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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488271

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a method for simultaneous determination of Dydroquinone, Resorcinol, Pyrocatechol, 4-Nitrophenol and 2, 4-Dinitrophenol in workplace air by high performance liquid chromatography. Methods: Air samples were collected by composite tube (front end glass fiber filter membrane, back section silica gel) , 10% methanol was desorbed, separated by C18 chromatographic column, detected by photo-diode array (PDA) detector, and quantitatively determined by external standard method at the wave-length of 230 nm. Results: The linear relationship of 5 phenolic compounds was good (r>0.999) . The detection limit of glass fiber filtration membrane and silica gel adsorbent were 0.13-0.41 g/ml and 0.16-1.04 g/ml respectively. The quantitative limit of glass fiber filtration membrane was 0.44-1.36 g/ml, and the silica gel adsorbent was 0.52-3.46 g/ml. The average desorption efficiency of glass fiber membrane and silica gel adsorbent were 97.5%-100.1% and 86.9%-100.3%, respectively. In and between batches, the precision glass fiber filtration membrane was 0.71%-4.88%, 0.91%-4.82%, silica gel adsorbent was 0.47%-4.62%, 0.76%-5.52%. Samples can be stored for at least 30 days at -20 ℃. The possible co-existing interferences of aniline, phenol, p-nitrochlorobenzene, o-nitrophenol and trinitrophenyl did not interfere with the determination. Conclusion: The sensitivity, precision, accuracy and linear range of this method all meet the requirements of the specification. The collection and preservation of samples can also meet the requirements of the limits. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, resorcinol, hydroquinone, hydroquinone, hydroquinone, p-nitrophenol and 2, 4-dinitrophenol in the air of the workplace.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Local de Trabalho , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fenóis
2.
AORN J ; 114(4): P4-P6, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586664
3.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 181-185, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365447

RESUMO

The study aim was to observe the working conditions of individuals working on municipal transport, check the levels of dust and toxicity, and review from the hygienic point of view. The levels of dust and chemical pollutants in the working environment of Tbilisi municipal transport workers were examined. Methods used in hygienic practice were applied to analyze air samples. test in total was conducted to measure the concentration of dust in the air and samples were collected with air analyzers. The toxicity levels in the surrounding environment of the municipal motor vehicle drivers, as well as technicians (welders, electricians, turners, tinsmiths, electric arc welding). It was established that the toxicity of the air in the municipal transports and technical service establishments fluctuates between certain levels. The highest dust levels were found in the working zone of the driver, with dust levels twice accepted levels. Working conditions at this specific zone were identified as 3.1 class. Workplaces in different service stations were also classified in the same group, with dust levels 1.6 times higher than normal. In total 5 workplaces were given level 3.1 classification. Only the workplace of a tinsmith was classified as a level 2 acceptable hazard. The concentration of dust and toxic chemicals in the environment of municipal transport employees is lower than acceptable levels, but long-time exposure to these agents affects the health of individuals and may cause subclinical health effects, even if the disease does not fully manifest. These effects should be taken into consideration when planning regular medical examinations and rejuvenating procedures for the employees.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho
4.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395196

RESUMO

Asbestos is a known human carcinogen and the chief known cause of mesothelioma. In 1997, a group of experts developed the Helsinki Criteria, which established criteria for attribution of mesothelioma to asbestos. The criteria include two methods for causation attribution: 1) a history of significant occupational, domestic, or environmental exposure and/or 2) pathologic evidence of exposure to asbestos. In 2014, the Helsinki Criteria were updated, and these attribution criteria were not changed. However, since the Helsinki Criteria were first released in 1997, some pathologists, cell biologists, and others have claimed that a history of exposure cannot establish causation unless the lung asbestos fiber burden exceeds "the background range for the laboratory in question to attribute mesothelioma cases to exposure to asbestos." This practice ignores the impact on fiber burden of clearance/translocation over time, which in part is why the Helsinki Criteria concluded that a history of exposure to asbestos was independently sufficient to attribute causation to asbestos. After reviewing the Helsinki Criteria, we conclude that their methodology is fatally flawed because a quantitative assessment of a background lung tissue fiber level cannot be established. The flaws of the Helsinki Criteria are both technical and substantive. The 1995 paper that served as the scientific basis for establishing background levels used inconsistent methods to determine exposures in controls and cases. In addition, historic controls cannot be used to establish background fiber levels for current cases because ambient exposures to asbestos have decreased over time and control cases pre-date current cases by decades. The use of scanning electron microscope (SEM) compounded the non-compatibility problem; the applied SEM cannot distinguish talc from anthophyllite because it cannot perform selected area electron diffraction, which is a crucial identifier in ATEM for distinguishing the difference between serpentine asbestos, amphibole asbestos, and talc.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/patologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/induzido quimicamente , Fibras Minerais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/epidemiologia , Fibras Minerais/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química
5.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 428: 115696, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419494

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical that is widely used in a variety of products, including plastics, medical equipment and receipts. Hence, most people are exposed to BPA through the skin, via inhalation and via the digestive system, and such exposure has been linked to cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. However, the underlying mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction caused by BPA remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that BPA exposure altered cardiac function in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Acute BPA exposure in hiPSC-CMs resulted in reduced field potential, as measured by multielectrode array (MEA). Furthermore, we observed that BPA dose-dependently inhibited ICa, INa or IKr channels. In addition, BPA exposure dose-dependently inhibited calcium transients and contraction in hiPSC-CMs. Our findings suggest that BPA exposure leads to cardiac dysfunction and cardiac risk factors such as arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cardiotoxinas/toxicidade , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218571

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the short-term effects of welding fumes on workers' lung function in the welding environment preliminarily, and provide reference for future research. Methods: In October 2020, the lung function of the subjects was repeatedly measured before and after the working shift with a panel study. The paired t test was used to compare the lung function before and after the shift, and the linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the short-term changes of lung function. Results: 36 male welders were included, and the average age was (30.72±5.21) years, average employed year was (4.36±2.17) years. And the average concentration of welding fume was (1.27±0.49) mg/m(3). The forced vital capacity (FVC) , forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) of welders after the shift were significantly lower than those before the shift (t=19.52, 48.13, 62.03, P<0.05) . After adjusting the workers' age, BMI and employed years, the changes of FVC% and FEV1% with the concentration of welding fume were statistically significant (ß=-1.02, 95%CI: -1.54--0.52; ß=-1.56, 95%CI: -1.95--1.16; P<0.01) . In another word, for the 1 mg/m(3) increase of welding fume in the working environment, compared with the baseline, the FVC decreases by 1.02%, and FEV1 decreases by 1.56%. Conclusion: Short-term exposure to welding fumes in workplace can reduce the lung function of welders.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Soldagem , Adulto , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Capacidade Vital
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198698

RESUMO

Manufacturing sites, such as welding, casting, and asphalt production (fumes), generate vast numbers of ultrafine particles of <0.1 µm in size and submicron particles close to the ultrafine range (0.1-0.5 µm). Although cumulative masses of these particles are negligible in comparison to the larger particles, the health effects are more severe due to the higher penetration in the human lower respiratory tract, other body parts crossing the respiratory epithelial layers, and the larger surface area. This research investigates the effectiveness of two common commercially available N95 filtering facepieces and N95 pleated particulate respirator models against ultrafine and submicron particles. Two specific types of respirators, the N95 filtering facepiece and the N95 pleated particulate models, in both sealed and unsealed conditions to the manikin face, were tested at various commercial and academic manufacturing sites, a welding and foundry site, and an asphalt production plant. Two TSI Nanoscan SMPS nanoparticle counters were used simultaneously to collect data for particles of 10-420 nm in size from inside and outside of the respirators. While one of them represented the workplace exposure levels, the other one accounted for the exposure upon filtration through the respiratory surfaces. The results showed the particles generated by these manufacturing operations were mostly within the range of from 40 to 200 nm. Results also indicated that while the percentage of filtration levels varied based on the particle size, it remained mostly within the desired protection level of 95% for both of the N95 respirator models in sealed conditions and even for the N95 pleated particulate model in the unsealed condition. However, in the case of the N95 filtering facepiece model, unsealed respirators showed that the percentage of penetration was very high, decreasing the protection levels to 60% in some cases. Although the number of workplace airborne particle levels varied considerably, the filtration percentages were relatively consistent.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Soldagem , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Filtração , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Local de Trabalho
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199136

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant, found in human fluids and tissues. Maternal BPA exposure is associated with alterations in pregnancy outcomes. Because maternal uterine circulation plays a crucial role in normal placenta and fetal growth, we hypothesized that BPA compromises the function of uterine arteries (UAs) and fetoplacental development. Female rats were orally administered with BPA (2.5, 25 and 250 µg/kg/day) or with its vehicle (ethanol) for 30 days before pregnancy and during the first 20 days of pregnancy. To compare the effect of BPA in the reproductive vs. systemic circulation, it was tested on UAs and mesenteric arteries (MAs). Arteries were isolated and examined by pressure myography. Moreover, fetuses and placentas were weighed to provide an index of reproductive performance. In UAs of BPA-treated rats, lumen diameter, acetylcholine-relaxation and expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor É£ (PPARÉ£) were reduced. Conversely, no changes were observed in MAs. BPA treatment also reduced placental weights, while fetal weights were increased. For the first time, our results indicate that UAs represent a specific target of BPA during pregnancy and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie its negative effects on pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Artéria Uterina/metabolismo , Artéria Uterina/patologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202035

RESUMO

We provide a narrative review on published peer-reviewed scientific literature reporting comparisons of personal samplers in workplace settings published between 2004 and 2020. Search terms were developed for Web of Science and PubMed bibliographic databases. The retrieved studies were then screened for relevance, with those studies meeting the inclusion criteria being taken forward to data extraction (22 studies). The inhalable fraction was the most common fraction assessed with the IOM sampler being the most studied sampler. The most common workplace environment where samplers had been compared was that where metals/metalloids were present. The requirements of EN13205 standard (Workplace exposure. Assessment of sampler performance for measurement of airborne particle concentrations) have also been considered, with these requirements not currently being met, or at least referred to, in the included published literature. A number of conclusions have been drawn from this narrative review. For studies that reported correction factors, no discernible trends could be identified. Correction factors also varied between samplers and settings, with correction factors varying from 0.67 for Button/IOM in agriculture settings to a correction factor of 4.2 for the closed face cassette/IOM samplers in aluminium smelters. The need for more detailed and informative data sharing from authors is highlighted, providing more context to both the sampling strategy and methodology, as well as the data analysis. It is recommended that the requirements of EN13205 are taken into account when designing sampler comparison studies at the workplace and that these are also reported. It is also considered that there is a need for a clear standardized workplace sampler comparison protocol to be developed, which can be used by the research and occupational hygiene community to allow more robust and transparent assessment of aerosol samplers and better-quality evidence for use by industrial hygienists, epidemiologists, and occupational safety specialists alike.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Local de Trabalho
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280987

RESUMO

During intercontinental shipping, freight containers and other closed transport devices are applied. These closed spaces can be polluted with various harmful chemicals that may accumulate in poorly ventilated environments. The major pollutants are residues of pesticides used for fumigation as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from the goods. While handling cargos at logistics companies, workers can be exposed to these pollutants, frequently without adequate occupational health and safety precautions. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among potentially exposed warehouse workers and office workers as controls at Hungarian logistics companies (1) to investigate the health effects of chemical pollutants occurring in closed spaces of transportation and storage and (2) to collect information about the knowledge of and attitude toward workplace chemical exposures as well as the occupational health and safety precautions applied. Pre-existing medical conditions did not show any significant difference between the working groups. Numbness or heaviness in the arms and legs (AOR = 3.99; 95% CI = 1.72-9.26) and dry cough (AOR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.09-4.93) were significantly associated with working in closed environments of transportation and storage, while forgetfulness (AOR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.18-0.87), sleep disturbances (AOR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.17-0.78), and tiredness after waking up (AOR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.20-0.79) were significantly associated with employment in office. Warehouse workers who completed specific workplace health and safety training had more detailed knowledge related to this workplace chemical issue (AOR = 8.18; 95% CI = 3.47-19.27), and they were significantly more likely to use certain preventive measures. Warehouse workers involved in handling cargos at logistics companies may be exposed to different chemical pollutants, and the related health risks remain unknown if the presence of these chemicals is not recognized. Applied occupational health and safety measures at logistics companies are not adequate enough to manage this chemical safety issue, which warrants awareness raising and the introduction of effective preventive strategies to protect workers' health at logistics companies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Praguicidas , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Local de Trabalho
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148287, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139489

RESUMO

In many countries, the management of household waste has recently changed with an increased focus upon waste sorting resulting in lower collection frequency for some waste fractions. A consequence of this is the potential for increased growth of microorganisms in the waste before collection, which can lead to an increased exposure via inhalation for waste collection workers. Through a review of the literature, we aimed to evaluate risks caused by waste collecting workers' exposure to bioaerosols and to illuminate potential measures to reduce the exposure. Across countries and waste types, median exposure to fungi, bacteria, and endotoxin were typically around 104 colony forming units (cfu)/m3, 104 cfu/m3, and 10 EU/m3, respectively. However, some studies found 10-20+ times higher or lower median exposure levels. It was not clear how different types of waste influence the occupational exposure levels. Factors such as high loading, ventilation in and cleaning of drivers' cabs, increased collection frequency, waste in sealed sacks, and use of hand sanitizer reduce exposure. Incidences of gastrointestinal problems, irritation of the eye and skin and symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome have been reported in workers engaged in waste collection. Several studies reported a correlation between bioaerosol exposure level and reduced lung function as either a short or a long term effect; exposure to fungi and endotoxin is often associated with an inflammatory response in exposed workers. However, a better understanding of the effect of specific microbial species on health outcomes is needed to proceed to more reliable risk assessments. Due to the increasing recycling effort and to the effects of global warming, exposure to biological agents in this working sector is expected to increase. Therefore, it is important to look ahead and plan future measures as well as improve methods to prevent long and short-term health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Bactérias , Poeira/análise , Endotoxinas/análise , Fungos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
12.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 51(4): 301-327, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060417

RESUMO

Chrysotile was formerly used in the manufacture of casting ring liner (CRL) and periodontal dressing powder (PDP). The purpose of this study was to describe the potential for airborne asbestos exposure among dental professionals who may have used these products and to assess their risk of asbestos-related disease (ARD). Task-specific exposure data associated with CRL and PDP were identified and compared to regulatory standards for asbestos and health-based benchmarks. Personal airborne fiber concentrations ranged from 0.008-3.5 f/cc by PCM (duration: 3-420 minutes) for CRL (tearing, placement), and from <0.0044-<0.297 f/cc by PCM (duration: 5-28 minutes) for PDP (mixing). Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were calculated using the reported task-based airborne fiber concentrations and associated sampling durations. For CRL tasks, the upper-bound calculated 8-hour TWA of 0.022 f/cc (tearing, placement) did not exceed regulatory standards for asbestos (≥0.1 f/cc). All samples collected during the mixing of PDP resulted in non-measurable fiber concentrations. The greatest estimated cumulative asbestos exposure for dental professionals using CRL (tearing, placement) of 0.33 f/cc-years is well below "best estimate", published chrysotile no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAEL) for ARD (lung cancer = 89-168 f/cc-years; pleural mesothelioma = 208-415 f/cc-years). As such, the use of asbestos-containing CRL and/or PDP is not expected to pose an increased risk of ARD among dental professionals. This conclusion is consistent with the lack of an increased risk of ARD reported in epidemiological studies of these occupations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Asbestos , Odontologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Asbestos Serpentinas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Medição de Risco
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071776

RESUMO

It is now recognized that additional exposure to mycotoxins may occur through inhalation of contaminated dust at a workplace. The aim of this study was to characterize the multi-mycotoxin exposure of French grain elevator workers using biomonitoring and airborne measurements. Eighteen workers participated in the study. Personal airborne dust samples were analyzed for their mycotoxin concentrations. Workers provided multiple urine samples including pre-shift, post-shift and first morning urine samples or 24 h urine samples. Mycotoxin urinary biomarkers (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, ochratoxin α, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, ß-zearalenol, fumonisin B1, HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin) were measured using a liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Grain elevator workers were highly exposed to organic airborne dust (median 4.92 mg.m-3). DON, ZEN and FB1 were frequent contaminants in 54, 76 and 72% of air samples, respectively. The mycotoxin biomarkers quantified were DON (98%), ZEN (99%), α-ZEL (52%), ß-ZEL (33%), OTA (76%), T-2 (4%) and HT-2 (4%). DON elimination profiles showed highest concentrations in samples collected after the end of the work shift and the urinary DON concentrations were significantly higher in post-shift than in pre-shift-samples (9.9 and 22.1 µg/L, respectively). ZEN and its metabolites concentrations did not vary according to the sampling time. However, the levels of α-/ß-ZEL were consistent with an additional occupational exposure. These data provide valuable information on grain worker exposure to mycotoxins. They also highlight the usefulness of multi-mycotoxin methods in assessing external and internal exposures, which shed light on the extent and pathways of exposure occurring in occupational settings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Micotoxinas/análise , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Fumonisinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocratoxinas/análise , Zearalenona/análise
14.
Waste Manag ; 131: 237-248, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171828

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to microorganisms can be associated with adverse health outcomes. In this study, we assessed exposure to bioaerosols in two biowaste pretreatment plants in Denmark, which differed in location (city or countryside) and how they were built ('closed-off processes' or 'open processes'). Bioaerosol exposures were characterized by microbial concentrations in personal, stationary, sedimented dust, and hand samples, and their size distribution was assessed. Furthermore, species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and inhalable dust, endotoxin, biofilm production, the total inflammatory potential, and fungicide resistance to four fungicides (amphotericin B, caspofungin acetate, itraconazole, voriconazole) were determined. Bacterial and fungal concentrations were on average (GM) in the order of 104 cfu/m3, but ranged from 102 to 108 cfu/m3. Several species which may cause health problems were identified. Personal endotoxin exposures were on average 28 EU/m3, but both personal and stationary samples ranged from 0.6 to 2035 EU/m3. Bioaerosols had the potential to form biofilms and to induce inflammation as measured in a human cell line. Exposures were higher in the plants that outdoor reference values. Higher exposures were found in the 'open process' plant, such as in microbial concentrations, species richness, endotoxin, biofilm production, and the total inflammatory potential. Six out of 28 tested Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were resistant to fungicides (amphotericin B and voriconazole). In conclusion, there is a high exposure to bioaerosols during work in biowaste pretreatment plants, however, results also suggests that how the plant is built and functions may affect the exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074082

RESUMO

Objective: To establish a method for the determination of ethylamine in the air of the workplace by ion chromatography. Methods: In August 2020, ethylamine in the air of the workplace was adsorbed by a basic silica gel tube, and ultrasonically desorbed with a 1 mmol/L sulfuric acid solution, and then qualitatively and quantitatively determined by ion chromatography. Results: The linear range of the method was 0.014-50 µg/ml, and the linear equation of the standard curve was y=0.1243x+0.0429, the correlation coefficient was r=0.9997. The detection limit of the method was 4.29 µg/L, and the lower limit of quantification was 14.29 µg/L. The lowest quantitative concentration was 0.012 mg/m(3) (in term of sampling 6.0 L) . The average desorption efficiency of the method was 97.31%, the precision was 1.00%-1.68%, and the standard recovery rate was 96.33%-99.61%. Conclusion: This method is fast, sensitive and accurate, and can be used for the determination of ethylamine in the air of workplace.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Local de Trabalho , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Etilaminas , Manejo de Espécimes
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074087

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the health risks of welding fume jobs with five occupational health risk assessment methods, and to compare the advantages, disadvantages and applicability of these methods in the health risk assessment of welding fume. Methods: The International Commission for Mining and Metals (ICMM) occupational health risk assessment method, MES method, the qualitative method and comprehensive index method in GBZ/T 298-2017 "Technical Guidelines for Occupational Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Hazardous Factors in the Workplace" were used to assess the risk of welding fume exposure positions in four manufacturing enterprises in Tianjin in March, 2020. The assessment results of different methods were standardized by risk ratio (RR) . Results: After the results were standardized, the results of enterprises 1, 2 and 4 were negligible risks, enterprise 3 was medium risk in the ICMM matrix method and MES method, and the results of ICMM quantitative method for each enterprise were negligible risk, low risk, extremely high risk and low risk, respectively. The results of the qualitative assessment of the guidelines for all companies were negligible risks, and the comprehensive index method were medium risks. Conclusion: The five models are all suitable for occupational health risk assessment of welding fumes, but they all have certain shortcomings. They should be combined with qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment results for comprehensive analysis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Gases , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Medição de Risco , Local de Trabalho
17.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12238, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120387

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to develop a measurement method that can count fibers rapidly by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an artificial intelligence image recognition system (AI-SEM), detecting thin fibers which cannot be observed by a conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method. METHODS: We created a simulation sampling filter of airborne fibers using water-filtered chrysotile (white asbestos). A total of 108 images was taken of the samples at a 5 kV accelerating voltage with 10 000X magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each of three expert analysts counted 108 images and created a model answer for fibers. We trained the artificial intelligence (AI) using 25 of the 108 images. After the training, the AI counted fibers in 108 images again. RESULTS: There was a 12.1% difference between the AI counting results and the model answer. At 10 000X magnification, AI-SEM can detect 87.9% of fibers with a diameter of 0.06-3 µm, which is similar to a skilled analyst. Fibers with a diameter of 0.2 µm or less cannot be confirmed by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM). When observing the same area in 300 images with 1500X magnification SEM-as listed in the Asbestos Monitoring Manual (Ministry of the Environment)-with 10 000X SEM, the expected analysis time required for the trained AI is 5 h, whereas the expected time required for observation by an analyst is 251 h. CONCLUSION: The AI-SEM can count thin fibers with higher accuracy and more quickly than conventional methods by PCM and SEM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Inteligência Artificial , Atmosfera/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Filtros de Ar , Asbestos/análise , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
18.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 86: 103675, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore the dose-response relationship between occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and mitochondrial damage in coke oven plants workers. METHODS: 544 workers and 238 healthy people were recruited. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the level of 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene. The real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn). The benchmark dose software was used to analyze the benchmark dose. RESULTS: The mtDNAcn in the exposure group was lower than that in the control group. The concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene in the exposure group were higher than those in the control group. There is a dose-response relationship between 1-hydroxypyrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene and mitochondrial DNA damage. The benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 1-hydroxypyrene were 0.045, 0.004, and 0.058 pg/µg creatinine in the total, male, and female population, respectively. The BMDL of 3-hydroxyphenanthrene were 5.142, 6.099, and 2.807 pg/µg creatinine in the total, male, and female population, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The BMDL of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene initially explored can provide a reference to establish occupational exposure biological limits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Dano ao DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , China , Coque , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias , Modelos Biológicos
19.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(2): 153-156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975405

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas produced via breakdown of organic matter. Hydrogen sulfide exposure can cause symptoms ranging in severity from mild effects (dizziness, headache, nausea) to severe lactic acidosis, respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmias and death. Treatment modalities include oral countermeasures and 100% FiO2 with supportive therapy. However, case studies utilizing hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy have been reported with general benefit seen in severe cases of toxicity. In this report, cases of mild to moderate H2S toxicity occurred aboard a U.S. Navy ship, resulting in a mass casualty incident of more than 30 patients. Patient symptoms included dizziness, headaches, nausea, vomiting, and one patient with altered mental status. Most patients' symptoms resolved after several hours of supportive therapy, but six patients had symptoms refractory to 100% FiO2 at 1 atm. These six patients received HBO2 therapy with a USN Treatment Table 9 after consultation with the local emergency room and hyperbaric assets. Four separate chambers were utilized, including two chambers onboard USN ships and the local explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) chamber. Complete resolution of symptoms in all six patients was achieved within the first breathing period. Patients were monitored after treatment aboard the USN ship medical department. No patients required emergency department care. These cases demonstrate an expanded use of HBO2 to include moderate cases of H2S toxicity refractory to first-line therapy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/envenenamento , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/envenenamento , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Militares , Navios , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Masculino , Envenenamento/terapia , Valores de Referência , Avaliação de Sintomas , Estados Unidos
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(6): 490-502, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Welding fume exposure of welders occurs either directly from the welding process and sputters or from the fume background within the workshop. In this study the contribution of fume originating directly from the welding process was assessed. METHODS: Exposure was quantified by measuring the time integral of fume mass concentration using a tapered element oscillating micro balance connected to a welder dummy. RESULTS: Direct fume exposure was highest for welding processes with low fume emission rates and lowest for processes with high fume emission rates. CONCLUSIONS: This finding is supposed to be due to the higher energy input of high emitting processes which stabilizes the thermic column and therefore eliminates fume particles from the welder's breathing zone. Exposure can be minimized by additionally optimizing workshop ventilation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Gases , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/química , Ferreiros , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
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