Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.062
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 290: 112639, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991766

RESUMO

Amounts of abandoned non-ferrous metal tailings(NMT) piled in the open air are released under geochemistry and migrated to the surrounding environment, causing severe harm to the environment and human health. It is essential to evaluate the heavy metal pollution of NMT. In this study, RAC, Igeo, EF, and RI were used to evaluate the heavy metal pollution risk of NMT. To uniformly simplify the four evaluation results into a comprehensive evaluation result that can reflect the degree of heavy metal pollution risk. Assuming heavy metals' concentration, occurrence, and mobility make the same contribution to the degree of heavy metal pollution. Score the above four evaluation results according to the pollution level, and then weigh the scores to obtain a complete integral result: CRSMo (17) > CRSCd (13) > CRSPb (11) > CRSSr(8) > CRSMn(7) > CRSCu(5) > CRSNi(4) > CRSCr(3) = CRSZn(3). Five higher risk heavy metal elements Mo, Cd, Pb, Sr, and Mn, were found. Cu, Ni, Cr, and Zn are at lower risk. The results showed that Mo, Mn, and Sr's evaluation is more accurate. Pb and Cd have not reached the detection limit for the time being, indicating that the release of heavy metal elements in tailings is not only related to the total concentration, occurrence state, and mobility of heavy metals but also affected by the pH of the tailings. This study's most significant finding is to propose a comprehensive integration result of pollution risk levels based on RAC, Igeo, EF, and RI as the comprehensive evaluation result of heavy metal pollution risk. Simultaneously, this research is also a valuable supplement to the existing risk assessment of heavy metal pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 780: 146274, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030289

RESUMO

This review presents a holistic overview of the occurrence, mobilization, and pathways of arsenic (As) from predominantly geogenic sources into different near-surface environmental compartments, together with the respective reported or potential impacts on human health in Latin America. The main sources and pathways of As pollution in this region include: (i) volcanism and geothermalism: (a) volcanic rocks, fluids (e.g., gases) and ash, including large-scale transport of the latter through different mechanisms, (b) geothermal fluids and their exploitation; (ii) natural lixiviation and accelerated mobilization from (mostly sulfidic) metal ore deposits by mining and related activities; (iii) coal deposits and their exploitation; (iv) hydrocarbon reservoirs and co-produced water during exploitation; (v) solute and sediment transport through rivers to the sea; (vi) atmospheric As (dust and aerosol); and (vii) As exposure through geophagy and involuntary ingestion. The two most important and well-recognized sources and mechanisms for As release into the Latin American population's environments are: (i) volcanism and geothermalism, and (ii) strongly accelerated As release from geogenic sources by mining and related activities. Several new analyses from As-endemic areas of Latin America emphasize that As-related mortality and morbidity continue to rise even after decadal efforts towards lowering As exposure. Several public health regulatory institutions have classified As and its compounds as carcinogenic chemicals, as As uptake can affect several organ systems, viz. dermal, gastrointestinal, peptic, neurological, respiratory, reproductive, following exposure. Accordingly, ingesting large amounts of As can damage the stomach, kidneys, liver, heart, and nervous system; and, in severe cases, may cause death. Moreover, breathing air with high As levels can cause lung damage, shortness of breath, chest pain, and cough. Further, As compounds, being corrosive, can also cause skin lesions or damage eyes, and long-term exposure to As can lead to cancer development in several organs.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsênio/análise , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , América Latina , Mineração
3.
Environ Res ; 198: 111273, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989622

RESUMO

This study was aimed at determining mainly the concentrations of As and other metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, V and Zn) in samples of feed, soil, plants and foods (fish, chicken, goat and cow meat) grown and consumed in six areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria (Choba, Khana, Trans Amadi, Eleme, Uyo and Yenagoa). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) models were used for identifying groups of variables (i.e., elements) based on the loadings and groups of samples (i.e., plants, soil, fish, meet, feed) according to the scores that contributed most to the environmental pollution in each Nigerian area. In Choba and Khana sites, the results showed a cluster of elements like As, Pb, V and Zn, mostly associated with samples of goat and cow meat, as well as soils, and separated from another cluster of metals composed by Cu and Hg with different origin. In Trans Amadi area, a clustering of As, Cd and V was found associated to different types of meat (chicken, goat, and cow) located in the opposite side of Cu and Hg, which correlated to plants and soil. In Eleme, the strongest loadings were obtained for V and Zn associated with soil and meat (goat and cow) samples and separated from As and Cd. Finally, in Uyo and Yenagoa, dominant elements were As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with proximity to cow and goat liver samples, while Cd and V corresponded to a different pollution pattern. Lead intake trough meat and fish consumption for adults and children were much higher than the tolerable limits set by international organizations. The results of this study should allow a better understanding of the complex phenomenon of metal pollution in the feed-to-food chain and human health in Nigeria, which should help to manage a pollution reduction strategy and give priorities of research and monitoring.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Carne/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Níger , Nigéria , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(6): 3018-3027, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032102

RESUMO

To ascertain the impact of mercury mining on the surrounding soil environment and human health, 42 surface soil composite samples were collected around a mercury mining area in Youyang County, Chongqing, and the heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni) contents and pH of the soil, the spatial distribution of heavy metals, pollution degree, and ecological risk were studied. The results show that the surface soil layer in the study area is significantly enriched in heavy metals. According to the soil environmental quality risk control standard for soil contamination of agricultural land (GB15618-2018), soil Cd, Hg, Pb, As, and Zn showed different degrees of excess. A certain degree of pollution and ecological risk was also identified in the studied soil. Moderate-to-severe pollution and strong ecological risk areas are distributed around the mining sites, indicating the impact of mining activities on the soil environment. The content of Cr, Cu, and Ni in the soil may be affected by weathering and soil formation from the parent rock; Hg, Pb, and Zn content may be affected by human activities such as mineral mining; and Cd and As content may be affected by both geological processes and human activities. Heavy metals pose less of a health risk for adults but have a greater probability of causing health risks for children. Soil As is the main contributor to human health risks, and the oral intake of the eight heavy metals has the highest contribution rate. The mining of mercury is the main cause of soil pollution and ecological risk in the study area.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 104: 204-215, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985723

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in paddy soil has caused public concern. The uptake of Cd by rice plants depends on soil Cd mobility, which is in turn substantially influenced by organic matter (OM). In this review, we first summarize the fate of Cd in soil and the role of OM. We then focus on the effects of OM on Cd mobility in paddy soil and the factors influencing the remedial effectiveness of OM amendments. We further discuss the performance of straw incorporation in the remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soils reported in laboratory and field studies. Considering the huge production of organic materials (such as straw) in agriculture, the use of natural OM for soil remediation has obvious appeal due to the environmental benefits and low cost. Although there have been successful application cases, the properties of OM amendments and soil can significantly affect the remedial performance of the OM amendments. Importantly, straw incorporation alone does not often decrease the mobility of Cd in soil or the Cd content in rice grains. Careful evaluation is required when considering natural OM amendments, and the factors and mechanisms that influence their remedial effectiveness need further investigation in paddy soil with realistic Cd concentrations.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147456, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965821

RESUMO

Many aggressive plants possess high tolerance to heavy metals, but little is known about their invasiveness at heavy metal polluted sites. We performed a greenhouse experiment to examine the impacts of Cd (0, 10, 30, 60, and 100 mg kg-1) and inter-specific competition on the reproductive capability of an invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, and its native congener, Alternanthera sessilis. We also examined the population dynamics of both native and invasive species in a simulated field experiment. Compared with A. philoxeroides, native A. sessilis was a stronger competitor as measured by vegetative growth, sexual reproduction, and dominance status in a mixed culture. However, A. philoxeroides showed great plasticity in root mass ratio that was positively affected by inter-specific competition and high Cd levels. Such high root allocation might allow for delayed growth of A. philoxeroides rhizomes as the relative cover of A. philoxeroides to A. sessilis in the field experiment gradually increased and > 1 after nine months culture, especially at high Cd treatment. Our results suggest that the invasiveness of A. philoxeroides is highly context- and time-dependent. In severely polluted environments, clonal propagation of A. sessilis is likely inhibited by the synergistic negative effects of inter-specific competition and heavy metal pollution, and a long time co-existence of these two competing species would facilitate the colonization of invasive plant.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae , Cádmio , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 412: 125227, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951864

RESUMO

Nowadays, plastic pollution is considered an issue of global concern. This environmental problem results from human industrial and domestic activities, associated with poor management, from manufacturing processes to products' end life. In this perspective, human consumption and management of daily used plastic materials can play a determinant role to control this environmental issue. Thus, understanding public perceptions about plastic pollution may be a valuable resource to engage society in solutions to reduce its environmental release. In this study, perceptions about plastic pollution, its impacts as well as sociodemographic and psychological factors predicting individuals' pro-environmental behaviours were analysed, in the Portuguese context. Overall, results showed that there is a general knowledge that plastics degrade in the environment. The participants of the study perceived the bio-ecological impacts of plastics as a greater threat than the socioeconomic impacts. A hierarchical regression analyses revealed that sociodemographic variables and those related to knowledge and perceived impacts about plastic pollution can predict participants' pro-environmental behaviours. Awareness about the impacts of plastic pollution (socioeconomic, health impacts and bio-ecological impacts) were highly associated to pro-environmental behaviour. This study data can help to understand how to enhance pro-environmental behaviours and contribute to decrease the presence of micro(nano)plastics in the environment.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Plásticos , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 292: 112744, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990015

RESUMO

Pollution emissions in China are associated with the relationship between local governments and enterprises, especially in those cities with government-enterprise collusion (GEC). We evaluate the causal relationships between GEC and SO2 emissions at the enterprise level, by adopting the Propensity Score Matching-Difference in Difference method from a comprehensive environmental database. The empirical results show that, compared with those in the cities without collusion, SO2 emissions of enterprises in the colluded cities increase by 11.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.041-0.186). These GEC effects are more substantial in the cities whose regional officials work with longer terms, in the foreign-owned or small-scale enterprises, and the labour-intensive industries. The findings suggest the existing environment and personnel management policies in China should be adjusted for more sustainable development.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Governo , Indústrias
10.
J Environ Manage ; 292: 112776, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022653

RESUMO

The US National Park Service (NPS) Night Skies Program measured changes in sky brightness resulting from a countywide lighting retrofit project. The retrofit took place in Chelan County, a gateway community to North Cascades National Park and Lake Chelan National Recreation Area in Washington State. The county retrofitted all 3693 county-owned high pressure sodium (HPS) street lamps to full cutoff LEDs. This number is about 60% of the County's total outdoor street and area lights. About 80% of the newly installed lights were 3000 K in color temperature and 20% were 4000 K. The 4000 K LEDs were used to meet Washington State Department of Transportation guidelines. To measure sky brightness, we used the NPS night sky camera system before the retrofit started in 2018 and after its completion in 2019. These images were photometrically calibrated and mosaicked together to provide hemispherical images in V band. For comparison with our ground-based measurement, we obtained the satellite imagery taken by Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. Our measurements show that the post-retrofit skyglow became brighter and extended higher in the sky, but upward radiance, as measured by the day-night band radiometer, decreased. These divergent results are likely explained by a substantial increase in light emitted at wavelengths shorter than 500 nm, and a relative decrease in upward light emission due to better shielded luminaires. These results also demonstrate that earlier models relating VIIRS day-night band data to skyglow will - at a minimum - require substantial revision to account for the different characteristics of solid state luminaires.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Imagens de Satélites , Lagos , Iluminação , Washington
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11119, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045575

RESUMO

To analyse the cause of the atmospheric PM2.5 pollution that occurred during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nanning, Guangxi, China, a single particulate aerosol mass spectrometer, aethalometer, and particulate Lidar coupled with monitoring near-surface gaseous pollutants, meteorological conditions, remote fire spot sensing by satellite and backward trajectory models were utilized during 18-24 February 2020. Three haze stages were identified: the pre-pollution period (PPP), pollution accumulation period (PAP) and pollution dissipation period (PDP). The dominant source of PM2.5 in the PPP was biomass burning (BB) (40.4%), followed by secondary inorganic sources (28.1%) and motor vehicle exhaust (11.7%). The PAP was characterized by a large abundance of secondary inorganic sources, which contributed 56.1% of the total PM2.5 concentration, followed by BB (17.4%). The absorption Ångström exponent (2.2) in the PPP was higher than that in the other two periods. Analysis of fire spots monitored by remote satellite sensing indicated that open BB in regions around Nanning City could be one of the main factors. A planetary boundary layer-relative humidity-secondary particle matter-particulate matter positive feedback mechanism was employed to elucidate the atmospheric processes in this study. This study highlights the importance of understanding the role of BB, secondary inorganic sources and meteorology in air pollution formation and calls for policies for emission control strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Biomassa , COVID-19 , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Meteorologia , Emissões de Veículos/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947139

RESUMO

The most important first step in the management and remediation of contaminated groundwater aquifers is unknown contaminant source characterization. Often, the hydrogeological field data available for accurate source characterization are very sparse. In addition, hydrogeological and geochemical parameter estimates and field measurements are uncertain. Particularly in complex contaminated sites such as abandoned mine sites, the geochemical processes are very complex and identifying the sources of contamination in terms of location, magnitude, and duration, and determination of the pathways of pollution become very difficult. The reactive nature of the contaminant species makes the geochemical transport process very difficult to model and predict. Additionally, the source identification inverse problem is often non-unique and ill posed. This study is about developing and demonstrating a source characterization methodology for a complex contaminated aquifer with multiple reactive species. This study presents linked simulation optimization-based methodologies for characterization of unknown groundwater pollution source characteristics, i.e., location, magnitude and duration or timing. Optimization models are solved using an adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) optimization algorithm. The performance of the developed methodology is evaluated for different complex scenarios of groundwater pollution such as distributed mine waste dumps with reactive chemical species. The method is also applied to a real-life contaminated aquifer to demonstrate the potential applicability and optimal characterization results. The illustrative example site is a mine site in Northern Australia that is no longer active.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Austrália , Simulação por Computador , Poluição Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112263, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799146

RESUMO

Despite an increasing understanding of the issue of marine pollution, humanity continues on a largely unsustainable trajectory. This study aimed to identify and classify the range of scientific studies and interventions to address coastal and marine pollution. We reviewed 2417 scientific papers published between 2000 and 2018, 741 of which we analysed in depth. To classify pollution interventions, we applied the systems-oriented concept of leverage points, which focuses on places to intervene in complex systems to bring about systemic change. We found that pollution is largely studied as a technical problem and fewer studies engage with pollution as a systemic social-ecological issue. While recognising the importance of technical solutions, we highlight the need to focus on under-researched areas pertaining to the deeper drivers of pollution (e.g. institutions, values) which are needed to fundamentally alter system trajectories.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112290, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799151

RESUMO

The Mediterranean coastal area of the Nile Delta is socio-economically vital, however, it is under significant environmental stress due to pollution from land-based activities. The study investigates the temporal variations of trace metals to assess the development of the anthropogenic pollution status in the coastal sediments. The average concentrations, the enrichment factor, and the geoaccumulation index revealed that Cr, V, Ni, and Co are pollutants of concern. Trace metals are particularly accumulating in the sediments further offshore and in the middle and eastern sectors of the Nile Delta coast. The temporal patterns of the pollution load index (PLI) along the Nile Delta coastal indicate that pollution hotspots are increasingly exposed to trace metals pollution over time. This is linked to discharges from anthropogenic land-based activities and controlled by sedimentological factors. A conceptual model for the accumulation of trace metals in sediments is proposed based on this study.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112432, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838466

RESUMO

Highway runoff impacts urban and natural ecosystems negatively. A financing model, that is economically feasible and accepted by all stakeholders, has been a limitation for the implementation of pollution control measures. A case-study on a 279-km Portuguese Highway is presented as a basis for a co-financing model. Runoff pollution load was estimated for quality indicators (TSS, COD, Zn, Cu, Pb), and the total cost of infiltration trenches, sand filters, bioretention filters, wet basins, dry basins and constructed wetlands systems was computed for four catchment scenarios. The effect of the equivalent catchment size and system type on the total cost was evaluated. The users 'Willingness to Pay' (defined as pay-per-user and availability to participate actively and financially) was assessed through a survey (1192 responses). A proposed co-financing model suggests that citizens will participate up to 36.8% of the constructed wetlands cost. This multidisciplinary approach results in potential outcomes that include a legal framework, proven technical solutions, and users' environmental responsibility.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Chuva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112258, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839567

RESUMO

The launch of Roadmap towards Zero Single-use Plastics in 2018 demands baseline data on the management of marine debris in Malaysia. In 2021, Malaysia is placed 28th top plastic polluter in the world with plastic consumption at 56 kg/capita/year, therefore data on mismanaged plastic is imperative. This paper reviews the abundance and distribution of marine debris in selected Malaysian beaches over the last decade (2010-2020) and discusses issue on its management. Plastic debris on beaches in Malaysia, was reported to range from 64 items/m2, to as high as 1930 items/m2, contributing 30-45% of total waste collected. Plastics film was the most dominant, mainly originated from packaging materials. Therefore, appropriate action including improved marine waste management system is crucial to tackle the problem, together with effective governance mechanisms. Various suggestions were proposed based on the statistical-environmental data to reduce the occurrence of marine debris in the country.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Praias , Poluição Ambiental , Malásia , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112335, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839572

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) pollution is a matter of great concern attracting increasing attention due to its adverse effects on the environment. Different technologies and methodologies have been developed to remove these pollutants. Herein, we focus on a promising environmental solution that involves surface modification to change the wettability properties of MPs or solid materials by conferring superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity to increase the selectivity for MP separation. Both processes can be used to selectively separate MPs because of the changes in the wettable properties of the MP or by changing the oil used in the case of superhydrophobic surfaces. We show two distinct methods based on changing the wettability properties of surfaces that could lead to innovative and environmental applications. We also discuss some of the challenges that need to be overcome.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição Ambiental , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Molhabilidade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922303

RESUMO

Soil pollution with heavy metal is a serious problem across the globe and is on the rise due to the current intensification of chemical industry. The leather industry is one of them, discharging chromium (Cr) in huge quantities during the process of leather tanning and polluting the nearby land and water resources, resulting in deterioration of plant growth. In this study, the effects of biochar application at the rate of 3% were studied on four maize cultivars, namely NK-8441, P-1543, NK-8711, and FH-985, grown in two different tannery polluted Kasur (K) and Sialkot (S) soils. Maize plants were harvested at vegetative growth and results showed that Cr toxicity adversely not only affected their growth, physiology, and biochemistry, but also accumulated in their tissues. However, the level of Cr toxicity, accumulation, and its influence on maize cultivars varied greatly in both soils. In this pot experiment, biochar application played a crucial role in lessening the Cr toxicity level, resulting in significant increase in plant height, biomass (fresh and dry), leaf area, chlorophyll pigments, photosynthesis, and relative water content (RWC) over treatment set as a control. However, applied biochar significantly decreased the electrolyte leakage (EL), antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, proline content, soluble sugars, and available fraction of Cr in soil as well as Cr (VI and III) concentration in root and shoot tissues of maize plant. In addition to this, maize cultivar differences were also found in relation to their tolerance to Cr toxicity and cultivar P-1543 performed better over other cultivars in both soils. In conclusion, biochar application in tannery polluted soils could be an efficient ecofriendly approach to reduce the Cr toxicity and to promote plant health and growth.


Assuntos
Cromo , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo/análise , Cromo/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zea mays
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924797

RESUMO

The rise of small-scale and localized economic activities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has led to increased exposures to contaminants associated with these processes and the potential for resulting adverse health effects in exposed communities. Risk assessment is the process of building models to predict the probability of adverse outcomes based on concentration-response functions and exposure scenarios for individual contaminants, while epidemiology uses statistical methods to explore associations between potential exposures and observed health outcomes. Neither approach by itself is practical or sufficient for evaluating the magnitude of exposures and health impacts associated with land-based pollution in LMICs. Here we propose a more pragmatic framework for designing representative studies, including uniform sampling guidelines and household surveys, that draws from both methodologies to better support community health impact analyses associated with land-based pollution sources in LMICs. Our primary goal is to explicitly link environmental contamination from land-based pollution associated with specific localized economic activities to community exposures and health outcomes at the household level. The proposed framework was applied to the following three types of industries that are now widespread in many LMICs: artisanal scale gold mining (ASGM), used lead-acid battery recycling (ULAB), and small tanning facilities. For each activity, we develop a generalized conceptual site model (CSM) that describes qualitative linkages from chemical releases or discharges, environmental fate and transport mechanisms, exposure pathways and routes, populations at risk, and health outcomes. This upfront information, which is often overlooked, is essential for delineating the contaminant zone of influence in a community and identifying relevant households for study. We also recommend cost-effective methods for use in LMICs related to environmental sampling, biological monitoring, survey questionnaires, and health outcome measurements at contaminated and unexposed reference sites. Future study designs based on this framework will facilitate consistent, comparable, and standardized community exposure, risk, and health impact assessments for land-based pollution in LMICs. The results of these studies can also support economic burden analyses and risk management decision-making around site cleanup, risk mitigation, and public health education.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental , Renda , Mineração , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130572, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866099

RESUMO

Honey bees became a frequently studied environmental research object due to the fact that they are considered as indicators of the environmental contamination with metals. Such studies require reliable methods of sample preparation that allow comparison of the results obtained in different laboratories. In this paper, different variants of sample preparation were examined, including washing, milling and mineralization. Determination of total contents of Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, and Zn was performed using ICP MS. Each procedure of the sample preparation was characterized in terms of repeatability and recovery and the resulting combined standard uncertainty was evaluated. The relative UNC ranges for the treatment procedures examined are: 11-16% (washing, open digestion), 13-14% (open digestion), 13-51% (washing, closed digestion), 12-37% (washing, milling, closed digestion), 13-68% (closed digestion), and 12-51% (milling, closed digestion). In almost all cases the lower limits of these ranges correspond to Zn determinations while the upper limits to Pb. Analytical results of metal determination obtained for samples prepared according to six different procedures do not differ significantly when compared within the expanded uncertainty (±2×u(c¯M)). The procedures were compared statistically using one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chemometrically on the basis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which allowed to demonstrate some general recommendations regarding environmental monitoring for matrices other than honey bees.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Animais , Abelhas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Análise de Componente Principal , Oligoelementos/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...