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1.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126289, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114348

RESUMO

Burning municipal waste produces a great deal of harmful heavy metals, which may lead to elevated exposure in incinerator workers and residents living nearby. However, relevant human exposure studies remain scarce, especially in China. This study aimed to determine the concentrations of ten heavy metals in urine of incinerator workers (n = 119, as the exposed group) and residents living nearby (n = 215, as the control group) from Shenzhen (China), and explore the associations between heavy metal exposure and DNA oxidative stress (indicated by 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine or 8-OHdG) in humans. The median urinary concentrations of manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and 8-OHdG in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05), suggesting occupational exposure elevated heavy metal intake for the incinerator workers. Nevertheless, there is no correlation statistically significant between the concentrations of any heavy metal and 8-OHdG in urine in the exposed group, indicating heavy metals releasing from waste incineration were not important factors to induce DNA oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this study firstly reported the concentrations of heavy metal in urine and their associations with DNA oxidative damage in waste incinerator workers in Shenzhen, China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Incineração , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , China , Cromo , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , Humanos , Ferro , Manganês , Metais Pesados/análise , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 20-31, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923465

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes has been associated with oxidative stress to DNA, whereas effects related to telomere dysfunction are less investigated. We collected air-borne PM from a passenger cabin of a diesel-propelled train and at a training facility for smoke diving exercises. Effects on oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity measured by the comet assay and telomere length in PM-exposed A549 cells were compared with the genotoxicity and telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human volunteers exposed to the same aerosol source. Although elevated levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of Fpg-sensitive sites were observed in PBMCs from exposed humans, the PM collected at same locations did not cause genotoxicity in the comet assay in A549 cells. Nevertheless, A549 cells displayed telomere length shortening after four weeks exposure to PM. This is in line with slightly shorter telomere length in PBMCs from exposed humans, although it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the results indicate that genotoxic potency measured by the comet assay of PM in A549 cells may not predict genotoxicity in exposed humans, whereas telomere length measurements may be a novel indicator of genotoxic stress in cell cultures and humans.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Células A549 , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombeiros , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Tamanho da Partícula , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135600, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767308

RESUMO

Telomeres play a major role in human aging and disease, especially in most cancers. Telomere length was shortened in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and influenced by individual genetic variations in telomere-binding proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can affect the progress of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription; however, whether polymorphisms in miRNA can act on the telomere length is still unknown. Therefore, we aimed to explore the relationships between telomere damage and genetic polymorphisms in miRNA or environmental exposure. A total of 544 coke oven workers and 238 healthy controls were recruited. After collecting peripheral blood and extracting the genomic DNA of the study subjects, the telomere length (TL) in their leucocytes was detected by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and polymorphisms in miRNAs were genotyped using the flight mass spectrometry technique. The concentrations of the four urine OH-PAHs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the Soxhlet extraction method was used to detect the concentration of coke oven emissions (COEs) in the air. We found that the peripheral blood leucocyte DNA TL was significantly shorter in the exposure group (0.75; 0.51, 1.08) than that in the control group (1.05; 0.76, 1.44) (Z = 7.692, P < 0.001). The total cumulative exposure dose (CED), 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene were significantly negatively correlated with TL (r = -0.307, P < 0.001; r = -0.212, P < 0.001; r = -0.110, P = 0.025; r = -0.251, P < 0.001, respectively). MiR-145 rs353291 GG, miR-30a rs2222722 CT/CC, and miR-197 rs1889470 AA could protect the telomere end in the exposed workers (P < 0.05). The interaction between miR-197 rs1889470 and the CED had an effect on TL (ß = 0.066, P = 0.034). This is the first study to evaluate gene-environmental interactions for miRNA polymorphisms and PAH exposure in coke oven workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , China , Coque/análise , Estudos Transversais , DNA , Humanos , MicroRNAs , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
4.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 116(11): 944-951, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708507

RESUMO

This case report presents two males with drug-induced liver injury acquired from working at a glass factory dealing with silica and 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123). Within one month of work, both patients presented with fever, icterus with liver dysfunction, and eosinophilia. Case 1 had experienced recurrence of symptoms twice while working and showed positive results for the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST). Meanwhile, case 2 was diagnosed by liver biopsy and clinical course but was negative for DLST. Hazard of exposure to non-crystalline silica is low, but drug-induced liver injury after exposure to HCFC-123 has been reported. Allergic liver injury is also caused by chemical substances;however, the insight into whether this injury is caused by exposure to silica or HCFC-123 remains unclear. Further studies are required to examine the influence of silica and HCFC-123 on drug-induced liver injury among glass-factory employees.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Etano Clorofluorcarbonos/toxicidade , Clorofluorcarbonetos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional
5.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(4): 447-459, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509901

RESUMO

Introduction: The mining and tunneling industries are historically associated with hazardous exposures that result in significant occupational health concerns. Occupational respiratory exposures causing pneumoconiosis and silicosis are of great concern, silicosis being non-curable. This work demonstrates that compressed-air workers (CAWs) performing tunnel hyperbaric interventions (HIs) may be at risk for hazards related to bentonite exposure, increasing the likelihood of developing harmful illnesses including cancer. Bentonite dust inhalation may result in respiratory levels of silica exceeding acceptable industrial hygiene standards. Methods: A qualitative observational exposure assessment was conducted on CAWs while they were performing their HI duties. This was followed by quantitative data collection using personal and area air sample techniques. The results were analyzed and interpreted using standard industrial hygiene principles and guidelines from NIOSH and OSHA. Results: Our work suggests bentonite dust exposure may be an emerging particulate matter concern among CAWs in the tunneling industry. Aerosolized bentonite particles may have potential deleterious effects that include pneumoconiosis and silicosis. Silicosis can result in the development of pulmonary carcinoma. Conclusions: The modern tunneling industry and required hyperbaric interventional tasks represent a potential public health and occupational concern for CAWs. This paper introduces the modern tunneling industry and the duties of CAWs, the hazardous environment in which they perform their duties, and describes the risks and potential harmful health effects associated with these hazardous exposures.


Assuntos
Bentonita/toxicidade , Ar Comprimido , Materiais de Construção/toxicidade , Poeira , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/química , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Bentonita/química , Indústria da Construção , Materiais de Construção/análise , Segurança de Equipamentos , Filtração/instrumentação , Humanos , Pressão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/normas
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109672, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541949

RESUMO

The potential toxicity of low-dose benzene exposure to human health has received attention, but the mechanisms of low-dose benzene-induced hematotoxicity remain largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationships between lncRNAVNN3 expression with benzene-induced autophagy and apoptosis in control and benzene-exposed workers. Seventy benzene-exposed workers and seventy non-benzene-exposed healthy workers were recruited. The expression of lncRNAVNN3, serum autophagy-associated and apoptosis-associated proteins were evaluated, and the relationship among them were also analysed. Furthermore, the mechanism of lncRNAVNN3 on autophagy and apoptosis induced by benzene metabolite (1, 4-benzoquinone, 1, 4-BQ) was investigated in vitro. The results showed that the expression of lncRNAVNN3 increased in benzene-exposed workers (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was found between lncRNAVNN3, serum autophagy-associated and apoptosis-associated proteins. In addition, we found that the knockdown of lncRNAVNN3 reduced phosphorylation of beclin1 and Bcl-2, which mediated 1, 4-benzoquinone-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Overall, lncRNAVNN3 mediated 1, 4-benzoquinone-induced autophagy and apoptosis though regulating phosphorylation of beclin1 and Bcl-2, suggesting that lncRNAVNN3 might be a novel early sensitive biomarker of benzene-induced hematotoxicity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzeno/toxicidade , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/sangue , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Proteína Beclina-1/sangue , Benzeno/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/sangue
7.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 108: 104444, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433998

RESUMO

One of the important tasks of the German Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (known as the MAK Commission) is in the evaluation of a potential for carcinogenicity of hazardous substances at the workplace. Often, this evaluation is critically based on data on carcinogenic responses seen in animal studies and, if positive tumor responses have been observed, this will mostly lead to a classification of the substance under investigation into one of the classes for carcinogens. However, there are cases where it can be demonstrated with a very high degree of confidence that the tumor findings in the experimental animals are not relevant for humans at the workplace and, therefore, the MAK Commission will not classify the respective substance into one of the classes for carcinogens. This paper will summarize the general criteria used by the MAK Commission for the categorization into "carcinogen" and "non-carcinogen" and compare this procedure with those used by other national and international organizations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/classificação , Carcinógenos/classificação , Guias como Assunto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Animais , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Alemanha , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31207-31214, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463745

RESUMO

Lead is one of the most widely used elements in the world. Lead can cause acute and chronic complications such as abnormal hemoglobin synthesis, kidney damage, abortion, nervous system disorders, male infertility, loss of learning ability, behavioral disorders, and even death. The aim of this study was to carry out quantitative and semi-quantitative risk assessments of exposure to lead among the solderers of the Neyshabur electronics industry. This cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 on 40 female soldering workers exposed to lead. Semi-quantitative risk assessment was carried out according to the Singapore Health Department and quantitative risk assessment according to the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) method. The average occupational exposure to lead in the electronics manufacturing industry was 93.89 ± 33.40 µg m-3 with a range from 9 to 150 µg m-3. Occupational exposure to lead in the industrial groups of initial soldering with an average of 130.37 ± 40.23 µg m-3 and cutting wires, electroplating, and coating bare parts with an average of 110.24 ± 30.11 µg m-3 was higher than the secondary soldering groups with an average of 90.78 ± 20.22 and shift supervisors with an average of 43.86 ± 10.97 µg m-3. The mean excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was 0.11 per 1000 people and the mean non-carcinogenic risk (HQ) was 7.20. The results of this study indicate that there is a risk of non-carcinogenic complications among electronic solderers. Therefore, managers and employers should reduce lead exposure through engineering controls (substituting lead-free alloys, efficient ventilation) and management strategies such as reducing exposure hours.


Assuntos
Chumbo/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Eletrônica , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Chumbo/toxicidade , Indústria Manufatureira , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Medição de Risco , Soldagem
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26553-26562, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292876

RESUMO

Our study evaluated 163 individuals, being 74 soybean farmers, occupationally exposed to pesticides, and 89 individuals from Goias municipalities, Central Brazil, with similar conditions to the exposed group, comprising the control group. Of the 74 soybean farmers, 43 exposed directly to pesticides and 31 exposed indirectly. The exposed group consisted of individuals aged 19 to 63 years, 21 women and 53 men, and the control group had ages ranging from 18 to 64 years, being 36 women and 53 men. 18.9% of the exposed group were poisoned by pesticides, and the most common symptoms were headache and gastrointestinal problems. The genotype frequencies of the rs2031920 (T>C) polymorphism in the CYP2E1 gene present significant differences between the exposed and control groups (p = 0.02), showing that 24.3% of the exposed group were heterozygotes against 6.7% in the control group. For the OGG1 gene, two SNPs, rs1052133 (G>C) and rs293795 (T>C), were evaluated and the genotype frequencies were not statistically different between the exposed and control groups. The DNA damage was distinct (p < 0.05) in the three analyzed comet parameters (tail length, Olive tail moment, %DNA) between groups. However, there was no influence of age and alcohol consumption between the groups associated with the polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 and OGG1 genes and DNA damage. We also did not find altered hematological and biochemical parameters in the exposed group. Thus, this pioneering study at Goias State carried out an overview of the health of soybean farmers. We evaluated classic laboratory exams, associated with exposure markers (comet assay) and susceptibility markers (genetic polymorphisms), emphasizing the need to expand the Brazilian health assessment protocol. We found, in soybean farmers, increased DNA damage and a higher number of heterozygotes in CYP2E1 gene, compared with the control group, despite the lack of association with age, educational level, smoking, drinking habits, and genetic polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/genética , Dano ao DNA , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo do DNA , Fazendeiros , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Ensaio Cometa , Feminino , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109453, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349105

RESUMO

Telomeres are DNA-protein structures that protect chromosome ends from degradation and fusion, which are shortened by oxidative stress, for example air pollution including benzene, toluene, Coke Oven Emissions (COEs), and so on. As a biomarker of health and disease, telomere length is associated with cardiovascular, diabetes and cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of COEs exposure on telomere length and the benchmark dose (BMD) of COEs. A total of 542 coke oven workers and 235 healthy controls without exposure to toxicants were recruited. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the telomere length in human peripheral blood leukocytes DNA. Propensity scoring was used to match coke oven workers to healthy controls. Linear regression models and trend tests were used to the relationship between COEs exposure and telomere length. Telomere length in COEs exposed group 0.764 (0.536, 1.092) was significantly shorter than that in the control group 1.064(0.762, 1.438), (P < 0.001). There were significantly dose-response relationships between COEs exposure and telomere damage with telomere length as a biomarker. A BMDL value lower than the present occupational exposure limits (OELs) of COEs exposure was evaluated using the BMD approach in coke oven workers. Our results suggested that shorter telomere length is related to occupational exposure to COEs and the level of COEs exposure lower than the current national OELs in China and many other countries could induce telomere damage.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Coque/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Benchmarking , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Coque/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 607-615, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185349

RESUMO

Coke oven emissions (COEs) are common particle pollutants in occupational environment and the major constituents of COEs are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Previously, we identified aberrant methylation of the fms related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1) gene over the course of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced cell transformation via genome-wide methylation array. To quantify FLT1 methylation, we established a bisulfite pyrosequencing assay and examined the FLT1 hypermethylation in several human cancers. The results revealed that 70.0% (21/30 pairs) of lung cancers harbored hypermethylated FLT1 and concomitant suppression of gene expression compared to the adjacent tissues. This implies that FLT1 hypermethylation might play a role in malignant cell transformation. In addition, FLT1 hypermethylation and gene suppression appeared in primary human lymphocytes in a dose-response manner following COEs treatment. To explore whether FLT1 methylation is correlated with COEs exposure and DNA damage, we recruited 144 male subjects who had been exposed to high levels of COEs and 84 male control subjects. Notably, the FLT1 methylation in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs) of the COEs-exposed group (19.8 ±â€¯3.2%) was enhanced by 17.9% compared to that of the control group (16.8 ±â€¯2.8%) (P < 0.001). The FLT1 methylation status was positively correlated with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels, an internal exposure marker of PAHs (ß = 0.029, 95% CI = 0.010-0.048, P = 0.003) and positively correlated with DNA damage (ßOTM = 0.024, 95% CI = 0.007-0.040, P = 0.005; ßTail DNA = 0.035, 95% CI = 0.0017-0.054, P < 0.001) indicated by comet assay. Taken together, these findings indicate that FLT1 might be a tumor suppressor, and its hypermethylation might contribute to PAHs-induced carcinogenicity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Coque , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pirenos/metabolismo , Sulfitos , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
12.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 16(1): 23, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure levels and adverse health effects of occupational exposure to airplane emissions. Diesel exhaust particles are classified as carcinogenic to humans and jet engines produce potentially similar soot particles. Here, we evaluated the potential occupational exposure risk by analyzing particles from a non-commercial airfield and from the apron of a commercial airport. Toxicity of the collected particles was evaluated alongside NIST standard reference diesel exhaust particles (NIST2975) in terms of acute phase response, pulmonary inflammation, and genotoxicity after single intratracheal instillation in mice. RESULTS: Particle exposure levels were up to 1 mg/m3 at the non-commercial airfield. Particulate matter from the non-commercial airfield air consisted of primary and aggregated soot particles, whereas commercial airport sampling resulted in a more heterogeneous mixture of organic compounds including salt, pollen and soot, reflecting the complex occupational exposure at an apron. The particle contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals were similar to the content in NIST2975. Mice were exposed to doses 6, 18 and 54 µg alongside carbon black (Printex 90) and NIST2975 and euthanized after 1, 28 or 90 days. Dose-dependent increases in total number of cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were observed on day 1 post-exposure for all particles. Lymphocytes were increased for all four particle types on 28 days post-exposure as well as for neutrophil influx for jet engine particles and carbon black nanoparticles. Increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and increased SAA3 protein levels in plasma were observed on day 1 post-exposure. Increased levels of DNA strand breaks in bronchoalveolar lavage cells and liver tissue were observed for both particles, at single dose levels across doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary exposure of mice to particles collected at two airports induced acute phase response, inflammation, and genotoxicity similar to standard diesel exhaust particles and carbon black nanoparticles, suggesting similar physicochemical properties and toxicity of jet engine particles and diesel exhaust particles. Given this resemblance as well as the dose-response relationship between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer, occupational exposure to jet engine emissions at the two airports should be minimized.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Aeroportos , Dano ao DNA , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/farmacocinética , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Feminino , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/farmacocinética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacocinética , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual
13.
Inhal Toxicol ; 31(4): 131-146, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187656

RESUMO

Objectives: US water infrastructure is in need of widespread repair due to age-related deterioration. Currently, the cured-in-place (CIPP) procedure is the most common method for water pipe repair. This method involves the on-site manufacture of a new polymer composite plastic liner within the damaged pipe. The CIPP process can release materials resulting in occupational and public health concerns. To understand hazards associated with CIPP-related emission exposures, an in vitro toxicity assessment was performed. Materials and Methods: Mouse alveolar epithelial and alveolar macrophage cell lines and condensates collected at 3 worksites utilizing styrene-based resins were utilized for evaluations. All condensate samples were normalized based on the major emission component, styrene. Further, a styrene-only exposure group was used as a control to determine mixture related toxicity. Results: Cytotoxicity differences were observed between worksite samples, with the CIPP worksite 4 sample inducing the most cell death. A proteomic evaluation was performed, which demonstrated styrene-, worksite-, and cell-specific alterations. This examination of protein expression changes determined potential biomarkers of exposure including transglutaminase 2, advillin, collagen type 1, perilipin-2, and others. Pathway analysis of exposure-induced proteomic alterations identified MYC and p53 to be regulators of cellular responses. Protein changes were also related to pathways involved in cell damage, immune response, and cancer. Conclusions: Together these findings demonstrate potential risks associated with the CIPP procedure as well as variations between worksites regarding emissions and toxicity. Our evaluation identified biological pathways that require a future evaluation and also demonstrates that exposure assessment of CIPP worksites should examine multiple chemical components beyond styrene, as many cellular responses were styrene-independent.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Manufaturas/toxicidade , Estireno/toxicidade , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Local de Trabalho
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242656

RESUMO

Environmental and occupational exposure to benzene from fuels is a major cause for concern for national and international authorities, as benzene is a known carcinogen in humans and there is no safe limit for exposure to carcinogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of chronic occupational exposure to benzene among two groups of workers: filling station workers (Group I) and security guards working at vehicles entrances (Group II), both on the same busy highway in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sociodemographic data on the workers were evaluated; the concentration of benzene/toluene (B/T) in atmospheric air and individual trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) were measured; oxidative stress was analyzed by catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thiol groups (THIOL) and malondialdehyde (MDA); genotoxicity was measured by metaphases with chromosomal abnormalities (MCA) and nuclear abnormalities, comet assay using the enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (C-FPG), and methylation of repetitive element LINE-1, CDKN2B and KLF6 genes. Eighty-six workers participated: 51 from Group I and 35 from Group II. The B/T ratio was similar for both groups, but Group I had greater oscillation of benzene concentrations because of their work activities. No differences in ttMA and S-PMA, and no clinical changes were found between both groups, but linearity was observed between leukocyte count and ttMA; and 15% of workers had leukocyte counts less than 4.5 × 109 cells L-1, demanding close worker's attention. No differences were observed between the two groups for THIOL, MDA, MCA, or nuclear abnormalities. A multiple linear relationship was obtained for the biomarkers MCA and C-FPG. A significant correlation was found between length of time in current job and the biomarkers C-FPG, MCA, GST, and MDA. Although both populations had chronic exposure to benzene, the filling station workers were exposed to higher concentrations of benzene during their work activities, indicating an increased risk of DNA damage.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Benzeno/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Acetilcisteína/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Benzeno/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Brasil , Carcinógenos/análise , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolueno/análise , Adulto Jovem
15.
Inhal Toxicol ; 31(3): 119-124, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074300

RESUMO

Objectives: This follow-up study set out to evaluate the natural course and radiographic progression of silicosis among ceramic workers and describe the risk factors related with disease progression. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of ceramic workers with silicosis who were referred to our hospital between February 2010 and March 2018. A total of 165 ceramic workers followed at least 24 months and with at least two chest radiographs were included in the study. Results: The duration of silica exposure ranged from 5.5 to 27 (median 13.6) years. The numbers of patients according to follow-up time were as follows: 38 (2-2.9) years, 77 (3-3.9) years, 26 (4-4.9) years, 17 (5-5.9) years, and 7 (≥6) years. Overall 62 of 165 (37.5%) cases showed radiologic evidences of progression ranging from 2 to 8.9 years (mean 3.7 years). Pulmonary function loss rate among silicosis patients was 36.9% (61/165). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant relation between radiographic progression and age (OR, 1.079: 95% CI, 1.011-1.152), follow-up time (OR, 1.557: 95% CI, 1.144-2.118), and the ILO category (category 2 or 3) at first visit (OR, 3.507: 95% CI, 1.505-8.170). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that one-third of Turkish ceramic workers with silicosis who were followed up to 8.9 years showed progression that was related to increasing age greater ILO category at time of initial visit and follow-up duration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Cerâmica/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Silicose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Progressão da Doença , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Silicose/diagnóstico por imagem , Silicose/fisiopatologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Chemosphere ; 231: 442-449, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146136

RESUMO

Coke oven emissions (COEs), confirmed human carcinogens, are mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Telomere shortening in blood leukocytes has been associated with COEs, and polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes. However, the relationship between polymorphisms in telomere related genes and telomere shortening in COEs exposed workers has never been evaluated. Therefore, we measured telomere length and mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TBPs) by qPCR method in leucocyte from 544 COEs exposed workers and 238 office staffs (referents). Flight mass spectrometry was used to perform the genotyping of selected functional and susceptible SNPs. The results showed that the telomere length in the exposure group 0.75(0.51,1.08) was significantly shorter than that in the control group 1.05(0.76,1.44) (P < 0.001). The mRNA expression levels of TPP1, TERF1 and TERF2 genes in the exposure group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05), the mRNA expression level of POT1 in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). We used the wild homozygous genotype as a reference, subjects carrying TERT rs2736109 AA, TERT rs3215401 CC and TERT rs2736100 GT + GG genotypes had significantly longer telomere length in the exposure group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the workers exposed to COEs had shorter telomere length, which was regulated by the TPP1, TERF1, TERF2 and POT1 genes expression levels, and the gene polymorphisms of TERT gene were associated with the telomere length among PAHs-exposure workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Coque/análise , Dano ao DNA , Genótipo , Humanos , Leucócitos/química , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Telômero , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas
17.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 38(2)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063457

RESUMO

Background 2, 2-Bis (4-hydroxyphenyl propane [bisphenol A (BPA)] is one of the major environmental pollutants and has the adverse effects on human health. BPA mimics the structure of estrogen and binds to estrogen receptors and alters the secretion of the hormone. It is ingested in humans through the regular use of plastic containers, bottles and food cans. Materials and methods Female Wistar rats were exposed orally to 5, 50, 300, 600 and 800 mg BPA/kg body weight (bd. wt.)/week mixed in olive oil and administered every 168 h for 3 months continuing through the mating, gestation and lactation and its effects on fertility, reproductive organ weight and hormones [LH (luteinizing hormone), FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), estradiol (E2), progesterone (PROG) and PRL (prolactin)] were evaluated. Results The findings revealed that females exposed to BPA exhibited a decrease in female fertility rate and weight of reproductive organs (ovary and uterus) with significant decreased levels of LH, FSH, E2, PROG and PRL in the non-pregnancy phase whereas in cesarean and post-term females, no significance difference was found in fertility rate, reproductive organ weight and hormonal levels. Conclusions These data indicate an increased sensitivity to BPA needs careful evaluation of the current levels of exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108839

RESUMO

Epigenetics are heritable changes in gene expression not coded in the DNA sequence, which stand at the interface between the genome, environmental exposure and development. From an occupational health perspective, epigenetic variants may link workplace exposures and health effects. Therefore, this review aimed to overview possible epigenetic effects induced by welding fumes on exposed workers and health implications. A systematic search was performed on Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. DNA methylation changes have been reported in genes responsible for the cardiac autonomic function and coagulation, i.e., LINE-1, GPR133 and F2RL3, in mitochondrial-DNA-sequences involved in the regulation of energy-generation/redox-signaling, as well as in inflammatory activated genes, i.e., iNOS. However, the limited number of retrieved articles, their cross-sectional nature, the lack of a suitable qualitative-quantitative exposure assessment, and the heterogeneity of biological-outcomes investigated, prevent the extrapolation of a definite causal relationship between welding fumes and epigenetic phenomena. Future studies should clarify the function of such epigenetic alterations as possible markers of occupational exposure and early effect, dose-response relationships, and underlying molecular mechanisms. Overall, this may be helpful to guide suitable risk assessment and management strategies to protect the health of workers exposed to welding fumes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Soldagem , Humanos
20.
Cell Tissue Res ; 378(1): 81-96, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011801

RESUMO

Self-renewal of macrophages is important for the healthy development and replenishment of tissue-resident macrophage pools. How this mechanism is controlled by endocrine signals is still largely unexplored. Here, we show that the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) increases macrophage self-renewal. This effect was associated with phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and a slight increase in the expression of liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). We found that LXRα inhibition induced, while LXRα activation impeded, macrophage self-renewal. LXRα signaling hence may protect from excessive macrophage expansion. Self-renewing macrophages, however, had negligible LXRα expression when compared with quiescent macrophages. Accordingly, tissue-resident macrophage pools, which are dominated by quiescent macrophages, were rich in LXRα-expressing macrophages. Overall, we show that BPA increases macrophage self-renewal and that this effect, at least in part, can be inhibited by increasing LXRα expression. Since BPA is accumulated in the adipose tissue, it has the potential to increase self-renewal of adipose tissue macrophages, leading to a condition that might negatively impact adipose tissue health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Animais , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/imunologia , Fosforilação
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