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1.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117234, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962304

RESUMO

Aquatic hyphomycetes (AHs), a group of saprotrophic fungi adapted to submerged leaf litter, play key functional roles in stream ecosystems as decomposers and food source for higher trophic levels. Fungicides, controlling fungal pathogens, target evolutionary conserved molecular processes in fungi and contaminate streams via their use in agricultural and urban landscapes. Thus fungicides pose a risk to AHs and the functions they provide. To investigate the impacts of fungicide exposure on the composition and functioning of AH communities, we exposed four AH species in monocultures and mixed cultures to increasing fungicide concentrations (0, 5, 50, 500, and 2500 µg/L). We assessed the biomass of each species via quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, leaf decomposition was investigated. In monocultures, none of the species was affected at environmentally relevant fungicide levels (5 and 50 µg/L). The two most tolerant species were able to colonize and decompose leaves even at very high fungicide levels (≥500 µg/L), although less efficiently. In mixed cultures, changes in leaf decomposition reflected the response pattern of the species most tolerant in monocultures. Accordingly, the decomposition process may be safeguarded by tolerant species in combination with functional redundancy. In all fungicide treatments, however, sensitive species were displaced and interactions between fungi changed from complementarity to competition. As AH community composition determines leaves' nutritional quality for consumers, the data suggest that fungicide exposures rather induce bottom-up effects in food webs than impairments in leaf decomposition.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Micobioma , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Fungos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(6): 3443-3456, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893827

RESUMO

Seagrass meadows are vital ecosystems with high productivity and biodiversity and often in the oligotrophic area. Nitrogen usually limits productivity in this ecosystem as the main nutrient factor. Biological nitrogen fixation by diazotrophs in the rhizosphere sediment can introduce "new" nitrogen into the ecosystem. Previous studies revealed that most sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can also fix nitrogen like the nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB). Moreover, both sulfate reduction and nitrogen fixation were affected by the organic pollutant. However, rare information is available regarding the NFB and SRB community composition and their temporal response to the pollutant. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis have been used to analyze NFB and SRB communities' shifts under different PAHs concentrations. They both experienced a dramatic shift under PAHs stress but exhibited different patterns. SRB could use the low and high concentration PAHs at the early stage of the incubation, while only the low concentration of PAHs could stimulate the growth of NFB through the whole incubation period. The predominant species of NFB communities were Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria; while for SRB communities were class Epsilonproteobacteria. Redundancy analysis indicated the significant environmental factors for the two communities were both ammonium and pH (P < 0.05). There existed nifH sequences related to known nitrogen fixing SRB Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans, which confirmed that microbial N2 fixation and sulfate reduction were coupled in the seagrass ecosystem by molecular technique. Our investigation provides new insight into the NFB and SRB community in the seagrass meadow.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Sedimentos Geológicos , Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Deltaproteobacteria/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Hydrocharitaceae/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Oxirredutases/genética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
3.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(5): 512-521, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818270

RESUMO

Controlled-release formulations (CRFs) have potential applications in modern agriculture, for it can not only prolong the duration of agrochemicals but also alleviate the adverse effect on non-target organism. In this study, we constructed pyraclostrobin@SiO2@polydopamine microcapsule (Pyr@SiO2@PDA MC). The resulting microcapsule is a near-rod shape (about 1.15 µm), which has a drug-loading efficiency of 55%. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) revealed the successful entrapment of the pesticide. The coating of polydopamine (PDA) endowing the microcapsule with superior UV-shielding properties than pyraclostrobin@SiO2 microcapsule (Pyr@SiO2 MC). Compared with pyraclostrobin emulsifiable concentrate (EC), the Pyr@SiO2@PDA MC exhibited 9.07-, 5.50-, 4.93- and 4.16-fold higher fungicidal activity against Rice blast fungus (Pyricularia oryzae) at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L. Moreover, acute toxicity tests demonstrated that the sample on zebrafish with lower toxicity on the first day. These results showed that the obtained microcapsule may process broader application potential in agriculture.


Assuntos
Indóis/química , Praguicidas/química , Polímeros/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Animais , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Polímeros/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/química , Estrobilurinas/química , Estrobilurinas/farmacologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra
4.
Anal Methods ; 13(5): 575-594, 2021 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507166

RESUMO

Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are increasingly being identified as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). They have potentially detrimental ecological and human health impacts but most are not currently subject to environmental regulation. Addressing the life cycle of these pharmaceuticals plays a significant role in identifying the potential sources and understanding the environmental impact that pharmaceuticals may have in surface waters. The stability and biological activity of these "micro-pollutants" can lead to a pseudo persistence, with ensuing unknown chronic behavioural and health-related effects. Research that investigates pharmaceuticals predominantly focuses on their occurrence and effect within surface water environments. However, this review will help to collate this information with factors that affect their environmental concentration. This review focuses on six pharmaceuticals (clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, gemfibrozil and diclofenac), chosen because they are heavily consumed globally, have poor removal rates in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (CAS WWTPs), and are persistent in the aquatic environment. Furthermore, these pharmaceuticals are included in numerous published prioritisation studies and/or are on the Water Framework Directive (WFD) "Watch List" or are candidates for the updated Watch List (WL). This review investigates the concentrations seen in European Union (EU) surface waters and examines factors that influence final concentrations prior to release, thus giving a holistic overview on the source of pharmaceutical surface water pollution. A period of 10 years is covered by this review, which includes research from 2009-2020 examining over 100 published studies, and highlighting that pharmaceuticals can pose a severe risk to surface water environments, with each stage of the lifecycle of the pharmaceutical determining its concentration. This review additionally highlights the necessity to improve education surrounding appropriate use, disposal and waste management of pharmaceuticals, while implementing a source directed and end of pipe approach to reduce pharmaceutical occurrence in surface waters.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mudança Climática , Pandemias , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Indústria Farmacêutica , Ecotoxicologia , União Europeia , Humanos , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes/metabolismo , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes/farmacologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/isolamento & purificação , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2 , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Purificação da Água
5.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 51(1): 16-27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633607

RESUMO

The spore laccase enzyme production by B. amyloliquefaciens was optimized. It was characterized and tested for its textile dye decolorization potential. LB medium was found to be the most promising growth medium with addition of glucose (1-2%), yeast extract (0.1%), FeCl3 (0.01 mM) and MnCl2 (0.001 mM). The optimum spore laccase production was at pH 8, 30 °C, 1:5 medium to air ratio, 2% inoculum size and 7 days incubation. The characterization study of the enzyme showed the maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 6-7.5. It was induced by Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+3, Zn+2, Cu+2 and Na+ at 1 mM concentration. Also, it was stable in the presence of methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform. In addition, it enhanced about 34% by 5 mM H2O2 and it was nearly stable at 10-20 mM H2O2. Furthermore, mediators such as ABTS, syrengaldazine and 2, 6 dimethyl phenol enhanced the spore laccase activity. The spore laccase enzyme efficiently decolorized direct red 81 and acid black 24 after 24 h. Phytotoxicity of the direct red 81 solution after decolorization by tested spore laccase was lower than that of the untreated dye solution. Finally, this study added a promising spore laccase candidate for ecofriendly and cost-effective dye wastewater bio-decolorization.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/enzimologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/isolamento & purificação , Corantes/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Esporos Bacterianos/enzimologia , Têxteis , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Descoloração da Água/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Corantes/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura , Temperatura Alta , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 124000, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33265034

RESUMO

Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most commonly utilized non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which is known to pose an ecotoxicological threat. In this study, from activated sludge and contaminated soil, we isolated four new bacterial strains able to degrade DCF under mono-substrate and co-metabolic conditions with glucose supplementation. We found that the effectiveness of DCF removal is strictly strain-specific and the addition of the primary substrate is not always beneficial. To assess the multidirectional influence of DCF on bacterial cells we evaluated the alterations of increasing concentrations of this drug on membrane structure. A significant increase was observed in the content of 17:0 cyclo fatty acid, which is responsible for reduced fluidity and profound changes in membrane rigidity. The cell injury and oxidative stress were assessed with biomarkers used as endpoints of toxicity, i.e. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipids peroxidation (LPX), and both intra- and extracellular alkaline and acid phosphatase activity. Results indicated that DCF induced oxidative stress, frequently intensified by the addition of glucose. However, the response of the microbial cells to the presence of DCF should not be generalized, since the overall picture of the particular alterations greatly varied for each of the examined strains.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253276

RESUMO

Most agricultural soils are expected to be contaminated with agricultural chemicals. As the exposure to pesticides can have adverse effects on non-target organisms, avoiding contaminated areas would be advantageous on an individual level, but could lead to a chemical landscape fragmentation with disadvantages on the metapopulation level. We investigated the avoidance behavior of juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo) in response to seven pesticide formulations commonly used in German vineyards. We used test arenas filled with silica sand and oversprayed half of each with different pesticide formulations. We placed a toad in the middle of an arena, filmed its behavior over 24 hours, calculated the proportion of time a toad spent on the contaminated side and compared it to a random side choice. We found evidence for the avoidance of the folpet formulation Folpan® 500 SC, the metrafenone formulation Vivando® and the glyphosate formulation Taifun® forte at maximum recommended field rates for vine and a trend for avoidance of Wettable Sulphur Stulln (sulphur). No avoidance was observed when testing Folpan® 80 WDG (folpet), Funguran® progress (copper hydroxide), SpinTorTM (spinosad), or 10% of the maximum field rate of any formulation tested. In the choice-tests in which we observed an avoidance, toads also showed higher activity on the contaminated side of the arena. As video analysis with tracking software is not always feasible, we further tested the effect of reducing the sampling interval for manual data analyses. We showed that one data point every 15 or 60 minutes results in a risk of overlooking a weak avoidance behavior, but still allows to verify the absence/presence of an avoidance for six out of seven formulations. Our findings are important for an upcoming pesticide risk assessment for amphibians and could be a template for future standardized tests.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Bufo bufo
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(6): 841-846, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237379

RESUMO

We experimentally investigated the toxicity of stannic oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) to three freshwater species including Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio. To evaluate effect, toxicological impacts were compared to that of stannic chloride (SnCl4). Based on the actual concentration of Sn, SnO2 NPs suspensions inhibited growth of S. obliquus in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating a median effect concentration of 2.28 ± 0.53 mg/L. However, SnO2 NP suspensions were found to exhibit limited acute toxicity in D. magna and D. rerio. Moreover, the toxicity of the SnO2 NP suspension was lower than SnCl4 for all three trophic aquatic organisms. Comparison of component-specific contribution to overall toxicity indicated that, in SnO2 NP suspensions, particulate Sn more significantly contributed to toxicity than dissolved Sn-ions. Furthermore, we found that the toxic mechanism of the SnO2 NP suspension involved the induction of oxidative stress by increasing intracellular ROS accumulation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Compostos de Estanho/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suspensões , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra
10.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171849

RESUMO

A real electroplating wastewater, containing 51,190 mg/L of free cyanide (CNf), 4899 mg/L of Ni and 1904 mg/L of Cu, was treated with calcium alginate hydrogel beads (CAB), pure or impregnated with biodegraded grape marc (EBGM) or activated carbon (EAC) in order to reduce the elevated load of toxic pollutants below the regulatory limits. It was evaluated the effect of increasing the amount of bioadsorbent as well as the influence of two successive adsorption cycles in the removal efficiency of pollutants. The most favourable sorption conditions onto CAB provided removal percentages of 85.02% for CNf and between 93.40-98.21% for heavy metals regarding the raw wastewater. The adsorption capacity of each pollutant onto CAB was considerably increased during the first 30 min of contact time, but after achieving the equilibrium, the following sorption capacities were obtained: 1177, 107.3, 39.5 and 1.52 mg/g for CNf, Ni, Cu and Zn, respectively. The kinetic adsorption of pollutants onto the CAB was adjusted to different kinetic models, observing that kinetic data agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. The information about intraparticle diffusion mechanisms in the bioadsorption process was also interpreted.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Cianetos/isolamento & purificação , Galvanoplastia , Hidrogéis/química , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Carbono , Cobre/análise , Cianetos/análise , Difusão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Resíduos Industriais , Cinética , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios , Vitis , Poluentes da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Zinco/análise
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030087

RESUMO

This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the Szreniawa river with detailed aims of: (i) assessment of differences in the number of microbiological indicators of water quality in a diurnal cycle in a vicinity of the sewage treatment plant (STP); (ii) determination of prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli isolated from three sites located at varying locations toward the STP; (iii) evaluation of the presence of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-determining genes in waterborne E. coli isolated from three sites of Szreniawa and (iv) genetic similarity assessment among the E. coli populations. Bacteriological contamination (coliforms, E. coli, E. faecalis) was assessed using membrane filtration. Fifty E. coli strains, the species of which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF analysis, were subjected to antimicrobial resistance tests using standard disk-diffusion method. Double disk synergy test was used to assess the ESBL production and PCR tests were conducted to detect the ESBL-conferring genes and evaluate the genetic diversity. A significant variation in the number of bacteriological indicators was observed both within and between the sampling sites, suggesting the effect of effluent from the STP, point discharge of household sewage and agricultural runoff on the water contamination. The resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate (90%) and ampicillin (36%) was most prevalent. Multidrug resistance was observed in 40% of strains but no ESBL-producing strains were observed phenotypically. However, the presence of three ESBL-determining genes (TEM, OXA and CTX-M) was detected in 24, 10 and 8% of strains, respectively. A number of factors caused considerable pollution of the river and numerous multidrug resistant E. coli strains were isolated.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos , Rios/microbiologia , Esgotos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111116, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890921

RESUMO

Disinfectant quaternary ammonium compounds (Quats) have diverse uses in a variety of consumer and commercial products, particularly cleaning products. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, they have become a primary tool to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus on surfaces. Disinfectant Quats have very low vapor pressure, and following the use phase of the products in which they are found, disposal is typically "down-the-drain" to wastewater treatment systems. Consequently, the potential for the greatest environmental effect is to the aquatic environment, from treated effluent, and potentially to soils, which might be amended with wastewater biosolids. Among the earliest used and still common disinfectant Quats are the alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) compounds and the dialkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) compounds. They are cationic surfactants often found in consumer and commercial surface cleaners. Because of their biocidal properties, disinfectant Quats are heavily regulated for human and environmental safety around the world. Consequently, there is a robust database of information regarding the ecological hazards and environmental fate of ADBAC and DDAC; however, some of the data presented are from unpublished studies that have been submitted to and reviewed by regulatory agencies (i.e., EPA and European Chemicals Agency) to support antimicrobial product registration. We summarize the available environmental fate data and the acute and chronic aquatic ecotoxicity data for freshwater species, including algae, invertebrates, fish, and plants using peer-reviewed literature and unpublished data submitted to and summarized by regulatory agencies. The lower limit of the range of the ecotoxicity data for disinfectant Quats tends to be lower than that for other surface active agents, such as nonionic or anionic surfactants. However, ecotoxicity is mitigated by environmental fate characteristics, the data for which we also summarize, including high biodegradability and a strong tendency to sorb to wastewater biosolids, sediment, and soil. As a result, disinfectant Quats are largely removed during wastewater treatment, and those residues discharged in treated effluent are likely to rapidly bind to suspended solids or sediments, thus mitigating their toxicity.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Ecotoxicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947916

RESUMO

Diclofenac (DCF) constitutes one of the most significant ecopollutants detected in various environmental matrices. Biological clean-up technologies that rely on xenobiotics-degrading microorganisms are considered as a valuable alternative for chemical oxidation methods. Up to now, the knowledge about DCF multi-level influence on bacterial cells is fragmentary. In this study, we evaluate the degradation potential and impact of DCF on Pseudomonas moorei KB4 strain. In mono-substrate culture KB4 metabolized 0.5 mg L-1 of DCF, but supplementation with glucose (Glc) and sodium acetate (SA) increased degraded doses up to 1 mg L-1 within 12 days. For all established conditions, 4'-OH-DCF and DCF-lactam were identified. Gene expression analysis revealed the up-regulation of selected genes encoding biotransformation enzymes in the presence of DCF, in both mono-substrate and co-metabolic conditions. The multifactorial analysis of KB4 cell exposure to DCF showed a decrease in the zeta-potential with a simultaneous increase in the cell wall hydrophobicity. Magnified membrane permeability was coupled with the significant increase in the branched (19:0 anteiso) and cyclopropane (17:0 cyclo) fatty acid accompanied with reduced amounts of unsaturated ones. DCF injures the cells which is expressed by raised activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases as well as formation of lipids peroxidation products (LPX). The elevated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) testified that DCF induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotransformação/genética , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Diclofenaco/farmacologia , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetato de Sódio/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(21): 13797-13806, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975940

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) include synthetic compounds that mimic the structure or function of natural hormones. While most studies utilize live embryos or primary cells from adult fish, these cells rapidly lose functionality when cultured on plastic or glass substrates coated with extracellular matrix proteins. This study hypothesizes that the softness of a matrix with adhered fish cells can regulate the intercellular organization and physiological function of engineered hepatoids during EDC exposure. We scrutinized this hypothesis by culturing zebrafish hepatocytes (ZF-L) on collagen-based hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli by examining morphology, urea production, and intracellular oxidative stress of hepatoids exposed to 17ß-estradiol. Interestingly, the softer gel drove cells to form a cell sheet with a canaliculi-like structure compared to its stiffer gel counterpart. The hepatoids cultured on the softer gel exhibited more active urea production upon exposure to 17ß-estradiol and displayed faster recovery of intracellular reactive oxygen species level confirmed by gradient light interference microscopy (GLIM), a live-cell imaging technique. These results are broadly useful to improve screening and understanding of potential EDC impacts on aquatic organisms and human health.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estradiol/farmacologia , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835857

RESUMO

The release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into aquatic environments has been a major concern for the health of ecosystems. Transgenerational plasticity is a potential mechanism for organisms to respond to changing environmental conditions, including climate change and environmental contaminants. The purpose of the present study was to determine the long-term transgenerational effects of an abundant freshwater zooplankton, Daphnia magna, to acute embryonic exposures of serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI - fluoxetine and sertraline). Both SSRIs have been used extensively to treat depression and anxiety disorders for decades and persist in freshwater ecosystems at physiologically relevant concentrations. Our results revealed that even short (72 h) embryonic exposures of D. magna embryos had long lasting consequences on life history and expression of 5HT related genes in the unexposed generation (F3). Moreover, we identified direct effects of SSRIs on heart rate and swimming behavior in the first generation that carried over from embryonic exposure. We also found that SSRI exposure resulted in a transient increase of ephippia formation in the F1 and F2 . Our results suggest that SSRI exposure has transgenerational consequences to the unexposed generation and potentially beyond, even at low concentration (10-100× lower than what can be found in natural ecosystems) and as a result of embryonic exposure. Because of the short reproductive period of D. magna and their integral role in aquatic food webs, these findings have population-level implications and deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654587

RESUMO

The 17 alpha methyltestosterone (MT) hormone is fed to Oreochromis niloticus larvae in fish farms with the purpose of inducing sex reversal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and sub-lethality of MT (99.9% purity) and cMT (a commercial MT with 90% purity) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) adults, where the animals were exposed to concentrations of 0, 4, 23, 139, 833 and 5000 µg/L for 96 hours. Genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus test (MN), nuclear abnormalities (NA) and comet assay. A low genotoxic potential of MT was showed, inducing micronucleus, nuclear abnormalities and DNA damage in Danio rerio, depending on the use of MT or cMT, gender and tested concentrations. In the sub-lethality trials, there was a basal difference in the activity of the enzymatic biochemical markers for males and females, while the Glutatione S transferase (GST) activity decreased in all analyzed tissues, and for males the enzymatic activity decreased only in the intestine. Results suggest that MT has a toxic potential to fish because it alters enzymatic metabolic pathways and may pose a risk to the ecosystems.


Assuntos
Androgênios/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Metiltestosterona/toxicidade , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Androgênios/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecossistema , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Metiltestosterona/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
17.
J Fish Dis ; 43(8): 853-862, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557678

RESUMO

To understand the driving environmental factors in changes of bacterial virulence and antibiotic resistance, we determined the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance and virulence genes of Vibrio harveyi isolated from diseased marine fish in south coastal China. We isolated 2, 52 and 53 V. harveyi strains from Fujian, Hainan and Guangdong, respectively, and identified them by multilocus sequence analysis of 16S rRNA-toxRVh -rctB. Nine typical virulence genes were represented at a higher average in Hainan (7.39 ± 0.24) than in Guangdong (6.91 ± 0.28). Five atypical virulence genes were detected in some isolates. In particular, flaC and vvh were detected in more than 60% of isolates. Their average number was significantly higher in Hainan (2.30 ± 0.20) than in Guangdong (1.70 ± 0.10). Multidrug resistance was widespread with an average resistance to 4.57 ± 0.18 of 15 antibiotics. Both the average number of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance genes were higher in Hainan (5.25 ± 0.27 and 1.11 ± 0.15, respectively) than in Guangdong (3.87 ± 0.21 and 0.75 ± 0.10, respectively). This study demonstrated that there were more virulence genes and greater drug resistance in Hainan than in Guangdong, suggesting that warmer temperature and antibiotics pollutants probably enhance antibiotic resistance and bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Temperatura Alta , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrio/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Oceano Pacífico , Vibrio/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20180445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556045

RESUMO

The present work evaluated the ecological risk of glyphosate by its commercial formulation (Roundup Original®) used to control floating aquatic macrophytes. Exposure analysis and ecological effects were performed from microcosm studies. The risk characterization was performed based on the calculation of the risk quotient. The commercial formulation of glyphosate had high toxicity when it was assessed separately. On the other hand, ecotoxicological evaluation of water samples from microcosms did not present toxicity to any tested organisms, however, glyphosate application is recommended exclusively to water bodies that have the surface completely covered by macrophytes.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Glicina/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Medição de Risco , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139496, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480152

RESUMO

Pyriproxyfen (PPF), a broad-spectrum insecticide known to cause reproductive and endocrine disruption in invertebrates, while the data is scarce in aquatic vertebrates. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of PPF on reproductive endocrine system of male and female zebrafish along hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In brain, PPF caused significant alteration in the transcripts of erα, lhß, and cyp19b genes in male and fshß, lhß, and cyp19b genes in female zebrafish. The downstream genes of steroidogenic pathway like, star, 3ßhsd, 17ßhsd, and cyp19a expression were significantly altered in gonad of both sexes. Subsequent changes in circulatory steroid hormone levels lead to imbalance in hormone homeostasis as revealed from estradiol/testosterone (E2/T) ratio. Further, the vitellogenin transcript level was enhanced in hepatic tissues and their blood plasma content was increased in male (16.21%) and declined in female (21.69%). PPF also induced histopathological changes in gonads such as, reduction of mature spermatocytes in male and vitellogenic oocytes in female zebrafish. The altered E2/T ratio and gonadal histopathology were supported by the altered transcript levels of HPG axis genes. Overall, these findings provide new insights of PPF in zebrafish reproductive system and highlights for further investigations on its potential risks in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Hipotálamo , Masculino , Piridinas , Reprodução , Vitelogeninas , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105519, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502848

RESUMO

Emamectin benzoate (EB) is a prophylactic pharmaceutical used to protect Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts migrating out of rivers and into the ocean against sea lice parasites. Randomized control trials comparing the marine survival of smolts treated with EB to a control group is used to calculate the fraction of marine mortality attributable to sea lice parasitism. However, it is assumed that there is no baseline difference in survival induced by the application of EB treatment. We used a combined laboratory and field study approach to investigate the potential impacts of EB treatment on behaviour and survival of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon in western Norway. In aquaria experiments, EB-treated salmon smolts did not differ significantly in exploratory behaviour. Fish from treated groups responded similarly to simulated predator attack with spontaneous escape and elevated gill beat rate. Three rivers in the Osterfjord system of western Norway were selected for field experiments, Dale, Vosso, and Modalen. Dale River smolts were treated with intraperitoneal EB injections and had lower probability of detection in a wolf trap downstream of the release site than control smolts. Salmon smolts raised in the Vosso River hatchery were treated with EB delivered in their food and were detected on PIT antennas at the rivermouth of Vosso and Modalen at lower rates than control fish, but only when released at downstream sites. Calculation of risk ratios suggested that the bias in mortality caused by treatment with EB decreased the estimated survival of treated fish from an expected 18%to 46%, reducing the observable negative impact of sea lice on Atlantic salmon smolts in randomized control trials. The results suggest that estimates of the fraction of mortality attributable to sea lice may be underestimated due to lower baseline survival of treated fish caused by treatment and bring urgent attention towards a potential systematic underestimation of the impacts of sea lice on wild salmon.


Assuntos
Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Migração Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Noruega , Distribuição Aleatória , Rios/química , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
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