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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134118, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494415

RESUMO

The Greenlandic population has some of the highest levels of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs) globally. Studies have previously found POPs to be linked with disturbance of child development, immune function and reproductive abilities. We investigated the associations between serum POP levels of pregnant women in Greenland and their infant's birth weight, length, head circumference and gestational age (GA) at birth. Pregnant Greenlandic women (n = 504) were enrolled during pregnancy and serum levels of the lipophilic POPs (Organochlorine pesticides, Polychlorinated biphenyls and Polybrominated diphenyl ethers) and the amphiphilic POPs, Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), were measured. We analysed the associations between maternal serum levels of POPs and birth weight, length, head circumference and GA using linear regression analysis. We found significant inverse associations between Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and birth weight (adjusted ß = -119 g, 95% CI: -201; -36), birth length (adjusted ß = -0.37 cm, 95% CI: -0.76; 0.02, borderline significant) and head circumference (adjusted ß = -0.35 cm, 95% CI: -0.59; -0.10) and a positive association with GA (adjusted ß = 0.45 week, 95% CI: 0.17; 0.74). For the lipophilic POPs, we found an overall trend of inverse associations to foetal growth indices. In conclusion, we found that the amphiphilic PFOA had a significant inversely association with foetal growth indices, whereas GA was positively associated. The data indicate that POPs have a negative effect on foetal growth.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Groenlândia/epidemiologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109879, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677567

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental pollutant. Maternal Cd exposure throughout pregnancy caused fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, the pivotal time window of Cd-evoked FGR and its mechanism are unknown. Here, we will establish a murine model to explore the effects of maternal Cd exposure at different stages of gestation on fetal growth and placental progesterone biosynthesis. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups. For Cd groups, mice were given with CdCl2 (150 mg/L) through drinking water at early (GD0-GD6), middle (GD7-GD12) and late (GD13-GD17) gestation, respectively. The controls received reverses osmosis (RO) water. Results showed that maternal cadmium exposure only in late gestation lowered fetal weight and length. Correspondingly, placental Cd level in late gestational Cd exposure is the highest among three different gestational stages. Although gestational Cd exposure had few adverse effects in the weight and diameter of mouse placenta, placental vascular development, as determined by H&E staining and cluster of differentiation-34 (CD-34) immunostaining, was impaired in mice exposed to Cd during late pregnancy. Additionally, late gestational exposure to cadmium markedly reduced progesterone level in maternal serum and placenta. In line, the expression of key progesterone synthetases, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3ß-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), was obviously downregulated in placenta from mice was exposed Cd during late pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal Cd exposure during late pregnancy, but not early and middle pregnancy, induces fetal growth restriction partially via inhibiting placental progesterone synthesis.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/biossíntese , Animais , Cádmio/sangue , Regulação para Baixo , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Camundongos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Progesterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 657-663, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892691

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to environmental chemicals with hormonal properties, also called endocrine disrupting chemicals, may be involved in the occurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). Such exposure may also influence the treatment outcome as it is still present at the time of diagnosis, the beginning of therapy, and beyond. We followed 326 men in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment of localized PCa. We analyzed the relationship between exposure to the estrogenic chlordecone, the antiandrogenic dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, the main metabolite of the insecticide DDT), and the nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) with mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties and the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after surgery. After a median follow-up of 6.1 years after surgery, we found a significant increase in the risk of BCR, with increasing plasma chlordecone concentration (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.39-4.56 for the highest vs. lowest quartile of exposure; p trend = 0.002). We found no associations for DDE or PCB-135. These results shown that exposure to environmental estrogens may negatively influence the outcome of PCa treatment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Clordecona/efeitos adversos , Clordecona/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Seguimentos , Guadalupe , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/sangue , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 839-849, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001807

RESUMO

Specific organochlorines (OCs) have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with varying degrees of evidence. These associations have not been evaluated in Asia, where the high exposure and historical environmental contamination of certain OC pesticides (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH]) are different from Western populations. We evaluated NHL risk and prediagnostic blood levels of OC pesticides/metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in a case-control study of 167 NHL cases and 167 controls nested within three prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze lipid-adjusted OC levels and NHL risk. Median levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the primary DDT metabolite, and ß-HCH were up to 12 and 65 times higher, respectively, in samples from the Asian cohorts compared to several cohorts in the United States and Norway. An increased risk of NHL was observed among those with higher ß-HCH levels both overall (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.0-3.2; ptrend = 0.049) and after excluding cases diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.1-3.9; ptrend = 0.03), and the association was highly consistent across the three cohorts. No significant associations were observed for other OCs, including p,p'-DDE. Our findings provide support for an association between ß-HCH blood levels and NHL risk. This is a concern because substantial quantities of persistent, toxic residues of HCH are present in the environment worldwide. Although there is some evidence that DDT is associated with NHL, our findings for p,p'-DDE do not support an association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134309, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783457

RESUMO

Chemical pollution from industrial sources is one of the main problems affecting the environment. In urban areas, the emission of toxic gases and particulates to the atmosphere can damage human health. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most ecotoxic metals among these pollutants, even at low concentrations. In this study, environmental exposure to Cd was evaluated from the Cd blood levels (CdB) of the human populations living in two Amazonian districts. The first was Bairro Industrial (BIN), which is located next to the industrial complex in Barcarena City, while the second was Vila do Beja (VBJ), a control group located in the farthest area from industrial activities in Abaetetuba City. Sectional and comparative studies were applied for both districts. Sampling (N = 469) occurred in 2012 and 2013. Gender, age, residence time, drinking water source, alcohol consumption, and smoking were used as independent variables. CdB levels were analyzed by induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In BIN, geometric mean and median CdB levels were 0.27 and 0.43 µg∙L-1, respectively (range: ≤0.03-17.49 µg∙L-1), while in VBJ these were 0.19 and 0.23 µg∙L-1 (range: ≤0.03-2.38 µg∙L-1). The higher CdB concentration in the blood of people from BIN was similar to levels previously found in people living near other industrial areas, and showed that the BIN residents were more exposed to Cd pollution. The studies showed the need for surveillance actions to evaluate possible routes of exposure, avoiding the future worsening of the health of the population living next to industrial areas in the Amazon.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134519, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698272

RESUMO

This study sought to compare lead (Pb) concentrations in toenails and blood and to investigate the association of each biomarker with children's cognitive function. Toenails and whole blood samples were collected from 224 twelve-year-old children, and their full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to determine blood (BPb) and toenail (TPb) Pb concentrations. Log BPb and Log TPb were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.49, p < 0.001). In unadjusted analyses, both log-transformed BPb and TPb were significantly associated with decreased FSIQ, but BPb accounted for approximately quadruple the FSIQ scores' variability than log-transformed TPb (model R2 = 0.12 and R2 = 0.03, respectively). After adjusting for neighborhood deprivation, caregiver intelligence (assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-2nd edition), and child BMI, BPb remained significantly associated with decreased FSIQ, while TPb did not (p = 0.16). These results suggest that while concentrations of Pb in blood and toenails are correlated, TPb does not predict cognitive outcomes at these exposure levels. With caution and in conjunction with BPb, TPb may be used as a population-based biomarker of Pb exposure.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Unhas
7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 72, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead is a toxic metal abundant in the environment. Consumption of food contaminated at low levels of lead, especially by small children and pregnant women, raises a health concern. METHODS: Duplicated food portions and drinking water were collected over 3 days from 88 children and 87 pregnant women in Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan. Participants were recruited in this study between January 2014 and October 2015. Dust was also collected from their homes. Lead concentrations were measured and consequent oral lead exposure levels were estimated for this population at high risk to environmental toxicants. Lead concentrations of peripheral and cord blood, taken from children and pregnant women, and were also analyzed. RESULTS: Lead concentrations in food, drinking water, and house dust were low in general. Oral lead exposure to lead was higher for children (Mean ± SEM; 5.21 ± 0.30 µg/kg BW/week) than in pregnant women (1.47 ± 0.13 µg/kg BW/week). Food and house dust were main sources of lead contamination, but the contribution of house dust widely varied. Means ± SEM of peripheral and cord blood lead concentrations were 0.69 ± 0.04 µg/dL and 0.54 ± 0.05 µg/dL, respectively for pregnant women and 1.30 ± 0.07 µg/dL (peripheral only) in children. We detect no correlation between smoking situations and blood lead concentration in pregnant women. CONCLUSION: We conclude that oral lead exposure levels for Japanese children and pregnant women were generally low, with higher concentrations and exposure for children than for pregnant women. More efforts are necessary to clarify the sources of lead contamination and reduce lead exposure of the population at high risk even in Japan.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Água Potável/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133783, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756823

RESUMO

Many studies of children's exposure to lead (Pb) are carried out in urban and industrialized environments. This study analyzed blood lead level (BLL) data collected from 2011 to 2016 from approximately 140,000 children ages <1 to 6 years across South Carolina (SC), including urban and rural areas. Individual-level characteristics included children's age, and race/ethnicity. Block group variables examined included population by race and ethnicity, households below the poverty level, median year homes built, urban/rural classification, and percent road coverage. BLL were higher in urban compared to rural children but increased to a greater extent in rural children from age < 1 year to 2 years. Road coverage was strongly associated with higher BLL in urban areas, and with home age more weakly, but neither road coverage nor home age was associated with BLL in rural areas. Young urban children may receive greater exposure to Pb from house dust and outdoor legacy Pb contamination, and young rural children through diet and drinking water. Black children had higher BLL in urban areas than white children, and the converse was true in rural areas. Population data indicated that rural areas had more poverty than urban areas, but strong associations between increased children's BLL and either ethnicity or socio-economic status (SES) at the block group level was not observed, likely due to distinct characteristics of poverty and geographic distribution by ethnicity in urban as compared to rural areas of SC. Individual demographics and environmental characteristics may be more closely associated with BLL than geographically aggregated SES and race/ethnicity characteristics. Interventions to reduce children's exposure to Pb should occur at as early an age as possible, and differences between rural and urban areas should be considered as interventions are developed to reduce children's BLL.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pobreza , População Rural , Classe Social , South Carolina , População Urbana
9.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(2): 165-172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679279

RESUMO

Donor blood is usually screened for some risk factors, such as hepatitis, HIV, and malarial parasites, but it is not routinely screened for heavy metals although their adverse effects on the human body have been proved by a number of studies. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of smoking on concentration of cadmium, nickel, and lead in donor blood. A semistructured questionnaire was prepared and given to participants. It showed that 79% (two groups: 65 smokers and 65 nonsmokers) smoked at least one cigarette per day. Collected blood samples were then subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In comparing blood levels between smoking and nonsmoking participants, we noted a high positive correlation between lead and nickel concentrations. There were statistically significant correlations between cadmium, lead, and nickel concentrations in the blood of smokers and nonsmokers. Moreover, because a substantial percentage of blood donors may be smokers and blood donation does not always meet demand, it would be difficult to completely exclude smokers from donating blood. Our findings indicate the need to screen for heavy metals when transfusing blood to the elderly, neonates, and infants, and to avoid transfusion of blood and blood products if levels are in the toxic range.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Cádmio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Níquel/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(6): 783-788, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646347

RESUMO

Lead is toxic to humans and wildlife. Most studies of lead exposure of raptors focus on the winter, non-breeding season when they scavenge heavily. We evaluated blood lead concentrations (BLCs) of red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) during the non-scavenging season in the eastern United States. BLCs of 53 of 70 hawks were above the limit of detection ([Formula: see text] = 9.25 µg/dL ± 19.81; ± SD). Adult hawks had higher BLCs ([Formula: see text] = 12.86 µg/dL ± 24.72) than did nestlings ([Formula: see text] = 3.25 µg/dL ± 2.62; p ≤ 0.001, χ2 = 13.2). There was no difference in BLCs of adult hawks among physiographic provinces but there were differences between urban and non-urban settings (p = 0.04, χ2 = 4.2). Soils and invertebrate hawk prey also had quantifiable lead concentrations. Our work shows that red-shouldered hawks are exposed to lead when not scavenging, and suggests pathways by which these birds may be exposed.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Falcões/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Região dos Apalaches , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 834-837, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability for the detection of 5 metal elements in serum in the laboratories of disease prevention and control system. METHODS: The samples for calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc detection were distributed to 48 laboratories of disease prevention and control system. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS) analysis or self-selected determination method were allowed to use during detection for each laboratory. The results were analyzed by robust statistical analysis and Z value was used to evaluate the detection ability. RESULTS: Of the laboratories involved in the study, 40 reported results of metal elements detection. Among them, 29 laboratories had satisfactory results, and 11 laboratories had unsatisfactory or suspicious results. The laboratory pass rate of this inter-laboratory comparison was60. 4%. CONCLUSION: The detection level of calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc in serum in disease prevention and control system is generally satisfactory, but the detection ability of some laboratories needs to be further improved.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Metais/sangue , Cálcio , Cobre , Ferro , Magnésio , Zinco
12.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 45, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581952

RESUMO

Feline hyperthyroidism is a rather new disease, first reported from the North American east coast in 1979. The prevalence is increasing, especially in older cats, and hyperthyroidism is now reported worldwide as the most common feline endocrinopathy. Several studies have been performed trying to identify important etiological factors such as exposure to persistent organic pollutants, and especially brominated flame retardants, have been suggested to be of importance for the development of the disease. Recent studies have shown higher concentrations of these contaminants in serum of hyperthyroid cats in comparison to cats with normal thyroid status. However, other still unknown factors are most probably of importance for the development of this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/toxicidade , Hipertireoidismo/sangue , Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipertireoidismo/etiologia
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109755, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605956

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that heavy metals cross the placental barrier and exert potentially harmful fetal effects. Although previous studies showed sex differences in response to similar intrauterine environments, little is known about fetal sex-related differences in placental transfer and accumulation of heavy metals. This study aimed to reveal the sex-specific risk of fetal exposure to heavy metals in pregnant women. We detected the exposure levels of eight heavy metals in 64 paired mother-infant maternal blood, cord blood and placental tissue samples. We found that the placental transfer efficiency (PTE) of titanium (Ti) and silver (Ag) was significantly higher in the group with male fetuses than that with female fetuses. The group with male fetuses had a larger placental:maternal blood ratio of Ag levels than the group with female fetuses, indicating fetal sex-related differences in placental transfer and accumulation of Ag. Prospective research should focus on the sex differences of adverse health effects induced by heavy metals and other pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/sangue , Placenta/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(11): 1875-1886, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549993

RESUMO

Adults are mainly exposed to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via ingestion of food, inhalation of air and ingestion of dust, whereas for children the exposure to PFASs is largely unknown. This study aimed to reconstruct the serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in children after infancy up to 10.5 years of age and to test if dietary intake is the major exposure pathway for children to PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS after infancy. For this work, a dataset from a Finnish child cohort study was available, which comprised serum concentrations of the studied perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and PFAS concentration measurements in dust and air samples from the children's bedrooms. The calculated PFAA intakes were used in a pharmacokinetic model to reconstruct the PFAA serum concentrations from 1 to 10.5 years of age. The calculated PFOA and PFOS intakes were close to current regulatory intake thresholds and diet was the major exposure medium for the 10.5 year-olds. The one-compartment PK model reconstructed median PFOA and PFOS serum concentrations well compared to corresponding measured median serum concentrations, while the modelled PFHxS serum concentrations showed a constant underestimation. The results imply that children's exposure to PFOA and PFOS after breastfeeding and with increasing age resembles the exposure of adults. Further, the children in the Finnish cohort experienced a rather constant exposure to PFOA and PFOS between 1 and 10.5 years of age. The PFHxS exposure sources and respective pharmacokinetic parameter estimations need further investigation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Ácidos Sulfônicos/sangue , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Dietética/análise , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição por Inalação/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527390

RESUMO

An overwhelming amount of evidence now suggests that some people are becoming overloaded with neurotoxins. This is mainly from changes in their living environment and style, coupled with the fact that all people are different and display a broad distribution of genetic susceptibilities. It is important for individuals to know where they lie concerning their ability to either reject or retain toxins. Everyone is contaminated with a certain baseline of toxins that are alien to the body, namely aluminum, arsenic, lead, and mercury. Major societal changes have modified their intake, such as vaccines in enhanced inoculation procedures and the addition of sushi into diets, coupled with the ever-present lead, arsenic, and traces of manganese. It is now apparent that no single toxin is responsible for the current neurological epidemics, but rather a collaborative interaction with possible synergistic components. Selenium, although also a neurotoxin if in an excessive amount, is always present and is generally more present than other toxins. It performs as the body's natural chelator. However, it is possible that the formation rates of active selenium proteins may become overburdened by other toxins. Every person is different and it now appears imperative that the medical profession establish an individual's neurotoxicity baseline. Moreover, young women should certainly establish their baselines long before pregnancy in order to identify possible risk factors.


Assuntos
Arsênico/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Metais Pesados/sangue , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Selênio/sangue , Variação Biológica Individual , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31384-31391, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473923

RESUMO

Little is known regarding the effects of environmental mercury (Hg) exposure on liver dysfunction in adolescents. We aimed to explore the association between Hg exposure and the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the adolescent population. The cross-sectional associations between blood Hg concentrations and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, a surrogate for suspected NAFLD, were evaluated using data from adolescents (aged 12-17 years old) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014. A final sample of 6389 adolescents was analysed. Elevated ALT was defined as > 25 IU/L and > 22 IU/L for boys and girls ≤ 17 years old, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) of Hg levels in association with serum ALT levels were estimated using a logistic regression after adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, serum cotinine, body mass index, the poverty income ratio, and NHANES cycles. The median blood Hg level was 0.73 ± 0.91 µg/L amongst US adolescents. In the adjusted model, the ORs of elevated ALT levels of those in the 4th quartile were higher amongst non-Hispanic white adolescents (OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.20, 2.59; P = 0.035) and those who were normal or underweight (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.08, 1.85; P = 0.020). No association was observed for the other variables. Our results indicate that the positive association between blood Hg exposure and the risk of NAFLD in US adolescents is the highest amongst non-Hispanic white and those who are normal or underweight, regardless of ethnicity. More research is necessary to confirm this association and to clarify the potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Mercúrio/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances
17.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106115, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405477

RESUMO

In this study, there was investigation of the effect of heavy metals on the fertility of dromedary camels. Fourteen camels at the Camel Research Center, King Faisal University, and 41 infertile dromedaries admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital were used for semen evaluation during the breeding season. Seminal plasma and blood serum were collected from all males until analysis. Concentrations of three heavy metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb)] were determined in the seminal plasma and serum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicate there are differences (P < 0.05 - P < 0.01) in pH, sperm motility, sperm concentration, and sperm abnormalities between the fertile and infertile male camels. In seminal plasma, there were marked differences (P < 0.01- P < 0.0001) between the control and infertile male camels in As, Cd, and Pb concentrations. In serum, there were differences (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) between the fertile and infertile camels in serum As, Cd, and Pb concentrations. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05; r = 0.77 and r = 0.94, respectively) between serum and seminal plasma concentrations of both As and Cd in the infertile dromedaries. In the control group, there was a positive correlation (P < 0.05; r = 0.70) between seminal plasma concentrations of Cd and percent sperm abnormalities. In conclusion, relatively greater seminal plasma and serum concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb are associated with lesser values for semen quality variables and infertility in dromedary camels.


Assuntos
Arsênico/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Camelus/sangue , Infertilidade Masculina/veterinária , Chumbo/toxicidade , Testículo , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Infertilidade Masculina/sangue , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426367

RESUMO

The prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is poor with disease progression. Cadmium exposure is a risk factor for NPC. We aimed to investigate the effect of cadmium exposure, by measuring cadmium level, and clinicopathologic factors on NPC disease progression and prognosis. A total of 134 NPC cases were analyzed and venous blood samples were collected. Blood cadmium level was analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Clinical data were collected at baseline for patients and tumor characteristics from medical records. Progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed during follow-up. The effect of cadmium exposure and clinical factors on PFS was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. Blood cadmium level was associated with history of disease and smoking history and pack-years. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, a high blood cadmium level, male sex, smoking history and increasing pack-years, as well as advanced clinical stage were all associated with short PFS. On multivariate analysis, blood cadmium level was an independent risk factor and predictor of NPC prognosis and disease progression. Cadmium exposure and related clinical factors can affect the prognosis of NPC, which merits further study to clarify.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/sangue , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/sangue
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30112-30118, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420836

RESUMO

Cross-sectional data (N = 25427) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2003-2014 for US adults were used to estimate the impact of co-exposure to high levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury on the unhealthy kidney function. If observed concentrations of cadmium, lead, and total mercury were above the 75th percentile of their respective distributions, the exposure to the corresponding metal was considered to be high. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the probabilities of an unhealthy kidney function. Two alternate definitions of unhealthy kidney function were used. First, if estimated, glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (KeGFR) and second, if the observed albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) was ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine (KACR). As compared with low exposures, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for unhealthy kidney function when exposed to high levels of lead and cadmium were observed to be 1.567 (1.346-1.823) and 1.663 (1.376-2.010) respectively for KeGFR. When exposed to high levels of both cadmium and lead, AORs for unhealthy kidney functions KeGFR and KARC were found to be 2.369 (1.868-3.004) and 1.522 (1.216-1.905) respectively. When exposed to high levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury, AORs for unhealthy kidney functions KeGFR and KARC were found to be 2.248 (1.428-3.538) and 1.502 (1.024-2.204) respectively. High exposure to lead along with any level of exposure to cadmium and total mercury was found to adversely affect the health of kidney function. High exposure to mercury does not affect unhealthy kidney function.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Adulto , Cádmio/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29639-29648, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399834

RESUMO

Thus far, the few studies on the associations between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and asthma in children have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether and to what extent prenatal PFASs exposure is associated with childhood asthmatic diseases. Eight PFASs were measured in cord blood drawn from 358 children in the Shanghai Allergy Birth Cohort, and a 5-year follow-up plan was completed. Asthma was diagnosed and reported by pediatric respiratory physicians via repeated symptoms (wheezing and coughing) and laboratory examination (Immunoglobulin E level test and skin prick test). A total of 26.6% and 17.4% subjects were diagnosed with wheezing and asthma, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression and piecewise linear regression were applied, and no association was found between PFASs and asthma or wheezing. However, cord serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFDA were positively correlated with serum total IgE in 5-year-old children as the level of the former beyond the turning point (4.37 ng/mL, 2.95 ng/mL, and 0.42 ng/mL, respectively), but negatively with IgE before it reach turnning point.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez
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