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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119651

RESUMO

In 2014, in some parts of the water distribution system of the municipality of Pietrasanta (Tuscany, Italy), thallium (Tl) levels above the recommended limits were measured and some restrictions to water usage for drinking and food preparation were imposed. The study aimed to assess Tl exposure and possible health effects by means of a human biomonitoring survey. In the 2014-2016 time frame, 2154 urine and 254 hair samples were taken from different population groups and from a control group. The levels of Tl found in urine and hair were statistically higher in exposed groups than in controls and compared to the reference values for the general population. Concentrations in urine were significantly associated with the geographical origin of the sample, the consumption of drinking water and food grown in local gardens. A significant association was found between urine and hair. No positive associations were found between the Tl levels in hair or urine and several self-reported symptoms and health effects, except for sleep disturbance. The study indicates that the concentration of Tl in drinking water can be traced by urine analysis. Urine and hair have proven to be biological matrices that can be effectively used for the evaluation of Tl exposure. To date, the study represents the most extensive human biomonitoring campaign for the evaluation of the Tl exposure available at international level.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Água Potável/química , Cabelo/química , Tálio/urina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Itália , Medição de Risco
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111031, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888610

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) changes were reported to be associated with excessive fluoride exposure and abnormal expression of RUNX2. However, whether the alteration of methylation status, a most commonly used marker for the alteration of gene expression in epidemiological investigation, of RUNX2 is associated with low-to-moderate fluoride exposure and BMD changes has not been reported. Our study aims to explore the role of RUNX2 promoter methylation in BMD changes induced by low-to-moderate fluoride exposure. A total of 1124 adults (413 men and 711 women) were recruited from Kaifeng City in 2017. We measured BMD using ultrasound bone densitometer. Concentrations of urinary fluoride (UF) were measured using ion-selective electrode, and the participants were grouped into control group (CG) and excessive fluoride group (EFG) according to the concentration of UF. We extracted DNA from fasting peripheral blood samples and then detected the promoter methylation levels of RUNX2 using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Relationships between UF concentration, RUNX2 promoter methylation and BMD changes were analyzed using generalized linear model and logistic regression. Results showed in EFG (UF concentration > 1.6 mg/L), BMD was negatively correlated with UF concentration (ß: -0.14; 95%CI: -0.26, -0.01) and RUNX2 promoter methylation (ß: -0.13; 95%CI: -0.22, -0.03) in women. The methylation rate of RUNX2 promoter increased by 2.16% for each 1 mg/L increment in UF concentration of women in EFG (95%CI: 0.37, 3.96). No any significant associations between UF concentration, RUNX2 promoter methylation, and BMD were observed in the individuals in CG. Mediation analysis showed that RUNX2 promoter methylation mediated 18.2% (95% CI: 4.2%, 53.2%) of the association between UF concentration and BMD of women in EFG. In conclusion, excessive fluoride exposure (>1.6 mg/L) is associated with changes of BMD in women, and this association is mediated by RUNX2 promoter methylation.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/genética , China , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoretos/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
3.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2841-2851, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034620

RESUMO

Water quality improvement is the most efficient way to prevent arsenic exposure. After the cessation of arsenic ingestion, arsenic methylation capacity of the exposed population can change significantly. The factors associated with these changes remain poorly understood. Therefore, arsenic methylation capacity in a study cohort was estimated before and after water quality improvement in the present study. Results indicated that urinary content of the arsenic species in the study cohort significantly decreased after water quality improvement. In addition, the proportions of inorganic arsenic (%iAs) and monomethyl arsenic acid (%MMA) were significantly decreased, while proportions of dimethyl arsenic (%DMA) increased. The primary methylation index (PMI) and secondary methylation index (SMI) increased from 0.85 to 0.92 and 0.82 to 0.84, respectively. Arsenic species urinary content and arsenic methylation index varied slightly between the study cohort after water quality improvement and the control cohort. The rate of increase in PMI was higher than that in SMI. The study group aged 31-50 years had the highest increase in PMI. Logistic regression revealed that %DMA before water quality improvement was negatively associated with the increase in PMI, while %iAs were positively related, and %MMA were positively associated with the increase in SMI. It is concluded that urinary arsenic species content and arsenic methylation capacity increased to the levels of the control cohort after water quality improvement. An increase in primary arsenic methylation capacity may be a burden on the secondary arsenic methylation capacity. The main role of arsenic methylation capacity recovery may be the cessation of arsenic exposure.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Qualidade da Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenicais/urina , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(2): 145, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970521

RESUMO

The authors describe a novel electrochemical determination method for bisphenol A (BPA) based on the electrosynthesised Cu-BTC (H3BTC: trimesic acid) films. Using H3BTC as the ligand, Cu(NO3)2 as the precursor of copper ions, and triethylamine hydrochloride (Et3NHCl) as the probase source, Cu-BTC films were directly deposited on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface via cathodic electrochemical reduction under -1.30 V. Considering the electrocatalytic activity of metal center Cu2+, Cu-BTC films were applied to construct the electrochemical determination platform for BPA. Chronocoulometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to study the signal enhancement mechanism. The determination conditions were optimized. As a result, a sensitive electrochemical method was constructed for BPA. The peak currents, best measured at voltage of 0.496 V vs. SCE (KCl saturated calomel reference electrode), increase linearly in the range from 5.0 to 2000 nM. The value of determination limit is 0.72 nM. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPA in spiked urine, spiked waste water samples and plastic products. The results were in good agreement with those obtained for the same samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Graphical abstract Schematics for the construction of electrochemical determination for bisphenol A.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Tricarboxílicos/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Carbono/química , Cobre/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/urina , Plásticos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(3): 3247-3256, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838679

RESUMO

This work evaluated human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues based on human urinary excretion data and wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). The results showed that the world's average human daily intake ranked from high to low is in order of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol P (BPP), bisphenol AP (BPAP), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol Z (BPZ), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), and their corresponding human daily intakes are 2.53, 0.68, 0.60, 0.41, 0.36, 0.29, 0.24, and 0.06 µg/p/day, respectively. BPA is clearly the dominant bisphenol for human exposure. However, the results also showed that humans have been widely exposed to BPA analogues as well. Many BPA analogues showed similar estrogenic activities to those of BPA; therefore, the adverse effects of BPA and its analogues on humans should be comprehensively evaluated. The nominal exposure levels obtained based on wastewater-based epidemiology ranked high to low are in order of BPA (513.73 µg/p/day), BPF (10.20 µg/p/day), BPS (5.21 µg/p/day), BPP (1.15 µg/p/day), BPZ (0.66 µg/p/day), BPB (0.61 µg/p/day), BPAF (0.58 µg/p/day), and BPAP (0.35 µg/p/day). The world's human average daily intakes of BPA and its analogues are only 0.5-47.9% of the intakes of their corresponding human nominal exposures. This study suggests that other sources rather human excretions are important origins in municipal wastewater, which indicates that the WBE method based on parent compounds is inappropriate for evaluations of human daily intakes of BPA and its analogues, neither for other industrial compounds that have multiple important sources. Three main important sources of BPA and its analogues in municipal wastewater are likely effluents of industrial wastewater, discharges of hospital wastewater, and landfill leachates. To decrease discharges of BPA and its analogues to the natural environment, any mixing of industrial and hospital wastewater as well as landfill leachates in municipal wastewater is not favorable.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Estrona/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
6.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113319, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882189

RESUMO

Thallium (TI) is one of the most toxic heavy metals and priority pollutant metals. The emerging TI environmental pollution worldwide has posed a great threat to human health. However, based on the World Health Organization (WHO), the risk and severity of adverse health effects of TI in the range of 5-500 µg/L are uncertain. Moreover, evidence regarding the adverse impacts of TI on children's health is still insufficient. Herein, we aim to investigate the early adverse effects of TI on children's health and provide references for the WHO to establish stricter safety limits of TI. From 2015 to 2019, urinary TI and many clinical laboratory parameters related to blood routine, hepatic, renal, myocardial, coagulation function and serum electrolyte were measured in six children aged 1-9 years. The urinary TI concentration ranged from 13.4 µg/L to 60.1 µg/L with a mean of 36.1 µg/L and a median of 34.8 µg/L in six children in 2015. Although only four children felt a little poor appetite, several laboratory abnormalities indicated early damage in liver, renal, and myocardial functions in all children in 2015. After treatment and following up for four years, although the children's TI concentration decreased below 5 µg/L, their liver and renal functions did not completely recover, and their myocardial function worsened. Results indicated that impaired liver, renal, and myocardial functions were closely associated with elevated urinary TI concentration in children. Considering the increasing use of TI in high-technology industries and emerging TI environmental-contamination zones worldwide, establishing stricter safety limits of TI and paying more attention to the adverse health effects of TI on children are urgently required. SUMMARY: We found that a relatively low concentration of thallium (13.4 µg/L to 60.1 µg/L) impaired liver, renal, and myocardial function in six children. After treatment and following up these children for four years, although their urinary TI concentration decreased below 5 µg/L, their liver and renal functions did not completely recover, and their myocardial function worsened.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Coração/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Metais Pesados/urina , Tálio/efeitos adversos , Tálio/urina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Infarto do Miocárdio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105246, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675567

RESUMO

Benzophenones (BPs) and other ultra violet (UV) filters (UV-filters) are widely used in sunblock and other personal care products, raising concerns about their adverse health risks to human, especially for children. In the present study, BP-type UV-filters and other four widely used UV-filters were evaluated in the child urinary samples (4-6 years, n = 53), tap water and commercial distilled water in Hong Kong. The results suggested that the target chemicals are ubiquitous in the subject. BP1, BP2, BP3 and BP4 in children urine samples contributed closely to the overall children exposure of UV filters, with detection rates above 58% and geometric means ranging from 44.2 to 76.7 ng/mL. As a contrast, BP3 was the major substance found in the tap water and distilled bottle water, with detection rates of 100% and geometric means of 9.64 and 14.5 ng/L, respectively. There were some significant relationships between urinary UV filters and personal characteristics (BMI values, sex, income level, hand washing frequency, and body location usage), but the health risks associated with UV-filters in Hong Kong children might not be concerning. Only two children applied sun creams in this research, indicating that there were other sources to exposure these chemicals.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/urina , Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Protetores Solares/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Benzofenonas/análise , Pré-Escolar , Hong Kong , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36434-36440, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724128

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the secondary biological treatment plant effluent administration on the kidneys, urinary bladder, and testis of Wistar rats in relation to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation, since such an effluent is used for irrigation of edible plants. Male Wistar rats, randomly assigned into 5 groups, were treated with domestic sewage effluent (DSE) for 24 months. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the DSE, rats' tissues, and urine were estimated by means of atomic spectroscopy. Lead was rapidly accumulated in high amounts in rats' kidney and to a lesser extent in the testis whereas Cd concentration was raised in all tissues examined. Deposition of Cd and Pd in the kidney of the rats resulted in profound damage over time. The results showed that long-term administration to DSE as drinking water exposes living organisms to urogenital stress related to heavy metal concentration and pH of the effluent.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Água Potável/química , Chumbo/toxicidade , Sistema Urogenital/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Cádmio/urina , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Esgotos/química , Sistema Urogenital/metabolismo , Sistema Urogenital/patologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(27): 7251-7260, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612256

RESUMO

Chloride widely exists in the environment and will cause serious interference for arsenic speciation analysis. The determination of four arsenic species including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsenate (MMA), and dimethylarsonate (DMA) in samples containing high concentrations of Cl- was carried out in this work by coupling of liquid chromatography (LC) with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The interference of Cl- was successfully eliminated by coupling two anion-exchange chromatographic columns in series and eluting with 35.0 mmol L-1 (NH4)2HPO4 (pH = 6.00). A novel pre-treatment system was subsequently developed to realize on-line column switch and pre-reduction of As(V). The analysis time was shortened by an isocratic elution but programmed flow rate method, and the sensitivity of As(V) was also enhanced by the introduction of pre-reduction using the developed system. The proposed method can resist at least 10 g L-1 Cl- without any pre-treatment operations. Since LC-HG-AFS is low-cost and can be afforded or self-assembled by most labs, the developed method can be adopted as a routine analysis method for arsenic species in chloride-bearing samples, such as urine and seawater. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Arsenitos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arseniatos/urina , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/urina , Arsenicais/urina , Arsenitos/urina , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Metilação , Água do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Espectrofotometria Atômica/instrumentação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1089: 78-89, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627821

RESUMO

Novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for metformin was synthesized on the surface of magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTs) as the support. Metformin was used as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The synthesized composite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface molecularly imprinted composite was used for magnetic solid phase microextraction (MSPME) of metformin before its chemiluminescence (CL) determination and its capability was compared with non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The central composite design was used for optimization as well as consideration of possible interaction of effective variables on extraction. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method exhibited the linear dynamic range of 0.5-50.0 µg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.13 µg L-1 and enhancement factor of 195.3 for the preconcentration of 100 mL of the sample and 500 µL of an eluent. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD%) at 5.0 µg L-1 level of metformin (n = 6) were 3.7 and 4.9%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of the sorbent was found to be 80.0 mg g-1, the adsorption of metformin was endothermic and spontaneous and followed the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetic was also found to be best fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. The designed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of metformin in biological fluids and water samples.


Assuntos
Metformina/análise , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Água Potável/análise , Cinética , Limite de Detecção , Metformina/sangue , Metformina/urina , Impressão Molecular , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/síntese química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
11.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450746

RESUMO

Microcystins are potent hepatotoxins that have become a global health concern in recent years. Their actions in at-risk populations with pre-existing liver disease is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) established in healthy mice would cause exacerbation of hepatic injury in a murine model (Leprdb/J) of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Ten-week-old male Leprdb/J mice were gavaged with 50 µg/kg, 100 µg/kg MC-LR or vehicle every 48 h for 4 weeks (n = 15-17 mice/group). Early mortality was observed in both the 50 µg/kg (1/17, 6%), and 100 µg/kg (3/17, 18%) MC-LR exposed mice. MC-LR exposure resulted in significant increases in circulating alkaline phosphatase levels, and histopathological markers of hepatic injury as well as significant upregulation of genes associated with hepatotoxicity, necrosis, nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenicity and oxidative stress response. In addition, we observed exposure dependent changes in protein phosphorylation sites in pathways involved in inflammation, immune function, and response to oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at levels that are below the NOAEL established in healthy animals results in significant exacerbation of hepatic injury that is accompanied by genetic and phosphoproteomic dysregulation in key signaling pathways in the livers of NAFLD mice.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Toxinas Marinhas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Microcistinas/sangue , Microcistinas/urina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteômica , Análise de Sobrevida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 5963-5973, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300859

RESUMO

A microscale highly fluorescent Eu metal-organic framework (Eu-MOF) was synthesized with terephthalic acid and 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diamine by one-pot hydrothermal method. And it was characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, fluorescence spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and energy dispersive X-ray mapping. The prepared Eu-MOF has high quantum yield of 30.99%, excellent water dispersibility, good fluorescence stability, and favorable thermal stability. Based on the distinctly different fluorescence responses of different emission, the prepared Eu-MOF was used as dual-mode visual sensor for the sensitive detection of berberine hydrochloride and tetracycline. The limits of detection are 78 nM and 17 nM, respectively. The sensing mechanism was also discussed. Moreover, a filter paper sensor has been designed for sensing tetracycline with a notable fluorescence color change from blue to red. The prepared Eu-MOF is promising to be developed as a multi-mode luminescent sensor for visual detection in biochemical analysis. Graphical abstract Illustration of the synthesis of Eu-MOF and its sensing applications for berberine hydrochloride and tetracycline.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Berberina/análise , Európio/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Tetraciclinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/urina , Berberina/sangue , Berberina/urina , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Rios/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Comprimidos , Tetraciclinas/sangue , Tetraciclinas/urina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57011, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure affects [Formula: see text] people worldwide, including [Formula: see text] in Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure increases the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases, and one potential mechanism of arsenic toxicity is epigenetic dysregulation. OBJECTIVE: We assessed associations between arsenic exposure and genome-wide DNA methylation measured at baseline among 396 Bangladeshi adults participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) who were exposed by drinking naturally contaminated well water. METHODS: Methylation in whole blood DNA was measured at [Formula: see text] using the Illumina InfiniumMethylationEPIC (EPIC) array. To assess associations between arsenic exposure and CpG methylation, we used linear regression models adjusted for covariates and surrogate variables (SVs) (capturing unknown technical and biologic factors). We attempted replication and conducted a meta-analysis using an independent dataset of [Formula: see text] from 400 Bangladeshi individuals with arsenical skin lesions. RESULTS: We identified 34 CpGs associated with [Formula: see text] creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic [[Formula: see text]]. Sixteen of these CpGs annotated to the [Formula: see text] array, and 10 associations were replicated ([Formula: see text]). The top two CpGs annotated upstream of the ABR gene (cg01912040, cg10003262 ). All urinary arsenic-associated CpGs were also associated with arsenic concentration measured in drinking water ([Formula: see text]). Meta-analysis ([Formula: see text] samples) identified 221 urinary arsenic-associated CpGs ([Formula: see text]). The arsenic-associated CpGs from the meta-analysis were enriched in non-CpG islands and shores ([Formula: see text]) and depleted in promoter regions ([Formula: see text]). Among the arsenic-associated CpGs ([Formula: see text]), we observed significant enrichment of genes annotating to the reactive oxygen species pathway, inflammatory response, and tumor necrosis factor [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) signaling via nuclear factor kappa-B ([Formula: see text]) hallmarks ([Formula: see text]). CONCLUSIONS: The novel and replicable associations between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation at specific CpGs observed in this work suggest that epigenetic alterations should be further investigated as potential mediators in arsenic toxicity and as biomarkers of exposure and effect in exposed populations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3849.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Chemosphere ; 229: 125-131, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078027

RESUMO

Although phthalates (PAEs) are ubiquitous in drinking water, and phthalate monoesters (MPAEs) have been recognized as the bioactive metabolites of PAEs, little information is available regarding the occurrence of MPAEs in drinking water and the contributions of PAEs and MPAEs to human exposure. In this study, the concentrations of PAEs and MPAEs in 146 samples of drinking water collected from 24 cities throughout China were determined. The mean concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were 14.31 ±â€¯26.28, 5.905 ±â€¯11.57, 103.8 ±â€¯310.5, 595.9 ±â€¯1794, and 178.2 ±â€¯422.0 ng/L, respectively. Monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) were detected in drinking water for the first time, at mean concentrations of 12.1 ±â€¯18.0, 2.4 ±â€¯5.8, 11.3 ±â€¯37.2, 36.3 ±â€¯103, and 9.9 ±â€¯18.0 ng/L, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations of MMP, MEP, MiBP, MnBP, and MEHP in urine samples collected from 1040 participants from 16 cities were 10.1, 19.3, 29.6, 47.3, and 3.63 µg/g creatinine, respectively. The concentrations of PAEs and MPAEs in drinking water and daily intakes (DIs) of PAEs from nine cities where drinking water and urine samples were simultaneously collected were used to estimate the contributions from drinking water. The percentages of DMP, DEP, DiBP, DnBP, and DEHP from drinking water accounted for DIs of 0.60%, 0.049%, 1.26%, 2.76%, and 0.56%, respectively. The percentages of MMP, MEP, MiBP, MnBP and MEHP via intake of drinking water accounted for urinary concentrations of 0.86%, 0.032%, 0.14%, 0.089%, and 0.045%, respectively.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adulto , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
15.
Environ Res ; 172: 665-674, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878738

RESUMO

Blood trihalomethanes (THMs) and urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the leading candidate biomarkers for disinfection byproduct (DBP) exposure. However, no studies have assessed the exposure profiles, temporal variability, and potential predictors of these biomarkers during pregnancy. Here we collected blood (n = 4304) and urine samples (n = 4165) from 1760 Chinese pregnant women during early, mid-, and late pregnancy, which were separately analyzed for 4 THMs and 2 HAAs. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess the variability of these biomarkers and estimated their correlations with sociodemographic, water-use behavioral, dietary and sample collection factors using mixed models. The median concentrations of TCM, BDCM, Br-THMs [sum of BDCM, dibromochloromethane (DBCM), bromoform (TBM)], total THMs (TTHMs, sum of TCM and Br-THMs), DCAA and TCAA in the water distribution system were 4.2 µg/L, 1.7 µg/L, 2.9 µg/L, 7.1 µg/L, 3.4 µg/L and 8.2 µg/L, respectively. Chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were detected in > 75% of the biospecimens. Repeated measurements of blood TCM, BDCM, Br-THMs and TTHMs and urinary DCAA and TCAA uniformly exhibited high variability (ICCs = 0.01-0.13); the use of a single measurement to classify gestational average exposure resulted in a high degree of exposure misclassification. The sampling season was a strong predictor of all analyzed DBPs. Additionally, we detected a positive association of blood TCM and BDCM with household income, urinary DCAA with age, and urinary TCAA with tap water usage, education level and amount of tap water consumed. Inverse associations were found between blood BDCM and vegetable consumption, and between blood Br-THM and TTHM and time interval since the last bathing/showering. Afternoon samples had lower DCAA concentrations than did early morning samples. Our results indicate that blood THM and urinary HAA concentrations vary greatly over the course of pregnancy and are affected by sampling season, time of day of blood/urine collection, sociodemographic factors, recent water-use activities and dietary intake.


Assuntos
Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Ácido Dicloroacético/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ácido Tricloroacético/urina , Trialometanos/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736287

RESUMO

Disinfected water is the major source of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in humans, but their inter- and intra-individual variability for exposure and risk assessment applications is under-researched. Thus, we measured HAAs in cross-sectional and longitudinal urine and water specimens from 17 individuals. Five regulated HAAs-mono, di, and trichloroacetic acid (MCAA, DCAA, and TCAA) and mono- and dibromoacetic acid (MBAA and DBAA)-and one unregulated HAA-bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA)-were measured. Urinary DCAA, MBAA, DBAA, and BCAA levels were always below the limits of detection (LOD). Measured levels and interindividual variability of urinary MCAA were higher than urinary TCAA. Longitudinal urinary specimens showed MCAA levels peaked in after-shower specimens, while TCAA levels remain unchanged. Correlation between urinary MCAA and TCAA was moderate but statistically significant. The prevalence of MCAA and TCAA in urine suggest they can be considered as biomarkers of HAA. Peak urinary MCAA in post-shower specimens suggest MCAA captures short-term exposure via dermal and/or inhalation, while urinary TCAA captures long-term exposure via ingestion. However, further research is warranted in a large pool of participants to test the reliability of MCAA as exposure biomarker.


Assuntos
Acetatos/toxicidade , Acetatos/urina , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/urina , Água Potável/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Indiana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
17.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 67: 79-86, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769280

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate circulating expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-126, miR-155, and miR-145) proposed as predictive CVD biomarkers in Mexican women exposed to inorganic arsenic via drinking water. Mean UAs concentration of 19.5 ± 14.0 µg/g creatinine was found after urine samples were analyzed (n = 105). Significant associations between UAs levels and serum expression levels of miR-155 (p < 0.05) and miR-126 (p < 0.05) were observed after adjustment for assessed co-variables. Alterations in the serum expression levels of miR-155 and miR-126 may be associated with the onset and development of cardiovascular diseases, hence miRNAs could be proposed as prognostic CVD biomarkers. Data found in this study are of concern and risk reduction plans are necessary for the assessed communities to prevent cardiovascular events in this population of women.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , MicroRNAs/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Água Potável , Feminino , Humanos , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 188(2): 353-362, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043285

RESUMO

Cr(VI) has carcinogenic effects, so determination of trace amount of chromium in human body such as urine has a great deal of importance. In this work, a novel microextraction method was developed based on solidification of dispersed fine droplets (SDFD) of a low melting point deep eutectic solvent (DES), produced with the aid of sonication, for fast and efficient determination of Cr(VI) in urine samples. Cr(VI) contents of the human urine samples were first complexed using 1,5-diphenylcarbazone at pH ≈ 2.0 and then extracted by the method. A cloudy solution was achieved by the sonication of a microliter volume of a new water-immiscible DES consisting of benzyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (BTPPB) and phenol. Low freezing point of DES makes it possible to use simple, precise, and fast collection of the extraction phase by solidification and the subsequent centrifugation. Finally, the sedimented phase was diluted with methanol and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The influences of the main factors on the efficiency of the procedure were investigated by a four-factor central composite design (CCD). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear within the range of 10-1000 ng L-1. The intra- and inter-day RSD% values of 2.6 and 4.7% were obtained at the concentration of 50.0 ng L-1, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were calculated as 2.0 and 7.0 ng L-1, respectively. Moreover, compared to the other approaches, the proposed method presented better or comparable analytical performance and provided accurate, precise, and reliable results for trace analysis of Cr(VI) in urine samples.


Assuntos
Cromo/urina , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Solventes/química , Sonicação/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Limite de Detecção , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Projetos de Pesquisa , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Sep Sci ; 42(2): 566-573, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371989

RESUMO

In this study, the application of a mixture of organic solvents as a supported liquid membrane for improving the efficiency of the electromembrane extraction procedure was investigated. The extraction process was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of two model drugs (verapamil and riluzole). In this research, four organic solvents, including 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether, and 2-ethyl hexanol, were selected as model solvents and different binary mixtures (v/v 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) were used as the supported liquid membrane. The mixture of 2-ethyl hexanol and 1-otanol (v/v, 2:1) improved the extraction efficiency of model drugs by 1.5 to 12 times. It was found that extraction efficiency is greatly influenced by the level of electric current. In this study, for various mixtures of organic solvents, the electric current fluctuated between 50 and 2500 µA, and the highest extraction efficiencies were obtained with low and stable electric currents. Finally, the optimized extraction condition was validated and applied for the determination of model drugs in urine and wastewater samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Riluzol/isolamento & purificação , Verapamil/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , 1-Octanol/química , Éteres/química , Heptanol/química , Hexanóis/química , Riluzol/química , Riluzol/urina , Solventes/química , Verapamil/química , Verapamil/urina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 169: 678-686, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500737

RESUMO

An appropriate and precise identification of high-risk individuals to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is of high importance to reduce these kinds of diseases, a major health concern worldwide. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate prognostic CVD biomarkers in Mexican women exposed to inorganic arsenic via drinking water. Then, a cross-sectional study including 190 women was achieved. Urinary arsenic (UAs) levels were analyzed as exposure biomarker to that metalloid. While, plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4), adiponectin, and chemerin levels, hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and Framingham risk score (FRS) were assessed as prognostic CVD biomarkers. Mean UAs level detected in the evaluated urinary samples was 45.0 ±â€¯40.0 µg/g creatinine. In addition, mean plasma ADMA, FABP4, chemerin and adiponectin levels were 0.68 µmol/L, 20.3 ng/mL, 12.5 µg/mL, and 255 ng/mL, correspondingly. Approximately, 54% of women participants displayed an HW phenotype. Regarding AIP and FRS values, 0.12 ±â€¯0.15 and 7.50 ±â€¯8.00 were found, respectively. Besides, strong and significant associations (p < 0.05) between UAs and AIP, ADMA, and FABP4 were distinguished. Also, after a multivariate analysis, the association between those variables persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors of CVD. In conclusion, according to the results found in this research, the most sensible CVD biomarkers distinguished in this study were AIP, ADMA, and FABP4. Nevertheless, more studies are necessary to confirm the results found in this investigation.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/sangue , Arsênico/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
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