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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 42, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of environmental cobalt exposure on insulin resistance (IR) in the general adult population. We investigated the association between cobalt concentration and IR. METHODS: A total of 1281 subjects aged more than 20 years with complete blood cobalt data were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2016 cycle. Blood cobalt levels were analyzed for their association with IR among all populations and subgroups by sex. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood cobalt concentrations in association with fasting glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated using multivariate linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education level, and household income. A multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was further carried out to explore the association between cobalt exposure and IR. RESULTS: A negative association between blood cobalt concentration (coefficient = - 0.125, 95% CI - 0.234, - 0.015; P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR in female adults in the age- and sex-adjusted model was observed. However, no associations with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin were found in the overall population. In the generalized linear models, participants with the lowest cobalt levels had a 2.74% (95% CI 0.04%, 5.50%) increase in HOMA-IR (P for trend = 0.031) compared with subjects with the highest cobalt levels. Restricted cubic spline regression suggested that a non-linear relationship may exist between blood cobalt and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide epidemiological evidence that low levels of blood cobalt are negatively associated with HOMA-IR in female adults.


Assuntos
Cobalto/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111897, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493719

RESUMO

Chronic cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a significant health concern, and the mechanism of long-term low-dose Cd exposure on bone has not been fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to assess the association between long-term environmental Cd exposure and bone remodeling in women who aged over 50. A total of 278 non-smoking subjects from Cd-polluted group (n = 191) and non-Cd polluted group (n = 87) were investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD), the levels of three bone turnover markers (BTMs), including total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (ß-CTX), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), together with serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined. Early markers of renal dysfunction were measured as well. Urinary Cd concentrations ranged from 0.41 to 87.31 µg/g creatinine, with a median of 4.91 µg/g creatinine. Age, BMD, T-score, and prevalence of osteoporosis showed no statistical differences among the quartiles of urinary Cd concentrations, while serum levels of P1NP, ß-CTX, and OPG were higher in the upper quartiles. Multivariate linear regression models indicated significantly positive associations of urinary Cd concentration with serum levels of P1NP, ß-CTX, BALP, sRANKL, and OPG. A ridge regression analysis with T-score and the three BTMs, sRANKL, and OPG, adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), indicated that except for age and Cd exposure, ß-CTX was a predictor of T-score. These findings demonstrated that Cd may directly accelerate bone remodeling. Serum ß-CTX might be an appropriate biochemical marker for evaluating and monitoring Cd-related bone loss. Capsule: Cadmium (Cd) may directly accelerate bone remodeling and serum ß-CTX is a valuable biochemical marker for evaluating Cd-related bone loss.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Fosfatase Alcalina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Colágeno Tipo I , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoprotegerina , Peptídeos , Ligante RANK/sangue
3.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 83: 103598, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516900

RESUMO

The environmental contamination with lead (Pb) is considered a critical issue worldwide. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the expression levels of circulating miRNAs (miR-155, miR-126, and miR-145) in Mexican women exposed to Pb. Blood lead levels (BLL) were assessed in enrolled women (n = 190) using an atomic absorption method. Also, serum miRNAs expression levels were quantified through a real-time PCR assay. A mean BLL of 10.5 ± 4.50 µg/dL was detected. Overexpression of miR-155 was detected in highly exposed women. Besides, a significant simple positive relationship (p < 0.05) was found between BLL and serum miR-155 expression levels. Additionally, a significant inverse correlation (p < 0.05) was determined between BLL and serum miR-126 expression levels, as downregulation of miR-126 expression levels was observed in highly exposed women. The findings in this study are the concern, as epigenetic changes detected may represent a connection between health illnesses and Pb exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111933, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493722

RESUMO

The association between internal cadmium exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been investigated before. However, few studies have shown the association between dietary cadmium intake and CKD. In this study, we show the association between life-time dietary cadmium intake and CKD based on a follow-up study. At baseline, we collected blood and urine samples for assays of cadmium and renal effect biomarkers. A questionnaire and food survey was given to each subject to collect diet and lifestyle information for the estimation of cadmium intake. Dietary cadmium, cadmium in blood and urine were regarded as exposure markers. Life-time dietary cadmium intake was estimated based on an individual's daily cadmium intake and exposure time. At follow-up, 467 persons (163 men and 304 women) were finally included. CKD at follow-up was considered if the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The eGFR level in subjects in the highest quartile of total dietary cadmium intake (>9.34 g) was significantly lower than in those with a moderate or low intake (p < 0.01). eGFR was negatively associated with total dietary cadmium intake (ß = -0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.77 to -0.07) after adjustment with confounders. Logistic regression further showed that the risk of CKD in subjects with a high total dietary cadmium intake (>2.2 g) was higher than in those with a low intake (odds ratio (OR) = 18.16, 95%CI: 1.75-188.85). A similar association was found between the baseline urinary albumin (UALB) level and CKD incidence. A predictive model based on UALB and life-time dietary cadmium intake showed an acceptable performance (the area under the curve was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.65-0.88)). Our data show that high dietary cadmium exposure was associated with CKD after controlling for renal tubular dysfunction and internal cadmium exposure.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Rim/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Oryza , Fatores de Risco
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants whose mothers experience greater psychosocial stress and environmental chemical exposures during pregnancy may face greater rates of preterm birth, lower birth weight, and impaired neurodevelopment. METHODS: ECHO.CA.IL is composed of two cohorts, Chemicals in Our Bodies (CIOB; n = 822 pregnant women and n = 286 infants) and Illinois Kids Development Study (IKIDS; n = 565 mother-infant pairs), which recruit pregnant women from San Francisco, CA and Urbana-Champaign, IL, respectively. We examined associations between demographic characteristics and gestational age, birth weight z-scores, and cognition at 7.5 months across these two cohorts using linear models. We also examined differences in biomarkers of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), measured in second-trimester serum, and psychosocial stressors by cohort and participant demographics. RESULTS: To date, these cohorts have recruited over 1300 pregnant women combined. IKIDS has mothers who are majority white (80%), whereas CIOB mothers are racially and ethnically diverse (38% white, 34% Hispanic, 17% Asian/Pacific Islander). Compared to CIOB, median levels of PFOS, a specific PFAS congener, are higher in IKIDS (2.45 ng/mL versus 1.94 ng/mL), while psychosocial stressors are higher among CIOB. Across both cohorts, women who were non-white and single had lower birth weight z-scores relative to white women and married women, respectively. Demographic characteristics are not associated with cognitive outcomes at 7.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: This profile of the ECHO.CA.IL cohort found that mothers and their infants who vary in terms of socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and geographic location are similar in many of our measures of exposures and cognitive outcomes. Similar to past work, we found that non-white and single women had lower birth weight infants than white and married women. We also found differences in levels of PFOS and psychosocial stressors based on geographic location.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , São Francisco
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111805, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residents of a large area of North-Eastern Italy were exposed for decades to high concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) via drinking water. Serum PFAS levels have been consistently associated with elevated serum lipids, but few studies have been conducted among pregnant women, and none has stratified analyses by trimester of gestation. Elevated serum lipid levels during pregnancy can have both immediate and long-lasting effects on pregnant women and the developing fetus. We evaluated the association between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluoro-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS) levels in relation to lipid profiles in highly-exposed pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 319 pregnant women (age 14-48 years) enrolled in the Regional health surveillance program. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained in any trimester of pregnancy and analyzed for PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. The associations between ln-transformed PFAS (and categorized into quartiles) and lipids were assessed using generalized additive models. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders and stratified according to pregnancy trimester. RESULTS: The geometric means of PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS were 14.78 ng/mL, 2.67 ng/mL and 1.89 ng/mL, respectively. The plasma levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C increased steadily throughout the trimesters. In the 1st trimester, PFOS was positively associated with TC and PFHxS with HDL-C. In the 3rd trimester, instead, an inverse relationship was seen between PFOA and PFHxS and both TC and LDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the associations between PFAS concentrations and lipid profiles in pregnant women might differ by trimesters of pregnancy. In the first trimester, patterns are similar to those of non-pregnant women, while they differ late in pregnancy. Different independent behavior of PFAS and lipid levels throughout the pregnancy might explain our observations. These findings support the ubiquitous exposure to PFAS and possible influence on lipid metabolisms during pregnancy and suggest a careful evaluation of the timing of PFAS measurement, when examining effects of PFAS during pregnancy on gestational outcomes related to serum lipids amounts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Caprilatos , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 83: 103566, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359071

RESUMO

Fundão mining tailings dam in Mariana District has collapsed in 2015 and caused the biggest environmental disaster in Brazil. Barra Longa District had its urban area invaded by toxic sludge and its population was extensively exposed to it. Blood and urine samples were collected from 11 residents, focused on investigating the presence of metals at the end of an exploratory health study in 507 inhabitants in 2016. Results have shown increased levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cooper, lead, manganese and nickel, and zinc defficiency in their body, as well as clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Arsênico/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Metais/sangue , Acidentes de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arsênico/urina , Monitoramento Biológico , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Masculino , Metais/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Adulto Jovem
8.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128021, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metals play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to explore the association of T2DM risk with single metal exposure and multi-metal co-exposure. METHODS: A case-control study with 223 T2DM patients and 302 controls was conducted. Serum concentrations of 19 metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Those metals with greater effects were screened out and co-exposure effects of metals were assessed by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. RESULTS: Serum calcium (Ca), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were found with greater effects. Higher levels of Ca and Se were associated with increased T2DM risk (OR = 2.23, 95%CI: 1.38-3.62, Ptrend = 0.002; OR = 3.16, 95%CI: 1.82-5.50, Ptrend < 0.001), but higher V level was associated with decreased T2DM risk (OR = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.34-0.97, Ptrend < 0.001). Serum Ca and V concentrations were nonlinearly associated with T2DM risk (Poverall < 0.001, Pnonliearity < 0.001); however, Se concentration was linearly associated with T2DM risk (Poverall < 0.001, Pnonliearity = 0.389). High co-exposure score of serum Ca, Se and V was associated with increased T2DM risk (OR = 3.50, 95%CI: 2.08-5.89, Ptrend < 0.001) as a non-linear relationship (Poverall < 0.001, Pnonliearity = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggest that higher levels of serum Ca and Se were associated with increased T2DM risk, but higher serum V level was associated with decreased T2DM risk. Moreover, co-exposure of serum Ca, Se and V was nonlinearly associated with T2DM risk, and high co-exposure score was positively associated with T2DM risk.


Assuntos
Cálcio/toxicidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Selênio/toxicidade , Vanádio/toxicidade , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cálcio/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selênio/sangue , Vanádio/sangue
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(12): 127004, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental cadmium exposure is widespread. In humans, cadmium is poorly excreted, triggers pulmonary inflammation, reduces pulmonary function, and enhances lung injury by respiratory syncytial virus. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of cadmium burden with mortality related to influenza or pneumonia. METHODS: This prospective analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) included 7,173 and 8,678 participants ≥45 years of age enrolled in NHANES-III and NHANES 1999-2006, respectively. Associations were evaluated between cadmium and mortality from influenza or pneumonia during a median follow-up of 17.3 y (NHANES-III, based on creatinine-corrected urine cadmium) and 11.4 y (NHANES 1999-2006, based on blood cadmium). Survey-weighted Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) comparing the mortality of individuals at the 80th vs. the 20th percentile of cadmium concentrations. RESULTS: In NHANES-III, after adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, serum cholesterol, hypertension, and NHANES phase (or cycle), the HR comparing influenza or pneumonia mortality among participants with creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium in the 80th vs. 20th percentile was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.26; p=0.002) in the population as a whole and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.43; p=0.002) among never smokers. In NHANES 1999-2006, adjusted HRs for the 80th vs. 20th percentile of blood cadmium were 1.14 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.36; p=0.15) for the overall population and 1.71 (95% CI: 0.95, 3.09; p=0.07) in never smokers. DISCUSSION: Among middle-aged and older adults in the United States, higher cadmium burdens are associated with higher mortality from influenza or pneumonia. This raises the possibility that cadmium may worsen outcomes from COVID-19 infections. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7598.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Cádmio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /complicações , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pneumonia/sangue , Pneumonia/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(12): 127014, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally persistent chemicals widely detected in women of reproductive age. Prenatal PFAS exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes in children. We hypothesized that DNA methylation changes may result from prenatal PFAS exposure and may be linked to offspring cardio-metabolic phenotype. OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations of prenatal PFAS with DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood. We evaluated associations of methylation at selected sites with neonatal cardio-metabolic indicators. METHODS: Among 583 mother-infant pairs in a prospective cohort, five PFAS were quantified in maternal serum (median 27 wk of gestation). Umbilical cord blood DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) were evaluated at a false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05 and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified using comb-p (Sidák-adjusted p<0.05). We estimated associations between methylation at candidate DMPs and DMR sites and the following outcomes: newborn weight, adiposity, and cord blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and leptin. RESULTS: Maternal serum PFAS concentrations were below the median for females in the U.S. general population. Moderate to high pairwise correlations were observed between PFAS concentrations (ρ=0.28-0.76). Methylation at one DMP (cg18587484), annotated to the gene TJAP1, was associated with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) at FDR< 0.05. Comb-p detected between 4 and 15 DMRs for each PFAS. Associated genes, some common across multiple PFAS, were implicated in growth (RPTOR), lipid homeostasis (PON1, PON3, CIDEB, NR1H2), inflammation and immune activity (RASL11B, RNF39), among other functions. There was suggestive evidence that two PFAS-associated loci (cg09093485, cg09637273) were associated with cord blood triglycerides and birth weight, respectively (FDR< 0.1). DISCUSSION: DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood was associated with maternal serum PFAS concentrations during pregnancy, suggesting potential associations with offspring growth, metabolism, and immune function. Future research should explore whether DNA methylation changes mediate associations between prenatal PFAS exposures and child health outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6888.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
11.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 102, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residents in a large area of North-Eastern Italy were exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) via drinking water. Studies on the association between PFAS and blood pressure levels are limited, and results are inconsistent. Using cross-sectional data from the Regional health surveillance program, we aimed to quantify the associations between PFAS serum concentrations and blood pressure and hypertension prevalence. METHODS: The study comprised 16,224 individuals aged 20-39 years. Pregnant women (n = 327), or individuals with missing information on the selected covariates (n = 111) were excluded, leaving 15,786 subjects for the analyses. Hypertension was defined as any self-reported diagnosis, use of antihypertensive drugs, or elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg). Generalized additive models were used to investigate the relation between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)) natural log (ln) transformed and by decile, and SBP, DBP, hypertension, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Both SBP and DBP increased significantly with an increase in the ln-transformed serum PFAS concentrations in a monotonic way. The predicted increase in SBP and DBP were 1.54 mmHg (95%CI 0.61-2.47), 1.60 mmHg (95%CI 0.92-2.27) from lowest to highest decile of PFOA. The associations were stronger for SBP in men and for DBP in women. One unit increase in each In-transformed PFAS was positively associated with an increased odd of hypertension in men: PFOA OR = 1.06 (1.01-1.11), PFOS OR = 1.13 (1.03-1.23), PFHxS OR = 1.08 (1.02-1.15), PFNA OR = 1.20 (1.02-1.40). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that serum PFAS concentrations were associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a large highly exposed young adult population. Although the magnitude of the observed effect was relatively small, if confirmed it would be of public health relevance since even small increases in blood pressure levels at the population level may be associated to a raised risk of adverse outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and target organ damage.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 100, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in consumer products for their water repellent and flame retardant properties, respectively. However, there is widespread prenatal exposure and concern about their potential harm to the developing fetus. Here, we utilized data from a demographically diverse cohort of women in San Francisco, CA to examine associations between prenatal exposure to PFAS and PBDEs with gestational age and birth weight for gestational age z-scores. METHODS: Women included in this analysis were enrolled in the Chemicals in our Bodies (CIOB) cohort study (N = 506). PFAS and PBDEs were measured in serum obtained during the second trimester of pregnancy. Linear regression models were used to calculate crude and adjusted ß coefficients for the association between PFAS and PBDE concentrations in tertiles and gestational age and birth weight z-scores. Individual PFAS and PBDE concentrations, as well as their sums, were examined in separate models. RESULTS: The highest compared to lowest tertile of BDE-47 was associated with shorter gestational age (ß = - 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = - 0.95, - 0.02). Additionally, exposure to BDE-47 and BDE-99 in the middle tertile was also associated with a reduction in birth weight z-scores (ß = - 0.26, 95% CI = -0.48, - 0.04; ß = - 0.25, 95% CI = -0.47, - 0.04, respectively) compared to those in the lowest tertile of exposure. No consistent associations were observed between increasing PFAS concentrations and gestational age or birth weight z-scores. DISCUSSION: Among a diverse group of pregnant women in the San Francisco Bay Area, we found non-linear associations between prenatal exposure to PBDEs during the second trimester of pregnancy and birth weight z-scores. However, most PFAS congeners were not associated with adverse birth outcomes. PFAS and PBDE concentrations were lower in our cohort relative to other studies. Future research should assess the effects of emerging and persistent PFAS and PBDEs on birth outcomes, as some congeners are being phased out and replaced by chemically similar structures.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Idade Gestacional , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Gravidez , São Francisco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 110965, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798747

RESUMO

Toxic and essential trace elements are associated with human fertility. However, limited studies have been conducted on the relationship between trace elements and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in the Chinese population. In this exploratory study, 103 couples who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment in our reproductive center were recruited. Serum and follicular fluid (FF) samples and seminal plasma samples were collected from the female and male partners, respectively, on the day of oocyte retrieval. Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the specimens were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the associations of toxic and essential trace element levels with the intermediate parameters and outcomes of IVF at both the sex-specific and couple levels. The Cr level in the serum of the female partners was inversely associated with the count of mature oocytes retrieved (p for trend = 0.033). In terms of embryo development, As concentrations in female serum and FF were inversely associated with the probabilities to obtain good-quality cleavage embryos (p for trend < 0.01). There were significant correlations between follicular Se concentrations and seminal As concentrations and higher quality cleavage embryos (p for trend < 0.01). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between the female serum Se concentrations and blastocyst formation (p for trend = 0.031). In contrast, a higher follicular Se level was negatively correlated with embryo development at the blastocyst stage (p for trend < 0.01). Regarding the clinical outcomes, a positive association of Se levels in seminal plasma and a negative association of follicular Cd levels was observed with the probabilities of pregnancy (p for trend = 0.006 and 0.035, respectively) and live birth (p for trend = 0.014 and 0.027, respectively). The results indicate that exposure to toxic elements (Cr, As and Cd) is associated with intermediate parameters and outcomes of IVF. Furthermore, male Se exposure may be related to better pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/química , Sêmen/química , Soro/química , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Adulto , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Masculino , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 88, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and blood glucose concentrations in pregnant women is inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the association between PFAS exposure and the concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and one-hour plasma glucose (1 h-PG) after a 50-g oral glucose tolerance test in pregnant women. METHODS: The study was based on the Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort, in which 1292 pregnant women were recruited. Among them, 981 women provided blood samples (at 12-16 gestational weeks) for PFAS measurement. FPG data collected from 856 women at 12-20 GW and 1 h-PG data collected from 705 women at 20-28 GW were obtained through medical records from the routine prenatal care system. High FPG or 1 h-PG was defined as ≥90th percentile of FPG or 1 h-PG. The analysis of eight PFASs was conducted in this study: perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA). The odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to determine the associations of each PFAS compound with high FPG and 1 h-PG from a logistic regression model. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, most PFASs were positively associated with high 1 h-PG concentrations. The OR for high 1 h-PG concentrations was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.15-3.05) with a one log unit increase of PFOS; similar associations were observed for PFNA (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.24-3.74), PFDA (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.10-2.44), PFUdA (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.12-2.62), and PFDoA (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00-1.81). When the PFAS concentrations were categorized into three groups by tertiles, the highest tertiles of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFDoA, and PFTrDA had a statistically significant increase in the risk of high 1 h-PG concentrations compared with the lowest tertiles. No statistically significant association was observed between PFAS exposure and high FPG. CONCLUSION: PFAS exposure was associated with an increased risk of high 1 h-PG among pregnant women, but no such association was observed for FPG.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127730, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763647

RESUMO

The first statewide New Jersey Biomonitoring (NJBM) of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was conducted from 2016 to 2018. Forty ortho-substituted PCBs were measured in serum samples collected from 920 NJ residents in compliance with the CDC method. The lipid adjusted geometric mean (GM) of ∑40PCB concentration for all the 920 measured subjects was 65.5 ng/g lipid (95% CIs: 56.9-75.4 ng/g lipid). Age stratified serum concentration showed that the lowest GM (33.3 ng/g lipid) was observed in the 20-39 years age group (n = 282), followed by a concentration of 76.05 ng/g lipid (n = 382) in the 40-59 years age group, and the highest GM (168.4 ng/g lipid) was found in the 60-74 years age group (n = 256). A survey regression model revealed that ∑40PCBs was significantly associated with age, moderately associated with geographic region, and not significantly associated with sex. The comparison of serum PCB levels in NJBM with the sequential National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data suggested that the serum PCBs in NJ adults declined 52-59% at all age groups over the last decade. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) suggests that ongoing and recent exposure to lower molecular weight PCBs contributes about 15% to total serum PCB levels and more in younger subjects, while higher molecular weight PCBs contribute 52% of the total serum PCB levels and more in older subjects.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 4-12, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736004

RESUMO

Nephrotoxicity is within the recognized toxic effects of arsenic. In this study we assessed the effect of arsenite on the renal capacity to metabolize and handle arsenicals in rats exposed to drinking water with 0, 1, 5, or 10 ppm sodium arsenite for ten days. Arsenite treatment did not affect the gene expression of the main enzyme catalyzing methylation of arsenite, As3mt, while it reduced the expression of GSTO1 mRNA and protein. Arsenite decreased the expression of Aqp3, Mrp1, Mrp4, and Mdr1b (i.e., transporters and channels used by arsenic), but not that of Aqp7, Glut1, Mrp2, and Mdr1a. The protein abundance of AQP3 was also reduced by arsenite. Arsenite increased urinary NGAL and FABP3 and decreased Klotho plasma levels, without alteration of creatinine, which evidenced early tubular damage. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein expressions were also downregulated, which may exacerbate renal damage. No effect was observed in selected miRNAs putatively associated with renal injury. Plasma PTH and FGF23 were similar between groups, but arsenite decreased the renal expression of Fgfr1 mRNA. In conclusion, exposure to arsenite alters the gene expression of proteins involved in the cellular handling of arsenical species and elicits tubular damage.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Compostos de Sódio/toxicidade , Animais , Arsenitos/sangue , Arsenitos/urina , Transporte Biológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Compostos de Sódio/sangue , Compostos de Sódio/urina
17.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 80-89, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738273

RESUMO

Exposure to high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), widely used in many industries and found in air, food and contaminated water, is not uncommon. Cd damages the cardiovascular system, but the vascular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular damage after exposure to high Cd concentrations. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with distilled water (Untreated group) or 1 mg/kg cadmium chloride (Cd group). We investigated the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and vascular reactivity of mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) and the aorta by analysing contractile and relaxation responses in the absence and presence of the endothelium; we also evaluated pathways involved in vascular tone regulation. Superoxide anion production, COX-2 protein expression and in situ detection of COX-2, AT-1, and NOX-1 were evaluated. Oxidative status, creatinine level and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in plasma were also evaluated. Fourteen-day exposure to a high Cd concentration induced hypertension associated with vascular dysfunction in MRA and the aorta. In both vessels, there was increased participation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor and NOX1. MRA also presented endothelial dysfunction, denoted by impaired acetylcholine-mediated relaxation. All vascular changes were accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species production and COX2, NOX1 and AT1 receptor expression in vascular tissue. Overall, high Cd concentrations induced cardiovascular damage: hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and vascular damage in conductance and resistance arteries, NADPH oxidase, renin-angiotensin system and COX2 pathway activation.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/enzimologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Cádmio/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/enzimologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hipertensão/enzimologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 13-21, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659468

RESUMO

The few Belgian studies on the human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have until now concerned the Northern part of Belgium (Flanders), while data related to Wallonia (South region) are missing. To fill this gap, 8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids and 3 perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates were measured in the serum of 242 adults (>18 years old) recruited in 2015 and living in the Province of Liege. Some multivariate regression models were also built with the PFAS levels and the participant's answers to a questionnaire about their diet and lifestyle habits in order to identify some predictors of exposure. The results obtained showed that although PFAS levels observed in our population seemed to be similar or lower than those reported in other countries, and especially lower than in the Northern part of Belgium, half of the population showed PFOS and PFOA serum levels above the health guidance values set by the German HBM Commission. As expected, age and gender were the main covariates explaining the different PFAS serum levels between participants, while breastfeeding (for women), consumption of fish and seafood, consumption of rice, and use of nail polish seemed also to impact the PFAS body burden of our population. Nevertheless, the statistical models were poorly predictive suggesting that the main sources of exposure were not taken into account.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
19.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127522, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with some chronic diseases, but little evidence exists on their possible relationship with neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to assess the relationship between PCB exposure and the occurrence of dementia and Parkinson disease in a prospective cohort study in a highly polluted area (Brescia-Caffaro). METHODS: PCB exposure was assessed by measuring serum levels of 24 congeners. Data on the onset of dementia and Parkinson disease were retrieved by the Brescia Health Protection Agency Database. We used Poisson regression models adjusted for possible confounders to calculate rate ratios (RRs). A mediation analysis was performed to evaluate the mediatory role of cardiovascular diseases. RESULTS: 699 subjects without neurologic diseases at baseline were enrolled (48.1% males, 63.2 years of mean age) in 2001-2013 and followed up to 2018. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 years, 36 and 20 subjects developed dementia and Parkinson disease. Subjects in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of the total PCBs distribution, compared with those in the 1st tertile, had a higher risk of dementia (RR = 2.30 and RR = 4.35). The estimates for Parkinson disease included the null value with wide confidence intervals. In the mediation analysis, the association between PCB exposure and dementia was dominated by the direct pathway and not by the hypertension-mediated pathway. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a positive association between total PCBs serum levels and the onset of dementia not mediated by hypertension. For Parkinson, the unstable risk estimates did not allow to draw a conclusion on a possible association.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/sangue , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127691, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717511

RESUMO

Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) alternatives, however, relevant epidemiological findings remain to be performed. In addition, the association between PFASs alternatives and blood pressure has not been explored. To address this gap, we quantified serum levels of alternatives and legacy PFAS in 1273 healthy Chinese, aged 34-94 years, from "isomers of C8 health project". Our results showed that an increase of serum PFASs levels was correlated with elevated blood pressure and higher prevalence of hypertension: per natural log unit (ng/mL) increase of 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESA) elevated 1.31 (95%CI: 0.13, 2.50) mmHg of diastolic pressure (DBP). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for hypertension with per natural log increase of 6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESA were 2.57 (95%CI: 1.86, 3.56) and 1.18 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. When stratified by sex, the effects of PFASs alternatives on increased blood pressure and hypertension were stronger in women. Meanwhile, the association between 6:2 Cl-PFESA (aOR = 6.81; 95%CI: 3.54, 13.09) and hypertension was stronger than perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (aOR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.38, 3.91) in women. In conclusion, our pilot study demonstrates that serum concentrations of PFASs alternatives are positively associated with blood pressure. Moreover, women seem to be more susceptible, and alternatives exhibited stronger effects than legacy PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Caprilatos , China , Éter , Éteres , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos , Halogenação , Humanos , Hipertensão , Isomerismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Sulfônicos
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