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1.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 362-366, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631604

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the association between daily particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) mass and emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. Methods: Semi-parametric generalized additive model was established to determine the association between daily PM 2.5 and emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases in 2017 in Chengdu, after adjustments for time trend and variations in the days of the week and weather conditions. Results: In 2017, a total of 9 309 emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases were recorded in Chengdu: on average 26 calls a day. Over the year, Chengdu reported a mean PM 2.5 mass concentration of 53.6 µg/m 3, an average temperature of 16.6 ℃, and an average relative humidity of 81.2%. The single pollutant model with lag time effect showed that a 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 was associated with an increase of 1.26% (95% confidence interval ( CI) 0.56%-1.97%) emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. The exposure-response was almost in a direct line. The dual pollutant model found that O 3 8-hour sliding average (O 3-8 h) enhanced the effect of PM 2.5 on emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. Conclusion: Outdoor PM 2.5 is a significant predictor of emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases in Chengdu.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , China , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
JAMA ; 322(6): 546-556, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408135

RESUMO

Importance: While air pollutants at historical levels have been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, it is not known whether exposure to contemporary air pollutant concentrations is associated with progression of emphysema. Objective: To assess the longitudinal association of ambient ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and black carbon exposure with change in percent emphysema assessed via computed tomographic (CT) imaging and lung function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Air and Lung Studies conducted in 6 metropolitan regions of the United States, which included 6814 adults aged 45 to 84 years recruited between July 2000 and August 2002, and an additional 257 participants recruited from February 2005 to May 2007, with follow-up through November 2018. Exposures: Residence-specific air pollutant concentrations (O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon) were estimated by validated spatiotemporal models incorporating cohort-specific monitoring, determined from 1999 through the end of follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percent emphysema, defined as the percent of lung pixels less than -950 Hounsfield units, was assessed up to 5 times per participant via cardiac CT scan (2000-2007) and equivalent regions on lung CT scans (2010-2018). Spirometry was performed up to 3 times per participant (2004-2018). Results: Among 7071 study participants (mean [range] age at recruitment, 60 [45-84] years; 3330 [47.1%] were men), 5780 were assigned outdoor residential air pollution concentrations in the year of their baseline examination and during the follow-up period and had at least 1 follow-up CT scan, and 2772 had at least 1 follow-up spirometric assessment, over a median of 10 years. Median percent emphysema was 3% at baseline and increased a mean of 0.58 percentage points per 10 years. Mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and NOx, but not O3, decreased substantially during follow-up. Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon at study baseline were significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema per 10 years (O3: 0.13 per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.03-0.24]; PM2.5: 0.11 per 2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.03-0.19]; NOx: 0.06 per 10 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.01-0.12]; black carbon: 0.10 per 0.2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.01-0.18]). Ambient O3 and NOx concentrations, but not PM2.5 concentrations, during follow-up were also significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema. Ambient O3 concentrations, but not other pollutants, at baseline and during follow-up were significantly associated with a greater decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second per 10 years (baseline: 13.41 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.7-26.1]; follow-up: 18.15 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 1.59-34.71]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study conducted between 2000 and 2018 in 6 US metropolitan regions, long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants was significantly associated with increasing emphysema assessed quantitatively using CT imaging and lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carbono/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Environ Res ; 177: 108638, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421449

RESUMO

Air pollution is a modifiable and preventable factor, and it is a possible risk factor for dementia. However, evidence from epidemiological studies is still limited. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the epidemiological evidence for long-term effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) on dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our inclusion criteria for eligible studies were: longitudinal cohort study design, no overlap in study population, age of study subject ≥50 years, detailed description of exposure assessment for PM2.5, outdoor assessment of exposure to PM2.5, usage of a clear definition of dementia/AD, and accessibility of sufficient information for meta-analysis. Six databases were searched for eligible studies. The random-effect model was used to synthesize the associations between PM2.5 and dementia. After exclusion of all irrelevant studies, we analyzed the results of four cohort studies conducted in Canada, Taiwan, the UK, and the US during 2015-2018 among more than 12 million elderly subjects aged ≥50 years (N = 12,119,853). Our meta-analysis reveals that exposure to a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was significantly and positively associated with dementia (pooled HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.20, 5.31). In subgroup analyses, exposure to a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was found to be positively associated with AD (pooled HR = 4.82, 95% CI: 2.28, 7.36). Analysis of current epidemiological research on PM2.5 and dementia confirmed that exposure to PM2.5 was positively associated with a higher risk for dementia. However, it is to be noted that the included studies mainly relied on claim-based diagnosis and showed large differences in methods of exposure assessment, hence further epidemiological studies with well validated outcomes and with standardized exposure assessment models are required to ascertain the relationship between PM2.5 and dementia/AD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Canadá , Humanos , Taiwan , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
6.
Environ Res ; 177: 108660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have estimated the association between meteorological factors and mumps outbreaks without assessing the influence of air pollution. In this research, we explored the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on the incidence of mumps. METHODS: Our time-series analysis was conducted using data collected in Wuhan, China from 2015 to 2017. Daily number of mumps cases was obtained from Disease Reporting System in Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data on air pollution was obtained from 10 national air quality monitoring stations, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). Daily meteorological data including temperature and relative humidity were obtained from Hubei Meteorological Bureau. We performed a Poisson regression in generalized additive models (GAM) to explore the association between the incidence of mumps and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: We observed that the effects of air pollutants were statistically significant mainly in two periods, lag 0 to lag 5 and lag 20 to lag 25, with the strongest effects appearing at lag 2 and lag 23. The cumulative effects were stronger than single-day lag effects. The stratified analysis showed the effect of pollutants during the hot season was stronger than that during the cold season, especially for NO2 and SO2. CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to NO2 and SO2 was significantly associated with higher risk of developing mumps. Our findings could help deepen the understanding of how air pollution exposure affects the incidence of mumps.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
7.
Life Sci ; 233: 116714, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376370

RESUMO

Increased levels of particulate matter (PM) air pollutants in East Asia have resulted in detrimental health impacts increasing morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies suggest a possible relation between the cutaneous exposure of PM and increased oxidative stress and inflammation which lead to skin lesions. The present study utilizes an integrated cell culture model of keratinocytes and fibroblasts to mimic viable skin layers and investigate the possible effects of PM exposure after penetration through corneocytes. The skin perfection is upheld by homeostatic functionality of epidermal cells and the integrity of connective tissues. Exposure to xenobiotics could alter the skin cell homeostasis aggravating premature skin aging. Stimulation of HaCaT keratinocytes by PM collected from Beijing, China (CPM) increased the intracellular ROS levels triggering a cascade of events aggravating inflammatory responses and connective tissue degradation. In HDF fibroblasts, treatment with preconditioned keratinocyte culture media augmented inflammatory responses, cellular differentiation, and connective tissue degradation. Above events were marked by the increased intracellular ROS, inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and -2 levels, collagenase, and elastase activity. Fucosterol treatment of keratinocytes dose-dependently attenuated the detrimental effects both in keratinocytes and fibroblasts restoring the conditions near to physiological levels. Further evaluations could be advanced on developing fucosterol, in forms such as rejuvenating cosmeceuticals which could attenuate detrimental responses of CPM exposure.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/patologia , Estigmasterol/farmacologia
8.
Pneumologie ; 73(7): 407-429, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291669

RESUMO

The third part of the DGP statement introduces the current body of knowledge on less studied health outcomes associated with exposure to ambient air pollution: the negative impact on metabolism leading to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes as well as contribution to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and delayed cognitive function in children. Furthermore, prenatal exposure and adverse effects on mother and child are addressed. Finally, the currently discussed biological mechanisms underlying various health effects associated with exposure to air pollution are described.Differing, but often complementary biological mechanisms create the basis for the diverse health outcomes caused by air pollution. Oxidative stress and a subclinical inflammatory response in the lungs and on a systemic level ("low-grade systemic inflammation") are considered to be key mechanisms. They promote secondary alterations in the body, such as vascular or metabolic processes, and may also result in the currently studied epigenetic phenomena or neuroinflammation. In this context, the health significance of soluble particulate matter and the role of ultrafine particles translocated across biological membranes into blood vessel and transported via the circulation to secondary target organs, such as liver, brain or the fetus, are intensively discussed.Diabetes is one of the leading chronic diseases worldwide, with a prevalence of almost 14 % in Germany. Although lifestyle factors are the main causes, current evidence suggests that long-term exposure to air pollution may additionally increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Supporting evidence for a causal role of air pollution is provided by studies addressing the regulation of the blood glucose levels in metabolically healthy participants, insulin sensitivity, or pregnancy-related diabetes. Experimental studies provide further support for plausible biological mechanisms. However, prospective studies are needed to gain more evidence, taking multiple lifestyle and environmental factors, such as green space and noise, and an improved individual exposure assessment into account.The aging population has an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases. First studies point towards a contribution of chronic exposure to air pollution, specifically by particulate matter. Several studies report its association with decreased neurocognitive capacity or an increased prevalence of dementia or Alzheimer's disease in adults. However, the studies are inhomogeneous regarding design, exposure and outcome, leading to inconsistent results. With respect to the influence on neurocognitive development of children, first studies suggest an association between the level of air pollution, e. g. at school, and delayed cognitive development.Even though the evidence for the different biological endpoints during pregnancy is still heterogeneous, the studies generally point towards an adverse impact of air pollution on the maternal and fetal organisms. The strongest evidence exists for low birth weight, with small effect sizes of only some grams, and for a higher incidence of reduced birth weight (< 2500 g). An increased risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia underscores the possible impact of exposure to air pollution on the maternal organism. However, the current body of evidence does not yet allow a final conclusion on the influence of intrauterine exposure to air pollution regarding early childhood lung function and development of allergies, particularly in light of the fact that it is hard to distinguish in epidemiological studies between the effects of pre- and postnatal exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 2): 269, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254073

RESUMO

Asthma is the most common pediatric disease in the USA. It has been consistently demonstrated that asthma symptoms are exacerbated by exposure to ozone. Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant produced when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx). At ground level, elevated ozone is typically formed as a result of human activities. However, wildfires represent an additional source of ozone precursors. Recent evidence suggests that smoke can increase ozone concentrations. We estimated the number of excess asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits in children with asthma that may be attributed to elevated ozone associated with smoke (EOAS) in the USA. We conducted a quantitative burden assessment (BA) using a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the median number of excess pediatric asthma ED visits that may be attributed to EOAS among children with asthma in the continental USA between 2005 and 2014, as well as 95% confidence bounds (95% CB). We estimated that a median of 2403 (95% CB 235-5382) pediatric asthma ED visits could be attributed to EOAS exposure between 2005 and 2014 in the continental USA. Furthermore, the impact of EOAS on estimated asthma ED visits was greatest in the eastern half of the continental USA. We found a significant increase in pediatric asthma ED visits that may be attributed to exposure to EOAS. EOAS may have a measurable negative impact on children with asthma in the USA.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ozônio/análise , Fumaça/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Asma/etiologia , Atmosfera , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Pediatria , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Incêndios Florestais
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 2): 272, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254074

RESUMO

PM2.5 air pollution is a significant issue for human health all over the world, especially in East Asia. A large number of ground-based measurement sites have been established over the last decade to monitor real-time PM2.5 concentration. However, even this enhanced observational network leaves many gaps in characterizing the PM2.5 spatial distribution. Machine learning provides a variety of algorithms to help deal with these large spatial gaps-combining both remotely sensed and in situ observation data to estimate the global PM2.5 concentration. This study used a PM2.5 data product of six regions from the results of an unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM) with optimized ensemble learning approaches to highlight the most important meteorological and surface variables associated with PM2.5 concentration. These variables were then examined via multiple linear regression models to provide physical mechanistic insights into the morphology of the PM2.5 annual cycles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aprendizado de Máquina , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Algoritmos , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 458-465, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154218

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been associated with lung function decline, but impact of PM2.5 constituents especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lung function is unclear among community population. We enrolled 224 Chinese participants who participated in two study periods (2014-2015 and 2017-2018) of the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort as a panel, and quantified the associations of personal PM2.5 and sixteen PM2.5-bound PAHs with lung function levels as well as lung function change in three years by linear mixed models. Diagnostic ratios were calculated to identify potential sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs in Wuhan and Zhuhai separately. In single-constituent models, we found that each one interquartile-range increase of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluoranthene and pyrene were associated with 26.82, 60.99, 45.25 and 23.37 mL decline in FVC respectively; while fluoranthene and pyrene were associated with 27.43 and 15.49 mL decline in FEV1 respectively. Similar results were observed in consitituent-PM2.5 joint models and single-constituent residual models. Persistently long-term high levels of three HMW-PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[ghi]perylene) were associated with 214.65, 226.13, and 265.00 mL decline in FVC decline in three years, compared with persistently low exposure level groups. The associations were different between Wuhan and Zhuhai. The results of diagnostic ratios suggested the differences in PAH emissions between two cities. Our findings provide evidence that both short- and long-term PM2.5-bound PAH exposures might affect lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 486-495, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154221

RESUMO

The recent changes in the compositions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) after their restriction for 40 years may have various effects on human health. In order to characterize the congener-specific compositions of PCBs in the soil-air process and assess the associated human health risks, soil and air samples were simultaneously collected in winter and summer at two different functional locations. Homologue patterns suggest that long-range atmospheric transport might be the major source of soil and air residues of PCBs. The net deposition from air to soil was overwhelming for most PCB congeners. Variations in the occurrence and the homologue patterns of PCBs between the soil and air interface depended on chemical volatility, soil organic matter (OM) content, ambient temperature, topographical condition and atmospheric transport. Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for 11.0-70.3% and 2.31-54.8% of total PCB residues in soil and air, respectively. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks associated with exposure to soil and air PCBs were also estimated. Different PCB congeners showed different health effects, with the highest contribution from PCB-26. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic risk levels of PCBs were enhanced, while the carcinogenic risk levels decreased during the soil-air exchange process of PCBs with time. Our results highlight the soil-air interaction of PCBs in predicting their potential human exposure health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 610-620, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158624

RESUMO

Air pollution is a growing problem in developing countries, and there exists a wide range of evidence documenting the large health and productivity losses associated with high concentrations of pollutants. South Africa is a developing country with high levels of air pollution in some regions, and the costs of air pollution on human health and economic growth in South Africa are still uncertain. The environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) model was applied to South Africa using local data on population, mortality rates, and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), as well as mortality risk coefficients from the epidemiological literature. BenMAP estimates the number of premature deaths that would likely have been avoided if South African air quality levels met the existing annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 20 µg m-3, and the more stringent World Health Organization (WHO) guideline for annual average PM2.5 of 10 µg m-3. We estimate 14,000 avoided premature mortalities in 2012 if all of South Africa met the existing NAAQS annual average standard for PM2.5. These avoided cases of mortality have an estimated monetary value of $14.0 billion (US2011$), which is equivalent to 2.2% of South Africa's 2012 GDP (PPP, US2011$). We estimate 28,000 avoided premature mortalities if the more stringent WHO guideline for annual average PM2.5 is met across South Africa, which when expressed as a national burden is equivalent to 6% of all deaths in South Africa being attributable to PM2.5 exposure. These avoided cases of mortality have an estimated monetary value of $29.1 billion, which is equivalent to 4.5% of South Africa's 2012 GDP. These results show that there are significant public health benefits to lowering PM2.5 concentrations across South Africa, with correspondingly high economic benefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , África do Sul
14.
Environ Int ; 129: 525-537, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging that poor mental health is associated with the environmental exposures of surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise. Most studies have evaluated only associations of single exposures with poor mental health. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of combined exposure to surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise with poor mental health. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we linked data from a Dutch national health survey among 387,195 adults including questions about psychological distress, based on the Kessler 10 scale, to an external database on registered prescriptions of anxiolytics, hypnotics & sedatives and antidepressants. We added data on residential surrounding green in a 300 m and a 1000 m buffer based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and a land-use database (TOP10NL), modeled annual average air pollutant concentrations (including particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and modeled road- and rail-traffic noise (Lden and Lnight) to the survey. We used logistic regression to analyze associations of surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise exposure with poor mental health. RESULTS: In single exposure models, surrounding green was inversely associated with poor mental health. Air pollution was positively associated with poor mental health. Road-traffic noise was only positively associated with prescription of anxiolytics, while rail-traffic noise was only positively associated with psychological distress. For prescription of anxiolytics, we found an odds ratio [OR] of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) per interquartile range [IQR] increase in NDVI within 300 m, an OR of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.19) per IQR increase in NO2 and an OR of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.11) per IQR increase in road-traffic noise. In multi exposure analyses, associations with surrounding green and air pollution generally remained but attenuated. Joint odds ratios [JOR], based on the Cumulative Risk Index (CRI) method, of combined exposure to air pollution, traffic noise and decreased surrounding green were higher than the ORs of single exposure models. Associations of environmental exposures with poor mental health differed somewhat by age. CONCLUSIONS: Studies including only one of these three correlated exposures may overestimate the influence of poor mental health attributed to the studied exposure, while underestimating the influence of combined environmental exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Mental , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Pneumologie ; 73(6): 347-373, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185518

RESUMO

The second part of the DGP-statement on adverse health effects of ambient air pollution provides an overview of the current ambient air quality in Germany and its development in the past 20 years. Further, effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system und underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are introduced. Air pollutants form a highly complex and dynamic system of thousands of organic and inorganic components from natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollutants are produced locally or introduced by long-range transport over hundreds of kilometers and are additionally subjected to local meteorological conditions. According to air quality regulations ambient air quality is monitored under uniform standards including immission of particulate matter, up to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) or 10 µm (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, and of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or ozone (O3). The clean air measures of recent years led to a continuous decline of air pollution in the past 20 years in Germany. Accordingly, the focus is nowadays directed at population-related health hazards caused by low concentrations of air pollution. Exceeded limits for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and lead are not detected anymore. Also the number of days with increased ozone concentration declined, although the annual mean concentration is unaltered. Decreasing concentrations of particulate matter and NO2 have been observed, however, about 40 % of the monitoring stations at urban traffic sites still measure values exceeding current limits for NO2. Moreover, the stricter, solely health-based WHO-standards for PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 are still not met so that an optimal protection from air pollution-related health hazards is currently not given for the German population. In recent years, the findings of numerous cross-sectional and longitudinal studies underscored adverse effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system, especially for particulate matter, although the level of evidence still varies for the different health outcomes. Further, the studies show that cardiovascular health hazards on the population level are of higher relevance than those for the respiratory system. The existing evidence for cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization, ischemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction and stroke can be regarded as strong, while that for heart failure is rather moderate. While the evidence for air pollution-related short-term alteration of the cardiac autonomic balance can be considered as sufficient, long-term effects are still unclear. Likewise, the heterogeneous findings on air pollution-related arrhythmia do currently not allow a distinct conclusion in this regard. A large number of studies support the observation that both, short- and long-term air pollution exposure contribute to increased blood pressure, may impair vascular homeostasis, induce endothelial dysfunction and promote the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. These effects provide reasonable biological explanation for the fatal events associated with exposure to air pollution. Short-term exposure may not pose a significant risk on healthy individuals but may be considered as precursor for fatal events in susceptible populations, while repetitive or long-term exposure may contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases even in healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos , Material Particulado
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 116-123, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129322

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and antimicrobial resistance are two major threats to public health worldwide. Current air pollution studies rely heavily on the assessment of PM2.5 chemistry and toxicity. However, whether and how PM2.5 affects the proliferation and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in various environments has remained unanswered. This study investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of urban PM2.5 on the horizontal transfer of ARGs between opportunistic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. The results showed that urban PM2.5 samples collected from Xi'an (XA), Shanghai (SH), and Shijiazhuang (SJZ) in China induced location- and concentration-dependent promotion of conjugative transfer frequencies compared to the control group. The relevant mechanisms were also explored, including the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the subsequent induction of oxidative stress, SOS response, changes in membrane permeability, and alternations in mRNA expression of genes involved in horizontal transfer. This study highlights the effect of PM2.5 on promoting the horizontal transfer of ARGs and elucidates the mechanism of the antimicrobial-resistance risks posed by urban PM2.5. These findings are of great value in understanding the transmission of antimicrobial resistance in various environments and provide valuable information for re-evaluating air quality assessment practices.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmídeos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20411-20417, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102212

RESUMO

Gasoline station attendants spend a great deal of their time in the direct exposure to noxious substances such as benzene and byproducts of gasoline combustion. Such occupational exposure increases the risk of oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate hematological and biochemical alterations among petrol station workers. Forty gas station attendants and 39 non-attendants were recruited as exposed and control subjects, respectively. Plasma samples were evaluated for hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell count via the Sysmex KX-21 analyzer. Then, oxidized hemoglobin, methemoglobin, and hemichrome were measured spectrophotometrically. Moreover, serum antioxidant capacity and protein oxidation were evaluated. The means ± SD of hemoglobin (16.76 ± 0.14 g/dl vs 15.25 ± 0.14 g/dl), hematocrit (49.11 ± 0.36% vs 45.37 ± 0.31%), RBC count (5.85 ± 0.06 mil/µl vs 5.33 ± 0.06 mil/µl), Met-HB (1.07 ± 0.07 g/dl vs 0.39 ± 0.04 g/dl), and hemichrome (0.80 ± 0.07 g/dl vs 0.37 ± 0.02 g/dl) in the exposed group were significantly greater than the control group (P < 0.001). The results of the independent-sample t test illustrated that the FRAP test value in the exposed group (0.23 ± 0.01 mM) was significantly lower than the control group (0.34 ± 0.01 mM), while the value of the plasma protein carbonyl test in the exposed group (7.47 ± 0.33 mmol/mg protein) was meaningfully greater than the control group (5.81 ± 0.19 mmol/mg protein) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, gas station attendants suffer from higher levels of oxidative stress, and they need to take antioxidants in order to minimize the effects of oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Gasolina/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Benzeno/toxicidade , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Carbonilação Proteica
18.
JAMA ; 321(19): 1906-1915, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112259

RESUMO

Importance: Exposure to air pollutants is a well-established cause of asthma exacerbation in children; whether air pollutants play a role in the development of childhood asthma, however, remains uncertain. Objective: To examine whether decreasing regional air pollutants were associated with reduced incidence of childhood asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multilevel longitudinal cohort drawn from 3 waves of the Southern California Children's Health Study over a period of air pollution decline. Each cohort was followed up from 4th to 12th grade (8 years): 1993-2001, 1996-2004, and 2006-2014. Final follow-up for these data was June 2014. Population-based recruitment was from public elementary schools. A total of 4140 children with no history of asthma and residing in 1 of 9 Children's Health Study communities at baseline were included. Exposures: Annual mean community-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) in the baseline year for each of 3 cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prospectively identified incident asthma, collected via questionnaires during follow-up. Results: Among the 4140 children included in this study (mean [SD] age at baseline, 9.5 [0.6] years; 52.6% female [n = 2 179]; 58.6% white [n = 2273]; and 42.2% Hispanic [n = 1686]), 525 incident asthma cases were identified. For nitrogen dioxide, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for asthma was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.71-0.90) for a median reduction of 4.3 parts per billion, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.83 cases per 100 person-years. For PM2.5, the IRR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.98) for a median reduction of 8.1 µg/m3, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 1.53 cases per 100 person-years. For ozone, the IRR for asthma was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.02) for a median reduction of 8.9 parts per billion, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.78 cases per 100 person-years. For PM10, the IRR was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.07) for a median reduction of 4.0 µg/m3, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.46 cases per 100 person-years. Conclusions and Relevance: Among children in Southern California, decreases in ambient nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 between 1993 and 2014 were significantly associated with lower asthma incidence. There were no statistically significant associations for ozone or PM10.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/etiologia , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 383-389, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077916

RESUMO

The increase in population has led to the rise in the construction and manufacturing of bricks. Bricks are manufactured in brick kilns that emit very harmful gases which in turn affect the human health, environment and economy. In Pakistan, the diseases related to skin, and respiratory system have created a lot of problems for the humans and animals. According to experts and professionals, one of the main causes of the environment and health related problems is brick kiln. It is very important to identify the brick kilns and emissions that are extremely harmful for the environment and human health. Therefore, the objective of this research paper is threefold. Firstly, to identify and rank the emissions from brick kilns based on their harmful impact on human health and environment. Secondly, to rank the three types of brick kilns i.e. Traditional Brick Kilns (TBK) with coal as a fuel, Traditional Brick Kilns (TBK) with rubber as a fuel and Contemporary Brick Kilns (CBK) (technologically advanced brick kilns) based on their impact on human health and environment. Thirdly, to identify the relation of three alternative brick kilns with health and environmental problems, respectively. DEMATEL and Fuzzy-TOPSIS have used for achieving the objectives. The results show that CO2, CO and SO2 have the most harmful effects on the environment. Similarly, carcinogenic dioxin, SO2 and PM have the adverse effects on the human health. TBK in which rubber is used as a fuel is the most harmful and CBK is the safest types of brick kilns, respectively. In the light of the results, it is recommended to the government of Pakistan to formulate and implement the rules and regulations for minimizing the negative impacts of brick kilns on human health and environment. Moreover, new technologies should be used in order to reduce the harmful impacts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nível de Saúde , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/classificação , Materiais de Construção/análise , Materiais de Construção/classificação , Humanos , Paquistão
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 611-617, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078851

RESUMO

Extensive epidemiological studies have revealed that nearly 25% of the premature mortality from lung cancer is attributed to regional haze caused by a high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), with a lower volatility, are more likely to be absorbed with PM2.5 and to pose a threat to health, whereas there is insufficient information about carcinogenesis caused by NPAHs. Our study evaluated the carcinogenic effect of typical NPAHs on lung cancer cell adhesion and metastasis and revealed the possibly involved mechanism through in vitro experiments. For the specific mechanism, typical NPAHs could directly induce the inactivation of serine/threonine kinase (MST1/2) and large tumor suppressor (LATS1/2) and result in the nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein (YAP). The nuclear YAP would then combine with TEA domain transcription factor (TEAD) and profoundly influence the transcription of migration and adhesion genes related to lung cancer metastasis. These findings remind us of the possible carcinogenicity of NPAHs absorbed with PM2.5 and provide a reference for the prevention and mitigation of tumorigenesis in a heavily polluted environment.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Nitrocompostos/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Adesão Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/fisiopatologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
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