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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112463, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cooking oil fumes (COF) is one of the primary sources of indoor air pollution in China, which is associated with respiratory diseases such as acute lung injury and lung cancer. However, evidence of COF toxic effect was few. OBJECTIVES: The research was aimed to investigate the toxic effect and the underlying mechanisms induced by COF. METHODS: The female Wistar rats were randomly divided into several groups, including control group, COF exposure group and VE protection group, and instilled intratracheally with different COF suspensions (0.2, 2, 20 mg/kg) or saline once every 3 days for 30 days. After 24 h of final exposure, all rat were anesthetic euthanasia to draw materials. The alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was for inflammatory cell count. The lung homogenate was to determine the biochemical indexes such as oxidative stress, apoptosis factors, carcinogenic toxicity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The left lung was made for immunohistochemical and histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the levels of oxidative stress (ROS), apoptosis factors (NF-κB), carcinogenic toxicity (P53 and 8-OhdG), ER stress (IRE-1α and Caspase-12) in 2 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg COF exposure groups were significantly increased compared with the saline groups. The above pathological changes were improved after vitamin E (VE) supplementation. In addition, the immunohistochemical and histopathological analysis found the same trend. CONCLUSION: The COF had health risk of heredity and potential carcinogenicity. Besides, COFs can not only induce oxidative stress, but also induce ER stress in lung and airway epithelial cells of female rats through the unfolded protein reaction (UPR) pathway. It revealed that the oxidative stress and ER stress interacted in aggravating lung injury. VE could effectively alleviate the lung injury causing by COF exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Culinária , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206915

RESUMO

The impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cause-specific mortality has been investigated on a global scale. However, less is known about the excess all-cause mortality and air pollution-human activity responses. This study estimated the weekly excess all-cause mortality during COVID-19 and evaluated the impacts of air pollution and human activities on mortality variations during the 10th to 52nd weeks of 2020 among sixteen countries. A SARIMA model was adopted to estimate the mortality benchmark based on short-term mortality during 2015-2019 and calculate excess mortality. A quasi-likelihood Poisson-based GAM model was further applied for air pollution/human activity response evaluation, namely ground-level NO2 and PM2.5 and the visit frequencies of parks and workplaces. The findings showed that, compared with COVID-19 mortality (i.e., cause-specific mortality), excess all-cause mortality changed from -26.52% to 373.60% during the 10th to 52nd weeks across the sixteen countries examined, revealing higher excess all-cause mortality than COVID-19 mortality in most countries. For the impact of air pollution and human activities, the average country-level relative risk showed that one unit increase in weekly NO2, PM2.5, park visits and workplace visits was associated with approximately 1.54% increase and 0.19%, 0.23%, and 0.23% decrease in excess all-cause mortality, respectively. Moreover, compared with the impact on COVID-19 mortality, the relative risks of weekly NO2 and PM2.5 were lower, and the relative risks of weekly park and workplace visits were higher for excess all-cause mortality. These results suggest that the estimation based on excess all-cause mortality reduced the potential impact of air pollution and enhanced the influence of human activities compared with the estimation based on COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Epidemias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Int Med Res ; 49(7): 3000605211029058, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the relationship between major air pollutants and the natural history and mortality of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2013 to 2019 among 52 patients with IPF from the pneumology department of a tertiary hospital. According to their geocoded residential address, each patient was assigned a mean concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter 2.5 and 10, ozone, and sulfur dioxide, as measured at a single surveillance station in central Madrid, Spain. We analyzed forced vital capacity (FVC), CO diffusing capacity, 6-minute walking test, degree of dyspnea, radiologic pattern, and signs of pulmonary hypertension in all patients. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 66 ± 10 years, and 79% were men. The mean predicted FVC was 78.9 ± 0.5%. Forty-two patients met the criteria for severe disease, and 18 patients died. Mortality was significantly associated with increased CO exposure (for each 0.1 mg/m2 increase: odds ratio 2.45, 95% confidence interval 1.39-4.56). We observed no association between any of the other investigated contaminants and IPF mortality or severity. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution, specifically that caused by carbon monoxide, can increase mortality in patients with IPF.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
J Frailty Aging ; 10(3): 281-285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105713

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted different vulnerability profiles among individuals. With the highest mortality rate, the elderly are a very sensitive group. With regard to the main symptoms, a failure of the respiratory system, associated with deregulation of the immune system, has been observed. These symptoms may also be encountered in chronic exposure of susceptible populations to air pollution, including exacerbation of the inflammatory response. Is there a relationship between age, pollution exposure and the severity of COVID-19? Although it is unclear how these parameters are related, the same pathways can be activated and appear to find a common mechanism of action in inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Inflamação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147018, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088028

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is able to pass through the respiratory barrier to enter the circulatory system and can consequently spread to the whole body to cause toxicity. Although our previous studies have revealed significantly altered levels of phosphorylcholine-containing lipids in the lungs of rats after chronic inhalation exposure to PM2.5, the effects of PM2.5 on phosphorylcholine-containing lipids in the extrapulmonary organs have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the lipid effects of chronic PM2.5 exposure on various organs and serum by using a rat inhalation model followed by a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed at the whole body level to nonfiltered and nonconcentrated ambient air from the outside environment of Taipei city for 8 months, while the control rats inhaled filtered air simultaneously. After exposure, serum samples and various organs, including the testis, pancreas, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and epididymis, were collected for lipid extraction and analysis to examine the changes in phosphorylcholine-containing lipids after exposure. The results from the partial least squares discriminant analysis models demonstrated that the lipid profiles in the PM2.5 exposure group were different from those in the control group in the rat testis, pancreas, heart, liver, kidney and serum. The greatest PM2.5-induced lipid effects were observed in the testes. Decreased lyso-phosphatidylcholines (PCs) as well as increased unsaturated diacyl-PCs and sphingomyelins in the testes may be related to maintaining the membrane integrity of spermatozoa, antioxidation, and cell signaling. Additionally, our results showed that decreased PC(16:0/18:1) was observed in both the serum and testes. In conclusion, exposure to chronic environmental concentrations of PM2.5 caused lipid perturbation, especially in the testes of rats. This study highlighted the susceptibility of the testes and suggested possible molecular events for future study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Cidades , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147063, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088128

RESUMO

Given the high ozone concentrations observed in the Mediterranean region during summer, it is crucial to extend our knowledge on the potential ozone impacts on forest health with in situ studies, especially to protect typical endemic forests of the Mediterranean basin. This study is focused on ozone measurements and exposures over the Eastern Adriatic coast and on the calculation of different O3 metrics, i.e., accumulated exposure AOT40 (AOT40dir, AOT40ICP, AOT40pheno) and stomatal O3 fluxes with an hourly threshold of uptake (Y) to represent the detoxification capacity of trees (PODY, with Y = 0, 1, 2 nmol O3 m-2 s-1) used for forest protection. Finally, we provide an assessment of the relationships between the forest response indicators and environmental variables. Passive ozone measurements and monitoring of forest health indicators, namely growth and crown defoliation, were performed for Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens, Pinus halepensis, and Pinus nigra forests. Results showed that, for all the analysed species, ozone levels were close to reached the upper plausibility limits for passive monitoring of air quality at forest sites (100 ppb), with the highest values found on P. halepensis in the summer period. O3 metrics based on exposure were found to be higher in pine plots than in oak plots, while the highest values of uptake-based metrics were found on P. nigra. Regarding relationships between environmental variables and forest-health response indicators, the crown defoliation was significantly correlated with the soil water content at various depth while the tree growth was correlated with the different O3 metrics. The most important predictors affecting tree growth of Q. pubescens and Q. ilex were AOT40pheno and AOT40dir and POD0 for P. nigra.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Florestas , Região do Mediterrâneo , Ozônio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Árvores
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 105: 64-70, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130840

RESUMO

Simulation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is essential for evaluating adverse health effects. In this work, an ambient exposure system that mimicked real atmospheric conditions was installed in Taiyuan, China to study impacts of chronic PM2.5 exposure on adult and aged mice as well as Sirtuin3 knockout (Sirt3 KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. The real-ambient exposure system eliminated the possible artificial effects caused from exposure experiments and maintained the physiochemical characteristics of PM2.5. The case studies indicated that aged mice exhibited apparent heart dysfunction involving increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure after 17-week of real-ambient PM2.5 exposure. Meanwhile, 15-week of real-ambient PM2.5 exposure decreased the heart rate and amounts of associated catecholamines to induce heart failure in Sirt3 KO mice. Additionally, the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased platelet related indices suggested that inflammation occurred. The changes of biomarkers detected by targeted metabolomics confirmed metabolic disorder in WT and Sirt3 KO mice after exposed to real-ambient PM2.5. These results indicated that the real-ambient PM2.5 exposure system could evaluate the risks of certain diseases associated with air pollution and have great potential for supporting the investigations of PM2.5 effects on other types of rodent models.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Animais , China , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1069, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ground-level ozone (O3) pollution is currently the one of the severe environmental problems in China. Although existing studies have quantified the O3-related health impact and economic loss, few have focused on the acute health effects of short-term exposure to O3 and have been limited to a single temporal and spatial dimension. METHODS: Based on the O3 concentration obtained from ground monitoring networks in 334 Chinese cities in 2015-2018, this study used a two-stage exposure parameter weighted Log-linear exposure-response function to estimate the cause-specific mortality for short-term exposure to O3. RESULTS: The value of statistical life (VSL) method that were used to calculate the economic loss at the city-level. Our results show that in China, the national all-cause mortality attributed to O3 was 0.27(95% CI: 0.14-0.55) to 0.39 (95% CI: 0.20-0.67) million across 2015-2018. The estimated economic loss caused by O3 was 387.76 (95% CI: 195.99-904.50) to 594.08 (95% CI: 303.34-1140.65) billion CNY, accounting for 0.52 to 0.69% of total reported GDP. Overall, the O3 attributed health and economic burden has begun to decline in China since 2017. However, highly polluted areas still face severe burden, and undeveloped areas suffer from high GDP losses. CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial health impacts and economic losses related to short-term O3 exposure in China. The government should pay attention to the emerging ozone pollution, and continue to strengthen the intervention in traditional priority areas while solving the pollution problem in non-priority areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130919, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134441

RESUMO

PM2.5 pollution is a widespread environmental and health problem, particularly in China. Besides leading to well-known diseases in the respiratory system, PM2.5 can also alter immune function to induce or aggravate allergic diseases. To determine whether there are temporal and spatial differences in the allergic responses to PM2.5, monthly samples were collected from four regions (urban, industrial, suburban, and rural areas) through a whole year in Nanjing city, China. Inorganic chemical components (metals and water-soluble ions) of PM2.5 were analyzed, and the rat basophil cells (RBL-2H3) exposed to PM2.5 were assessed through quantitative measures of degranulation (ß-hex and histamine) and pro-inflammation cytokine (IL-4 and TNF-α) expression. The highest levels of ß-hex were measured in winter and spring PM2.5 from urban and industrial areas, or autumn PM2.5 from suburban and rural areas. With respect to histamine, autumn PM2.5 samples were most potent irrespective of the location. Autumn and winter PM2.5 induced higher levels of IL-4 than spring and summer samples. However, spring and autumn PM2.5 caused higher levels of TNF-α. The concentrations of water-soluble ions (NH4+, K+ and Cl-), as well as heavy metals (Pb and Cr), were directly and statistically correlated to the inflammation observed in vitro. In general, the differences between regional and seasonal PM2.5 in stimulating cell degranulation may depend on endotoxin and airborne allergen content of PM2.5. The heavy metals and water-soluble ions in PM2.5 were mostly anthropogenic, which increased the particles' mass-based cellular inflammatory potential, therefore, their health risks, e.g. from vehicular exhaust, coal, and biomass combustion, cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ratos , Estações do Ano
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067860

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between micronuclei and DNA damage in children's buccal mucosa cells and the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the different sized fractions of particulate matter as well as the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and metals in particulate matter. Air particulate matter was collected by high volume samplers located near the schools attended by the children on the same days of biological samplings. The mutagenic activity was assessed in different cells in in vitro tests (Ames test on bacteria and comet test on leukocytes). Our study showed weak positive correlations between (a) the mutagenicity of the PM0.5 fraction and PAHs and (b) the micronuclei test of children's buccal cells and PAHs detected in PM0.5 and PM0.5-3 fractions. A positive correlation was also found between in vitro comet test on leukocytes and PAHs in the PM3-10 fraction. No correlation was observed for metal concentrations in each PM fraction.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073421

RESUMO

This study investigated the PAH levels in Wistar rats exposed to ambient air of the Port Harcourt metropolis. Twenty Wistar rats imported from a nonpolluted city (Enugu) were exposed to both indoor and outdoor air. Following the IACUC regulation, baseline data were obtained from 4 randomly selected rats, while the remaining 16 rats (8 each for indoor and outdoor) were left till day 90. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and the PAH levels were determined using Gas Chromatography Flame-Ionization Detector (GC-FID). GraphPad Prism (version 8.0.2) Sidak's (for multiple data set) and unpaired t-tests (for two data sets) were used to evaluate the differences in group means. Seven of the PAHs found in indoor and outdoor rats were absent in baseline rats. The mean concentrations of PAH in indoor and outdoor animals were higher than those of baseline animals, except for Benzo(a)pyrene, which was found in baseline animals but absent in other animal groups. Additionally, Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, Pyrene, 2-methyl, and other carcinogenic PAHs were all significantly higher (p < 0.05) in outdoor groups. The vulnerable groups in Port Harcourt are at the greatest risk of such pollution. Therefore, urgent environmental and public health measures are necessary to mitigate the looming danger.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nigéria , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064967

RESUMO

Prenatal maternal exposure to air pollution may cause adverse health effects in offspring, potentially through altered immune responses. Maternal psychosocial distress can also alter immune function and may increase gestational vulnerability to air pollution exposure. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to air pollution is associated with altered immune responses in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and potential modification by maternal depression in 463 women recruited in early pregnancy (1999-2001) into the Project Viva longitudinal cohort. We estimated black carbon (BC), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), residential proximity to major roadways, and near-residence traffic density, averaged over pregnancy. Women reported depressive symptoms in mid-pregnancy (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and depression history by questionnaire. Immune responses were assayed by concentrations of three cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α), in unstimulated or stimulated (phytohemagglutinin (PHA), cockroach extract (Bla g 2), house dust mite extract (Der f 1)) CBMCs. Using multivariable linear or Tobit regression analyses, we found that CBMCs production of IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-10 were all lower in mothers exposed to higher levels of PM2.5 during pregnancy. A suggestive but not statistically significant pattern of lower cord blood cytokine concentrations from ever (versus never) depressed women exposed to PM2.5, BC, or traffic was also observed and warrants further study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
13.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130740, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162086

RESUMO

Few cohort studies explored the associations of long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) and its chemical constituents with mortality risk in rural China. We conducted a 12-year prospective study of 28,793 adults in rural Deqing, China from 2006 to 2018. Annual mean PM2.5 and its constituents, including black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), and soil dust were measured at participants' addresses at enrollment from a satellite-based exposure predicting model. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of long-term exposure to PM2.5 for mortality. A total of 1960 deaths were identified during the follow-up. We found PM2.5, BC, OC, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- were significantly associated with an increased risk of non-accidental mortality. The HR for non-accidental mortality was 1.17 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.28) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. As for constituents, the strongest association was found for BC (HR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.11, 1.33), followed by NO3-, NH4+, SO42-, and OC (HR = 1.14-1.17 per interquartile range). A non-linear relationship was found between PM2.5 and non-accidental mortality. Similar associations were found for cardio-cerebrovascular and cancer mortality. Associations were stronger among men and ever smokers. Conclusively, we found long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and its chemical constituents (especially BC and NO3-) increased mortality risk. Our results suggested the importance of adopting effective targeted emission control to improve air quality for health protection in rural East China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112419, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing evidence that particulate air pollution has adverse effects on human semen quality, few studies examine the impact of air pollution on clinically relevant thresholds used to diagnose male fertility problems. Furthermore, exposure is often assessed using average air pollution levels in a geographic area rather than individualized estimates. Finally, physiologically-informed exposure windows are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We sought to test the hypothesis that airborne particulate exposures during early-phase spermatogenesis will have a differential impact on spermatogenic formation compared to late-phase exposures, using an individualized model of exposure to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm and ≤ 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively). METHODS: From an original cohort of 183 couples, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 130 healthy males seeking to become parents, using spermatogenesis-relevant exposure windows of 77-34 days and 37-0 days prior to semen collection to encompass sperm development stages of mitosis/meiosis and spermiogenesis, respectively. Individualized residential exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 was estimated by selecting multiple air pollution sensors within the same geographic air basin as participants and employing inverse distance weighting to calculate mean daily exposure levels. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between pollution, temperature, and dichotomized World Health Organization semen parameters. RESULTS: During the early phase of spermatogenesis, air pollution exposure is associated with 1.52 (95% CI: 1.04-2.32) times greater odds of < 30% normal heads per 1-unit increase in IQR for PM2.5. In the late phase of spermatogenesis, air pollution exposure is associated with 0.35 (95% CI: 0.10-0.74) times greater odds of semen concentration < 15 million/mL per 1-unit increase in IQR for PM2.5, and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.07-0.72) for PM10. CONCLUSION: Particulate exposure has a differential and more deleterious impact on sperm during early-phase spermatogenesis than late-phase.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/patologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported associations between maternal exposure to atmospheric pollution and lower birth weight. However, the evidence is not consistent and uncertainties remain. We used advanced statistical approaches to robustly estimate the association of atmospheric pollutant exposure during specific pregnancy time windows with term birth weight (TBW) in a nationwide study. METHODS: Among 13,334 women from the French Longitudinal Study of Children (ELFE) cohort, exposures to PM2.5, PM10 (particles < 2.5 µm and <10 µm) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) were estimated using a fine spatio-temporal exposure model. We used inverse probability scores and doubly robust methods in generalized additive models accounting for spatial autocorrelation to study the association of such exposures with TBW. RESULTS: First trimester exposures were associated with an increased TBW. Second trimester exposures were associated with a decreased TBW by 17.1 g (95% CI, -26.8, -7.3) and by 18.0 g (-26.6, -9.4) for each 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, and by 15.9 g (-27.6, -4.2) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2. Third trimester exposures (truncated at 37 gestational weeks) were associated with a decreased TBW by 48.1 g (-58.1, -38.0) for PM2.5, 38.1 g (-46.7, -29.6) for PM10 and 14.7 g (-25.3, -4.0) for NO2. Effects of pollutants on TBW were larger in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support an adverse effect of air pollutant exposure on TBW. We highlighted a larger effect of air pollutants on TBW among women living in rural areas compared to women living in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069801

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution has been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of women's health disorders. However, it remains unknown to what extent changes in ambient air pollution affect gynecological cancer. In our case-control study, the logistic regression model was combined with the restricted cubic spline to examine the association of short-term exposure to air pollution with gynecological cancer events using the clinical data of 35,989 women in Beijing from December 2008 to December 2017. We assessed the women's exposure to air pollutants using the monitor located nearest to each woman's residence and working places, adjusting for age, occupation, ambient temperature, and ambient humidity. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were examined to evaluate gynecologic cancer risk in six time windows (Phase 1-Phase 6) of women's exposure to air pollutants (PM2.5, CO, O3, and SO2) and the highest ORs were found in Phase 4 (240 days). Then, the higher adjusted ORs were found associated with the increased concentrations of each pollutant (PM2.5, CO, O3, and SO2) in Phase 4. For instance, the adjusted OR of gynecological cancer risk for a 1.0-mg m-3 increase in CO exposures was 1.010 (95% CI: 0.881-1.139) below 0.8 mg m-3, 1.032 (95% CI: 0.871-1.194) at 0.8-1.0 mg m-3, 1.059 (95% CI: 0.973-1.145) at 1.0-1.4 mg m-3, and 1.120 (95% CI: 0.993-1.246) above 1.4 mg m-3. The ORs calculated in different air pollution levels accessed us to identify the nonlinear association between women's exposure to air pollutants (PM2.5, CO, O3, and SO2) and the gynecological cancer risk. This study supports that the gynecologic risks associated with air pollution should be considered in improved public health preventive measures and policymaking to minimize the dangerous effects of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pequim , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(5): 350-357, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977902

RESUMO

SETTING: Indoor volatile organic compound (VOC) levels, which are generally correlated with each other, may have an additive or synergistic effect on health. VOC synergy with allergens is a suspected mechanism affecting respiration.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of exposure to interactions between VOCs and allergens on respiratory symptoms in individuals aged ≥15 years.DESIGN: A national cross-sectional survey measured 20 VOCs and dog and cat aeroallergens in 490 main residential dwellings in France. A standardised questionnaire was used to elicit responses on respiratory conditions in 1012 inhabitants. Four VOC factor scores (linear combinations of VOCs) were generated using principal component analysis. In order to take into account the phenomenon of multi-pollution, marginal models were used to model the relationships between exposure to VOC mixture and respiratory conditions. Stratified models were used to examine the interaction between allergens and VOCs.RESULTS: The aromatic hydrocarbon score was associated with rhinitis and wheezing, the aliphatic hydrocarbon score with asthma and cough, the halogenated hydrocarbons with asthma, wheezing and rhinitis. Aldehydes and Can f1 had a significant synergistic effect on wheezing and rhinitis. Aliphatic hydrocarbons had an antagonist effect with Can f1 on wheezing.CONCLUSION: Our data support evidence of adverse effects of exposure to VOC mixture on respiratory conditions; this effect is aggravated in the presence of pet allergens.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Alérgenos , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , França/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043605, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect that particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µg (PM2.5) had on mortality in Asian populations in years 2000-2015. SETTING: Mortality and level of PM2.5 data from the United Nations, Global Burden of Disease and University of Chicago were used. OUTCOME MEASURES: Age pattern of mortality and the number of life-years lost (LYL) attributable to PM2.5 in years 2000-2015. LYL were further separated into causes of death to quantify the contribution of each cause. RESULTS: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality increased to represent over 31% of the LYL attributable to PM2.5 between 2005-2010 and 2010-2015 in Asia (females 31% and males 35%). However, great diversity in LYL attributable to PM2.5 by causes-of-death were found across the region, with IHD proportions of LYL ranging from 25% to 63% for males from Eastern and Central Asia, respectively. Similar diversity was observed for mortality attributable to PM2.5 for other causes of death across Asia: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LYL ranging from 6% to 28%), lung cancer (4% to 20%) and stroke (11% to 22%). CONCLUSION: PM2.5 is a crucial component in the rising health effects in Asia. The diverse trends in cause-specific mortality attributable to PM2.5 creates a further challenge for health systems in the region. These findings highlight that immediate interventions are needed to mitigate the increasing levels of air pollution and with that reduce its detrimental effect on the health and mortality of Asian populations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Environ Res ; 198: 111242, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence associates chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM) with respiratory damage and lung cancer. Inhaled PM may induce systemic effects including inflammation and metastasis. This study evaluated whether PM induces expression of adhesion molecules in lung cancer cells promoting interaction with monocytes. METHODS: The expression of early and late adhesion molecules and their receptors was evaluated in A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cells using a wide range of concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10. Then we evaluated cellular adhesion between A549 cells and U937 (human monocytes) cells after PM exposure. RESULTS: We found higher expression of both early and late adhesion molecules and their ligands in lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to PM2.5 and PM10 particles present in the air pollution at Mexico City from 0.03 µg/cm2 with a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). PM10 had stronger effect than PM2.5. Both PM also stimulated cellular adhesion between tumor cells and monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a comprehensive expression profile of adhesion molecules and their ligands upregulated by PM2.5 and PM10 in A549 cells. Additionally these particles induced cellular adhesion of lung cancer cells to monocytes. This highlights possible implications of PM in two cancer hallmarks i.e. inflammation and metastasis, underlying the high cancer mortality associated with air pollution.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Linhagem Celular , Cidades , Humanos , México , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
20.
Environ Res ; 198: 111269, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945811

RESUMO

To improve air quality, China issued a new version of Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012, and Tianjin officially implemented these new standards in 2013. In order to observe whether the atmospheric quality and health had been improved after the release of the new standards, this study compared the exposure-response relationships between pollutant concentrations and daily deaths (and years of life lost, YLL) in the six central districts of Tianjin in 2007-2010 and 2014-2017, which were the two periods around the release of the new standards. The exposure-response coefficients were calculated by using the generalized additive model with the time series data. The results showed that the effects of PM10 and NO2 during 2014-2017 were lower than those during 2007-2010 (PM10: 0.10<0.30, 2.07<4.52; NO2: 0.24<0.87, 6.39<11.98), while the results of SO2 were opposite (SO2: 0.61>0.31, 10.31>1.64). And the excess deaths and YLL caused by the portion of the pollutants that exceeded the new standards also declined (PM10: 156<206 persons, 3493<3913 person-years; NO2: 64<136 persons, 1844<2895 person-years; SO2 did not exceed the new standards). The results proved that the new standards had a certain protective effect on the health of the population in the central districts of Tianjin. These findings may provide evidence for the formulation of public health policies and further improvement and development of the Ambient Air Quality Standards.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
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