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1.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 117-121, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965261

RESUMO

The state of environmental hygiene of the urban dwelling environment plays a great role in the population health formation. The atmospheric air pollutants are among the principal factors affecting the immune system and provoking the development of a whole series of diseases. A wide distribution in a risk assessment system has gained a bio-monitoring methodology-based analysis for detecting toxic substances in human bio-substrates. For this purpose, a hair microelement analysis was conducted by an X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry technique to detect the content of lead in the bodies of children living in Tbilisi City under different conditions of environmental hygiene (according to the atmospheric air pollution degree). The average content of lead in the body of the children under study (according to hair analysis results) was found to be less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC). At that, the content of lead in the children of the experimental group is 2,6-times more as compared with the control group, which is statistically reliable (Р<0,005). A strong dependence of the body lead content dynamics on the state of air pollution with toxic substances in the dwelling areas of the children under study was found. The obtained results should be considered as one of the grounds for developing complex measures aimed at improving the large city environment, in particular the state of its atmospheric air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237325, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810134

RESUMO

Recent research has shown relationships between health outcomes and residence proximity to unconventional oil and natural gas development (UOGD). The challenge of connecting health outcomes to environmental stressors requires ongoing research with new methodological approaches. We investigated UOGD density and well emissions and their association with symptom reporting by residents of southwest Pennsylvania. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 104 unique, de-identified health assessments completed from 2012-2017 by residents living in proximity to UOGD. A novel approach to comparing estimates of exposure was taken. Generalized linear modeling was used to ascertain the relationship between symptom counts and estimated UOGD exposure, while Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN) was used to identify associations between individual symptoms and estimated UOGD exposure. We used three estimates of exposure: cumulative well density (CWD), inverse distance weighting (IDW) of wells, and annual emission concentrations (AEC) from wells within 5 km of respondents' homes. Taking well emissions reported to the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, an air dispersion and screening model was used to estimate an emissions concentration at residences. When controlling for age, sex, and smoker status, each exposure estimate predicted total number of reported symptoms (CWD, p<0.001; IDW, p<0.001; AEC, p<0.05). Akaike information criterion values revealed that CWD was the better predictor of adverse health symptoms in our sample. Two groups of symptoms (i.e., eyes, ears, nose, throat; neurological and muscular) constituted 50% of reported symptoms across exposures, suggesting these groupings of symptoms may be more likely reported by respondents when UOGD intensity increases. Our results do not confirm that UOGD was the direct cause of the reported symptoms but raise concern about the growing number of wells around residential areas. Our approach presents a novel method of quantifying exposures and relating them to reported health symptoms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Gás Natural/efeitos adversos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Adulto , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania , Estudos Retrospectivos , Níveis Máximos Permitidos
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38491-38500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767014

RESUMO

There are inconsistent reports on the association between air pollution and cancers. This systematic review was, therefore, conducted to ascertain the relationship between air pollution and some cancers. This is a systematic review study, which all articles published in this area were extracted from January 1, 1950 to December 31, 2018 from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Google scholar. Searching was performed independently by two search-method experts. The required data were extracted from the articles by an author-made questionnaire. Forty-eight articles were investigated. Evidence linking air pollution to some cancers is limited. Leukemia had the highest association with exposure to various air pollutants and bladder cancer had the lowest association. It is noteworthy that the specific type of pollutants in all studies was not specified. Based on the findings, the results are contradictory, and the role of air pollution in some cancers cannot be supported. Accordingly, studies are recommended to be performed at the individual level or multifactorial studies to specifically investigate the relationship between air pollution and these types of cancers. In this way, the role of air pollution in the incidence of these cancers can be determined more accurately.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
4.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(8): 608-614, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847336

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the short-term effects of ambient PM2.5 on the outpatient visits of allergic conjunctivitis among children in Shenzhen. Methods: It was a ecological study. Data on daily visits including date of visit, sex and age from children with allergic conjunctivitis were collected from Shenzhen Eye Hospital and Shenzhen Children's Hospital in 2018. Related data on air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) and meteorology (atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity) were also collected. Pearson correlation analysis was used for normal distribution data and Spearman rank correlation analysis was used for non-normal distribution data. Generalized additive model was used to estimate the impact of PM2.5 pollution on allergic conjunctivitis outpatients and the lagging effects. Results: In 2018, there were 16 133 allergic conjunctivitis outpatients in the two hospitals. The maximum age was 18 years and the minimum age was 2 months. Males accounted for 49.3%. The daily average concentration of PM2.5 was 22 (15, 31) µg/m3. Changes of the concentration of PM2.5 had a positive correlation with the amount of allergic conjunctivitis visits, and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.150 (P=0.004). The single pollutant model showed that the strongest effect appeared at 3 days (RR=1.111, 95%CI:1.071-1.152). A 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 would result in an excessive number of allergic conjunctivitis outpatients as much as 11.112% (95%CI:7.011%-15.212%). In the multiple air pollutants models, after the introduction of NO2, O3 and CO, the concentration of PM2.5 showed an enhanced effect on the number of hospital visits due to allergic conjunctivitis on the same day, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of the concentration of PM2.5 had a positive correlation with daily outpatient visits of allergic conjunctivitis among children in Shenzhen. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 608-614).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Conjuntivite Alérgica , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
5.
BMJ ; 370: m2791, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors (air pollution and family related) for the onset of asthma and persistent wheezing in children. DESIGN: Nationwide case-control study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish children born from 1997 to 2014 and followed for asthma onset and persistent wheezing from age 1 year to 15 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Onset of asthma and persistent wheezing. RESULTS: A higher incidence of asthma was found in children of parents with asthma (adjusted hazard ratio 2.29 (95% confidence interval 2.22 to 2.35) and mothers who smoked during pregnancy (1.20, 1.18 to 1.22), whereas a lower incidence was found in children of parents with high educational attainment (0.72, 0.69 to 0.75) and high incomes (0.85, 0.81 to 0.89). Exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrate was associated with an increased risk of asthma and persistent wheezing, with hazard ratios per 5 µg/m3 increase in pollutant concentrations 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for PM2.5, 1.04 (1.02 to 1.06) for PM10, and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.04) for nitrogen dioxide. Only the positive association of PM2.5 with asthma and persistent wheezing remained robust across the different models and in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that children exposed to higher levels of PM2.5 are more likely to develop asthma and persistent wheezing than children who are not exposed. Other risk factors associated with these outcomes were parental asthma, parental education, and maternal smoking during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Sons Respiratórios , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
6.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 90, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in early life, including pneumonia, bronchitis and bronchiolitis, can lead to decreased lung function, persistent lung damage and increased susceptibility to various respiratory diseases such as asthma. In-utero exposure to particulate matter (PM) during pregnancy may disrupt biological mechanisms that regulate fetal growth, maturation and development. We aimed to estimate the association between intrauterine exposure to PM of size < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and incidence of LRTIs during the first year of life. METHODS: A retrospective population-based cohort study in a population of mothers and infants born in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC) in the years 2004-2012. All infants < 1 year old that were hospitalized due to LRTIs were included. The main exposure assessment was based on a hybrid model incorporating daily satellite-based predictions at 1 km2 spatial resolution. Data from monitoring stations was used for imputation of main exposure and other pollutants. Levels of environmental exposures were assigned to subjects based on their residential addresses and averaged for each trimester. Analysis was conducted by a multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) Poisson regression. Data was analyzed separately for the two main ethnic groups in the region, Jewish and Arab-Bedouin. RESULTS: The study cohort included 57,331 deliveries that met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 1871 hospitalizations of infants < 1 year old due to pneumonia or bronchiolitis were documented. In a multivariable analysis, intrauterine exposure to high levels of PM2.5 (> 24 µg/m3) in the first and second trimesters was found to be adversely associated with LRTIs in the Arab-Bedouin population (1st trimester, RR = 1.31, CI 95% 1.08-1.60; 2nd trimester: RR = 1.34, CI 95% 1.09-1.66). CONCLUSION: Intrauterine exposure to high levels of PM2.5 is associated with a higher risk of hospitalizations due to lower respiratory tract infections in Arab-Bedouin infants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Infecções Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140982, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736106

RESUMO

Poor indoor air quality in scholar environments have been frequently reported, but its impact on respiratory health in schoolchildren has not been sufficiently explored. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the associations between children's exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) in nursery and primary schools and childhood asthma. Multivariate models (independent and multipollutant) quantified the associations of children's exposure with asthma-related health outcomes: reported active wheezing, reported and diagnosed asthma, and lung function (reduced FEV1/FVC and reduced FEV1). A microenvironmental modelling approach estimated individual inhaled exposure to major indoor air pollutants (CO2, CO, formaldehyde, NO2, O3, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) in nursery and primary schools from both urban and rural sites in northern Portugal. Questionnaires and medical tests (spirometry pre- and post-bronchodilator) were used to obtain information on health outcomes and to diagnose asthma following the newest international clinical guidelines. After testing children for aeroallergen sensitisation, multinomial models estimated the effect of exposure to particulate matter on asthma in sensitised individuals. The study population were 1530 children attending nursery and primary schools, respectively 648 pre-schoolers (3-5 years old) and 882 primary school children (6-10 years old). This study found no evidence of a significant association between IAP in nursery and primary schools and the prevalence of childhood asthma. However, reported active wheezing was associated with higher NO2, and reduced FEV1 was associated with higher O3 and PM2.5, despite NO2 and O3 in schools were always below the 200 µg m-3 threshold from WHO and National legislation, respectively. Moreover, sensitised children to common aeroallergens were more likely to have asthma during childhood when exposed to particulate matter in schools. These findings support the urgent need for mitigation measures to reduce IAP in schools, reducing its burden to children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Portugal/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 140915, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745847

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests air pollutants may harm the central nervous system, potentially impacting mental health. However, such impacts of air pollutants on mental health and the sub-populations most affected remain poorly understood, especially in California. We examined the relationship between short-term ambient carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and mental health-related emergency department (ED) visits in California from 2005 to 2013. Daily mean concentrations of the pollutants were acquired from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System Data Mart ground monitoring data. Moving averages of pollutant concentrations were linked to counts of ED visits obtained from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. Seven mental health outcomes, defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, were studied: all mental disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, homicide/inflicted injury, and suicide/self-harm. Monitor-level associations were estimated with quasi-Poisson regression models and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. CO and NO2 were found to be positively associated with ED visits due to homicide/inflicted injury, with the warm season (May-October) driving the CO association. An interquartile range (IQR) (0.28 ppm) increase in two-day average CO during the warm season was associated with a 3.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 4.84) elevation in risk of an ED visit due to homicide/inflicted injury (n = 122,749 ED visits). An IQR (10.79 ppb) increase in two-day average NO2 was associated with a 2.60% (95% CI: 1.17, 4.05) elevation in risk of an ED visit due to homicide/inflicted injury (n = 206,919 ED visits). Subgroup analyses indicated children, Hispanics, and males were particularly vulnerable. Except for an inverse relationship between NO2 and substance abuse, neither pollutant was robustly associated with visits due to other mental health morbidities. Our results suggest short-term elevations in CO and NO2 may promote violent behavior. Further investigation in other populations and ranges of air pollution exposure is warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Óxido Nítrico , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estados Unidos
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 564-573, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608715

RESUMO

In this study, 30 PM2.5 samples were collected from the atmosphere in Changchun City in the autumn of 2017. The concentration and composition characteristics of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis method were used to determine the source of PAHs pollution. The health risk assessment was carried out by both calculating the equivalent carcinogenic concentration of benzo(a)pyrene and the lifetime risk of cancer. Results show that the average PM2.5 concentration in autumn in Changchun is (50.84±12.23) µg·m-3, and the content of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are (17.07±5.64) µg·m-3 and (1.33±0.75) µg·m-3, respectively, accounting for 37% of the total PM2.5. The total concentration of PAHs is (15.69±5.93) ng·m-3, which was dominated by medium- to high-ring-number PAHs, accounting for 84.26% of total PAHs. The atmospheric PAHs in Changchun mainly originate from motor vehicle exhaust emissions (44.48%) > coal combustion (29.16%) > biomass burning (26.36%), local transportation (gasoline vehicles) emissions being the main source of pollution. The average carcinogenic concentration of benzo(a)pyrene is in the range of 1.55 ng·m-3 and 5.38 ng·m-3, and the average carcinogenic equivalent concentration is (6.44±1.53) ng·m-3, which is generally considered a slight pollution level. The ingestion of PAHs by breathing is the most harmful to the health of adult women, followed by adult males and children, however since the lifetime carcinogenic risk value of the entire population did not exceed 1×10-6, their health risks are considered to be at acceptable levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39274-39282, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642903

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence has suggested that ambient air pollution is an increasingly important risk factor for respiratory diseases without assessing its influence on laryngeal neoplasms incidence in China. We constructed two-way fixed effect models and Poisson regression models to explore the effects of ambient air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) on incidence of laryngeal neoplasms in twelve major cities in China over the period 2006-2013. The annual average concentration for PM10, SO2, and NO2 was 107.22 µg/m3, 44.07 µg/m3, and 46.71 µg/m3 with standard deviations of 24.84 µg/m3, 13.68 µg/m3, and 9.19 µg/m3, respectively. We observed that ambient air pollutants were significantly positively correlated with the incidence of laryngeal neoplasms, especially for NO2. The relative risks of overall incidence of laryngeal neoplasms in the current period were 1.20, 1.04, and 1.00 for NO2, SO2, and PM10, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.01-1.43, 0.93-1.16, and 0.96-1.05, respectively. Moreover, this deleterious impact was stronger in the male than in the female, likely due to genetic predisposition caused by longer exposure to more serious air pollution for men. Our findings complement the epidemiological evidence of laryngeal neoplasms due to ambient air pollution and reinforce the necessity of policy efforts to control the noxious air pollution emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias Laríngeas , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Laríngeas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
12.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 48(5): 496-499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636082

RESUMO

In late 2019, a new infectious disease (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China, which has now turned into a global pandemic. Countries around the world have implemented some type of blockade to lessen their infection and mitigate it. The blockade due to COVID-19 has drastic effects on the social and economic fronts. However, recent data released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Copernicus Sentinel-5P Tropomi Instrument and Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) indicate that the pollution in some of the epicenters of COVID-19, such as Wuhan, Italy, Spain, USA, and Brazil, reduced by up to 30%. This study compiled the environmental data released by these centers and discussed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Saúde Global , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores de Risco
15.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(2): 61-67, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558506

RESUMO

Objective: Evaluate the prevalence of asthma risk in subject of 13-14 years old that were exposed to volcanic ash. One year after the eruption of the Calbuco Volcano and in 2 cities with different degrees of exposure. Methods: Cross-sectional study was developed in subjects of 13-14 years old of two Patagonian cities: San Carlos de Bariloche and Cipolletti. The ISAAC questionnaire and video questionnaire was applied to determine asthma risk. Demographic and perception of exposure variables were assessed. Results: 511 subjects were surveyed in both cities. The prevalence of asthma at risk symptoms was higher in Bariloche 14% compared to Cipolletti 10%, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.32). A significant increase in the perception of volcanic ash exposure was reported 14% in Bariloche city vs. 6% in Cipolletti city, p<0.05. Conclusions: After 18 months of volcanic eruption with respiratory ash exposure and the lack of respiratory symptoms difference between two cities with different degree of exposure, this factor may not contribute to have a clinical impact in respiratory health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Erupções Vulcânicas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Argentina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Restor Neurol Neurosci ; 38(4): 343-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597823

RESUMO

Covid-19 is the acute illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 with initial clinical symptoms such as cough, fever, malaise, headache, and anosmia. After entry into cells, corona viruses (CoV) activate aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) by an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1)-independent mechanism, bypassing the IDO1-kynurenine-AhR pathway. The IDO1-kynurenine-AhR signaling pathway is used by multiple viral, microbial and parasitic pathogens to activate AhRs and to establish infections. AhRs enhance their own activity through an IDO1-AhR-IDO1 positive feedback loop prolonging activation induced by pathogens. Direct activation of AhRs by CoV induces immediate and simultaneous up-regulation of diverse AhR-dependent downstream effectors, and this, in turn, results in a "Systemic AhR Activation Syndrome" (SAAS) consisting of inflammation, thromboembolism, and fibrosis, culminating in multiple organ injuries, and death. Activation of AhRs by CoV may lead to diverse sets of phenotypic disease pictures depending on time after infection, overall state of health, hormonal balance, age, gender, comorbidities, but also diet and environmental factors modulating AhRs. We hypothesize that elimination of factors known to up-regulate AhRs, or implementation of measures known to down-regulate AhRs, should decrease severity of infection. Although therapies selectively down-regulating both AhR and IDO1 are currently lacking, medications in clinical use such as dexamethasone may down-regulate both AhR and IDO1 genes, as calcitriol/vitamin D3 may down-regulate the AhR gene, and tocopherol/vitamin E may down-regulate the IDO1 gene. Supplementation of calcitriol should therefore be subjected to epidemiological studies and tested in prospective trials for prevention of CoV infections, as should tocopherol, whereas dexamethasone could be tried in interventional trials. Because lack of physical exercise activates AhRs via the IDO1-kynurenine-AhR signaling pathway increasing risk of infection, physical exercise should be encouraged during quarantines and stay-at-home orders during pandemic outbreaks. Understanding which factors affect gene expression of both AhR and IDO1 may help in designing therapies to prevent and treat humans suffering from Covid-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Exercício Físico , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Fibrose/etiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/biossíntese , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Inflamação/etiologia , Cinurenina/fisiologia , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/biossíntese , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tocoferóis/uso terapêutico
17.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H282-H305, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559138

RESUMO

Ambient air, occupational settings, and the use and distribution of consumer products all serve as conduits for toxicant exposure through inhalation. While the pulmonary system remains a primary target following inhalation exposure, cardiovascular implications are exceptionally culpable for increased morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological evidence for cardiovascular dysfunction resulting from acute or chronic inhalation exposure to particulate matter has been well documented, but the mechanisms driving the resulting disturbances remain elusive. In the current review, we aim to summarize the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are directly linked to cardiovascular health following exposure to a variety of inhaled toxicants. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the biochemical changes in the cardiovascular system following particle inhalation exposure and to highlight potential biomarkers that exist across multiple exposure paradigms. We attempt to integrate these molecular signatures in an effort to provide direction for future investigations. This review also characterizes how molecular responses are modified in at-risk populations, specifically the impact of environmental exposure during critical windows of development. Maternal exposure to particulate matter during gestation can lead to fetal epigenetic reprogramming, resulting in long-term deficits to the cardiovascular system. In both direct and indirect (gestational) exposures, connecting the biochemical mechanisms with functional deficits outlines pathways that can be targeted for future therapeutic intervention. Ultimately, future investigations integrating "omics"-based approaches will better elucidate the mechanisms that are altered by xenobiotic inhalation exposure, identify biomarkers, and guide in clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Reprogramação Celular , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ratos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Res ; 187: 109650, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-271948

RESUMO

Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the outdoor air pollutants that are major factors in diseases, causing especially adverse respiratory effects in humans. On the other hand, the role of respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of severe respiratory infections is an issue of great importance. The present literature review was aimed at assessing the potential effects of air pollutants on the transmission and severity of respiratory viral infections. We have reviewed the scientific literature regarding the association of outdoor air pollution and respiratory viruses on respiratory diseases. Evidence supports a clear association between air concentrations of some pollutants and human respiratory viruses interacting to adversely affect the respiratory system. Given the undoubted importance and topicality of the subject, we have paid special attention to the association between air pollutants and the transmission and severity of the effects caused by the coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2, which causes the COVID-19. Although to date, and by obvious reasons, the number of studies on this issue are still scarce, most results indicate that chronic exposure to air pollutants delays/complicates recovery of patients of COVID-19 and leads to more severe and lethal forms of this disease. This deserves immediate and in-depth experimental investigations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia
19.
J Infect ; 81(2): 255-259, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In areas of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak worldwide mean air pollutants concentrations vastly exceed the maximum limits. Chronic exposure to air pollutants have been associated with lung ACE-2 over-expression which is known to be the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between air pollutants concentration (PM 2.5 and NO2) and COVID-19 outbreak, in terms of transmission, number of patients, severity of presentation and number of deaths. METHODS: COVID-19 cases, ICU admissions and mortality rate were correlated with severity of air pollution in the Italian regions. RESULTS: The highest number of COVID-19 cases were recorded in the most polluted regions with patients presenting with more severe forms of the disease requiring ICU admission. In these regions, mortality was two-fold higher than the other regions. CONCLUSIONS: From the data available we propose a "double-hit hypothesis": chronic exposure to PM 2.5 causes alveolar ACE-2 receptor overexpression. This may increase viral load in patients exposed to pollutants in turn depleting ACE-2 receptors and impairing host defences. High atmospheric NO2 may provide a second hit causing a severe form of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE-2 depleted lungs resulting in a worse outcome.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(8): 767-776, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Air pollution and smoking are associated with various types of mortality, including cancer. The current study utilizes a publicly accessible, nationally representative cohort to explore relationships between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure, smoking, and cancer mortality. METHODS: National Health Interview Survey and mortality follow-up data were combined to create a study population of 635,539 individuals surveyed from 1987 to 2014. A sub-cohort of 341,665 never-smokers from the full cohort was also created. Individuals were assigned modeled PM2.5 exposure based on average exposure from 1999 to 2015 at residential census tract. Cox Proportional Hazard models were utilized to estimate hazard ratios for cancer-specific mortality controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass, income, education, marital status, rural versus urban, region, and survey year. RESULTS: The risk of all cancer mortality was adversely associated with PM2.5 (per 10 µg/m3 increase) in the full cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.22) and the never-smokers' cohort (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.33). PM2.5-morality associations were observed specifically for lung, stomach, colorectal, liver, breast, cervix, and bladder, as well as Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukemia. The PM2.5-morality association with lung cancer in never-smokers was statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons. Cigarette smoking was statistically associated with mortality for many cancer types. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 air pollution contributes to lung cancer mortality and may be a risk factor for other cancer types. Cigarette smoking has a larger impact on cancer mortality than PM2.5 , but is associated with similar cancer types.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/mortalidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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