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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 102, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915929

RESUMO

Groundwater quality investigations were carried out in one of the urban parts of south India for fluoride and nitrate contaminations, with special focus on human health risk assessment for the rapidly growing and increasingly industrialized Coimbatore City. Twenty-five groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (EC, pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, PO43-, NO3-, and F-) and the piper diagram characterized 60% of them as Ca-Mg-Cl type. Analysis of fluoride (0.1 to 2.4 mg/l) shows that 32% of the groundwater samples contain F- over the permissible limit, affecting a region of 122.10 km2. Nitrate (0.1 to 148 mg/l) is over the permissible limit in 44% of the groundwater samples spread over an area of 429.43 km2. The total hazard indices (THI) of non-carcinogenic risk for children (0.21 to 4.83), women (0.14 to 3.35), and men (0.12 to 2.90) shows some of the THI values are above the permissible limit of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The THI-based non-carcinogenic risks are 60%, 52%, and 48% for children, women, and men. This investigation suggests higher health risk for children and also recommends that proper management plan should be adopted to improve the drinking water quality in this region in order to avoid major health issues in the near future.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Nitratos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/normas , Humanos , Índia , Nitratos/normas , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Sódio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134993, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726336

RESUMO

Since the establishment of the whole-contact sediment toxicity test using Heterocypris incongruens in 2012, this user-friendly method has been widely used for the assessment of many kinds of solid samples, such as sediment, soil, compost, and sewage sludge. There are two endpoints for this method: mortality and growth inhibition. Currently, there is no standard toxicity threshold established for the endpoint of growth inhibition. However, there is evidence showing that the calcite saturation state of the overlying water, which might be different among various samples, influences the growth and survival of H. incongruens. Thus, it is necessary to characterize the influence of the calcite saturation state to ensure that the test results are reliable and comparable among different samples. In the present study, we created artificial sediments comprised of quartz sand and 0-20% calcite particulates to manipulate the calcite saturation state in the overlying water and performed the test using H. incongruens for 6 d. The results show that a low calcite saturation state inhibited the growth of H. incongruens but had no effect on survival rate. The growth of ostracods was linearly related to the calcite saturation index of the overlying water. Additionally, a formula for artificial sediment consisting of 10% calcite and 90% quartz sand for the H. incongruens toxicity test was proposed. This study helps to distinguish H. incongruens growth inhibition caused by calcite saturation from that caused by toxicity.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Esgotos , Solo , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
3.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124911, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726614

RESUMO

The reuse of treated municipal wastewater (herein referred to as reclaimed water) in agricultural irrigation (RWAI) as a means to alleviate water scarcity is gaining increasing policy attention, particularly in areas where water demand mitigation measures have proved insufficient. However, reclaimed water reuse in practice is lagging behind policy ambition, with <2.5% of it reused in a European context. A key barrier identified as limiting its full valorisation is concern over its impact on human and environmental health. To address this concern, and to meet further objectives including achieving parity between current reclaimed water reuse guidelines operational in various Member States, the European Commission has proposed a regulation which identifies minimum quality requirements (MQR) for a range of microbiological and physico-chemical parameters but the inclusion of compounds of emerging concern (CECs) in terms of the determination of quality standards (QS) is missing. This paper reviews the existing pertinent EU legislation in terms of identifying the need for CEC QS for RWAI, considering the scope and remit of on-going pan-European chemicals prioritisation schemes. It also evaluates opportunities to link in with the existing EQS derivation methodology under the EU WFD to address all protection targets in the environmental compartments exposed via potential pathways of RWAI. Finally, it identifies the main data gaps and research needs for terrestrial ecosystems, the removal efficiency of CECs by WWTPs and transformation products generated during the wastewater reuse cycle.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/normas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/normas , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 734, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707592

RESUMO

The quality of drinking water source remains as a major concern in areas of developing and underdeveloped countries worldwide. The treatment and supply of drinking water in Rwanda are carried out by Water and Sanitation Corporation, a state-owned public company. However, it is not able to supply water to all households. Consequently, the non-serviced households depend on natural water sources, like springs, to meet their water requirements. Nevertheless, the water quality in these springs is scarcely known. Therefore, this study assessed and compared metal elements in drinking water sources in the dry and rainy seasons in 2017 using the contamination degree, metal index, and geographic information systems to reveal the spatial distribution of water quality within the considered water sources of springs in Rwanda. The samples were collected monthly from nine water sources of springs and the measured elements are aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The metal index indicated that during the dry season and rainy season, the sites of Kibungo (1.10 and 1.26) and Kinigi (1.01 and 1.54) have assessed a metal index which is higher than 1. Thus, the water quality of those sites was getting the threshold of warning. The analysis indicated that pollutants are easily transported into water bodies during the rainy season in urban and rural areas to a greater extent than during the dry season .


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Ferro/análise , Metais/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Chuva , Ruanda , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Qualidade da Água , Zinco/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1087-1103, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466149

RESUMO

For reliable mussel monitoring programmes based on biomarkers, regionally relevant reference values and their natural variability need to be known. The Baltic Sea exhibits high inter-regional and seasonal variability in physical factors such as salinity, temperature and primary production. The aim of this pilot study is to depict the effects of season-related environmental factors in a selected battery of biomarkers in two environmentally different subregions of the Baltic Sea to help establishing reference data for biochemical, cellular and tissue-level biomarkers. In order to achieve that, mussels were collected from reference sites in Kiel (Germany) and Tvärminne (Finland) during three seasons: summer and autumn 2016, and spring 2017. Finally, in order to characterize the ecological situation, analysis of the chemical tissue burden was performed and chlorophyll­a and particulate organic carbon concentration and temperature changes were analyzed at each sampling locality using satellite remote sensing images. An integrated biomarker response index was performed to summarize the biomarker responses of each locality and season. The biochemical endpoints showed seasonal variability regulated by temperature, food supply and reproductive cycle, while among the cellular endpoints only lipofuscin accumulation and lysosomal structural changes showed slight seasonal variation. Seasonal changes in tissue level biomarkers were observed only at the northern Baltic Sea site Tvärminne, dictated by the demanding energetic trade-off caused by reproduction. In conclusion, the characterization of the ecological variables and physico-chemical conditions at each site, is crucial to perform a reliable assessment of the effects of a hypothetical pollution scenario in the Baltic Sea. Moreover, reference levels of biomarkers and their responses to natural environmental conditions must be established.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mytilus/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Países Bálticos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 499-507, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229840

RESUMO

In recent years, increasing eutrophication in large freshwater lakes, which are an important drinking water source for cities in China, have been resulted in substantial cyanobacteria blooms that could cause serious taste and odor (T&O) problems. In this investigation, three typical lakes (Songhua Lake, Chaohu Lake and Taihu Lake) as drinking water sources located in different geographical areas in China, were selected to study the problems of cyanobacteria-derived T&O (i.e., 2-methylisobornoel, geosmin, ß-ionone, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 2-methylbenzofuran). The occurrence of T&O in target lakes was compared across various nutrition states and geographic locations, to get more information for early warning for algal bloom and T&O occurrence, being useful lake water management and purification. Results show that the occurrence of T&O in Songhua Lake was the poorest for the lowest nutrient state, as a first report in T&O research field in China. This is a lake located in Northeast China at high latitude, with lower water temperatures. The occurrence of T&O in Chaohu Lake was ranked in the middle. That in Taihu Lake was the most intensive. Finally, the relationship between water quality, T&O and its origin was analyzed by multivariate statistical methods (correlation analysis, principal component, and cluster analyses).


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Lagos/microbiologia , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Lagos/química , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Qualidade da Água
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 380-391, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176223

RESUMO

Water treatments that provide efficient removal of organic and inorganic disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors across variable natural organic matter (NOM) sources are desirable. Treatments that effectively remove inorganic DBP precursors such as bromide, which significantly shift the speciation of DBP formation towards more toxic DBPs, are of particular interest and have been less investigated. This study characterised NOM isolated from three major drinking water sources in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia, and compared it to the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) Suwannee River NOM isolate (SR) in terms of DBP precursor removal treatments and DBP formation. Each NOM isolate was used to make synthetic water samples with otherwise identical water quality parameters, that were treated with enhanced coagulation (EC) or EC followed by; anion exchange (MIEX® resin), powdered activated carbon (PAC), granular activated carbon (GAC) or silver impregnated activated carbon (SIAC), to investigate the removal of DBP precursors (bromide and DOC), minimisation of DBPs, as well as the change in specific chlorine demand. EC/SIAC treatment was the most effective method of DBP control studied, due to the efficient simultaneous NOM and bromide adsorption of the SIAC (99 ±â€¯1% bromide removal regardless of NOM source). This treatment also resulted in >92% removal of each of the measured DBPs across all NOM sources, with the exception of DBAN and 1,1-DCP, which achieved >80% removal across all NOM sources. Increases in tribromomethane (TBM) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) formation were observed after all other treatment/NOM-isolate combinations, due to increased Br:DOC ratio after treatment, whereas chlorinated DBPs were generally well-controlled by all treatment/NOM-isolate combinations. Differences in reactivity of the individual NOM isolates were found to be related to both the origin of the isolate and the treatment employed, however, bromide removal capacity for each treatment was independent of NOM source.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Austrália , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Água Potável/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 681: 488-496, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121399

RESUMO

The polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB) is widely used as fragrances in personal care products (PCPs) and has been detected in various environmental media. There is an urgent need to derive aquatic life criteria (ALC) of HHCB for the protection of aquatic organisms. Toxicity tests with 8 Chinese resident aquatic organisms from 3 phyla and 8 families were conducted, and three methods were used for deriving the ALC. A criterion maximum concentration (CMC) of 8.33 µg/L and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 2.20 µg/L were derived according to the USEPA guidelines. The acute predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) values derived by log-normal species sensitivity distribution (SSD) and log-logistic SSD method were 77.41 and 66.47 µg/L, respectively. In addition, a significant sensitivity difference was observed between the planktonic crustacean and benthic crustacean, and there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) among SSDs based on resident and non-resident species. A comparison of chronic SSDs between HHCB, tonalide (AHTN) and musk ketone (MK) showed that nitro musk (MK) was more toxic to aquatic organisms than polycyclic musks (HHCB and AHTN). Finally, an assessment of risk to aquatic organisms in surface waters and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) worldwide showed that potential risk may exist at several locations. HHCB concentrations in 4.08 and 46.17% of the WWTP effluents in China and 1.71 and 16.13% of the WWTP effluents in other countries exceed the hazard concentration for 5% and 1% aquatic species.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/toxicidade , Odorantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água/normas , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Benzopiranos/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 669: 746-753, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893630

RESUMO

Bivalves are extensively employed as biomonitors of coastal pollution, but the comparability among different species and geographic environments needs to be further scrutinized. The present study conducted a meta-analysis of trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn) in the soft tissues of three groups of marine bivalves (oysters, mussels, and clams) collected from China and worldwide. By conducting cumulative frequency distribution analysis of metal distribution, we modeled the 5% cumulative values as the bio-baseline metal concentrations in these bivalves. We further modeled their potential baseline concentrations using a well-developed biokinetic model. The baseline concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tissue-specific Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for China were 0.99, 34.5, and 340 µg/g dw in oysters, 0.38, 4.32, and 49.6 µg/g dw in mussels, and 0.35, 3.02, 51.4 µg/g dw in clams, respectively. Of the 8 metals examined in this study, the calculated baseline concentrations of Ag, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn in the oysters were 3.7-48, 2.7-3.6, 2.6-2.8, 8.0-11.4, 6.6-6.8 times higher than those in the mussels and clams, and only Ti showed comparable baseline concentrations among the three bivalves (8.43-9.67 µg/g dw). These data strongly suggested the inter-group as well as inter-metal difference in the baseline metal concentrations in marine bivalves. Further, the potential baseline concentrations of Cd and Cu predicted by the biokinetic model were comparable to those modeled by the probability frequency distribution. Combined statistical frequency analysis and biokinetic modeling therefore provided an innovative method to establish the baseline metal concentrations in bivalves and the tissue-specific EQSs, which are now urgently needed for coastal management, biomonitoring, and geochemical records in the world.


Assuntos
Bivalves/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Metais/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Ostreidae/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Água do Mar/química , Oligoelementos/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
11.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 3, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-income and minority communities often face disproportionately high pollutant exposures. The lead crisis in Flint, Michigan, has sparked concern about broader socioeconomic disparities in exposures to drinking water contaminants. Nitrate is commonly found in drinking water, especially in agricultural regions, and epidemiological evidence suggests elevated risk of cancer and birth defects at levels below U.S. EPA's drinking water standard (10 mg/L NO3-N). However, there have been no nationwide assessments of socioeconomic disparities in exposures to nitrate or other contaminants in U.S. drinking water. The goals of this study are to identify determinants of nitrate concentrations in U.S. community water systems (CWSs) and to evaluate disparities related to wealth or race/ethnicity. METHODS: We compiled nitrate data from 39,466 U.S. CWSs for 2010-2014. We used EPA's Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) to compile CWS characteristics and linked this information with both city- and county-level demographic data gathered from the U.S. Census Bureau. After applying multiple imputation methods to address censored nitrate concentration data, we conducted mixed-effects multivariable regression analyses at national and regional scales. RESULTS: 5.6 million Americans are served by a CWS that had an average nitrate concentration ≥ 5 mg/L NO3-N between 2010 and 2014. Extent of agricultural land use and reliance on groundwater sources were significantly associated with nitrate. The percent of Hispanic residents served by each system was significantly associated with nitrate even after accounting for county-level cropland and livestock production, and CWSs in the top quartile of percent Hispanic residents exceeded 5 mg/L nearly three times as often as CWSs serving the lowest quartile. By contrast, the percent of residents living in poverty and percent African American residents were both inversely associated with nitrate. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological evidence for health effects associated with drinking water above 5 mg/L NO3-N raises concerns about increased risk for the 5.6 million Americans served by public water supplies with average nitrate concentrations above this level. The associations we observed between nitrate concentrations and proportions of Hispanic residents support the need for improved efforts to assist vulnerable communities in addressing contamination and protecting source waters. Future studies can extend our methods to evaluate disparities in exposures to other contaminants and links to health effects.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Nitratos/análise , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Afro-Americanos , Água Potável/normas , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Nitratos/normas , Justiça Social , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
12.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(1): 401-409, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155753

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to investigate water quality and potential trace metal contaminations in the Northeastern part of Cambodia. Tube well (n = 35), hand-dug well (n = 18), channel (n = 10) and lake/pond (n = 8) water samples were randomly collected from Mondolkiri province which is located in the Northeastern highland of Cambodia. A water sample was collected in two different bottles. One was filled in 30-mL polyethylene bottle after which was acidified to pH < 2 with concentrated HNO3. Another was filled in 250-mL polyethylene bottle. The collected water sampled was stored in a cooler during fieldwork and transferred to a fridge where they are stored at 4 °C for analysis. The measurement of pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity was taken at laboratory following standard procedures. All chemical measurement of trace metals were taken by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analytical results reveal that tube well (47.1%), hand-dug well (77.8%) and channel water (20%) have pH < 6.5. Turbidity of tube well (32.4%), hand-dug well (5.6%), lake water (12.5%) and all channel water samples are exceeded Cambodia regulation of 5 NTU. Mean As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations in Mondolkiri's water sources are below Cambodian drinking water quality standard and WHO's drinking water quality guideline. However, the upper range of Pb in tube well and channel water and Zn in tube well are exceeding Cambodia regulation. Concurrently, the mean concentrations of Fe and Mn in tube well and channel water are exceeded Cambodian aesthetic guideline of 300 µg L-1 and 100 µg L-1, respectively. This study suggests that appropriate treatment technologies are necessary for residents in the Mondolkiri province to access to clean water and minimize their potential health risks.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Camboja , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lagos/química , Oligoelementos/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 647: 20-28, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077159

RESUMO

Fish samples of different species (i.e. rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss), barbel (Barbus barbus) and European chub (Squalius cephalus)) were collected from the Sava River Basin for a preliminary investigation of the levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDEs and PFAS as a whole. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, in terms of pg WHO-TEQ/g ww, were below the maximum limit established at the Commission Regulation (EU) No 1259/2011. On the contrary, when DL-PCBs were also included, levels increase up to 11.7 pg WHO-TEQPCDD/Fs+DL-PCBs/g ww in a particular case, with two samples out of a total of ten exceeding the maximum set at this EU Regulation and the EQS established at the European Directive regarding priority substances in the field of water policy (0.0065 ng WHO-TEQPCDD/Fs+DL-PCBs/g ww). A similar trend was also observed for NDL-PCBs, whit the same two samples, from the lower stretch of the river basin, exceeding the maximum limit allowed at the EU Regulation (125 ng/g ww). For PBDEs, levels found in all the samples exceeded the EQS (0.0085 ng/g ww) up to more than a thousand times and 40% of the samples presented PFOS values above the EQS. Data from this study were compared to values reported at the literature for fish from other geographical areas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Croácia , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/metabolismo , Política Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Poluição Química da Água/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(3): 689-704, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467767

RESUMO

This manuscript presents a comprehensive analytical framework for identification and quantification of chemically diverse endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) used in personal care and consumer products in diverse solid and liquid environmental matrices with an ultimate goal of evaluating public exposure to EDCs via water fingerprinting. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used for targeted analysis of selected EDCs as well as to identify and quantify a few metabolites using post-acquisition data mining. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was applied to liquid matrices in order to reduce matrix effects and provide required sample concentration and ultimately, high sensitivity and selectivity of measurements. SPE recoveries in liquid samples ranged from 49 to 140% with method quantification limits not exceeding 1 ng L-1 for the majority of EDCs. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to solid samples and when followed by SPE, it permitted the analysis of EDCs in digested sludge. MAE/SPE recoveries varied from 11 to 186% and MQLs between 0.03 and 8.1 ng g-1 with the majority of compounds showing MQLs below 2 ng g-1. Mass error for quantifier and qualifier ions was below 5 ppm when analysing river water and effluent wastewater and below 10 ppm when analysing influent wastewater and solid samples. The method was successfully applied to environmental samples, with 33 EDCs identified and quantified in wastewater and receiving waters. In addition, several EDCs were found in digested sludge, which confirms that for a more comprehensive understanding of exposure patterns and environmental impact, analysis of solids cannot be neglected. Finally, post-acquisition data mining permitted the identification and quantification of a metabolite of BPA and the identification of a metabolite of 4-Cl-3-methylphenol. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cosméticos/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/química , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rios/química , Esgotos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
15.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(1): 77-92, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024091

RESUMO

Sediment is the most commonly identified pollutant associated with macroinvertebrate community impairments in freshwater streams nationwide. Management of this physical stressor is complicated by the multiple measures of sediment available (e.g., suspended, dissolved, bedded) and the variability in natural "healthy" sediment loadings across ecoregions. Here we examine the relative importance of 9 sediment parameters on macroinvertebrate community health as measured by the Virginia Stream Condition Index (VSCI) across 5 ecoregions. In combination, sediment parameters explained 27.4% of variance in the VSCI in a multiregion data set and from 20.2% to 76.4% of variance for individual ecoregions. Bedded sediment parameters had a stronger influence on VSCI than did dissolved or suspended parameters in the multiregion assessment. However, assessments of individual ecoregions revealed conductivity had a key influence on VSCI in the Central Appalachian, Northern Piedmont and Piedmont ecoregions. In no case was a single sediment parameter sufficient to predict VSCI scores or individual biological metrics. Given the identification of embeddedness and conductivity as key parameters for predicting biological condition, we developed family-level sensitivity thresholds for these parameters, based on extirpation. Resulting thresholds for embeddedness were 68% for combined ecoregions, 65% for the Mountain bioregion (composed of Central Appalachian, Ridge and Valley, and Blue Ridge ecoregions), and 88% for the Piedmont bioregion (composed of Northern Piedmont and Piedmont ecoregions). Thresholds for conductivity were 366 µS/cm for combined ecoregions, 391 µS/cm for the Mountain bioregion, and 136 µS/cm for the Piedmont bioregion. These thresholds may help water quality professionals identify impaired and at-risk waters designated to support aquatic life and develop regional strategies to manage sediment-impaired streams. Inclusion of embeddedness as a restoration endpoint may be warranted; this could be facilitated by application of more quantitative, less time-intensive measurement approaches. We encourage refinement of thresholds as additional data and genus-based metrics become available. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;15:77-92. Published 2018. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios/química , Virginia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Qualidade da Água
16.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1253-1278, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389383

RESUMO

Pesticide residues in groundwater, mainly transported from contaminated soil, may threaten drinking water sources and cause adverse health effects. Therefore, pesticide groundwater standards were implemented by international environmental agencies to ensure the quality of groundwater, which serves as the direct drinking water source in many countries. However, regulatory inconsistencies are always found among groundwater, soil, drinking water, and even health standards due to the lack of communication among the regulatory processes. This study first developed a health-based regulatory chain framework to analyze pesticide groundwater regulations integrating soil, drinking water, and health regulations. Six regulatory indexes associated with probabilistic risk assessments and pesticide transport modeling were constructed to evaluate the performance of pesticide groundwater regulations identified from 56 countries. Worldwide pesticide groundwater regulations were analyzed by quantifying the impact on the downstream (exposure pathways in general) pesticide drinking water standards and human health and the influence from upstream (environmental pathways in general) soil regulations. The results indicated that in general, worldwide pesticide soil regulations do not encompass a sufficient number of pesticides or provide appropriate standard values to be compatible with groundwater regulations. The computed indexes between pesticide groundwater and drinking water regulations indicated more positive results than soil regulations because most European nations have groundwater regulations that are compatible with those of drinking water. However, most pesticide groundwater regulations could not protect human health according to the health-based indexes. Hopefully, the regulatory framework developed in this study will help environmental agencies comprehensively evaluate and establish pesticide groundwater regulations.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/normas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/normas , Solo , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
17.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 28(6): 626-634, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078339

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize metal contaminant concentrations and assess temporal and spatial variability in the main drinking water sources of Cap-Haïtien, Haiti. Water sources from five communities were sampled in two seasons, June (2014) and October (2014), and analysed for a suite of metals. A geographic information system was used to examine the spatial distribution of sampling points. Metal concentrations were below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) primary drinking water standards. Mean manganese concentrations were comparatively higher in wells (254.5 µg/L), exceeding the USEPA secondary drinking water standard (50 µg/L). Higher mean Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios (range 2.3-3.4) may indicate different interactions between seawater and groundwater throughout the year. Although metal concentrations were within the limits of the USEPA drinking water standards, emerging contaminants, such as manganese, showed concentrations in excess of recommended limits. These metals may interact with background nutritional status with potential implications for growth and development.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/análise , Metais/análise , Minerais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/química , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água Subterrânea/química , Haiti , Humanos , Metais/química , Minerais/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Poluição da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041401

RESUMO

Rainwater is consumed for drinking water in many parts of Australia, either preferentially over municipal water or in regional or remote areas, because rainwater is the primary source of water. Previous rainwater studies in other areas in Australia have shown the levels of some metals to be above the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). This study assessed the level of metals in rainwater harvested in the Adelaide region. Water samples were collected from 53 tanks from three different sampling corridors. A total of 365 water samples were analysed for lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In 47 out of the 53 tanks, lead was above the ADWG of 0.01 ppm in at least one sample (with 180/365 samples above 0.01 ppm). Zinc was above the ADWG (3.0 ppm) in 53/365 samples, copper was above the ADWG (2.0 ppm) in eight samples out of 365 samples, and cadmium was above the ADWG (0.002 ppm) in 19 samples out of 365 samples. These data are consistent with other studies of rainwater quality in Australia. Comparisons of levels of metals and volume of rainfall in the sampling and preceding month, roof material, and tank material, the presence of a first-flush device, sampling corridor, and sample pH showed that the roof material was related to higher levels of metals. There was a significant relationship between sampling corridors and the levels of lead and zinc. Nine of the tanks surveyed had filters installed. There was a small, but statistically significant, decrease in the levels of metals that passed through a filter prior to collection but, in those samples, filters did not remove metals to below guideline concentrations. An estimate of exposure, and a brief discussion of health risks as a result of exposure to metals, is presented.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Chuva/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Austrália , Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/normas , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas
20.
Environ Res ; 167: 207-222, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053677

RESUMO

Sulfate (SO42-) is a ubiquitous anion in natural waters. It is not considered toxic, but it may be detrimental to freshwater species at elevated concentrations. Mining activities are one significant source of anthropogenic sulfate into natural waters, mainly due to the exposure of sulfide mineral ores to weathering. There are several strategies for mitigating sulfate release, starting from preventing sulfate formation in the first place and ending at several end-of-pipe treatment options. Currently, the most widely used sulfate-removal process is precipitation as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, the lowest reachable concentration is theoretically 1500 mg L-1 SO42- due to gypsum's solubility. At the same time, several mines worldwide have significantly more stringent sulfate discharge limits. The purpose of this review is to examine the process options to reach low sulfate levels (< 1500 mg L-1) in mine effluents. Examples of such processes include alternative chemical precipitation methods, membrane technology, biological treatment, ion exchange, and adsorption. In addition, aqueous chemistry and current effluent standards concerning sulfate together with concentrate treatment and sulfur recovery are discussed.


Assuntos
Mineração , Sulfatos/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Sulfatos/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
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