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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111633, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396153

RESUMO

Exposure to phthalates poses potential to damage multiple organs and system in the body. However, limited data are available regarding effects of seasonal exposure levels of phthalates and indicators reflecting inflammatory response. We designed a pilot study with repeated measures. We recruited 106 eligible habitants from Wuhan city, China. They completed questionnaires, physical examinations and provided urine specimens in winter and summer seasons. We found that urinary levels of low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites were higher in summer than in winter (all P < 0.01). In winter, an interquartile range increase (1.264 µg/L) in 3-day moving average of high-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites corresponded to a 13.634% (95% CI: -22.331, -3.941) decrease in mean platelet volume, 25.879% (95% CI: -37.424, -12.204) for lymphocyte count or 10.862% (95% CI: -18.716, -2.125) for platelet count (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). However, in summer, an interquartile range increase (1.215 µg/L) in urinary levels of high-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites corresponded to an 8.743% (95% CI: 4.217, 13.467) increase in platelet distribution width value or a 4.597% (95% CI: 2.335, 6.780) for mean platelet volume value at 3-day lag (both P < 0.01). In conclusion, phthalate exposure exhibited the potential for the activation of platelet function, particularly in winter. Seasonal variations of phthalate exposure should be considered when assessing health risk.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Projetos Piloto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111864, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412282

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important and ubiquitous air pollutants, which may lead to a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory diseases. To investigate the relationships between VOCs exposure and childhood asthma, 252 asthmatic children and 69 healthy children were recruited. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage), trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (OH-Cot, a biomarker of passive smoking) and 27 VOC metabolites were simultaneously determined by an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer. Results showed that levels of 8-OHdG and most VOC metabolites in asthmatic children were significantly higher than those in healthy children. More than half of the VOC metabolites were significantly and positively associated with OH-Cot with maximal ß coefficient of 0.169, suggesting that second-hand smoking is one important source of VOCs exposure for children in Guangzhou. Significant dose-response relationships between most VOC metabolites and 8-OHdG were observed. Each unit increase in ln-transformed VOC metabolite levels was significantly associated with 5.5-32% increase in ln-transformed 8-OHdG level. Moreover, each unit increase in ln-transformed 8-OHdG level was associated with an 896% increased odd ratios (OR) of asthma in children (OR = 9.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 4.75, 20.9), indicating that oxidative stress induced by VOCs exposure may have a significant impact on childhood asthma. Urinary 3-&4-Methylhippuric acid (3-&4-MHA, OR: 5.78, 95% CI: 3.50, 9.54), rac 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA, OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.69, 4.99) and N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA, OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.73, 4.43) which may derive from m/p-xylene, cyanide and 1,3-butadiene exposure, respectively, could significantly and maximally increase the odds of asthma. Interestingly, they also had the strongest associations with 8-OHdG among all investigated VOC metabolites. Moreover, DHBMA strongly correlated with most VOC metabolites. Hence, DHBMA is a suitable biomarker to indicate not only VOCs exposure profile, but also the DNA damage-mediated asthma induced by VOCs.


Assuntos
Asma/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/urina , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/urina , Asma/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Biológico , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Cotinina/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(12): 127009, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic and cadmium are known cardiovascular toxicants that pose disproportionate risk to rural communities where environmental exposures are high. American Indians have high vascular risk, which may be attributable in part to these exposures. OBJECTIVE: We examined urine metal concentrations in association with magnetic resonance imaging findings of vascular brain injury or cerebral atrophy in adult American Indians. METHODS: We measured arsenic and cadmium in American Indian participants from the Strong Heart Study (1989-1991) and evaluated these associations with later (2010-2013) measures of infarct, hemorrhage, white matter hyperintensity (WMH) grade, brain and hippocampal volume, and sulcal and ventricle atrophy using nested multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Among participants with available data (N=687), the median urine arsenic:creatinine ratio was 7.54µg/g [interquartile range (IQR): 4.90-11.93] and the cadmium:creatinine ratio was 0.96µg/g (IQR: 0.61-1.51). Median time between metal measurement and brain imaging was 21 y (range: 18-25 y). Statistical models detected significant associations between arsenic and higher burden of WMH [grade increase=0.014 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.028) per 10% increase in arsenic]; and between cadmium and presence of lacunar infarcts [relative risk (RR)=1.024 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.045) per 10% increase in cadmium]. DISCUSSION: This population-based cohort of American Indian elders had measured values of urine arsenic and cadmium several times higher than previous population- and clinic-based studies in the United States and Mexico, and comparable values with European industrial workers. Our findings of associations for arsenic and cadmium exposures with vascular brain injury are consistent with established literature. Environmental toxicant accumulation is modifiable; public health policy may benefit from focusing on reductions in environmental metals. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6930.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Creatinina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 97, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organophosphate esters (OPEs)-used as flame retardants and plasticizers-are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as reduced fecundity and live births and increased preterm delivery. OPEs may interfere with growth and metabolism via endocrine-disruption, but few studies have investigated endocrine-related outcomes. The objective of this pilot study (n = 56 mother-infant pairs) was to evaluate associations of OPEs with gestational weight gain (GWG), gestational age at delivery, infant anthropometry, and infant feeding behaviors. METHODS: We quantified OPE metabolites (bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate [BCEP], bis (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate [BDCPP], diphenyl phosphate [DPHP]) in pooled maternal spot urine collected throughout pregnancy (~ 12, 28, and 35 weeks' gestation). We obtained maternal sociodemographic characteristics from questionnaires administered at enrollment and perinatal characteristics from medical record abstraction. Trained research assistants measured infant weight, length, head and abdominal circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses at birth and 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers reported infant feeding behavior via the Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire (BEBQ). Using multiple linear regression, we assessed associations of log2-transformed maternal urinary OPE metabolites with GWG, gestational age at delivery, infant anthropometry at birth, weekly growth rate, and BEBQ scores at 6 weeks postpartum. We used linear mixed effects (LME) models to analyze overall infant anthropometry during the first 6 weeks of life. Additionally, we considered effect modification by infant sex. RESULTS: We observed weak positive associations between all OPE metabolites and GWG. In LME models, BDCPP was associated with increased infant length (ß = 0.44 cm, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.87) and weight in males (ß = 0.14 kg, 95%CI = 0.03, 0.24). BDCPP was also associated with increased food responsiveness (ß = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.06, 0.40). DPHP was inversely associated with infant abdominal circumference (ß = - 0.50 cm, 95%CI = - 0.86, - 0.14) and female weight (ß = - 0.19 kg, 95%CI = - 0.36, - 0.02), but positively associated with weekly growth in iliac skinfold thickness (ß = 0.10 mm/wk., 95%CI = 0.02, 0.19). Further, DPHP was weakly associated with increased feeding speed. BCEP was associated with greater infant thigh skinfold thickness (ß = 0.34 mm, 95%CI = 0.16, 0.52) and subscapular skinfold thickness in males (ß = 0.14 mm, 95%CI = 0.002, 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that select OPEs may affect infant anthropometry and feeding behavior, with the most compelling evidence for BDCPP and DPHP.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Idade Gestacional , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/efeitos dos fármacos , Recém-Nascido/fisiologia , Exposição Materna , Organofosfatos/urina , Adulto , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres/urina , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Rhode Island , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111039, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) exposure has been linked to atherosclerosis. Co-exposure of these two heavy metals often occurs in humans. Recent evidence has indicated a crucial role of DNA methylation in atherosclerosis, while Pb or Cd exposure has also been shown to alter DNA methylation. However, it is still unknown whether DNA methylation plays a role in the pathological mechanism of these two heavy metals in atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We enrolled 738 participants (12-30 years) to investigate the association among concentrations of urine Pb or Cd, the 5mdC/dG value (a global DNA methylation marker) and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). When each heavy metal was modeled separately, the results showed urine Pb and Cd concentrations were positively associated with the 5mdC/dG value and CIMT, respectively. When the two heavy metals were analyzed in the same model, urinary Pb concentrations were positively associated with the 5mdC/dG value and CIMT, while urinary Cd concentrations were only positively associated with the CIMT. When Pb and Cd are simultaneously considered in the same logistic regression model, the odds ratios (OR) of thicker CIMT (greater than 75th percentile) with one unit increase in ln-Pb level was 1.67 (95% C.I. = 1.17-2.46, P = 0.005) when levels of 5mdC/dG were above 50th percentile, which is higher than 5mdC/dG bellow the 50th percentile (OR = 1.50 (95% C.I. = 0.96-2.35), P = 0.076). In structural equation model (SEM), Pb or Cd levels are directly associated with CIMT. Moreover, Pb or Cd had an indirect association with CIMT through the 5mdC/dG. When we considered Pb and Cd together, Pb levels had a direct association with CIMT and an indirect association with CIMT through the 5mdC/dG value, while Cd only had a direct association with CIMT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings imply that Pb and Cd exposure might be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, and global DNA methylation might mediate Pb-associated subclinical atherosclerosis in this young population. Future effort is necessary to elucidate the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cádmio/urina , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Metilação de DNA , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Chumbo/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 4-12, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736004

RESUMO

Nephrotoxicity is within the recognized toxic effects of arsenic. In this study we assessed the effect of arsenite on the renal capacity to metabolize and handle arsenicals in rats exposed to drinking water with 0, 1, 5, or 10 ppm sodium arsenite for ten days. Arsenite treatment did not affect the gene expression of the main enzyme catalyzing methylation of arsenite, As3mt, while it reduced the expression of GSTO1 mRNA and protein. Arsenite decreased the expression of Aqp3, Mrp1, Mrp4, and Mdr1b (i.e., transporters and channels used by arsenic), but not that of Aqp7, Glut1, Mrp2, and Mdr1a. The protein abundance of AQP3 was also reduced by arsenite. Arsenite increased urinary NGAL and FABP3 and decreased Klotho plasma levels, without alteration of creatinine, which evidenced early tubular damage. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein expressions were also downregulated, which may exacerbate renal damage. No effect was observed in selected miRNAs putatively associated with renal injury. Plasma PTH and FGF23 were similar between groups, but arsenite decreased the renal expression of Fgfr1 mRNA. In conclusion, exposure to arsenite alters the gene expression of proteins involved in the cellular handling of arsenical species and elicits tubular damage.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Compostos de Sódio/toxicidade , Animais , Arsenitos/sangue , Arsenitos/urina , Transporte Biológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Compostos de Sódio/sangue , Compostos de Sódio/urina
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629575

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the association of urinary phenol concentration and blood biochemical indices in coke oven workers. Methods: From April to may 2019, we investigated 771 employing coke oven workers from a coke plant in Taiyuan city, and categorized into benzene-exposed group (n=402) and control group (n=369) based on their benzene exposures in workplace and urophenol concentrations. All subjects were interviewed face-to-face using a questionnaire including name, age (year) , gender, smoking and drinking habits, personal vocational history, working length (year) , and occupational protection, etc. Post-shift urine samples detected using a gas chromatography-hydrogen flame ionization detector. Fasting venous blood was drawn in the morning and centrifuged, the separated serum were detected the following items using an automatic blood biochemistry analyzer. Covariance and multiple linear regression were used to test the association of urinary phenol concentration and the levels of all the blood biochemical indices. Results: The subjects were predominantly males (n=719, 93.3%) , with an average age of (42.3±8.2) years and an average working length of (20.6±8.2) years. Compared with the control group, the benzene-exposed group were significantly different in age, working length of years, gender, smoking and drinking habits (P<0.05) . The median (interquartile interval) concentration of urinary phenol was 6.00 (0.00-33.00) µg/ml in the benzene-exposed group, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05) . Covariance analysis indicated that the fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and high density cholesterol in the benzene-exposed group were significantly reduced compared with the control group, yet the serum creatinine, serum uric acid and triglyceride were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Multiple linear regression showed that, an increase of each natural logarithm (Ln) transformed urinary phenol concentration was significantly associated with increases in serum uric acid level [9.82 (95%CI: 2.18-17.47) µmol/L] and cholesterol level[0.10 (95%CI:0.00-0.20) mmol/L]. An increase of each Ln-transformed accumulated benzene exposure levels was significantly associated with an increase in total cholesterol level[0.09 (95%CI: 0.01-0.17) mmol/L]. Conclusion: Occupational benzene exposure is possibly related to the variation of purine and total cholesterol metabolism in coke oven workers.


Assuntos
Coque , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fenol/urina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis , Pirenos/análise , Ácido Úrico
8.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 107-117, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615245

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess phthalate exposure of non-occupationally exposed working aged population in Finland. Studied phthalates included diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Sample collection campaign took place in 2015. Metabolites of DEP, DnBP and DiBP were detected in all the first morning void urine samples of the non-occupationally exposed volunteers (n = 60; 42 women and 18 men; aged 25-63). Metabolite of BBP and secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were detected in >90% of the samples. MCHP (1.7%), MEHP (18.3%), cx-MiNP (8.3%) and MnOP (1.7%) were less frequently detected. MiNP and OH-MPHP were not detected in any of the urine samples. The observed levels were mostly comparable to the levels published in the adult population in Europe and the US. One notable difference was the observed higher exposure of the Finnish study population to DnBP in comparison to the German, Austrian, Norwegian and US populations. The levels of individual phthalates did not often correlate very well with each other. In most cases, higher exposure to phthalates was seen in females in comparison to males, which is in accordance with other studies. The urinary levels were compared to the biomonitoring equivalents (BEs), which were calculated on the basis of published DNELs (derived no-effect levels). The P95 levels of individual phthalates remained below the respective BEs, the highest risk characterization ratio (RCR) being 0.88 for DnBP and the second highest 0.34 for DiBP. For other phthalates, the RCRs were below 0.2. Using the P95 levels, combined exposure to DnBP, DiBP, DEHP and BBP resulted in risk characterization ratio exceeding 1. This suggests a need to limit the exposure to these phthalates.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Biotransformação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610666

RESUMO

Environmentally acquired lead and cadmium are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. In the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy, up to 40 infusions with edetate disodium over an approximately one-year period lowered the cardiovascular disease risk in patients with a prior myocardial infarction. We assessed whether a reduction in surrogate measures of total body lead and cadmium, post-edetate disodium urine lead and pre-edetate urine cadmium, could be detected after repeated edetate disodium-based infusions compared to the baseline. Fourteen patients with coronary artery disease received multiple open-label edetate disodium infusions. The urine metals pre- and post-edetate infusion, normalized for urine creatinine, were compared to urine levels pre and post final infusion by a paired t-test. Compared with the pre-edetate values, post-edetate urine lead and cadmium increased by 3581% and 802%, respectively, after the first infusion. Compared to baseline, post-edetate lead decreased by 36% (p = 0.0004). A reduction in post-edetate urine lead was observed in 84% of the patients after the final infusion. Pre-edetate lead decreased by 60% (p = 0.003). Pre-edetate lead excretion became undetectable in nearly 40% of patients. This study suggests that edetate disodium-based infusions may decrease the total body burden of lead. However, our data suggest no significant reduction in the body burden of cadmium.


Assuntos
Terapia por Quelação , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Metais/urina , Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Edético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110749, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies on the correlation between phthalate exposure and elderly obesity in China are available. The purpose of the present study is to assess phthalate exposure levels and explore the connections between exposure to phthalates and obesity using a sample of Chinese community-dwelling elderly individuals. METHODS: Data were acquired from the baseline survey of the Cohort of Health of Elderly and Controllable Factors of Environment, which was established in Lu'an, Anhui province, China, from June to September in 2016. Urine samples were obtained to analyze the concentrations of seven phthalate metabolites, utilizing a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. General obesity was determined based on body mass index, and abdominal obesity based on waist circumference. Binary logistic regression models were utilized to analyze the associations of creatinine-corrected phthalate metabolite concentrations (categorized into quartiles) with general and abdominal obesity in elderly people. Moreover, a stratified analysis was performed to explore the difference between genders. RESULTS: Of 942 elderly individuals, 52.9% were defined as generally obese and 75.5% as abdominally obese. The detection rates of seven phthalate metabolites ranged from 90.07% to 99.80%. The highest median concentration was 44.08 µg/l (for MBP), and the lowest was 0.55 µg/l (for MEHP). The level of exposure to LMW(low-molecular-weight) PAEs is higher than that to HMW(high-molecular-weight) PAEs. After adjustment for confounding variables, we found a significant association between urinary MEOHP (mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate), MEHP (mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), MBP (mono-n-butyl phthalate), MEP (mono-ethyl phthalate), and MMP (mono-methyl phthalate) levels and general obesity. MBP levels were also correlated with abdominal obesity. When stratified by gender, higher urinary levels of MEOHP, MBP, MEP, and MMP were associated with general obesity in males, whereas MBP and MMP levels were eminently correlated with general obesity in females. Higher urinary MBP levels were associated with increased abdominal obesity rates in males, but not in females. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, higher phthalate metabolite concentrations were correlated with obesity in the elderly. Moreover, a gender difference was observed in these associations.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 195-207, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572517

RESUMO

Parabens are widely used as preservatives in personal care products, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential endocrine disruption effects of parabens. In the present study, the urinary concentration of four common parabens, including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP), in 100 Iranian adolescents randomly referring to health services centres were analyzed using GC/MS. The association of sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, collected through questionnaire, with the concentration of parabens also were studied. Median concentrations of MP, EP, PP, and BP were 92.21, 8.46, 12.26, and 8.42 µg/g creatinine, respectively. There was a strong positive significant correlation between MP and PP (r = 0.694) and moderate to a weak correlation between the other parabens. The concentration of urinary MP in females was significantly higher than those in male (p = 0.021). There was a significant negative association between different BMI groups and MP and EP. There also was a positive significant association between the MP and age, and between MP, EP, and PP, and tobacco use. Although the estimated daily intake of the parabens was lower than the Acceptable Daily Intake, it was higher than those reported in other countries. This confirms the widespread exposure of Iranian adolescents to the paraben compounds and their association with sociodemographic factors. This was the first study reporting the urinary parabens level in Iranian adolescents, and the data can be used as a basis for assessing the risk of exposure to parabens in the Iranian population in future studies.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Parabenos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Cosméticos/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Parabenos/análise , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/metabolismo
12.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(7): 655-668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378977

RESUMO

An analytical procedure has been introduced to enable a study of the excretion of free bisphenol A (BPA), total BPA and its main metabolite bisphenol A glucuronide (BPA-GLUC). In the experiment, in which 100 µg/kg b. w. BPA was administered daily to one Istrian Pramenka sheep for 5 days with consecutive urine and feces samples being taken, BPA and total BPA were determined in samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Because of their good recovery, precision, and sensitivity, the methods have also proved applicable to further ecotoxicological studies of free BPA, BPA-GLUC and total BPA. The results were subsequently compared with reported field studies of BPA in livestock excreta.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fezes/química , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/análise , Administração Oral , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Fluorescência , Glucuronídeos/análise , Glucuronídeos/urina , Injeções Subcutâneas , Fenóis/urina , Ovinos
13.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 55, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are synthetic chemicals used as flame retardants and plasticizers in a variety of goods. Despite ubiquitous human exposures and laboratory evidence that prenatal OPE exposures may disrupt offspring metabolism, perinatal studies of OPE health effects are limited. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Determine predictors and reproducibility of urinary OPE biomarker concentrations during pregnancy, and 2) Estimate the relation of prenatal OPE exposures with birth outcomes and cord blood adipokine and insulin concentrations. METHODS: We analyzed five OPE metabolites in urine samples collected at up to three visits during pregnancy from 90 women enrolled in the ORigins of Child Health And Resilience in Development (ORCHARD) pregnancy cohort in Baltimore, MD from 2017 to 2019. To quantify the variability of metabolite concentrations during pregnancy, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for each metabolite using mixed effects regression models. Using self-reported questionnaire data collected during gestation, we assessed possible sociodemographic and environmental/behavioral predictors of each OPE metabolite using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated exposure measures. We ascertained birth outcomes of 76 offspring from medical records, including weight-for-gestational age, length, ponderal index, and gestational age. In a subset of 37 infants, we measured cord blood concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and insulin. To account for repeated exposure measures, we used linear structural equation models to assess the relations of standard deviation (SD) increases in prenatal OPE metabolite factor scores with continuous birth outcomes and cord blood biomarker concentrations. RESULTS: ICCs ranged from 0.09 for isopropylphenyl-phenyl phosphate (ip-PPP) to 0.59 for bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP). We observed little consistency in environmental or behavioral predictors of OPE exposures, although concentrations were generally lower for samples collected in the afternoon compared to morning and winter compared to other seasons. In adjusted analyses, a SD increase in BDCIPP concentration was associated with a 0.06 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.12) greater ponderal index. A SD increase in BDCIPP was associated with a 0.37 (95% CI: - 0.62, - 0.13) SD lower insulin concentration and 0.24 (95% CI: - 0.39, - 0.08) SD lower leptin concentration. Other OPEs were not associated with infant outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest some OPEs may be metabolic disruptors warranting investigation in larger studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ésteres/urina , Sangue Fetal/química , Organofosfatos/urina , Gravidez/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Baltimore , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126340, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135373

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during early life may increase risk of childhood obesity, however, prospective evidence of birth cohort is limited and inconclusive. We aimed to explore the associations of maternal and childhood BPA exposure with child adiposity measures, including body mass index, waist circumference and skinfold thickness and waist to height ratio of children at 7 years. 430 mother-child pairs were examined from a population-based prospective cohort in a rural area of East China. BPA concentrations of spot urine samples were quantified in mothers and their children aged 3 and 7 years. Maternal urinary BPA concentration was significantly positively associated with waist circumference in children aged 7 years (ß = 0.508 cm, 95% CI: 0.067, 0.950). These significant associations were not modified by child sex, but they were only observed among girls in sex-stratified analyses. Risk of central obesity related to prenatal BPA exposure was significantly higher in the second and the third tertile than those in the first tertile (odds ratio, OR = 2.510, 95% CI = 1.146, 5.499; OR = 2.584, 95% CI = 1.186, 5.631, respectively; p for trend = 0.022). The present findings suggested that prenatal exposure to BPA may enhance waist circumference of children and thereby increase risk of central obesity in school-age girls.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Fenóis/urina , Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149559

RESUMO

Chronic cadmium exposure and its effect on cardiovascular-related markers were explored in the cross-sectional study of U.S. adults using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data. Cardiovascular-related markers, such as LDL cholesterol mg/dL (LDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol mg/dL (non-HDL-C), triglycerides mg/dL (TG), c-reactive protein mg/dL (CRP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase U/L (GGT) were explored in relation to urine cadmium level µg/L (UCL). The variables and their relation to UCL µg/L were explored both as continuous and categorical variables using linear and logistic regression models and basic descriptive statistics. Geometric Mean values of the markers of interest were statistically significantly more elevated in middle-aged adults (45-65 years) as compared to younger adults (18-44 years). In linear regression analysis, CRP mg/dL, LDL-C mg/dL, non-HDL-C mg/dL, and GGT U/L levels were significantly associated with UCLs mg/dL after adjusting for confounding variables. In binary logistic regression models, young and middle-aged adults chronically exposed to cadmium were significantly more likely to have elevated CRP mg/dL levels. This study suggests that chronic exposure to cadmium alters cardiovascular-related markers in middle-aged adults more so than younger adults, which calls for early public health intervention to limit cadmium exposure in the U.S.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Cádmio/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110445, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure has been shown to be a risk factor for many diseases. However, studies on the association between PAHs exposure and kidney disease are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the association between urinary PAHs and albuminuria based on a national representative sample from the general U.S. METHOD: The data utilized were extracted from the 2003-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Eight urinary PAHs were detected as PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association between urinary OH-PAHs and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). All models were adjusted for confounding demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors. RESULT: A total of 8149 NHANES (2003-2014) participants with complete data were eligible. Compared with the lowest quartile, an increased prevalence of high ACR level (>3 mg/mmol) was observed in the participants with the highest quartile of 2-hydroxynaphthalene [OR (95% CI), 1.56 (1.28-1.90), P < 0.001], 3-hydroxyfluorene [OR (95% CI), 1.29 (1.06-1.58), P = 0.011] and 2-hydroxyfluorene [OR (95% CI), 1.47 (1.20-1.80), P < 0.001] levels after adjusting for confounding factors. In subgroup analysis, significantly high OH-PAHs leveland a strong relationship between OH-PAHs and ACR were observed in current smokers in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: High levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively associated with high levels of ACR in the U.S. POPULATION: Our finding provided evidence that PAHs exposure might potentially be related to albuminuria and therefore might have implications for environmental governance and prevention/treatment of this condition.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Adulto , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/urina , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Int ; 137: 105534, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007687

RESUMO

Exposure to phthalates is a public health concern. In this study, we collected both urine and wastewater samples from 2012 to 2017 and analysed for 14 phthalate metabolites to assess human exposure to phthalates in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), and for associations between phthalate metabolites in urine and wastewater samples. Twenty-four pooled urine samples were prepared from 2400 individual specimens every two years (stratified by age, gender and collection year). Wastewater samples were collected from the three major wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing locations in the SEQ region including a regional city, part of the state capital city and a third major urban WWTP in the region. Over the period, decreases for most phthalate metabolites, i.e. mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and monomethyl phthalate (MMP), but an increase in monoethyl phthalate (MEP, particularly in young children) were observed in urine. In general, temporal changes were smaller in urine pools representing older age groups. We also found substantial variation in per capita mass loads of phthalate metabolites between samples from the three WWTPs with generally higher concentrations of most phthalates in the metropolitan areas. Per capita mass loads of most phthalate metabolites in wastewater were higher than would be expected from the per-capita excretion in urine, suggesting there are additional sources contributing to the majority of the observed phthalate metabolites in wastewater. For MEHHP and MEOHP we estimate that the urinary excretion accounts for a substantial fraction (average about 50%) of the mass load observed in the wastewater hence wastewater data may provide useful for monitoring trends in exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dibutilftalato , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Queensland , Águas Residuárias , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Res ; 182: 109112, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069740

RESUMO

Traditional food consumption for Indigenous peoples is associated with improved nutrition and health but can also pose potential risks via exposure to contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds of interest due to their widespread presence (e.g., their metabolites are detected in up to 100% of the Canadian population) and their toxicological potential. To better understand the range of exposures faced by Indigenous populations in northern Canada and to address a contaminant of emerging concern identified by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, a multi-year biomonitoring study investigated levels of PAH exposure in subarctic First Nations communities of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Secondary data analysis of banked samples from a subset of the cross-sectional study was done. PAHs and cotinine markers in the urine samples (n = 97) of participants from two regions from the Mackenzie Valley (Dehcho and Sahtú) was completed by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Also, participants completed a 24-hr recall food survey. When compared according to age/sex categories, the GM of several biomarkers (1-hydroxypyrene, 1-naphthol, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-naphthol, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene) appeared higher than observed for the general Canadian population. The PAHs levels observed were, however, below clinical levels associated with adverse health outcomes. Altogether, these elevated biomarkers are metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene. Statistically significant non-parametric associations were observed between several biomarkers and i) the consumption of cooked meat in the last 24 h; and, ii) smoking status (self-reported status and adjusted on urine cotinine level). This work is the first to report PAH levels in a northern Canadian population and provides local baseline data for monitoring the effects of changes to climate and lifestyle over time. These findings will support regional and territorial decision makers in identifying environmental health priorities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Regiões Árticas , Biomarcadores , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Territórios do Noroeste , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940982

RESUMO

Among the possible risk factors for male reproduction, exposure to phthalates and alkylphenols is widely documented. This study evaluated the possible association between chemical exposure and the quality of the seminal fluid of 105 subjects in a fertility clinic. The urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites (monoethylphthalate, MEP; monobenzylphthalate, MBzP; mono n-butylphthalate, MnBP; mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, MEHP; mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, MEHHP; mono-n-octylphthalate, MnOP; mono-isononylphthalate, MiNP) and bisphenol A (BPA), were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry HPLC/MS/MS. The regression analysis showed that the semen volume was positively associated with MnBP, MnOP and BPA levels while was negatively associated with MiNP levels. The sperm concentration had a significant inverse relationship with MEP levels. A negative association was found between the use of plastic containers for food storage (p = 0.037) and semen volume (3.06 vs. 2.30 mL as average values, never vs daily). A significant positive correlation emerged (p < 0.005) between the consumption of canned food and the levels of BPA (2.81 vs. 0.14 µg/g creat as average values, daily vs. never) and between the use of perfumes and levels of MEP (389.86 vs. 48.68 µg/g creat, as average values, daily vs. never). No further statistically significant associations were found, even considering the working activity. Some evidence emerged about the possible link between exposure and seminal fluid quality: further case/control or prospective studies will allow us to confirm this causality hypothesis.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto , Idoso , Monitoramento Biológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906553

RESUMO

Many California nail salon workers are low-income Vietnamese women of reproductive age who use nail products daily that contain androgen-disrupting phthalates, which may increase risk of male reproductive tract abnormalities during pregnancy. Yet, few studies have characterized phthalate exposures among this workforce. To characterize individual metabolites and cumulative phthalates exposure among a potentially vulnerable occupational group of nail salon workers, we collected 17 post-shift urine samples from Vietnamese workers at six San Francisco Bay Area nail salons in 2011, which were analyzed for four primary phthalate metabolites: mono-n-butyl-, mono-isobutyl-, mono(2-Ethylhexyl)-, and monoethyl phthalates (MnBP, MiBP, MEHP, and MEP, respectively; µg/L). Phthalate metabolite concentrations and a potency-weighted sum of parent compound daily intake (Σandrogen-disruptor, µg/kg/day) were compared to 203 Asian Americans from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) using Student's t-test and Wilcoxin signed rank test. Creatinine-corrected MnBP, MiBP, MEHP (µg/g), and cumulative phthalates exposure (Σandrogen-disruptor, µg/kg/day) levels were 2.9 (p < 0.0001), 1.6 (p = 0.015), 2.6 (p < 0.0001), and 2.0 (p < 0.0001) times higher, respectively, in our nail salon worker population compared to NHANES Asian Americans. Levels exceeded the NHANES 95th or 75th percentiles among some workers. This pilot study suggests that nail salon workers are disproportionately exposed to multiple phthalates, a finding that warrants further investigation to assess their potential health significance.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria da Beleza/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , São Francisco , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
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