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1.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 428: 115696, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419494

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical that is widely used in a variety of products, including plastics, medical equipment and receipts. Hence, most people are exposed to BPA through the skin, via inhalation and via the digestive system, and such exposure has been linked to cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. However, the underlying mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction caused by BPA remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that BPA exposure altered cardiac function in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Acute BPA exposure in hiPSC-CMs resulted in reduced field potential, as measured by multielectrode array (MEA). Furthermore, we observed that BPA dose-dependently inhibited ICa, INa or IKr channels. In addition, BPA exposure dose-dependently inhibited calcium transients and contraction in hiPSC-CMs. Our findings suggest that BPA exposure leads to cardiac dysfunction and cardiac risk factors such as arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cardiotoxinas/toxicidade , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
2.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 181-185, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365447

RESUMO

The study aim was to observe the working conditions of individuals working on municipal transport, check the levels of dust and toxicity, and review from the hygienic point of view. The levels of dust and chemical pollutants in the working environment of Tbilisi municipal transport workers were examined. Methods used in hygienic practice were applied to analyze air samples. test in total was conducted to measure the concentration of dust in the air and samples were collected with air analyzers. The toxicity levels in the surrounding environment of the municipal motor vehicle drivers, as well as technicians (welders, electricians, turners, tinsmiths, electric arc welding). It was established that the toxicity of the air in the municipal transports and technical service establishments fluctuates between certain levels. The highest dust levels were found in the working zone of the driver, with dust levels twice accepted levels. Working conditions at this specific zone were identified as 3.1 class. Workplaces in different service stations were also classified in the same group, with dust levels 1.6 times higher than normal. In total 5 workplaces were given level 3.1 classification. Only the workplace of a tinsmith was classified as a level 2 acceptable hazard. The concentration of dust and toxic chemicals in the environment of municipal transport employees is lower than acceptable levels, but long-time exposure to these agents affects the health of individuals and may cause subclinical health effects, even if the disease does not fully manifest. These effects should be taken into consideration when planning regular medical examinations and rejuvenating procedures for the employees.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865537

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to benzene is a risk factor for hematological malignancies. Gasoline-station workers are exposed to benzene in gasoline, via both inhalation and dermal contact (attendants and managers) or inhalation (workers in the on-site convenience stores and offices). We have studied the exposure of these workers to benzene and the resulting genotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Levels of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid were higher among gasoline-station workers than among office workers with no known exposure to benzene (comparison group). Among the exposed workers, we observed statistically significant biological effects, including elevated DNA damage (comet assay); higher frequencies of micronuclei and nuclear buds (CBMN assay); lower levels of T-helper lymphocytes and naive Th lymphocytes; lower CD4 / CD8 ratio; and higher levels of NK cells and memory Th lymphocytes. Both groups of exposed workers (inhalation and inhalation + dermal routes) showed similar genotoxic and immunotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Benzeno/toxicidade , Gasolina/toxicidade , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio Cometa , Estudos Transversais , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/patologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112259, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910067

RESUMO

Surgical smoke is widespread in operating rooms, and fine particles are the main toxic components. However, the effect of fine particles in surgical smoke on embryonic development has not yet been studied. This study evaluated the effect of fine particles in surgical smoke on embryonic development and compared it with that of atmospheric fine particles. Afterwards, differentiated cardiomyocytes were purified, and the effect of exposure to fine particles in surgical smoke on cardiomyocyte differentiation was evaluated. Fine particles in surgical smoke exhibited weak embryotoxicity toward an embryonic stem cell test model, and their inhibitory effect on cardiomyocyte differentiation was slightly stronger than that of atmospheric fine particles. Fine particles in surgical smoke specifically inhibited the differentiation of the mesoderm lineage and promoted the differentiation of the ectoderm lineage. Furthermore, fine particles in surgical smoke reduced the beating rate of purified cardiomyocytes, promoted mitophagy, reduced ATP production and increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. Antioxidants attenuated the inhibition of cardiomyocyte differentiation and the reduction in the cardiomyocyte beating rate caused by fine particles in surgical smoke and simultaneously restored mitophagy and other processes to the control levels. However, mitophagy inhibitors treatment blocked only the inhibition of cardiomyocyte differentiation caused by fine particles in surgical smoke; it had little effect on other changes caused by fine particles. Based on the results described above, we propose that fine particles in surgical smoke and atmospheric fine particles exhibit similar levels of toxicity toward embryonic development. Fine particles in surgical smoke potentially affect the beating of cardiomyocytes by damaging mitochondria and increasing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Cirurgia Geral , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Mitofagia/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fumaça , Tabaco
6.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 27, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to occupational manganese (Mn) is associated with neurotoxic brain injury, manifesting primarily as parkinsonism. The association between environmental Mn exposure and parkinsonism is unclear. To characterize the association between environmental Mn exposure and parkinsonism, we performed population-based sampling of residents older than 40 in Meyerton, South Africa (N = 621) in residential settlements adjacent to a large Mn smelter and in a comparable non-exposed settlement in Ethembalethu, South Africa (N = 95) in 2016-2020. METHODS: A movement disorders specialist examined all participants using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3). Participants also completed an accelerometry-based kinematic test and a grooved pegboard test. We compared performance on the UPDRS3, grooved pegboard, and the accelerometry-based kinematic test between the settlements using linear regression, adjusting for covariates. We also measured airborne PM2.5-Mn in the study settlements. RESULTS: Mean PM2.5-Mn concentration at a long-term fixed site in Meyerton was 203 ng/m3 in 2016-2017 - approximately double that measured at two other neighborhoods in Meyerton. The mean Mn concentration in Ethembalethu was ~ 20 times lower than that of the long-term Meyerton site. UPDRS3 scores were 6.6 (CI 5.2, 7.9) points higher in Meyerton than Ethembalethu residents. Mean angular velocity for finger-tapping on the accelerometry-based kinematic test was slower in Meyerton than Ethembalethu residents [dominant hand 74.9 (CI 48.7, 101.2) and non-dominant hand 82.6 (CI 55.2, 110.1) degrees/second slower]. Similarly, Meyerton residents took longer to complete the grooved pegboard, especially for the non-dominant hand (6.9, CI -2.6, 16.3 s longer). CONCLUSIONS: Environmental airborne Mn exposures at levels substantially lower than current occupational exposure thresholds in the United States may be associated with clinical parkinsonism.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Manganês/toxicidade , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Manganês/análise , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Metalurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Res ; 192: 110325, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068575

RESUMO

Work in greenhouses entails exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria. The aims of this study are to obtain knowledge about whether exposure to fungal and bacterial genera and species during work in a cucumber greenhouse is affected by work tasks, and whether a cohort of greenhouse workers' serum levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP), biomarkers of systemic inflammation, are associated with this. Data on personal exposure to airborne fungal and bacterial species measured over 4 years as well as serum levels of SAA and CRP sampled over two years were analyzed. For data analysis, the main work tasks were grouped into three different groups, called 'grouped work task'. Microorganisms were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). The 'daily exposure' of greenhouse workers' were as follows: 4.8 × 104 CFU bacteria/m3, 1.4 × 106 CFU fungi/m3, and 392 EU/m3 of endotoxin. Workers were exposed to many different microbial species including several species within the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Streptomyces. The genera Ralstonia and Cladosporium were found in most samples. The exposure levels as well as the microbial composition were associated significantly with grouped work task and season with high exposures during tasks in close contact with mature and old plants and in the autumn. CRP and SAA levels were also associated with exposure level and grouped work tasks. The Shannon-Wiener indices were not different in the 3 'grouped work tasks'. Several specific species including e.g. Halomonas elongata, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Podosphaera fusca, and Wallemia spp. were found frequently or in high concentrations in the exposures associated with the highest levels of CRP and SAA. The microorganisms S. maltophilia, P. fusca, and Wallemia spp. were also found on the cucumber plant leaves. In conclusion, both exposure level and the species composition seem to have an effect on the serum levels of CRP and SAA of exposed workers. The greenhouse workers were exposed to only a few species characterized as human pathogens.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Cucumis sativus , Exposição Ocupacional , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Ascomicetos , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Inflamação , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Up to 10% of Bladder Cancers may arise following occupational exposure to carcinogens. We hypothesised that different cancer phenotypes reflected different patterns of occupational exposure. METHODS: Consecutive participants, with bladder cancer, self-completed a structured questionnaire detailing employment, tasks, exposures, smoking, lifestyle and family history. Our primary outcome was association between cancer phenotype and occupational details. RESULTS: We collected questionnaires from 536 patients, of whom 454 (85%) participants (352 men and 102 women) were included. Women were less likely to be smokers (68% vs. 81% Chi sq. p<0.001), but more likely than men to inhale environmental tobacco smoke at home (82% vs. 74% p = 0.08) and use hair dye (56% vs. 3%, p<0.001). Contact with potential carcinogens occurred in 282 (62%) participants (mean 3.1 per worker (range 0-14)). High-grade cancer was more common than low-grade disease in workers from the steel, foundry, metal, engineering and transport industries (p<0.05), and in workers exposed to crack detection dyes, chromium, coal/oil/gas by-products, diesel fumes/fuel/aircraft fuel and solvents (such as trichloroethylene). Higher staged cancers were frequent in workers exposed to Chromium, coal products and diesel exhaust fumes/fuel (p<0.05). Various workers (e.g. exposed to diesel fuels or fumes (Cox, HR 1.97 (95% CI 1.31-2.98) p = 0.001), employed in a garage (HR 2.19 (95% CI 1.31-3.63) p = 0.001), undertaking plumbing/gas fitting/ventilation (HR 2.15 (95% CI 1.15-4.01) p = 0.017), undertaking welding (HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.24-2.77) p = 0.003) and exposed to welding materials (HR 1.92 (95% CI 1.27-2.91) p = 0.002)) were more likely to have disease progression and receive radical treatment than others. Fewer than expected deaths were seen in healthcare workers (HR 0.17 (95% CI 0.04-0.70) p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: We identified multiple occupational tasks and contacts associated with bladder cancer. There were some associations with phenotype, although our study design precludes robust assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Fenótipo , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
10.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12160, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nail workers are exposed to many hazardous chemicals. Despite many warnings about health problems among nail workers in other countries, data concerning exposure to chemical hazards among nail workers is still limited in Vietnam. In this study, we aimed to identify exposure to volatile organic compounds and their relationship with occupational symptoms among Vietnamese female nail salon workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Danang, Vietnam, from January 2019 to September 2019. Total 42 personal passive samplers were collected to evaluate 12 substances from 21 nail workers (15 salons) twice a week. We chose one representative worker from each of the nine salons with less than six workers and two representative workers from each of the six salons with over five workers for personal sampling based on the principle of similar exposure groups. We interviewed a total of 100 nail workers in 15 salons and 100 office workers in offices adjacent to the salons to compare occupational symptoms among them. RESULTS: The commonly detected compounds in nail salons were acetone (97.6%), butyl acetate (83.3%), and ethyl acetate and ethyl methacrylate (78%). The concentration of total target VOCs was related to the number of serviced customers, the concentration of CO2 , and general ventilation used. The subjective symptoms were significantly higher for the nail workers than for the comparison subjects, that is, headache, nausea, nose irritation, skin irritation, shortness of breath, and confusion. Among 100 nail workers, nose irritation was significantly higher for nail workers who were exposed to acetone at levels exceeding the Vietnam occupational exposure limit (VOEL) adjusted with the Brief-Scala model. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to VOCs such as acetone in nail salons results in occupational symptoms among workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Indústria da Beleza , Unhas , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Ventilação , Vietnã , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Res ; 189: 109913, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980007

RESUMO

Welders have an increased susceptibility to airway infections with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), which implicates immune defects and might promote pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that welding-fume exposure suppresses Th1-lymphocyte activity. Non-effector CD4+ T-cells from blood of 45 welders (n = 23 gas metal arc welders, GMAW; n = 16 tungsten inert gas welders, TIG; n = 6 others) and 25 non-welders were ex vivo activated towards Th1 via polyclonal T-cell receptor stimulation and IL-12 (first activation step) and then stimulated with NTHi extract or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (second activation step). IFNγ and IL-2 were measured by ELISA. In the first activation step, IFNγ was reduced in welders compared to non-welders and in the GMAW welders with higher concentrations of respirable particles compared to the lower exposed TIG welders. IFNγ was not influenced by tobacco smoking and correlated negatively with welding-fume exposure, respirable manganese, and iron. In the second activation step, NTHi and LPS induced additional IFNγ, which was reduced in current smokers compared to never smokers in welders as well as in non-welders. Analyzing both activation steps together, IFNγ production was lowest in smoking welders and highest in never smoking non-welders. IL-2 was not associated with any of these parameters. Welding-fume exposure might suppress Th1-based immune responses due to effects of particulate matter, which mainly consists of iron and manganese. For responses to NTHi this is strongest in smoking welders because welding fume suppresses T-cell activation towards Th1 and cigarette smoke suppresses the subsequent Th1-response to NTHi via LPS. Both effects are independent from IL-2-regulated T-cell proliferation. This might explain the increased susceptibility to infections and might promote COPD development.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Gases , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Ferro , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/química
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 334: 60-65, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961271

RESUMO

Iron oxides are Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding and hematite underground mining as well as other iron predominant exposures such as welding are Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of iron as iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) to initiate lung tumors in A/J mice, a lung tumor susceptible strain. Male A/J mice were exposed by oropharyngeal aspiration to suspensions of Fe2O3 (1 mg) or calcium chromate (CaCrO4; 100 µg; positive control) for 26 weeks (once per week). Shams were exposed to 50 µL phosphate buffered saline (PBS; vehicle). Mice were euthanized 70 weeks after the first exposure and lung nodules were enumerated. Both CaCrO4 and Fe2O3 significantly increased gross-observed lung tumor multiplicity in A/J mice (9.63 ± 0.55 and 3.35 ± 0.30, respectively) compared to sham (2.31 ± 0.19). Histopathological analysis showed that bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas (BAA) and carcinomas (BAC) were the primary lung tumor types in all groups and were increased in the exposed groups compared to sham. BAC were significantly increased (146 %) in the CaCrO4 group and neared significance in the Fe2O3 group (100 % increase; p = 0.085). BAA and other histopathological indices of toxicity followed the same pattern with exposed groups increased compared to sham control. In conclusion, evidence from this study, in combination with our previous studies, demonstrate that exposure to iron alone may be a potential risk factor for lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Compostos de Cálcio/toxicidade , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatos/toxicidade , Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hiperplasia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Soldagem
13.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(9): 1258-1270, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909501

RESUMO

Exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) can be considered as human, occupational or environmental. Occupational exposure may be experienced by the workers and/or researchers who develop and produce these products and the hazards inherent to exposure are not yet fully known. Quantitative and qualitative methods are available to estimate the occupational risks associated with the handling of NMs, however, both have limitations. In this context, the objective of this study was to create a Bayesian network (BN) that will allow an assessment of the occupational risk associated with the handling of NMs in research laboratories. The BN was developed considered variables related to exposure, the hazards associated with NMs and also the existing control measures in the work environment, such as collective protection equipment (CPE), administrative measures and personal protection equipment (PPE). In addition to assessing the occupational risk, simulations were carried out by the laboratory manager to obtain information on which actions should be taken to reduce the risk. The development of a BN to assess the occupational risk associated with the handling of NMs is a novel aspect of this study. As a distinctive feature, the BN has measurement control variables in addition to considering CPE, administrative measures and PPE. An advantage of this network in relation to other risk assessment models is that it allows the easy execution of simulations and provides a guide for a decision making by identifying which actions should be taken to minimize the risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Laboratórios/normas , Modelos Estatísticos , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho/normas , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/química , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Nanoestruturas/química , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão da Segurança , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110912, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800247

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to pesticides has been identified as a factor that predisposes to disorders of the immune system. Immunosuppression, autoimmunity, cancer of various organs and other diseases in people who apply these products have been reported by the studies. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and the immunological profile in 43 farmers exposed to mixtures of pesticides for at least 15 years. A control group composed of 30 individuals without a history of occupational exposure to pesticides was also evaluated. Peripheral blood samples were processed by flow cytometry and cells were labelled with an 8-color monoclonal antibody panel. Plasma cytokines were also measured. Significant increase in classical monocytes (p < 0.001) and dendritic cells (p < 0.001) in the exposed group was observed as well in total T cells (p = 0.04), central memory CD8 T cells (p = 0.02) and effector memory CD8 T cells (p = 0.01). On the other hand, the activation markers of T cells as the expression of CD57, HLA-DR, CD25 and CD28 were evaluated and no difference was found between groups. When the B cells were analyzed, a significant decrease in total B cells (p = 0.01), regulatory B cells (p < 0.001) and plasmablasts (p < 0.001) in the exposed group, compared to healthy controls, was observed. Pro-inflammatory IL-6 was significantly elevated (p = 0.04) in the plasma of farmers compared to that of controls. The constant antigenic stimulus that occurs during exposure to pesticides can favor the recruitment of dendritic cells and macrophages (APCs) presents in the skin and respiratory tract. In the secondary lymphoid organs, the CD4 T and B cells that process such antigens are possibly undergoing proliferative exhaustion, with the consequent depletion of all mature B subpopulations. The resulting drop in humoral immunity may be offset by an increase in the number of circulating CD8 T lymphocytes due to their cytotoxic action.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Brasil , Antígenos CD28/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110920, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800255

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) have been found to be pivotal biomarkers to predict the risk of inflammation and oxidative stress. Limited evidence focuses on the influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metal fumes on AGE and RAGE in shipyard welders. Our aim was to determine the relationships among PAH, metal exposure, and inflammatory biomarkers. From September 1 to December 31, 2017, 53 welding workers (exposed group) and 29 office workers (control group) were enrolled in the study. Comprehensive workups included demographic characteristics, laboratory data, AGE, RAGE, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, PAH, and urinary metal concentrations. RAGE levels were measured by flow cytometric analysis. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was used as a biomarker of exposure to PAH. Several metals were elevated in the personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples, including Mn, Fe, V, Co, Zn, and Cu. The exposed group had significantly higher exposure to PM2.5 (p = 0.015), RAGE (p = 0.020), IL-6 (p = 0.008) than the control group. After adjusting for pertinent variables, there was still a significant and positive association between Ni level and AGE (ß = 0.101; 95% CI, 0.031-0.172). Significant relationship between Cr and Cd levels and RAGE was observed (ß = 0.173; 95% CI, 0.017-0.329; ß = 0.084; 95% CI, 0.011-0.157, respectively). Participants with elevated 1-OHP level had higher odds of high RAGE level in the model 1 (OR = 3.466, 95% CI, 1.053-11.412) and model 2 (OR = 3.454, 95% CI, 1.034-11.536). The RAGE expression of participants was significantly associated with IL-6 levels in the fully adjusted model (ß = 0.294; 95% CI, 0.083-0.732). Our findings highlighted that urinary metal levels and PAH were associated with increased AGE and RAGE formation in shipyard workers. Elevated serum RAGE might induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and trigger ensuing inflammatory cascades.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Metais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Gases/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Metais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Soldagem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11331, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647239

RESUMO

We analysed cancer risk in road transportation workers (RTWs) exposed to traffic air pollution and motor vehicle engine exhaust using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. RTWs were defined as individuals in the transportation workers group doing road transportation. First admission history of cancer within a 3-year wash-out period was defined as an incident case. The crude incidence, standardised incidence ratio (SIR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) of all cancer risk of RTWs were compared with those of government employees or the whole working population. In total, 3,074 cancer cases were found among RTWs. The respective SIRs and 95% CIs for cancers in RTWs compared with those in the whole population were as follows: liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancers, 1.15 and 1.04-1.27; other digestive organ cancers, 1.28 and 1.04-1.57; trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers, 1.28 and 1.15-1.43; and bladder cancer, 1.26 and 1.03-1.52, respectively. The corresponding SIRs and 95% CIs were also higher in RTWs than in government employees. RTWs have a high risk of developing cancer, including cancer in the liver, intrahepatic bile ducts, other digestive organs, trachea, bronchus, lung, and bladder. Our results can assist in establishing prevention strategies for various cancers in RTWs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Veículos Automotores , Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 116: 104726, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659246

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate occupational exposure to a styrene and xylene mixture through environmental exposure assessment and identify the potential genotoxic effects through biological monitoring. Secondly, we also exposed human peripheral blood cells in vitro to both xylene and styrene either alone or in mixture at concentrations found in occupational settings in order to understand their mechanism of action. The results obtained by air monitoring were below the occupational exposure limits for both substances. All biomarkers of effect, except for nucleoplasmic bridges, had higher mean values in workers (N = 17) compared to the corresponding controls (N = 17). There were statistically significant associations between exposed individuals and the presence of nuclear buds and oxidative damage. As for in vitro results, there was no significant influence on primary DNA damage in blood cells as evaluated by the comet assay. On the contrary, we did observe a significant increase of micronuclei and nuclear buds, but not nucleoplasmic bridges upon in vitro exposure. Taken together, both styrene and xylene have the potential to induce genomic instability either alone or in combination, showing higher effects when combined. The obtained data suggested that thresholds for individual chemicals might be insufficient for ensuring the protection of human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Solventes/toxicidade , Estireno/toxicidade , Xilenos/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Biomarcadores , Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênicos/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Solventes/análise , Estireno/análise , Xilenos/análise , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Res ; 188: 109562, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526498

RESUMO

Firefighters are exposed to a wide range of toxic chemicals due to combustion, with numerous biomonitoring studies completed that have assessed exposure. Many of these studies focus on individual classes of chemicals, with a few considering a broad range of systemic exposures. As yet, no review process has been undertaken to comprehensively examine these studies. The aims of this review are to: (1) ascertain whether biomonitoring studies pertaining to firefighters demonstrate occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and metals; (2) determine and present results of biomonitoring studies; (3) provide any recommendations presented from the literature that may support exposure mitigation; and (4) suggest future study parameters that may assist in providing a greater understanding surrounding the occupational exposure of firefighters. A systematic review was undertaken with regards to firefighters and biomonitoring studies utilising the matrices of blood, urine, semen and breast milk. This yielded 5690 results. Following duplicate removal, inclusion and exclusion criteria screening and full text screening, 34 studies remained for review. Results of over 80% of studies analysed determined firefighters to experience occupational exposure. Results also show firefighters to be exposed to a wide range of toxic chemicals due to fire smoke; potentially exceeding the range of exposure of other occupations. As firefighters may face increased risk of health effects due to the additive, synergistic, and/or antagonistic effects of chemical exposure, all care must be taken to reduce exposure. This may be achieved by considering tactical decisions, increased personal hygiene, and thorough decontamination procedures. Future biomonitoring studies recognising and assessing the range of chemical exposure firefighters face would be beneficial.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Bombeiros , Exposição Ocupacional , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Metais , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580434

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate occupational exposure models by comparing model estimations of Stoffenmanager, version 8.2, and exposure scores calculated using a new exposure model with personal exposure measurements for styrene used in the fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) lamination processes in Korea. Using the collected exposure measurements (n = 160) with detailed contextual information about the type of process, working conditions, local exhaust ventilation, respiratory protections, and task descriptions, we developed a new model algorithm to estimate the score for occupational exposures on situation level. We assumed that the source of exposure originates from the near field only (within the breathing zone of workers). The new model is designed as a simple formula of multiplying scores for job classification, exposure potential, engineering controls, chemical hazard, and exposure probability and then dividing the score for workplace size. The final score is log-transformed, ranging from 1 to 14, and the exposure category is divided into four ratings: no exposure (1), low (2), medium (3), and high (4) exposures. Using the contextual information, all the parameters and modifying factors are similarly entered into the two models through direct translation and coding processes with expert judgement, and the exposure estimations and scores using the two models are calculated for each situation. Overall bias and precision for Stoffenmanager are -1.00 ± 2.07 (50th) and -0.32 ± 2.32 (90th) for all situations (n = 36), indicating that Stoffenmanager slightly underestimated styrene exposures. Pearson's correlation coefficients are significantly high for Stoffenmanager (r = 0.87) and the new model (r = 0.88), and the correlation between the two models is significantly high (r = 0.93) (p < 0.01). Therefore, the model estimations using Stoffenmanager and the new model are significantly correlated with the styrene exposures in the FRP lamination process. Further studies are needed to validate and calibrate the models using a larger number of exposure measurements for various substances in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Vidro , Exposição Ocupacional , Plásticos , Estireno , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Vidro/análise , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/toxicidade , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Estireno/análise , Estireno/toxicidade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580452

RESUMO

Artificial stone is increasing in popularity in construction applications, including commercial and residential countertops. Eco-friendliness, durability, and resistance to staining, make artificial stone attractive to consumers. Health concerns have arisen during manufacturing of artificial stone due to increased incidence of silicosis after relatively short exposure. Three artificial stone samples (A, B, and C) and one natural granite sample were subjected to cutting and grinding in a controlled environment. Gravimetric analysis, X-Ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to determine crystalline silica concentrations and particle morphology of bulk and respirable particles. Silica content of bulk dust from artificial samples A and B was 91%, sample C was <10%, while granite was 31%. Silica percent in the respirable fraction for samples A and B was 53% and 54%, respectively, while sample C was <5% and granite was 8%. Number concentrations for samples A and B were mainly in the nano-fraction, indicating potential for translocation of silica particles to other organs outside of the lungs. Respirable dust concentrations inside the chamber were well above Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards for all materials, indicating that confined-space exposures require ventilation to lower risks of acute silicosis regardless of the nature of the stone.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Exposição Ocupacional , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poeira , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Silicose/epidemiologia , Ventilação
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