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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 208-219, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471028

RESUMO

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), as a widely used gasoline additive, is suspected of being environmentally toxic. MTBE accumulates mainly in adipose tissue, but its effect on obesity or obesity-related metabolic disorders has not been well understood yet. Therefore, we examined the effect of MTBE on the adipose function and the related metabolic processes with both 3T3-L1 cell line and C57BL/6J mice model. We found that exposure to MTBE at the environmental relevant concentration (100 µmol/L) could significantly induce differentiation of preadipocyte and disturb insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of mature adipocyte. The in vivo observation in male mice showed a positive correlation of visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) expansion and cell size increase with MTBE treatment in 14 weeks. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests demonstrated that MTBE at 1000 µg/(kg·day) disturbed the systemic glucose metabolism in a gender-specific manner, which might be partly attributed to the alterations of gut microbiota community at genus level with respect to Akkermansia, Clostridium XlVb, and Megamonas. In summary, our study characterized the effect of MTBE on adipose tissue function and glucose homeostasis in vitro and in vivo, and revealed that systemic disorders of the glucose metabolism might be modulated by the related gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Metílicos/toxicidade , Animais , Gasolina , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Toxicidade
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16556, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348278

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be 1 of etiologic factors responsible for congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Variations of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) gene, as well as their possible interactions with PAHs exposure, may increase susceptibility to CHDs.This case-control study investigated the risk of CHDs in relation to the EPHX1 polymorphisms and assessed the interactions between these polymorphisms and PAHs exposure in 357 mothers of CHDs fetuses and 270 control mothers. Logistic regression models for the risk of CHDs were applied to determine the effect of genetic polymorphisms using additive, recessive, and dominant genetic models, as well as gene-exposure interactions. Multiple testing was adjusted by applying the false discovery rate (FDR).None of the maternal genetic polymorphisms of EPHX1 was associated with CHDs occurrence. Only the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1051740 was associated with an increased risk of right-sided obstructive malformations under the recessive model (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.852, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.065, 3.22) before FDR correction. A possible modifying effect of PAHs exposure on genetic polymorphisms of EPHX1 was found in susceptibility to CHDs, though no multiplicative-scale interactions between maternal exposure to PAHs and polymorphisms of EPHX1 gene were seento affect the risk of CHDs.The role of EPHX1 gene polymorphisms for CHDs need to be further evaluated, in particularly by interacting with PAHs exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/embriologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/embriologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Mães , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(6): 614-618, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177760

RESUMO

A total of 1 685 school-age children selected from Hangzhou received lung function testing to evaluate the short-term effects of air pollution on their lung function. The results showed that in every 10 µg/m(3) increase of average concentration of PM(2.5) and PM(10) on the day of the test and the day before the test,peak expiratory flow (PEF) decreased 0.039 (95%CI: 0.012-0.067) L/s and 0.031 (95% CI:0.011-0.051) L/s,respectively. When the average concentration of SO(2) increased 10 µg/m(3) on the day of test and the day prior to the test, PEF and 75% of the forced vital capacity that has not been exhaled (MEF(75)) decreased 0.437 (95%CI: 0.217-0.658) L/s and 0.396 (95%CI: 0.180-0.613) L/s. After being adjusted for NO(2),with every 10 µg/m(3) increase of average concentration of PM(2.5) and PM(10) on the day of the test and the day before the test,PEF and MEF(75) decreased 0.056 (95%CI: 0.028-0.085), 0.053(95%CI: 0.027-0.081) and 0.047 (95%CI: 0.026-0.068) L/s,0.044 (95%CI: 0.023-0.065) L/s on the day before the test, respectively. The results indicate that air pollution have short-term and lag effects on lung function of school-age children in Hangzhou.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pulmão , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , China , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 312: 167-172, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100492

RESUMO

The inherent complexity of generating and monitoring a test article in an inhalation chamber can make inhalation toxicity testing challenging. Poor study design, human error, and electrical and mechanical problems can adversely affect an inhalation exposure and undermine a study's results. We have developed a process for evaluating seven key elements of exposure quality in inhalation chamber studies: 1) test article characterization, 2) generation method, 3) chamber sampling and analytical method, 4) chamber concentrations, 5) particle size characteristics, 6) chamber type, and 7) controls. For each study evaluated, exposure deficiencies are documented, and a study is given an overall rating (Robust, Adequate, or Poor) for the quality of its exposure characterization and documentation. In combination with the systematic consideration of experimental features other than exposure, these ratings can inform the utility of a study for use in hazard identification and/or exposure-response analysis. Exposure quality evaluations of 204 formaldehyde inhalation studies are presented as a case study. Of these, 34% were rated Robust because they had comprehensive exposure documentation and no serious deficiencies in the key elements of exposure quality. Another 19% of studies with minor uncertainties or limitations were rated Adequate. Conversely, 47% of the studies were rated Poor due to multiple serious exposure deficiencies. This formaldehyde case study illustrates the need to carefully consider the exposure quality of inhalation toxicity studies when their results are used to support hazard and risk assessments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Formaldeído/administração & dosagem , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Formaldeído/química , Humanos , Pesquisa/normas
5.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 914-921, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085478

RESUMO

China has been faced with severe haze pollution, which is hazardous to human health. Among the air pollutants, PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) is the most dangerous because of its toxicity and impact on human health and ecosystems. However, there has been limited research on PM2.5 particle toxicity. In the present study, we collected daily PM2.5 samples from January 1 to March 31, 2018 and selected samples to extract water-soluble species, including SO42-, NO3-, WSOC, and NH4+. These samples represented clean, good, slight, moderate, and heavy pollution days. After extraction using an ultrasonic method, PM2.5 solutions were obtained. We used Chlorella as the test algae and studied the content of chlorophyll a, as well as the variation in fluorescence when they were placed into the PM2.5 extraction solution, and their submicroscopic structure was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that when the air quality was relatively clean and good (PM2.5 concentration ≤ 75 µg m-3), the PM2.5 extraction solutions had no inhibiting effects on Chlorella, whereas when the air quality was polluted (PM2.5 concentration > 75 µg m-3) and heavily polluted (PM2.5 concentration > 150 µg m-3), with increasing PM2.5 concentrations and exposure time, the chlorophyll a content in Chlorella decreased. Moreover, the maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of Chlorella obviously decreased, indicating chlorophyll inhibition during polluted days with increasing PM2.5 concentrations. The effects on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were also obvious, leading to an increase of energy dissipated per unit reaction center (DIo/RC), suggesting that Chlorella could survive when exposed to PM2.5 solutions, whereas the physiological activities were significantly inhibited. The TEM analysis showed that there were few effects on Chlorella cell microstructure during clean days, whereas plasmolysis occurred during light- and medium-polluted days. With increasing pollution levels, plasmolysis became more and more apparent, until the organelles inside the cells were thoroughly destroyed and most of the parts could not be recognized.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Chlorella/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Chlorella/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Solubilidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Água/química
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 677: 108-119, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054440

RESUMO

Ambient fine particle is a crucial indicator of air pollution brought into the air by sundry natural and public events. However, a comprehensive understanding of the PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity especially the contribution of bioaerosol part is still undiscovered. Herein, an ALI microfluidics system integrated multi-omics (iTRAQ & RNA-seq) was successfully utilized to recognize the molecular mechanisms induced by microorganisms carried bioaerosol in human lung epithelial cells. The cells viability was above 98% within 21 days on this system. Moreover, the results showed that eight microorganisms-related pathways (e.g., Salmonella, amoebiasis, HTLV-1) were activated after exposure to PM2.5 for 24 h, which played a certain proportion in contributing to inflammation reaction. In addition, multi-omics demonstrated that three inflammation-related signal transduction cascades including MAPK signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and TGF signaling pathway were triggered by fine particles, ultimately leading to apoptosis-related process disorder by associated cytokines like TNF, IL6, and TGF-ß. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that the cell apoptosis rate increased from 3.8% to 66.7% between the cells exposed to PM2.5 (10 µg/cm2) for 24 h and untreated control cells, which indicated that the fine particles had the ability to activate apoptosis-related signal cascades and result in apoptosis. ELISA assay and western blot indicated that HO-1, JNK, IL6, TNF, NF-κB, and FGF14 were significantly increased after exposure to PM2.5 while Casp3 and FGFR were decreased, which were consistent with the multi-omics. Moreover, PM2.5 components (OC, EC, 16PAHs, As, Cu, Mn, Cl-, and NO3-) were significantly correlated to the inflammation related proteins and cytokines, which played a vital role in the inflammation and apoptosis related signaling pathways. These findings pointed to strong links among microorganisms infection, inflammation, and apoptosis in cell response to PM2.5 carried microorganisms. It also provided a new approach for understanding PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity and health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Microfluídica , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Poluição do Ar , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Chemosphere ; 230: 424-431, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112865

RESUMO

The atmospheric fine particulate matters (PM2.5) induce significant negative effects on human health, such as in the form of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Organic pollutants are important harmful and toxic compositions in PM2.5, risks of which usually show temporal and spatial variations. To investigate the toxic effects of airborne organic pollutants on human lung epithelial cells A549, the PM2.5 samples were collected monthly from both urban and industrial areas during a whole year in Nanjing, eastern China. After exposure to organic components extracted from these PM2.5, the cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase content, oxidative stress index level and inflammatory factor expression level were measured. Supported by the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes, results showed that, organic components of PM2.5 from cold season (winter and spring) typically influenced cell membrane, cell oxidation and inflammatory damage, while the urban samples of warm season (summer and autumn) impacted cell viability more prominently. Spatially, the toxicity of samples from industrial sources was generally stronger than that from urban source, but urban samples induced much stronger damage to cell membranes than industrial one. The correlations between the PAHs, n-alkanes contents and toxicity parameters indicated that, the airborne organic components derived from motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion were possibly the key toxic sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Alcanos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Células A549 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Alcanos/análise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Cidades , Clima , Humanos , Indústrias , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 230-237, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082607

RESUMO

Ecotoxicological studies that try to describe the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health are important in order to gain a deeper understanding of their effects in disease outcomes. Because exposure protocols are not easily comparable, evaluating human PM exposure is a difficult task. Thus, interpreting ambiguous or conflicting results from different experiments could lead to misleading conclusions about the true nature of PM effects. To address these issues, we compiled a collection of relevant research articles in order to compare present PM exposure methods and extract data related to concentration, inhalation rates (IR), and doses. We also compare the experimental exposure levels reported in these articles to PM levels around the world. In particular, our dataset covers reported results from 75 research articles. To allow for comparison between protocols, we used this data to fit a normalization equation that depends upon concentration, exposure time, dose, inhalability, and physiological parameters. Based on the collected research papers, instillation is the prevalent exposure method. Also, the median PM IR from these experiments is three orders of magnitude higher than the PM IR found in environmental conditions (EAP). Experiments employing inhalation of concentrated PM show IR results that are two orders of magnitude higher than EAP; these results are cause for concerns, since the PM exposure were acute, sudden, and higher than the worst-case exposure scenarios reported by the world megacities. We also found that different PM exposure protocols are sources for the observed variability in physiological response results found from animal models. We discuss these findings and make suggestions for future exposure methodologies. Such considerations should be valuable for quantifying PM exposure in disease outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Modelos Animais , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 229: 559-569, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100627

RESUMO

Increasingly stringent particulate matter (PM) emission standards have brought forth engine design improvements, cleaner-burning fuels, and aftertreatment technologies. Reductions in tailpipe PM mass have concomitantly reduced accumulation-mode particle emissions. However, some strategies promote the emission of nucleation-mode particles, which are typically quantified on a number (PN) basis. We previously demonstrated that PN emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with various aftertreatment systems were inversely correlated, and gravimetric PM mass was positively correlated, with two in vitro assays. This present work expands on the analysis of PM mass and PN with in vitro assays to also include four additional PM metrics: suspended PM mass, active particle surface area, aggregate particle surface area, and accumulation-mode particle number. This new analysis shows that like gravimetric PM mass, suspended particle mass and accumulation mode particle number are well correlated with dithiothreitol consumption rate (DTT) and macrophage reactive oxygen species consumption rate (ROS) assays (R2 = 0.61-0.96). Data suggest that PM mass emissions dominated by nucleation-mode particles induce equal or slightly greater toxicity compared to PM mass dominated by accumulation-mode particles. Data also show that among all PM metrics, those used for regulating PM in the United States and Europe, namely gravimetric mass and solid PN are overall most correlated with in vitro toxicity. Moreover, continued exploration of alternative, low-cost, and more appropriate PM metrics is warranted to better understand the reproducibility of these findings on other engine applications, fuel types, and aftertreatment platforms.


Assuntos
Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Veículos Automotores , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 374-383, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102845

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) can cause oxidative stress in plants and humans. Catechin is an antioxidant that enriches tea and can probably increase O3 tolerance in plants. To investigate the mechanism of catechin to alleviate O3 stress in plants, Zamiocalcus zamiifolia (an efficient plant for O3 phytoremediation) was sprayed with 5 mM catechin and was used to expose O3 (150-250) under long-term operation (10 cycles). We investigated whether exogenous catechin could enhance O3 removal and alleviate O3 stress through a balanced redox state in plants. Z. zamiifolia sprayed with catechin exhibited higher O3 removal (80.27±3.12%), than Z. zamiifolia without catechin (50.03±2.68%). O3 in the range of 150-250 ppb led to stress in plants, as shown by an increased malondialdehyde content (MDA) and salicylic acid (SA). Whereas under the presence of O3, exogenous catechin could maintain the MDA content and inhibit SA accumulation. Under Z. zamiifolia+catechin+O3 conditions, catechin reacted with O3, which led to the formation of catechin-quinone. The formation of catechin-quinone was confirmed by the depletion of reduced glutathione content (GSH). This catechin-quinone could induce GST and APX genes that are up-regulated approximately 35- and 5-fold, respectively. Hence, Z. zamiifolia+catechin+O3 conditions had higher performance for coping with oxidative stress than did Z. zamiifolia+O3 conditions. This evidence demonstrates that catechin could enhance O3 removal through a balanced redox state in plant cells. Finally, the application of tea extract for enhanced O3 removal is also shown in this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Araceae/enzimologia , Araceae/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 542-548, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128552

RESUMO

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations and short and long-term excess mortality attributed to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 observed in ambient air of Ahvaz during March 2014 to March 2017 period using the AirQ + software developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is updated in 2016 by WHO European Centre for Environment and Health. The hourly concentrations of PM2.5, O3, and NO2 measured at different regulatory monitoring network stations in Ahvaz city were obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE) of the city. Then, for various air quality monitoring stations, the 24-h average concentration of PM2.5, 1-h average of NO2 concentration, and maximum daily 8-h O3 concentrations were calculated using Excel 2010 software. When the maximum daily 8-h ozone means exceeding the value of 35, it was subtracted from 35 to calculate SOMO35 indicator for modeling. Validation of air quality data was performed according to the Aphekom and WHO's methodologies for health impact assessment of air pollution. Year-specific city population and baseline incidence of the health outcomes were obtained. The three-year averages of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 concentrations were 68.95 (±39.86) µg/m3, 135.90 (±47.82) µg/m3, and 38.63 (±12.83) parts-per-billion-volume (ppbv), respectively. SOMO35 values of ozone were 6596.66, 3411.78, and 470.88 ppbv in 2014-2015, 2015-2016, and 2016-2017 years, respectively. The AP and number of natural deaths due to NO2 were higher than PM2.5 except the last year (2016-2017), causing about 39.18%, 40.73%, and 14.39% of deaths within the first, the second, and the third year, respectively. However, for the last year, the natural mortality for PM2.5 was higher than NO2 (34.46% versus 14.39%). The total number of natural mortality caused by PM2.5 and NO2 in all years was 4061 and 4391, respectively. A significant number of deaths was estimated to be attributed to the given air pollutants. It can be concluded that by designing and implementing air pollution control strategies and actions, both health effects and economic losses will be prevented.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18200-18207, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041709

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter (PM) increased variety of health problems, particularly cardiovascular diseases leading to premature mortality. The cardiac effects of particulate matter containing PM10 include increased infarct size, decreased heart function, and increased arrhythmias in experimental ischemia-reperfusion models in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM10) on isolated-rat heart and also to determine the efficacy of gallic acid (GA) as a preventive agent in oxidative damage. The healthy rats were divided into 8 equal groups which served as, control, GA, PM10 (0.5, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg), and PM10+GA groups. PM10 administered into the lungs via the trachea in two stages with 48-h interval. After all experiments, the electrocardiogram was recorded. Then, the hemodynamic parameters and ventricular arrhythmias in rat isolated-hearts were assessed using Langendorff apparatus and according to the Lambeth conventions. In addition, the inflammation and oxidative stress factors in cardiac tissues were evaluated in all groups. The obtained results showed that the exposure to PM caused to decrease in cardiac hemodynamic and electrocardiogram parameters. Also, in PM10 rat groups, the IL-6, TNF-α, and oxidative stress parameters were increased. Gallic acid preserved the value of cardiac parameters and inflammation in rat hearts. In summary, we added a novel therapeutic effect of gallic acid for cardiac dysfunction induced by particulate matter. These findings could be related to antioxidant and antiinflammation properties and the obtained results suggest that natural antioxidant like gallic acid could be a therapeutic agent in prevention and management of health issues in the polluted areas of the world.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Eletrocardiografia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Chemosphere ; 230: 578-586, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125886

RESUMO

The physical, chemical and bioreactivity characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected near (<1 km) two landfill sites and downwind urban sites were investigated. The PM2.5 concentrations were significantly higher in winter than summer. Diurnal variations of PM2.5 were recorded at both landfill sites. Soot aggregate particles were identified near the landfill sites, which indicated that combustion pollution due to landfill activities was a significant source. High correlation coefficients (r) implied several inorganic elements and water-soluble inorganic ions (vanadium (V), copper (Cu), chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), sodium (Na) and potassium (K)) were positively associated with wind flow from the landfill sites. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were also identified between these components against DNA damage. Significant associations were observed between DNA damage and some heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the summer. The insignificant associations of DNA damage under increased wind frequency from landfills suggested that the PM2.5 loading from sources such as regional sources was possibly an important contributing factor for DNA damage. This outcome warrants the further development of effective and source-specific landfill management regulations for particulate matter production control to the city.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Cidades , Dano ao DNA , Hong Kong , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Vento
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 682: 364-373, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125750

RESUMO

Most published studies on particulate matter (PM) concerning PM2.5 and PM10 have focused on PM-induced effects on the respiratory system (particularly lung) and cardiovascular system effects. However, epidemiological and mechanistic studies suggest that PM2.5 and PM10 also affects the skin, which is a key health issue. In this study, we first reviewed the current status of PM2.5 and PM10 in China, including relevant regulations, concentration levels, chemical components, and emission sources. Next, we summarized the association between PM2.5 and PM10 or its representative components, in relation to skin inflammation as well as inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, acne, eczema, and skin aging. Finally, we determined the mechanism of oxidative stress or programmed cell death induced through PM, which can provide useful information for future research on PM-induced skin inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 301-308, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075597

RESUMO

Heavy metals are widely recognized as toxic components in urban air particulate matter (PM). However, the major toxic metals and their interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to explore the toxicity contribution and combined effects of PM-bounded metals in human lung epithelial cells (A549). Real-time cell analysis indicated that the critical toxic concentration (EC50) of PM detected in this study was 107.90 mg/L (r2 = 1.00, p < 0.01). The cell viability of A549 increased significantly (12.3%) after metal removal in PM, demonstrating an important contribution of metal components to PM toxicity. Among eleven elements examined (Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Sr, Cd, and Pb), six heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Pb) might account for PM toxicity in A549 cells, and their co-exposure led to a high mortality of A549 cells (36.5 ±â€¯7.3%). For combination treatments, cell mortality caused by single or multiple metal mixtures was usually alleviated by Fe addition, while it was often aggravated in the presence of Mn. The varying effects of other metals (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr) on different metal mixtures might be explained by their interactions (e.g., similar or dissimilar membrane transporters and intracellular targets). Furthermore, the concentration addition model (CA), independent action model (IA), integrated addition model (IAM) and integrated addition and interaction model (IAI) were used to predict mixture toxicity, and the IAI model exhibited the least variation between observed and predicted toxic effects (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.01). Our results highlight the potential contribution from heavy metals and their interactions to PM toxicity, and promote the application of toxicity prediction models on metal components in PM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Células A549 , Humanos , Testes de Toxicidade
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 813-820, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085497

RESUMO

Amending soils with biochar is increasingly proposed as a solution to many pressing agricultural and environmental challenges. Biochar, created by thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment, has several purported benefits, including remediation of contaminated soils, increased crop yields, reduced fertilizer demands, increased plant available water, and mitigation of climate change. Due to these potential benefits, biochar-related research has flourished in the past decade, though there remains a critically understudied area of research regarding biochar's potential impact on human health. Because biochar characteristically has low bulk density and high porosity, the material is susceptible to atmospheric release via natural or mechanical soil disturbance. The specific risks of biochar inhalation have not been elucidated; however, recent publications have demonstrated that biochar can increase soil dust emissions of particles <10 µm (PM10) or possess elevated levels of toxic chemicals. These data should not be interpreted to suggest that all biochars are problematic, but rather to highlight an important and overlooked field of study, and to stress the need to critically assess parameters for biochar production and management strategies that safeguard human health. Here the literature on biochar-related dust emissions and potentially toxic properties (PTPs) is reviewed in order to summarize what is known, highlight areas for future study, and aggregate solutions to minimize potential harm.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Carvão Vegetal/toxicidade , Poeira/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Fertilizantes/toxicidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19697-19704, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079306

RESUMO

The effect of particulate matter (PM) on health increases with exposure duration but the change from short to longer term is not well studied. We examined the exposure to PM smaller 10 µm (PM10) from short to longer duration and their associations with levels of inflammatory markers in the population-based CoLaus cohort in Lausanne, Switzerland. Baseline and follow-up CoLaus data were used to study the associations between PM10 exposure and inflammatory markers, including the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as interleukin 1-beta (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor-necrosis-factor alpha (TNF-α) using mixed models. Exposure was determined for each participant's home address from hourly air quality simulations at a 5-m resolution. Short-term exposure intervals were 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month prior to the hospital visit (blood withdrawal); long-term exposure intervals were 3 and 6 months prior to the visit. In most time windows, IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α were positively associated with PM10. No significant associations were identified for CRP. Adjusted associations with long-term exposures were stronger and more significant than those for short-term exposures. In stratified models, gender, age, smoking status, and hypertension only led to small modifications in effect estimates, though a few of the estimates for IL-6 and TNF-α became non-significant. In this general adult cohort exposed to relatively low average PM10 levels, clear associations with markers of systemic inflammation were observed. Longer duration of elevated exposure was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response. This may partially explain the elevated disease risk observed with chronic PM10 exposure. It also suggests that reducing prolonged episodes of high PM exposure may be a strategy to reduce inflammatory risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Inflamação/sangue , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19490-19501, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077052

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the changes in leaf physiological parameters to abiotic stress induced by different levels of cement dust. On day 15, Arachis hypogaea L. plants (sowing day was considered as day 0) were divided into six groups, and cement was sprinkled over plants with the help of hand pump, twice a week at T1 (5 g pot-1), T2 (8 g pot-1), T3 (10 g pot-1), T4 (15 g pot-1), T5 (20 g pot-1), and T0/control (0 g pot-1), until fruit maturity. Morphometric parameters such as root and shoot length, leaf area, and seed weight were significantly higher in T0, while the minimum was recorded in T5. Physiological analyses of leaves and roots revealed a remarkable reduction (p < 0.05) in sugar, amino acid, and protein contents, while the concentration of enzymatic antioxidants was increased in cement-treated plants. The concentration of abscisic acid in leaves was significantly higher in treatment groups as compared with control, while gibberellic acid concentration was low. Strikingly, cement dust decreases the level of leaf photosynthetic pigments, reduces stomatal conductance, and adversely affects photosynthesis. Leaf histological analysis revealed confirmatory evidence of stomatal closure, cell damage, reduced cell area, and abridged leaf thickness. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidence to estimate cement dust as a critical abiotic stress factor, which has adverse effects on photosynthesis, leaf anatomical features, stomatal functioning, and productivity. Our work opens new avenues for a deep portfolio of cement-based stress mediating pathophysiology in Arachis hypogaea.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Arachis/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais de Construção/toxicidade , Poeira/análise , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arachis/metabolismo , Arachis/fisiologia , Materiais de Construção/análise , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 179: 175-181, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039460

RESUMO

DNA methylation (5-mc) is one of the several epigenetic markers, and is generally associated with the inhibition of gene expression. Both hyper and hypo DNA methylation are associated with the diseases. Exposure to fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) is a pervasive risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality, metabolic disorders, cognition damage, and etc.. Recent reports pointed toward that these diseases were associated with the altered DNA methylation level of some specific-gene, potentially suggesting that the DNA methylation alteration was involved in the health hazard derived from the PM2.5 exposure. In this study, we systematically investigated the global DNA methylation level of most tissues, including lung, heart, testis, thymus, spleen, epididymal fat, hippocampus, kidney, live, after short and long term PM2.5 exposure. After acute PM2.5 exposure, the global hypo-methylation in DNA was observed in lung and heart. Notably, after chronic PM2.5 exposure, level of global DNA methylation decreased in most organs which included lung, testis, thymus, spleen, epididymal fat, hippocampus and blood. The present study systematically demonstrated the global DNA methylation changes by PM2.5 exposure, and put forward a possible orientation for further exploring the effects of ambient air particles exposure on the specific organs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Especificidade de Órgãos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 179: 249-256, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054378

RESUMO

The functional role of 1,25-vitamin D3 in cooking oil fumes (COFs)-derived PM2.5-induced cell damage is largely unexplored. The present study investigated the protective role of 1,25-vitamin D3 against cell injury by possible involvement of JAK/STAT and NF-κB signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes. Cell viability was measured using CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and Western blot in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes treated with 1,25-vitamin D3 and COFs-derived PM2.5. Expressions of JAK/STAT and NF-κB signaling pathway were measured by Western blot. The results suggested that treatment with COFs-derived PM2.5 significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. 1,25-vitamin D3 pretreatment alleviated the cell injury by increasing cell viability and decreasing apoptosis in the cardiomyocytes. 1,25-vitamin D3 pretreatment also decreased the ROS level and inflammation in the cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, 1,25-vitamin D3 pretreatment alleviated COFs-derived PM2.5-evoked elevation of JAK/STAT and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our study showed that 1,25-vitamin D3 pretreatment protected cardiomyocytes from COFs-derived PM2.5-induced injury by decreasing ROS, apoptosis and inflammation level via activations of the JAK/STAT and NF-κB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Culinária/métodos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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