulfatos/análise , Carbono/química , Catálise , Cério/química , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Indústrias , Nanopartículas/química , Nióbio/química , Óxidos/química , Compostos de Oxigênio/química , Fotografação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soluções , Água/química
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112400, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957494

RESUMO

Higher levels of persistent pollutants (Σ16PCB, Σ6PBDE, ΣHCH, ΣDDT, ΣCHL) were detected in fresh eggs of Common Terns Sterna hirundo from Rockabill Island near Dublin (Ireland's industrialised capital city) compared to Common and Arctic Terns S. paradisaea from Ireland's west coast. Intra-clutch variation of pollutant levels in Common Terns was shown to be low, providing further evidence that random sampling of one egg may be an appropriate sampling strategy. Significant differences in pollutant concentrations were detected between fresh and abandoned eggs on Rockabill. However, abandoned eggs can still provide a useful approximation of pollutants in bird eggs if non-destructive sampling is preferred. Levels of p,p' -DDE in tern eggs have decreased over time according to this study, in concurrence with worldwide trends. Results in this study fall below toxicological thresholds for birds and OSPARs EcoQO thresholds set for Common Tern eggs, except for mercury and HCH in the west coast.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Poluentes Ambientais , Mercúrio , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Irlanda , Ilhas , Mercúrio/análise
15.
Environ Res ; 198: 111224, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933496

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) represent a concern for the environment and human health due to their persistence and toxicity. Exposure in Slovenia is geographically differentiated because the country, as part of former Yugoslavia, has a history of industry and regional contamination and is - at the same time - known for its clean nature. The PCB pollution of the Krupa River drew the public's attention to the chemical burden of Slovenians, and the demand for studies has been rising since. We assessed the exposure of men (n = 548) and primiparous women (n = 536) to POPs in 12 regions of Slovenia as well as exposure pathways via questionnaires. Most PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs could be determined in pooled samples of maternal milk at low concentrations (1.57 pg/gTEQ, 1.47 pg/gTEQ, and 1076 pg/g fat, respectively), but a much lower number of compounds could be measured above the LOQ in pooled men's plasma samples (PCDD/Fs 0.08 pg/gTEQ, PCBs 0.007 pg/gTEQ, ΣPBDE 920 pg/g), and only HCB, p,p'-DDE, ΣDDT, and the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners 138, 153, and 180 could be determined in individual samples of milk (concentration range 5-60 ng/g fat). In individual samples of men's serum, only p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB were detected at concentrations of 0.25 ng/g and 0.3 ng/g, respectively. Nonetheless, we were able to differentiate between polluted and unpolluted areas on a national level, with higher exposure levels in the PCB polluted region of Bela Krajina, the industrial region Zasavje, and the capital, Ljubljana. Despite low concentrations, determinants of exposure, such as age, proximity to roads, old building materials, private water supplies, and consumption of alcohol, fish, meat, and eggs that have previously been observed only at higher levels could still be identified. Furthermore, levels of PCBs and PBDEs were highly correlated suggesting common exposure sources and pathways, whereas PCDD/Fs were correlated to a lesser extent. The calculated ratio between DDT and DDE in maternal milk samples was decreasing with the year of sampling, suggesting no ongoing exposure to DDT. The study findings suggest low exposure of men and lactating women to legacy pollutants in Slovenia, which gave rise to the hypothesis that Slovenia's geographical location might provide shelter from the long-range transport of POPs via Westerly winds. This hypothesis remains to be confirmed within future studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animais , Dibenzofuranos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Eslovênia
16.
ACS Sens ; 6(5): 1933-1939, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973468

RESUMO

Aromatics such as phenols, benzene, and toluene are carcinogenic xenobiotics which are known to pollute water resources. By employing synthetic biology approaches combined with a structure-guided design, we created a tunable array of whole-cell biosensors (WCBs). The MopR genetic system that has the natural ability to sense and degrade phenol was adapted to detect phenol down to ∼1 ppb, making this sensor capable of directly detecting phenol in permissible limits in drinking water. Importantly, by using a single WCB design, we engineered mutations into the MopR gene that enabled generation of a battery of sensors for a wide array of pollutants. The engineered WCBs were able to sense inert compounds like benzene and xylene which lack active functional groups, without any loss in sensitivity. Overall, this universal programmable biosensor platform can be used to create WCBs that can be deployed on field for rapid testing and screening of suitable drinking water sources.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Água Potável , Poluentes Ambientais , Benzeno/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Xilenos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147550, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991912

RESUMO

Chemical industries and oil refineries are known emission sources of environmental contaminants, such as metals/metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), among others. Based on the toxicological potential of these pollutants, harmful health effects can be expected for the population living near these facilities. One of the largest chemical/petrochemical complexes in Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). In the last two decades, a number of investigations aimed at assessing the environmental impact of air pollutants potentially emitted by this industrial complex have been carried out. The present paper is a review of the available scientific information on the levels of air pollutants related with the activities of this chemical/petrochemical complex. Although there are currently some data on the environmental burdens of metals/metalloids, PAHs, VOCs and PCDD/Fs, there is an evident lack of specific biological monitoring studies on human health. Taking into account the amount of chemicals released to air and their toxicity, it is essential to perform an in-depth analysis of the current health status of the population living in Tarragona County.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Espanha
18.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(5): 490-502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019462

RESUMO

Obsolete organochlorine pesticides (OSPs) are currently prohibited as persistent organic pollutants that contaminate the environment. If undisposed, they continue to pollute soil and water, to accumulate in the food chain and to harm plants, animals and the human body. The aim of the study was to assess water and soil pollution around the storehouses of undisposed, banned OSPs and their possible genotoxic effect. The storehouses in four villages near Almaty, Kazakhstan were investigated. Chemical analysis confirmed contamination of water and soil around storehouses with OSPs. The genotoxic effect of water and soil samples was evaluated using model objects: S.typhymurium, D.melanogaster, sheep lymphocytes cultures and human lymphocytes cultures. It was found that water and soil samples caused mutagenic effect in all model systems. They increased the frequency of revertants in Salmonella, the frequency of lethal mutations in Drosophila chromosomes, and the frequency of chromosome aberrations in cultures of human and sheep lymphocytes. Although a genotoxic effect was demonstrated for each of these models, various models showed different sensitivity to the effects of pesticides and they varied degree of response. The association between the total content of OCPs in soil and the level of mutations for different model systems was discovered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Mutagênicos/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Cazaquistão , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
19.
Talanta ; 231: 122377, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965041

RESUMO

Investigation on the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in aquatic organisms is of great importance for exploring the biological toxicity and health risks of environmental pollutants. In this study, a liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) method was developed for rapid and in situ analysis of the spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in zebrafish. By combining the high-precision automated moving platform of LESA device and the high-resolution MS, quantitative analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in zebrafish tissue section were easily achieved. A tissue-specific ionization efficiency factor (TSF) strategy was also proposed to correct the matrix effect in different parts of zebrafish tissue. By using the developed method, high sensitive and efficient imaging of PFOA and PFOS in zebrafish tissue was achieved, and the distributions of PFOA and PFOS in descending order were gills, organs, roes, pelvic fin, muscle, and brain. The experimental results demonstrated that the coupling of LESA-MS method with TFS strategy is an efficient and reliable approach for monitoring the content distribution of environmental pollutants in biological tissues.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Caprilatos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117007, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845286

RESUMO

Although recent epidemiologic studies have focused on some of the health effects of perfluoroalkyl substance (PFASs) exposure in humans, the associations between PFASs exposure and the lipidome in children are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess lipid changes in children to understand possible molecular events of environmental PFASs exposure and suggest potential health effects. A total of 290 Taiwanese children (8-10 years old) were included in this study. Thirteen PFASs were analyzed in their serum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). MS-based lipidomic approaches were applied to examine lipid patterns in the serum of children exposed to different levels of PFASs. LC coupling with triple quadrupole MS technology was conducted to analyze phosphorylcholine-containing lipids. Multivariate analyses, such as partial least squares analysis along with univariate analyses, including multiple linear regression, were used to analyze associations between s exposure and unique lipid patterns. Our results showed that different lipid patterns were discovered in children exposed to different levels of specific PFASs, such as PFTrDA, PFOS, and PFDA. These changes in lipid levels may be involved in hepatic lipid metabolism, metabolic disorders, and PFASs-membrane interactions. This study showed that lipidomics is a powerful approach to identify critical PFASs that cause metabolite perturbation in the serum of children and suggest possible adverse health effects of these chemicals in children.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Lipídeos
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