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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125273, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896195

RESUMO

Atmospheric processing may significantly increase solubility of iron in mineral dust, but the effects of heterogeneous reactions on iron solubility have been poorly understood. In this work, we investigated heterogeneous reaction of NO2 (15 ±â€¯1 and 2.5 ±â€¯0.1 ppmv, equal to ∼3.7 × 1014 and ∼6.2 × 1013 molecule cm-3) with hematite, magnetite and goethite at different relative humidities (RH, 0-90%), and changes in particulate nitrate and soluble iron due to heterogeneous reaction with NO2 were quantified as a function of time (up to 24 h). After reaction with 2.5 ±â€¯0.1 ppmv NO2 for 24 h (or less time), hematite and magnetite were fully saturated, while goethite was only partly deactivated. Nitrate yield was largest for goethite, and the mass ratio of formed nitrate to unreacted mineral only reached ∼1% or less after 24 h reaction. All the three minerals showed low reactivities towards NO2, and the average reactive uptake coefficients of NO2 in the first 3 h were found to be < 5 × 10-8. In addition, the increase in iron solubility was found to be small and in some cases even insignificant for the three minerals after heterogeneous reaction with NO2 for 24 h. Overall, the impacts of heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with hematite, magnetite and goethite on nitrate aerosol formation and iron solubility could be very limited.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Compostos de Ferro/química , Ferro/química , Minerais/química , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poeira/análise , Modelos Químicos , Solubilidade
2.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124924, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726601

RESUMO

In this work, a 3D computational tomography (CT) of the packing material of a laboratory column biofilter is used to model airflow containing three contaminants. The degradation equations for toluene, formaldehyde and benzo[α]pyrene (BaP), were one-way coupled to the CFD model. Physical validation of the model was attained by comparing pressure drops with experimental measurement, while experimental elimination capacities for the pollutants were used to validate the biodegradation kinetics. The validated model was used to assess the existence of channeling and to predict the impact of the three-dimensional porous geometry on the mass transfer of the contaminants in the gas phase. Our results indicate that a physically meaningful simulation can be obtained using the techniques and approach presented in this work, without the need of performing experiments to obtain macroscopic parameters such as gas-phase axial and radial dispersion coefficients and porosities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Benzo(a)pireno/química , Formaldeído/química , Tolueno/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Filtração/métodos , Gases , Tomografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124756, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563106

RESUMO

Long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) is the main route for circulating polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sources to sinks. In the atmosphere, PCBs containing six and less chlorine substitutions exist mainly as vapour, which can be oxidized by OH radical. Here, using quantum chemistry and transition state theory, we calculated the rate coefficients for reactions of OH radical with selected PCBs. The predicted rate coefficients agree with the available experimental values within a factor of 3. Calculations show that all PCBs considered here are persistent with their half-lives longer than 24 h. Reactions of PCBs with OH radical start with OH addition to the phenyl rings, forming PCB-n-OH adducts. Fate of biphenyl-n-OH (BP-n-OH, n = 2, 3, 4) adducts in the atmosphere is investigated. Calculations show that these radical adducts react similarly to benzene-OH adducts, forming hydroxybiphenyl (HO-BP) as main product and bicyclic radicals as minor products in their reaction with O2. Effective rates of reaction with O2 in the atmosphere are relatively slow, ∼1400, ∼45000, and ∼800 s-1 for BP-2-OH, BP-3-OH, and BP-4-OH, respectively. This suggests considerable reactions between BP-n-OH adducts and NO2, forming nitrobiphenyls. The bicyclic radicals from BP-n-OH + O2 would further transform to highly oxidized products as observed in a previous study. PCB-OH adducts react similarly as BP-n-OH radicals. For the three PCB-OH radicals considered here, their reactions with O2 also form HO-PCBs and bicyclic radicals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Atmosfera , Cloro , Gases , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução
4.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124776, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526988

RESUMO

Modern microscopy studies are capable of revealing ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) that are produced in the processes related to traffic vehicular, industrial, metropolitan, and marine aerosol dry deposition in the coastal zones. Especially, secondary aerosol passages complexes categories of NPs and UFPs, which can be accumulated on construction compounds and by dry deposition, encourages multiples monuments deterioration routes. The advanced electron microscopies method is one of the most utilized in environmental studies. Between the different industrial areas in the world, the Caribbean area is the most relevant symbols of air quality due to climatic conditions with strong winds, but this study shows that regionally the most industrialized region does not have an adequate air quality. In the present work, electron microscopy analyses are used to describe of the extent of ultra-fine particle and nanoparticles in walls in contact to weathering. Numerous phases were recognized by advanced mineralogy methods. Thanks to the new analytical procedure it was feasible to understand NPs and UFPs; the occurrence of potential hazardous elements (PHEs), most of them as minerals but also combined in multiple accumulations with Al-Cr-Fe-K-Mg-Pb-Si-Ti-Zn amorphous; and carbonaceous phases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Nanopartículas/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Atmosfera , Região do Caribe , Colômbia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Minerais/análise , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado/química , Vento
5.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124836, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) remains a major public health problem worldwide, yet its crucial environmental risk factors are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between LBW (term and preterm LBW) and prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and home environmental factors as well as their combination, in order to identify critical time window for exposure and key outdoor and indoor factors in LBW development. METHODS: A cohort study of 3509 preschool children was performed in Changsha, China during the period 2011-2012. A questionnaire was conducted to survey each child's birth outcome and each mother's exposure to home environmental factors including parental smoking, new furniture, redecoration, mold/damp stains, window pane condensation, and household pets during pregnancy. Maternal exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM10), industrial air pollutant (SO2), and traffic air pollutant (NO2) was estimated during different time windows of gestation, including conception month, three trimesters, birth month, and whole gestation. Associations of term and preterm LBW with ambient air pollutants and home environmental factors were assessed by multiple logistic regression models in terms of odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Term LBW (TLBW) was significantly associated with exposure to ambient PM10 during pregnancy, with OR (95% CI) = 1.47 (1.00-2.14) for per IQR increase after adjustment for the covariates and home environmental factors. Specifically, we identified the significant association in early phase of pregnancy including conception month (1.90, 1.09-3.30) and the first trimester (1.72, 1.10-2.69). We further found that TLBW was significantly related with parental smoking at home, OR (95% CI) = 2.17 (1.09-4.33). However, no association was observed for preterm LBW (PLBW). The TLBW risk of ambient air pollution and home environmental factors was independent each other and hence the combined exposure to ambient PM10 and indoor parental smoking caused the highest risk. Sensitivity analysis suggested that foetus with younger mothers were significantly more susceptible to risk of indoor parental smoking, while those with smaller house and cockroaches were more sensitive to risk of outdoor PM10 exposure. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to combined outdoor and indoor air pollution, particularly in critical window(s) during early pregnancy, significantly increases the risk of term LBW.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/metabolismo , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
6.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 378(1): 6, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840192

RESUMO

Ferrites are a large class of oxides containing Fe3+ and at least another metal cation that have been investigated for and applied to a wide variety of fields ranging from mature technologies like circuitry, permanent magnets, magnetic recording and microwave devices to the most recent developments in areas like bioimaging, gas sensing and photocatalysis. In the last respect, although ferrites have been less studied than other types of semiconductors, they present interesting properties such as visible light absorption, tuneable optoelectronic properties and high chemical and photochemical stability. The versatility of their chemical composition and of their crystallographic structure opened a playground for developing new catalysts with enhanced efficiency. This article reviews the recent development of the application of ferrites to photoassisted processes for environmental remediation and for the synthesis of solar fuels. Applications in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants in water and air, photo-Fenton, and solar fuels production, via photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting and CO2 reduction, are reviewed paying special attention to the relationships between the physico-chemical characteristics of the ferrite materials and their photoactivated performance.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Luz Solar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Catálise , Hidrogênio/química , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Água/química , Purificação da Água
7.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875632

RESUMO

Asian dust is a phenomenon involving the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants originating from the desert areas of China and Mongolia. In recent years, the health effects of Asian dust have raised public concerns. Numerous studies on the health effects of Asian dust have been published since the last review in 2010. Thus, a literature review was conducted to shed light on the latest epidemiologic findings. PubMed and Science Direct databases were used for the review of epidemiologic studies published between June 2009 and April 2018. We identified 53 epidemiologic studies. Mortality, ambulance transportation, hospitalization/medical examination, changes in symptomatic, functional, and examination findings, as well as birth outcomes have been reported as outcomes. When the outcomes were categorized by disease, the effects of Asian dust on respiratory, cardiovascular, and allergic diseases raised concerns. The common evidences of causation between Asian dust and these diseases were the consistency of findings and temporal sequence of association. As results of research on dose-response relationships have become available, and the possibility that the health effects of Asian dust may vary depending on its chemical composition has been pointed out, further research using the exposure level indicators of Asian dust or its chemical composition should be conducted. Furthermore, with focus on the crucial issue of reducing exposure, research related to prevention and raising awareness should be further promoted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Areia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Mongólia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109740, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655327

RESUMO

To comparatively analyze source-specific risks of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) were synchronously detected in a megacity (Chengdu, China) from 2009 to 2016. Non-cancer risk (assessed by hazard quotient, HQ) of PAHs and HMs was within the acceptable level, while cancer risk (assessed by incremental life cancer risk (ILCR), R) of PAHs and HMs were 1.01 × 10-4 and 9.40 × 10-5 in DP and WP, which showed low risk. HMs dominated cancer (92.12%) and non-cancer (99.99%) risks. An advanced method named as joint source-specific risk assessment of HMs and PAHs (HP-SRA model) was developed to assess comprehensive source-specific risks. Gasoline combustion (contributed 9.6% of PM10, 0.3% of HQ and 10.0% of R), diesel combustion (6.2% of PM10, 0.2% of HQ and 10.7% of R), coal combustion (17.5% of PM10, 1.8% of HQ and 13.4% of R), industrial source (9.1% of PM10, 80.7% of HQ and 35.0% of R), crustal dust (28.1% of PM10, 9.0% of HQ and 1.6% of R), nitrate (7.5% of PM10, 1.1% of HQ and 6.2% of R) and sulphate & secondary organic carbon & adsorption (SSA, 19.6% of PM10, 6.9% of HQ and 23.1% of R) were identified as main sources. For cancer risk, industrial sources and SSA posed the highest proportion. Higher levels of Co and Ni generated from industrial sources and Cr (Ⅵ), Cd and Ni absorbed in the SSA can result in high-risk contributions. Thus, controlling HMs levels in industrial emissions is essential to protecting human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , China , Cidades , Humanos , Metais Pesados/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Medição de Risco
10.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113087, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541815

RESUMO

Humic-like substances (HULIS) account for a considerable fraction of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in ambient fine particulates (PM2.5) over the world. However, systemic studies regarding the chemical characteristics, sources and redox activity of HULIS are still limited. In this study, the mass concentration, optical properties, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generation potential of HULIS were investigated in PM2.5 samples collected in Hong Kong during 2011-2012, and they all showed higher levels on days under regional pollution than on days under long range transport (LRT) pollution and local emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was conducted regarding the mass concentration and dithiothreitol (DTT) activity of HULIS. Four primary sources (i.e. marine vessels, industrial exhaust, biomass burning, and vehicle emissions), and two secondary sources (i.e. secondary organic aerosol formation and secondary sulfate) were identified. Most sources showed higher contributions to both the mass concentration and DTT activity of HULIS on regional days than on LRT and local days, except that marine vessels had a higher contribution on local days than the other two synoptic conditions. Secondary processes were the major contributor to HULIS (54.9%) throughout the year, followed by biomass burning (27.4%) and industrial exhaust (14.7%). As for the DTT activity of HULIS, biomass burning (62.9%) and secondary processes (25.4%) were found to be the top two contributors. Intrinsic ROS-generation potential of HULIS was also investigated by normalizing the DTT activity by HULIS mass in each source. HULIS from biomass burning were the most DTT-active, followed by marine vessels; while HULIS formed through secondary processes were the least DTT-active. For the optical properties of HULIS, multiple linear regression model was adopted to evaluate the contributions of various sources to the light absorbing ability of HULIS. Biomass burning was found to be the only source significantly associated with the light absorbing property of HULIS.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Material Particulado/química , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Hong Kong , Oxirredução , Material Particulado/análise , Solubilidade , Água/química
11.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124411, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549633

RESUMO

Atmospheric oxidation of NHx-containing (x = 1, 2) compounds can produce N-center radicals, a precursor of toxic nitrosamines. The reaction rate constant (kO2) with O2 has been considered as an important parameter to determine the nitrosamines yield in the subsequent reactions of N-center radicals. However, available kO2 values of N-center radicals are limited. Here, a three-step scheme including mechanistic analysis and kinetics calculation of the reactions of 28 various N-center radicals with O2, and model development was taken to solve the kO2 data shortage. Mainly employed tools include highly cost-expensive coupled-cluster theory (CCSD(T)), kinetic model and statistics. The results indicate that the direct H-abstraction pathway is the most favorable for the reactions of all considered N-center radicals with O2. The specific molecular conformation and the C-H bond energy of the N-center radicals are two important factors to determine kO2 values. Based on the mechanistic understanding of kO2 values, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model of kO2 values was developed. The model has satisfactory goodness-of-fit, robustness and predictive ability. The determined kO2 values and the in silico methods provide a scientific base for assessing formation risk of toxic nitrosamines in the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Radicais Livres/química , Oxigênio/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Atmosfera/química , Simulação por Computador , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Conformação Molecular , Nitrosaminas/química , Oxirredução
12.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124530, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549650

RESUMO

There is growing evidence suggesting the enhancement of brown carbon (BrC) in severe haze episodes. In this study, hourly measurements of BrC in PM2.5 were conducted in Xi'an, a typical city in northwestern China during winter and summer. The absorption coefficient for methanol exacts at 365 nm (babs365, methanol, which is typically used as a proxy of methanol-soluble BrC) in the winter sampling period was over 7 times than that in summer. The mass absorption cross-section for methanol extracts (MAC365, methanol, normalized by babs365, methanol to organic carbon, OC) in winter sampling period was nearly 1.5 times of that in the summer. During the winter haze days, the average babs365,methanol peaked at midnight and the lowest values in the morning, in contrast to high levels in afternoon and low levels at night in non haze days. Unlike the diurnal patterns in winter, summer babs365, methanol diurnal variation presented high midday and low afternoon levels in haze days. However, in non haze days, the pattern showed high morning levels and night low levels. Haze and non haze variations of chemical species levels, babs365, methanol, and MAC365, methanol during winter and summer sampling time showed that the effects of atmospheric aging were complex and could either enhance or reduce light absorption of BrC. Source apportionment based on positive matrix factorization receptor model and multiple linear regressions showed that primary emission was an important contributor to BrC emissions during the winter sampling period, whereas secondary formation played an important role in summer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Carbono/análise , China , Cidades , Metanol , Material Particulado/química , Estações do Ano
13.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113113, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484101

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization and urbanization have resulted in widespread pollution of airborne particulate matter (PM) containing various heavy metals with adverse human-health effects. Health risk assessment of PM calls for accurate evaluation of the bioaccessibility, instead of the total content, of heavy metals in PM. Here, we demonstrated that the leachable fraction of particle-bound As, Pb, Cr, Mn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in lung fluid within the typical retention duration of particles in human lungs varied drastically among particles originated from different air pollution sources, including coal combustion, biomass combustion, fugitive dust, road dust, construction dust, cement and soil. Moreover, bioaccessibility of heavy metals, particularly in biomass combustion, cement and soil particles, was strongly dependent on pollution sources, and the particulate Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd appeared to be the primary indicators of the source dependence of heavy metal bioaccessibility. Using total rather than bioaccessible concentrations of particle-bound heavy metals not only led to overestimation of the health risk of source particles, but more importantly, inaccurate identification of the high-risk pollution sources and the priority metal pollutants in the source particles. When considering bioaccessibility of particle-bound heavy metals examined in this study, coal combustion products exhibited the highest carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks among all source particles, whereas cement particles would be the source with highest risk based on total metal content. As and Mn appeared to be the main drivers for the noncarcinogenic risks of source particles, while As, Ni and Cr were the major contributors to the carcinogenic risks of source particles, significantly different from those based on total contents. This research underlines the importance of incorporating bioaccessibility into health risk indexes of frequently occurring particle-bound heavy metals from specific air pollution sources, which will facilitate risk-based assessment of source contribution and hence effective source regulation of airborne PM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/química , Medição de Risco , Solo
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34357-34367, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493079

RESUMO

To investigate the acid-extractable heavy metals in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over Xi'an, China, 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected every 3 days from December 2015 through November 2016. The bioavailable fraction, termed here the bioavailability index (BI), of PM2.5-bound metal (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn) and potential influencing factors, including relative humidity, temperature, air pressure, wind speed, visibility, PM2.5, and SO2 concentrations, were assessed in this study. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50.6 ± 35.6 µg m-3, 1.5 times higher than the Chinese national secondary standard. Zn, Ti, and As were the most abundant elements of those analyzed in the PM2.5 samples, accounting for 72.1% of total quantity. The seasonal variations and enrichment factor analysis of heavy metals revealed that coal combustion in winter was a crucial source of Pb, Co, Cu, and Zn; and dust resuspension in spring contributed considerable Mn, Ti, and V. The acid-extractable fractions of the measured metals varied. Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn exhibited relatively high acid-extractable concentrations and BI values. Pb was mostly in the acid-extractable fraction in PM2.5, with a mean BI value of 66.7%, the highest in summer (69.8%) and lowest in winter (63.7%). Moreover, the BIs of PM2.5-bound heavy metals were inversely related to temperature and wind speed, whereas positively correlated with relative humidity, SO2, and PM2.5 concentration in this study. This study assessed the seasonal distribution and meteorological influence of acid-extractable heavy metals, providing a deeper understanding of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Xi'an, China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/química , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/química , Ácidos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Poeira/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Meteorologia , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29660-29668, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402436

RESUMO

Alkali metal chlorides emitted from sintering flue gas are easily adsorbed on the surface of activated carbon (AC) in the purification process. In this paper, NaCl particles adsorbing onto AC were simulated by impregnation method, and the size and morphology of NaCl particles were similar to those of NaCl-PM10 emitted from sintering flue gas. With the adsorption of NaCl particles, 2-10-µm pores of AC were filled, and the specific surface area of AC decreased. But NaCl led to the increase of acidic functional groups on the surface of AC. When 0.75 wt% NaCl was adsorbed, it was beneficial for AC catalytic denitration (de-NOx), because the chemical reaction was strengthened by acidic functional groups, so it showed a certain promotion of de-NOx efficiency. As 1.5 wt% NaCl and 3 wt% NaCl were adsorbed, NaCl had an inhibitory effect on AC de-NOx, which was because the specific surface area of AC decreased, and the prevention of physical adsorption played a major role. As a result, the de-NOx efficiency of AC adsorbed with 3 wt% NaCl decreased from 40.59 to 23.02% at 150 °C. Therefore, the absorption of NaCl fine particles on AC should not exceed 0.75 wt%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Gases/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Adsorção , Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Catálise , Resíduos Industriais , Óxido Nítrico/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(35): 19226-19233, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441492

RESUMO

As one of the main air pollutants, nitrogen oxides (NOx) have serious effects on human health and the environment. In our previous study, we found that Mn-MOF-74 shows excellent catalytic performance for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction with NH3 being the reductant (NH3-SCR) at low temperature. To obtain a further understanding of the NH3-SCR mechanism in Mn-MOF-74, in this paper, we investigated two important parts of the NH3-SCR process in Mn-MOF-74 using the density functional theory (DFT) method. On the one hand, the structural characteristics of two types of oxygen vacancies of Mn-MOF-74, namely carboxyl oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl oxygen vacancies, and their adsorption properties to reaction species were calculated. It was found that the oxygen vacancies not only activate the reaction species, but also promote the desorption of NO2 molecules from metal sites for the subsequent rapid SCR reactions. On the other hand, we studied the effect of H2O on the structural stability and catalytic performance of Mn-MOF-74. It was found that the interaction of Mn-O bonds was weakened by H2O. Therefore, the influence of H2O should be considered for the future design of MOF-based catalysts for the SCR process.


Assuntos
Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Oxigênio/química , Água/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Catálise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Redutoras/química
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450808

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3) emission is one of the major environmental issues in livestock farming. Gas measurements are required to study the emission process, to establish emission factors, and to assess the efficiency of emission reduction techniques. However, the current methods for acquiring reference measurements of NH3 are either high in cost or labor intensive. In this study, a cost-effective ammonia monitoring system (AMS) was constructed from a commercially-available gas analyzing module based on tunable diode laser absorption (TDLA) spectroscopy. To cope with the negative measurement biases caused by differing inlet pressures, a set of correction equations was formulated. Field validation of the AMS on NH3 measurement was conducted in a fattening pig barn, where the system was compared to a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer. Under two test conditions in a fattening pig barn, the absolute error of the AMS measurements with respect to the average obtained values between the AMS and the FTIR was respectively 0.66 and 0.08 ppmv, corresponding to 5.9% and 0.5% relative error. Potential sources of the measurement uncertainties in both the AMS and FTIR were discussed. The test results demonstrated that the AMS was capable of performing high-quality measurement with sub-ppm accuracy, making it a promising cost-effective tool for establishing NH3 emission factors and studying NH3 emission processes in pig houses.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Amônia/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Amônia/química , Animais , Gado , Análise Espectral , Suínos
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 528, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367959

RESUMO

The distribution and bioavailability of arsenic (As) in indoor/outdoor total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particulate matters (PM10), and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) in Baoding, China were investigated. The average I/O ratios for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 0.52, 0.66, and 0.96, respectively. There was no significant correlation between indoor/outdoor TSP, PM10, and PM2.5. The indoor/outdoor concentrations of As surpassed the limited value of As. I/O ratios of arsenic in TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 0.52, 0.58, and 0.55, respectively. The contents of arsenic in different fractions were mainly affected by the total concentrations of arsenic in particulate matters (PM) rather than the particle sizes for TSP and PM10. Arsenic was mainly in non-specifically sorbed fraction (F1) in both indoor and outdoor PM2.5. The evaluated carcinogenic risk (CR) was within the safe level. The bioavailability of As increased with particle size decreasing for both indoor and outdoor PM. The potential bioavailability of As in outdoor particles was higher than that of indoor particles with the same size, especially PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Material Particulado/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Arsênico/química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124266, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326756

RESUMO

PM2.5 is one of the most notorious ambient pollutants in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during episodic conditions. In this work, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extension (CAMx) was used together with the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) module to analyze the influences of different sources on PM2.5 concentration in the PRD region under different synoptic patterns (sea high pressure, sub-tropical high pressure and equalizing pressure field). The result shows that the PM2.5 concentration increases to different degrees under the three synoptic patterns. The emissions outside the PRD region contribute more than 54% under episodic conditions. The source category contribution varies little under different synoptic patterns. Area (46%), mobile (21%) and industry point source (16%) are the major contributors over the three episodic cases. The regional source contributions (from other cities within the PRD) to Foshan, Zhongshan and Zhaoqing are larger and can reach up to 33%. People living in the PRD region are more exposed to pollutants produced from the area and mobile sources. About 80% of the population is exposed to PM2.5 levels exceeding the IT-3 standard during the pollution episodes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/química , Rios/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 1043-1050, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326796

RESUMO

The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is important challenge in the wastewater treatment plants. In this way, the present study aimed to evaluate the GHG emissions and carbon dioxide fixation by duckweed ponds (DWP) applied to treat municipal wastewater in a polishing stage. Two pilot DWP (3000 L) were operated in a series with real wastewater receiving a flow rate of 200 L d-1 and organic load rate of 39 g COD ha-1 d-1. Beyond the standard physicochemical parameters for wastewater monitoring, the gases emissions from pond surface were measures by using a static flux chamber with infrared probes installed inside to detect CO2 and CH4 concentration. Operating the DWP with a load of 18.1 kg TN ha-1 d-1 and 2 kg TP ha-1 d-1, across 425 days of monitoring, higher COD and nutrient removal efficiency was identified (79%, 93% and 84% for COD, TN and TP, respectively). The CO2 emission rate ranged from 3048 to 6017 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 and the fixation rate ranged from 19,592 to 42,052 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. Methane emission was not detected (less than 0.1%). Moreover, low abundance of archaeal community was identified in both DWP. The results showed that in presented conditions, under low COD loading rate DWP could fix at least three times more CO2 than it emits, highlighting the sustainability of this natural technology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Ciclo do Carbono , Sequestro de Carbono , Águas Residuárias/química
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