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1.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(3): 382-394, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238414

RESUMO

Objective To explore the effect of air pollution on the number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in residents at different ages and its seasonal changes in Lanzhou,so as to provide a scientific basis for the early prevention of respiratory diseases in Lanzhou. Methods The daily number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in three class A hospitals in Lanzhou from January 1,2013 to December 31,2017,as well as the air pollutants and meteorological data of Lanzhou in the same period,was collected.After controlling the confounding factors including long-term trend of time,meteorological factors and day-of-week effect using a generalized additive model,we analyzed the relationships between air pollutants and the daily number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases,and explored whether there was a lag effect of air pollutants.Results From 2013 to 2017,the emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou had a total number of 124 871,with an average of 69(1-367)visits per day.The single pollutant model showed that among the six conventional air pollutants monitored in Lanzhou,PM 2.5,PM10,NO2,SO2 and O38h had a lag effect on the number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases.For every 10 µg/m 3 increase in the concentration of PM2.5 (lag02:t=4.792, P=0.001), PM10 (lag2:t=3.421, P<0.001), NO2 (lag6:t=3.654, P=0.003), SO2(lag06:t=4.712, P<0.001)and O38h (lag07:t=3.021, P=0.012), the number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases increased by 0.900%(95% CI:0.573%-1.249%), 0.083%(95% CI:0.012%-0.153%), 1.293%(95% CI:0.867%-1.720%), 3.851%(95% CI:2.675%-5.041%)and 0.737%(95% CI:0.129%-1.348%), respectively.For every 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of CO(lag0:t=3.564,P<0.001),the number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases increased by 2.556% (95%CI: 1.493%-3.629%). In gender stratification, PM2.5(male:t=3.124, P=0.019;female:t=3.418, P=0.007), PM10(male:t=2.980, P=0.160;female:t=2.997, P=0.013)and CO(male:t=4.117, P=0.001;female:t=4.629, P<0.001)in winter had stronger effects on the emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in females than that in males, while the effects of NO2(male:t=3.020, P=0.107;female:t=3.006, P=0.128), SO2(male:t=4.101, P<0.001;female:t=3.820, P<0.001)and O38h(male:t=3.660, P=0.022;female:t=3.517, P=0.018)in winter showed an opposite trend.In age stratification, the increase in the daily average concentration of PM2.5(0-14 years old:t=3.520, P=0.008), PM10(0-14 years old:t=3.840, P<0.001), SO2(0-14 years old:t=4.570, P<0.001), CO(0-14 years old:t=4.102, P=0.002)in winter would increase the emergency visits for respiratory diseases in the 0-14-year-old population.The daily average concentration of O38h(0-14 years old:t=4.210, P<0.001;15-64 years old:t=3.807, P=0.001)in summer only affected the visits of the 0-14-year-old and the 15-64-year-old populations, and the air pollutants had no significant effect on the visits of those≥65 years old.The double pollutant model analysis revealed that after introducing 5 other pollutants respectively, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2 and O38h significantly increased the emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, and CO had a more obvious effect than that predicted with the single pollutant model. Conclusion The rises in the concentrations of six air pollutants in Lanzhou will increase the emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, and the patterns vary with different genders, ages and seasons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25637, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106591

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Breast cancer has the highest incidence of cancer among women in Taiwan, and air pollutants have been documented to have multiple adverse effects on human health. There is no relevant data, there has been no research in Taiwan to discuss the relevance of air pollutants to breast cancer, and evidence is sparse and inconclusive.Air quality data used in this study was collected from the 78 air quality monitoring stations situated in 74 municipalities in Taiwan during 2000 to 2011. The daily measurements taken at each monitoring station represented the level of exposure for each participant residing in that zone. The air pollution concentration is partitioned based on the concentration level in Quartile. We calculate the annual average air pollutants concentration (CO, NO, NO2, PM2.5, THC, and CH4) and the long-term average exposure levels of these pollutants until diagnosis of breast cancer, ending the study period for each individual.Patients who were living in areas with the highest air pollutants concentration (Quartile 4) had the most people diagnosed with breast cancer (CO:1.47%, NO:1.41%, NO2:1.63%, PM2.5:0.91%, THC:1.53%, CH4:2.33%). The patients who were exposed to Quartile 1 level of CO, NO, and NO2 concentration were the oldest, and other patients who were exposed to Quartile 4 level of CO, NO, and NO2 concentration were living in the areas of highest urbanization. Participants exposed to Quartile 4 level concentrations of air pollutants were associated with highest hazards ratios for breast cancer incidences.Most participants who were exposed to the high concentration of air pollutants (CO, THC and CH4) had a significantly higher risk of breast cancer. If we can improve air pollution in the environment, we can reduce the incidence of breast cancer and save precious medical resources.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112397, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decline in pulmonary function contributes to increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although adverse effects of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on pulmonary function have been recognized in healthy people or patients with respiratory disease, these results were not well illustrated among people with elevated CVD risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel study was conducted in three Chinese cities with three repeated visits among populations at intermediate to high-risk of CVD, defined as treated hypertension patients or those with blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mmHg, who met any of the three conditions including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Individualized PM2.5 exposure and pulmonary function were measured during each seasonal visit. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to analyze the associations of PM2.5 concentrations with pulmonary function indicators, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMF), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). RESULTS: Short-term PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with decreased pulmonary function and an increment of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentrations during lag 12-24 hour was associated with declines of 41.7 ml/s (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.7-75.7), 0.35% (95% CI: 0.01, 0.69), and 20.9 ml/s (95% CI: 0.5-41.3) for PEF, FEV1/FVC, and MMF, respectively. Results from stratified and sensitivity analyses were generally similar with the overall findings, while the adverse effects of PM2.5 on pulmonary functions were more pronounced in those who were physically inactive. CONCLUSIONS: This study first identified short-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with impaired pulmonary function and physical activity might attenuate the adverse effects of PM2.5 among populations at intermediate to high-risk of CVD. These findings provide new robust evidence on health effects of air pollution and call for effective prevention measures among people at CVD risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e047000, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of meteorological factors and air pollutants (MFAPs) with fracture and to estimate the effect size/time lag. DESIGN: This is a nationwide population-based ecological study from 2008 to 2017. SETTING: Eight large metropolitan areas in Korea. PARTICIPANTS: Of 8 093 820 patients with fractures reported in the Korea National Health Insurance database, 2 129 955 were analysed after the data set containing patient data (age, sex and site of fractures) were merged with MFAPs. Data on meteorological factors were obtained from the National Climate Data Center of the Korea Meteorological Administration. Additionally, data on air pollutants (atmospheric particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide) were obtained from the Air Korea database. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We hypothesised that there would be an association between MFAPs and the incidence of fracture. A generalised additive model was used while factoring in the non-linear relationship between MFAPs and fractures as well as a time lag ≤7 days. Multivariate analysis was performed. Backward elimination with an Akaike information criterion was used to fit the multivariate model. RESULTS: Overall, in eight urban areas, 2 129 955 patients with fractures were finally analysed. These included 370 344, 187 370, 173 100, 140 358, 246 775, 6501, 228 346, 57 183 and 719 978 patients with hip, knee, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, ankle, foot and spine fractures, respectively. Various MFAPs (average temperature, daily rain, wind speed, daily snow and PM2.5) showed significant association with fractures, with positive correlations at time lags 7, 5-7, 5-7, 3-7 and 6-7 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Various MFAPs could affect the occurrence of fractures. The average temperature, daily rain, wind speed, daily snow and PM2.5 were most closely associated with fracture. Thus, improved public awareness on these MFAPs is required for clinical prevention and management of fractures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1161, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the People's Republic of China in December 2019. Thereafter, a global logarithmic expansion of cases occurred. Some countries have a higher rate of infections despite the early implementation of quarantine. Air pollution might be related to high susceptibility to the virus and associated case fatality rates (deaths/cases*100). Lima, Peru, has the second highest incidence of COVID-19 in Latin America and also has one the highest levels of air pollution in the region. METHODS: This study investigated the association of levels of PM2.5 exposure in previous years (2010-2016) in 24 districts of Lima with cases, deaths and case fatality rates for COVID-19. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate this association controlled by age, sex, population density and number of food markets per district. The study period was from March 6 to June 12, 2020. RESULTS: There were 128,700 cases in Lima and 2382 deaths due to COVID-19. The case fatality rate was 1.93%. Previous exposure to PM2.5 (2010-2016) was associated with the number of COVID-19- cases (ß = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.034-0.107) and deaths (ß = 0.0014; 95% CI: 0.0006-0.0.0023) but not with the case fatality rate. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for age, sex and number of food markets, the higher rates of COVID-19 in Metropolitan Lima are attributable to the increased PM2.5 exposure in the previous years, among other reasons. Reduction in air pollution from a long-term perspective and social distancing are needed to prevent the spread of virus outbreaks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Peru/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 426, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274875

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a new viral infection that is usually accompanied by respiratory complications. Air pollution has been linked to cardiorespiratory-related diseases and even premature mortality. The short-term exposure to air pollution may aggravate pulmonary symptoms in COVID-19 patients. The relationship between the short-term exposure to air pollution and hospital admission and mortality resulting from COVID-19 will be examined in Tehran, Iran, during the spring and summer of 2020. The statistics of PM2.5, PM10, and 8-h maximum ozone (O3) concentrations, meteorological conditions, and COVID-19 hospital admissions/mortality were analyzed. The cross-correlation and temporal relationship between the daily concentration of the aforementioned pollutants (as well as the meteorological conditions) and the COVID-19 hospital admissions/mortality rate was calculated for each month. The concentration of PM2.5, PM10, and 8-h maximum O3, along with temperature, increased in the summer. The hospital admissions and mortality associated with COVID-19 decreased from the first peak in the spring and then increased to its second peak in the summer. The short-term exposure to ambient PM2.5, PM10, O3, and elevated temperatures is associated with higher rates of COVID-19-related hospital admissions/mortality throughout the summer. Among these variables, the correlation with O3 was statistically significant in more summer months. The short-term exposure to air pollution (especially O3) may increase the susceptibility of the population infected with COVID-19 and, therefore, increases the rate of hospital admissions and mortality even during the warm seasons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hospitais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 426, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142254

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a new viral infection that is usually accompanied by respiratory complications. Air pollution has been linked to cardiorespiratory-related diseases and even premature mortality. The short-term exposure to air pollution may aggravate pulmonary symptoms in COVID-19 patients. The relationship between the short-term exposure to air pollution and hospital admission and mortality resulting from COVID-19 will be examined in Tehran, Iran, during the spring and summer of 2020. The statistics of PM2.5, PM10, and 8-h maximum ozone (O3) concentrations, meteorological conditions, and COVID-19 hospital admissions/mortality were analyzed. The cross-correlation and temporal relationship between the daily concentration of the aforementioned pollutants (as well as the meteorological conditions) and the COVID-19 hospital admissions/mortality rate was calculated for each month. The concentration of PM2.5, PM10, and 8-h maximum O3, along with temperature, increased in the summer. The hospital admissions and mortality associated with COVID-19 decreased from the first peak in the spring and then increased to its second peak in the summer. The short-term exposure to ambient PM2.5, PM10, O3, and elevated temperatures is associated with higher rates of COVID-19-related hospital admissions/mortality throughout the summer. Among these variables, the correlation with O3 was statistically significant in more summer months. The short-term exposure to air pollution (especially O3) may increase the susceptibility of the population infected with COVID-19 and, therefore, increases the rate of hospital admissions and mortality even during the warm seasons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hospitais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147106, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088062

RESUMO

Fine particle matter (PM2.5) is recognized as atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factor, especially for older adults. However, studies on the relationship between PM2.5 and AF were inconsistent. Herein, we present a systematic review to further assess the correlation between PM2.5 and AF in older adults (average age > 50 years old). A comprehensive search was conducted with the keywords in PubMed (675 records), Web of Science (1130 records), Embase (82 records), and the Cochrane Library (42 records). Using Stata12.0 software to test the heterogeneity between studies, and select the corresponding model to calculate the comprehensive effect value, odds ratio (OR, odds ratio), the pooled %-change (percentage change) and its 95% confidence interval (CL, confidence interval). A total of 16 observational studies were included, involving 10,580,394 participants, the results showed that PM2.5 had an adverse effects on AF in older adults. An association was found between exposure to PM2.5 (per 10 µg/m3 increase) and AF in older adults, with the corresponding pooled OR (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19) and pooled %-change (1.01%, 95% CI: 0.14%-1.88%). Our study indicated that PM2.5 exposure was significantly related to increased incidence of AF in older adults. Both the pooled OR and %-change value were higher in areas with higher levels of PM2.5(≥25 µg/m3).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Fibrilação Atrial , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Fibrilação Atrial/induzido quimicamente , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1182, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some prevalent but rarely studied causes of hospital admissions, such as sepsis is still unknown whether affected by air pollution. METHODS: We used time-series regression within generalized additive models to estimate the effect of air pollutant level on the sepsis-related hospital admissions, for the years 2017-18, using data from six cities in Sichuan, China. Potential effect modifications by age and sex were also explored. The effects of air pollutant on hospital stays for sepsis were also quantified. RESULTS: Positive associations between short-term exposure to NO2 and O3 and risk of sepsis-related hospital admissions and stays were found. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in short-term NO2 at lag 03 and O3 at lag 4 was associated with an increase of 2.76% (95% CI: 0.67, 4.84%) and 0.64% (95% CI: 0.14, 1.14%) hospital admissions, respectively. An increase of 0.72% (95% CI: 0.05, 1.40%) hospital stay was associated with 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 concentration at lag 4. Besides, the adverse effect of exposure to NO2 was more significant in males and population aged less than 14 years; while more significant in females and population aged 14 ~ 65 and over 65 years for exposure to O3. These associations remained stable after the adjustment of other air pollutants.8. CONCLUSION: Exposure to ambient NO2 and O3 may cause substantial sepsis hospitalizations, and hospital stays in Sichuan, China. These associations were different in subgroup by age and sex.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sepse , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Sepse/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1161, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the People's Republic of China in December 2019. Thereafter, a global logarithmic expansion of cases occurred. Some countries have a higher rate of infections despite the early implementation of quarantine. Air pollution might be related to high susceptibility to the virus and associated case fatality rates (deaths/cases*100). Lima, Peru, has the second highest incidence of COVID-19 in Latin America and also has one the highest levels of air pollution in the region. METHODS: This study investigated the association of levels of PM2.5 exposure in previous years (2010-2016) in 24 districts of Lima with cases, deaths and case fatality rates for COVID-19. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate this association controlled by age, sex, population density and number of food markets per district. The study period was from March 6 to June 12, 2020. RESULTS: There were 128,700 cases in Lima and 2382 deaths due to COVID-19. The case fatality rate was 1.93%. Previous exposure to PM2.5 (2010-2016) was associated with the number of COVID-19- cases (ß = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.034-0.107) and deaths (ß = 0.0014; 95% CI: 0.0006-0.0.0023) but not with the case fatality rate. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for age, sex and number of food markets, the higher rates of COVID-19 in Metropolitan Lima are attributable to the increased PM2.5 exposure in the previous years, among other reasons. Reduction in air pollution from a long-term perspective and social distancing are needed to prevent the spread of virus outbreaks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Peru/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065982

RESUMO

Air pollutants have significant direct and indirect adverse effects on public health. To explore the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological conditions on the hospitalization for respiratory diseases, we collected a whole year of daily major air pollutants' concentrations from Shenzhen city in 2013, including Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), and Carbon monoxide (CO). Meanwhile, we also gained meteorological data. This study collected 109,927 patients cases with diseases of the respiratory system from 98 hospitals. We investigated the influence of meteorological factors on air pollution by Spearman correlation analysis. Then, we tested the short-term correlation between significant air pollutants and respiratory diseases' hospitalization by Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM). There was a significant negative correlation between the north wind and NO2 and a significant negative correlation between the south wind and six pollutants. Except for CO, other air pollutants were significantly correlated with the number of hospitalized patients during the lag period. Most of the pollutants reached maximum Relative Risk (RR) with a lag of five days. When the time lag was five days, the annual average of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and O3 increased by 10%, and the risk of hospitalization for the respiratory system increased by 0.29%, 0.23%, 0.22%, 0.25%, and 0.22%, respectively. All the pollutants except CO impact the respiratory system's hospitalization in a short period, and PM10 has the most significant impact. The results are helpful for pollution control from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Hospitalização , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130843, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) on children's respiratory system were investigated in numerous epidemiological literatures. However, studies on the association between PM2.5 and pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases, especially considering the multicenter studies were limited in China. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between the short-term exposure to PM2.5 and the number of children's outpatient visits for respiratory diseases in four Chinese cities as well as the pooled health effects. METHODS: Data of pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases (RD, ICD: J00-J99) from representative hospitals in Shijiazhuang (SJZ), Xi'an (XA), Nanjing (NJ) and Guangzhou (GZ) in China from 2015 to 2018 were collected and the air quality data for the same period were collected from environmental protection departments. Generalized additive model (GAM) with quasi-Poisson regression was conducted to analyze the effects of PM2.5 on the number of pediatric outpatient visits in each city. Single-day lag model (lag0 to lag7) and moving average lag model (lag01 and lag07) were used to examine the lag effects and cumulative effects. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool the estimated risks of four cities. The interactions between PM2.5 and temperature were also explored. RESULTS: The average daily/total outpatient visits for RD, in SJZ, XA, NJ and GZ from 2015 to 2018 were 854.2/1,245,384, 2353.9/3,439,025, 1267.2/1,851,438 and 1399.5/2,044,740 respectively. The percentages of acute upper respiratory infections (URD, ICD: J00-J06) and other acute lower respiratory infections (LRD, ICD: J20-J22) in RD were 33%, 13% (SJZ), 43%, 32% (XA), 26%, 21% (NJ) and 54%, 26% (GZ). The largest pooled estimates of single-day lag effects for RD, URD, and LRD were at lag0, lag0 and lag1. Every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 0.46% (95%CI: 0.21%-0.70%), 0.50% (95%CI: 0.19%-0.81%) and 0.42% (95%CI: 0.06%-0.79%) increased number of outpatient visits significantly. While max cumulative effects which were all at lag 07 were 1.10% (95%CI: 0.46%-1.74%), 0.96% (95%CI: 0.20%-1.73%) and 1.06% (95%CI: 0.12%-2.00%). Less polluted cities (GZ and NJ) showed greater city-specific excess risks, but the excess risks significantly decreased after adjusting for NO2 in two-pollutant models. Generally, PM2.5 showed larger health hazards on lower temperature days. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that exposure to the ambient PM2.5 was associated with the increase of the number of outpatient visits with pediatric respiratory diseases in four Chinese cities. The health effects of PM2.5 may not be independent of other air pollutants and could be modified by temperature.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
13.
Environ Int ; 154: 106671, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to cancer incidence and mortality. However, it was unknown whether there was an association with cancer hospitalizations. METHODS: Data on cancer hospitalizations and annual PM2.5 concentrations were collected from 1,814 Brazilian cities during 2002-2015. A difference-in-difference approach with quasi-Poisson regression was applied to examine State-specific associations. The State-specific associations were pooled at a national level using random-effect meta-analyses. PM2.5 attributable burden were estimated for cancer hospitalization admissions, inpatient days and costs. RESULTS: We included 5,102,358 cancer hospitalizations (53.8% female). The mean annual concentration of PM2.5 was 7.0 µg/m3 (standard deviation: 4.0 µg/m3). With each 1 µg/m3 increase in two-year-average (current year and previous one year) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of hospitalization were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.07) for all-site cancers from 2002 to 2015 without sex and age differences. We estimated that 33.82% (95%CI: 14.97% to 47.84%) of total cancer hospitalizations could be attributed to PM2.5 exposure in Brazil during the study time. For every 100,000 population, 1,190 (95%CI: 527 to 1,836) cancer hospitalizations, 8,191 (95%CI: 3,627 to 11,587) inpatient days and US$788,775 (95%CI: $349,272 to $1,115,825) cost were attributable to PM2.5 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 was positively associated with hospitalization for many cancer types in Brazil. Inpatient days and cost would be saved if the annual PM2.5 exposure was reduced.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 902, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have been focusing on the potential role of atmospheric pollutants in the diffusion and impact on health of Covid-19. This study's objective was to estimate the association between ≤10 µm diameter particulate matter (PM10) exposure and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia due to Covid-19 using individual-level data in Italy. METHODS: Information on Covid-19 patients was retrieved from the Italian IQVIA® Longitudinal Patient Database (LPD), a computerized network of general practitioners (GPs) including anonymous data on patients' consultations and treatments. All patients with a Covid-19 diagnosis during March 18th, 2020 - June 30th, 2020 were included in the study. The date of first Covid-19 registration was the starting point of the 3-month follow-up (Index Date). Patients were classified based on Covid-19-related pneumonia registrations on the Index date and/or during follow-up presence/absence. Each patient was assigned individual exposure by calculating average PM10 during the 30-day period preceding the Index Date, and according to GP's office province. A multiple generalized linear mixed model, mixed-effects logistic regression, was used to assess the association between PM10 exposure tertiles and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia. RESULTS: Among 6483 Covid-19 patients included, 1079 (16.6%) had a diagnosis of pneumonia. Pneumonia patients were older, more frequently men, more health-impaired, and had a higher individual-level exposure to PM10 during the month preceding Covid-19 diagnosis. The mixed-effects model showed that patients whose PM10 exposure level fell in the second tertile had a 30% higher likelihood of having pneumonia than that of first tertile patients, and the risk for those who were in the third tertile was almost doubled. CONCLUSION: The consistent findings toward a positive association between PM10 levels and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia due to Covid-19 make the implementation of new strategies to reduce air pollution more and more urgent.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Teste para COVID-19 , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(6): 2595-2603, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032059

RESUMO

To explore the differences in pollution characteristics, sources, and health risks of PM2.5 carrier metals in urban and suburban areas in Beijing, daily PM2.5 samples were collected from Haidian and Daxing from June to November 2017 and the concentration of PM2.5 and 13 constituent metals were analyzed. The sources of these 13 metal elements were analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), and the health hazards of a subset of 9 metals were evaluated using health risk assessment. The results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5 and 10 metal concentrations in the urban area including Cr, Co, Mn, and Ni were significantly different from those in suburban areas (P<0.05). The source analysis results show four key sources, although their relative contributions vary slightly between urban and rural areas. In urban areas, the main sources are motor vehicles (51.2%), coal burning (19.1%), dust (19.3%), and fuel oil (10.4%); in the suburbs, sources are motor vehicles (47.9%), coal burning (22.6%), dust (20.2%), and electroplating (9.3%). The results of the health risk assessment showed that all metal HQ values in the suburbs were less than 1, and there was no non-carcinogenic risk. Ni and Pb in urban areas, and Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb in suburban areas, do not present a cancer risk, while the R values of As (2.77×10-5), Cd (2×10-6), Co (1.76×10-6), and Cr(Ⅵ) (7.88×10-6) in urban areas and As (8.34×10-6) and Cr(Ⅵ) (4.94×10-6) in suburban areas present some risk of cancer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(6): 2626-2633, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032062

RESUMO

Nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are important pollutants with carcinogenic effects present in PM2.5. To analyze the pollution characteristics and sources of NPAHs, 14 samples of PM2.5 were collected in Nanjing from November 2017 to March 2018. The results showed that, 2,8-dinitrodibenzothiophene (743 pg·m-3), 2, 7-dinitrofluorene (331 pg·m-3), 9-nitroanthracene (326 pg·m-3), 3-nitrofluoranthene (217 pg·m-3), and 1,8-dinitropyrene (193 pg·m-3) were dominant, and the detection concentrations notably varied between seasons; the highest concentrations occurred in winter (3082 pg·m-3) followed by autumn (1553 pg·m-3) and spring (1218 pg·m-3). The ratio of nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene concentrations, and 9-nitroanthracene and 1-nitropyrene concentrations, indicated that the main sources of NPAHs in the PM2.5 of Nanjing were photooxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biomass burning. NPAHs were more typically associated with smaller particles, which further indicated that secondary formation is an important source. The current carcinogenic risk of NPAHs in PM2.5 in Nanjing is controllable, and dinitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons represent the highest level of risk. The data presented in this study provide important baseline information that can inform the management of risks associated with NPAHs in PM2.5 in Nanjing.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
17.
Environ Res ; 199: 111226, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma affects millions of people worldwide. Lima, Peru is one of the most polluted cities in the Americas but has insufficient ground PM2.5 (particulate matter that are 2.5 µm or less in diameter) measurements to conduct epidemiologic studies regarding air pollution. PM2.5 estimates from a satellite-driven model have recently been made, enabling a study between asthma and PM2.5. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a daily time-series analysis to determine the association between asthma emergency department (ED) visits and estimated ambient PM2.5 levels in Lima, Peru from 2010 to 2016. METHODS: We used Poisson generalized linear models to regress aggregated counts of asthma on district-level population weighted PM2.5. Indicator variables for hospitals, districts, and day of week were included to account for spatial and temporal autocorrelation while assessing same day, previous day, day before previous and average across all 3-day exposures. We also included temperature and humidity to account for meteorology and used dichotomous percent poverty and gender variables to assess effect modification. RESULTS: There were 103,974 cases of asthma ED visits during the study period across 39 districts in Lima. We found a 3.7% (95% CI: 1.7%-5.8%) increase in ED visits for every interquartile range (IQR, 6.02 µg/m3) increase in PM2.5 same day exposure with no age stratification. For the 0-18 years age group, we found a 4.5% (95% CI: 2.2%-6.8%) increase in ED visits for every IQR increase in PM2.5 same day exposure. For the 19-64 years age group, we found a 6.0% (95% CI: 1.0%-11.0%) increase in ED visits for every IQR in average 3-day exposure. For the 65 years and up age group, we found a 16.0% (95% CI: 7.0%-24.0%) decrease in ED visits for every IQR increase in PM2.5 average 3-day exposure, although the number of visits in this age group was low (4,488). We found no effect modification by SES or gender. DISCUSSION: Results from this study provide additional literature on use of satellite-driven exposure estimates in time-series analyses and evidence for the association between PM2.5 and asthma in a low- and middle-income (LMIC) country.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Cidades , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Peru/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 902, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have been focusing on the potential role of atmospheric pollutants in the diffusion and impact on health of Covid-19. This study's objective was to estimate the association between ≤10 µm diameter particulate matter (PM10) exposure and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia due to Covid-19 using individual-level data in Italy. METHODS: Information on Covid-19 patients was retrieved from the Italian IQVIA® Longitudinal Patient Database (LPD), a computerized network of general practitioners (GPs) including anonymous data on patients' consultations and treatments. All patients with a Covid-19 diagnosis during March 18th, 2020 - June 30th, 2020 were included in the study. The date of first Covid-19 registration was the starting point of the 3-month follow-up (Index Date). Patients were classified based on Covid-19-related pneumonia registrations on the Index date and/or during follow-up presence/absence. Each patient was assigned individual exposure by calculating average PM10 during the 30-day period preceding the Index Date, and according to GP's office province. A multiple generalized linear mixed model, mixed-effects logistic regression, was used to assess the association between PM10 exposure tertiles and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia. RESULTS: Among 6483 Covid-19 patients included, 1079 (16.6%) had a diagnosis of pneumonia. Pneumonia patients were older, more frequently men, more health-impaired, and had a higher individual-level exposure to PM10 during the month preceding Covid-19 diagnosis. The mixed-effects model showed that patients whose PM10 exposure level fell in the second tertile had a 30% higher likelihood of having pneumonia than that of first tertile patients, and the risk for those who were in the third tertile was almost doubled. CONCLUSION: The consistent findings toward a positive association between PM10 levels and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia due to Covid-19 make the implementation of new strategies to reduce air pollution more and more urgent.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Teste para COVID-19 , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e048038, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common reason for hospital admission among children <5 years in the UK. The relative contribution of ambient air pollution exposure and adverse housing conditions to RTI admissions in young children is unclear and has not been assessed in a UK context. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The aim of the PICNIC study (Air Pollution, housing and respiratory tract Infections in Children: NatIonal birth Cohort Study) is to quantify the extent to which in-utero, infant and childhood exposures to ambient air pollution and adverse housing conditions are associated with risk of RTI admissions in children <5 years old. We will use national administrative data birth cohorts, including data from all children born in England in 2005-2014 and in Scotland in 1997-2020, created via linkage between civil registration, maternity and hospital admission data sets. We will further enhance these cohorts via linkage to census data on housing conditions and socioeconomic position and small area-level data on ambient air pollution and building characteristics. We will use time-to-event analyses to examine the association between air pollution, housing characteristics and the risk of RTI admissions in children, calculate population attributable fractions for ambient air pollution and housing characteristics, and use causal mediation analyses to explore the mechanisms through which housing and air pollution influence the risk of infant RTI admission. ETHICS, EXPECTED IMPACT AND DISSEMINATION: To date, we have obtained approval from six ethics and information governance committees in England and two in Scotland. Our results will inform parents, national and local governments, the National Health Service and voluntary sector organisations of the relative contribution of adverse housing conditions and air pollution to RTI admissions in young children. We will publish our results in open-access journals and present our results to the public via parent groups and social media and on the PICNIC website. Code and metadata will be published on GitHub.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Escócia/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal
20.
Environ Int ; 154: 106564, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecologic analyses suggest that living in areas with higher levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Studies accounting for individual-level health characteristics are lacking. METHODS: We leveraged the breadth and depth of the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases and built a national cohort of 169,102 COVID-19 positive United States Veterans, enrolled between March 2, 2020 and January 31, 2021, and followed them through February 15, 2021. Annual average 2018 PM2.5 exposure, at an approximately 1 km2 resolution, was linked with residential street address at the year prior to COVID-19 positive test. COVID-19 hospitalization was defined as first hospital admission between 7 days prior to, and 15 days after, the first COVID-19 positive date. Adjusted Poisson regression assessed the association of PM2.5 with risk of hospitalization. RESULTS: There were 25,422 (15.0%) hospitalizations; 5,448 (11.9%), 5,056 (13.0%), 7,159 (16.1%), and 7,759 (19.4%) were in the lowest to highest PM2.5 quartile, respectively. In models adjusted for State, demographic and behavioral factors, contextual characteristics, and characteristics of the pandemic a one interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (1.9 µg/m3) was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 8%-12%) increase in risk of hospitalization. The association of PM2.5 and risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 individuals was present in each wave of the pandemic. Models of non-linear exposure-response suggested increased risk at PM2.5 concentrations below the national standard 12 µg/m3. Formal effect modification analyses suggested higher risk of hospitalization associated with PM2.5 in Black people compared to White people (p = 0.045), and in those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to higher levels of PM2.5 was associated with increased risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 infected individuals. The risk was evident at PM2.5 levels below the regulatory standards. The analysis identified those of Black race and those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods as population groups that may be more susceptible to the untoward effect of PM2.5 on risk of hospitalization in the setting of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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