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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2361-2370, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418240

RESUMO

Based on pollutant emissions and social-economic data during 2011 and 2015, we selec-ted the total emission index of four pollutants, including the industrial source, agricultural source, and urban living source. The comprehensive index of environmental pollution and sub-source pollution index were built to reflect the pollution of Jilin Province at county scale. Furthermore, the Moran's I, spatial-temporal transition analysis, and standard deviation ellipse analysis were used to quantitatively examine the spatial-temporal evolutionary characteristics of environmental pollution in Jilin Province. A spatial econometric model was built to analyze the influencing factors of environmental pollution. The results showed that environmental pollution in Jilin Province presented spatial agglomeration characteristics, which was mainly concentrating in central areas such as Changchun and Jilin cities. There were obvious regional differences in the spatial distribution of environmental pollution from different sources. There were spatial correlation of the total environmental pollution and agricultural source pollution separately at county scale in Jilin Province. The correlation structure stability of the spatial distribution of environmental pollution was high, which had path locking characteristic. The spatial distribution of environmental pollution showed a northwest-southeast distribution pattern and a spread from the center to the surroundings. The barycenter of environmental pollution moved in the area between 43.65-43.66° N and 125.83-125.84° E. The level of regional economic development, urbanization level and agricultural production were main driving factors for county-scale environmental pollution and industrial source pollution. The adjustment and optimization of industrial structure had improved the overall environmental pollution and industrial source pollution situation. Overuse of chemical fertilizers significantly increased agricultural source pollution. The level of economic development and urbanization were the main drivers of urban living source pollution. The overall environmental pollution and agricultural source pollution had spatial diffusion effects, and their pollution status was closely related to the overall environmental pollution and agricultural source pollution status in adjacent areas, respectively.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental , Agricultura , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental
2.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(7-8): 46, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280391

RESUMO

Ecological light pollution alters an environment's light cycle, potentially affecting photoperiod-controlled behavior. Anurans, for example, generally breed nocturnally, and the influence of light pollution on their natural history may therefore be especially strong. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring male calling behavior of anuran communities in natural wetlands in southern Brazil exposed or not exposed to street lights. We recorded seasonal and diel calling activity and calling response to a light pulse. The peak calling season differed between continuously lit and unlit locations with most species in illuminated wetlands shortening their calling season and calling earlier in the year. In unlit breeding sites, Boana pulchella, Pseudis minuta, and Pseudopaludicola falcipes confined their calling activity to well-defined hours of the night, but in continuously lit areas, these species called more continuously through the night. A 2-minute light pulse inhibited calling, but only in unlit wetlands. After a light pulse, frogs quickly resumed calling-suggesting acclimatization to brief artificial light exposure. Our field experiment presents a convincing example of ecological light pollution showing that artificial light alters the seasonal and diel calling time of some South American wetland anurans. It also documents their acclimatization to brief lighting when being continuously exposed to light.


Assuntos
Anuros/fisiologia , Poluição Ambiental , Luz , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos da radiação , Vocalização Animal/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Fotoperíodo , Áreas Alagadas
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 479, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267345

RESUMO

Energy reserves have been exploited in the Atlantic Canadian provinces since the early 1600s, and many fossil fuel extraction sites have been abandoned over this long history of energy development. Oil, natural gas, and coal extraction sites are a source of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly for methane (CH4). In this study, we used multiple sampling methods to measure CH4 from abandoned coal mine openings in Nova Scotia and a legacy oilfield in New Brunswick. Atmospheric and shallow soil gases were sampled around legacy sites using flux rate chamber measurements (spatial and temporal) and plot-scale atmospheric gas surveys, in addition to regional gas screening surveys over larger populations of sites to confirm whether small-scale observations were reflected regionally. Only one oil and gas site (2.4 ± 3.1⋅ 102 mg m- 2 day- 1) and one abandoned coal mine opening (1.0 ± 1.1⋅ 102 mg m- 2 day- 1) were affected by soil CH4 migration, though rates of leakage were minimal and would rank as low severity on industrial scales. Plot-scale atmospheric gas screening showed super-ambient CH4 concentrations at 5 sites in total (n = 16), 2 coal adits and 3 abandoned oil and gas wells. Regional gas screening surveys suggest that 11% of legacy oil and gas sites have some emission impacts, compared with 1-2% of legacy coal sites. These frequencies are close, albeit lower than the 15% of legacy oil and gas sites and 10% of abandoned coal mine openings flagged from our aggregated small-scale observations. These sites may emit less than other developments studied to date either because more time has elapsed since extraction, or because differences in regional geology reduce the likelihood of sustained emissions. This study provides valuable information to help understand the methane emission risks associated with legacy energy sites.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Metano/análise , Gás Natural , Novo Brunswick , Nova Escócia , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/química , Solo/química
5.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 879-884, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234253

RESUMO

Genotoxic analyses are commonly used in ecotoxicological studies as early biomarkers to investigate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on biological models. Several pollutants can induce DNA damage and, therefore, counting micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities are efficient tools to evaluate genotoxicity. Some pollutants such as 4-nonylphenol (NP), a detergent used mainly in industries, and Cyproterone Acetate (CPA), an antiandrogenic medicine, have already shown genotoxic effects on some vertebrates. However, although amphibians are considered bioindicators of environmental quality and their populations are declining worldwide, the effects of these compounds on anurans are not yet known and, therefore, we believe that it is important to investigate such effects on anurans. Since water contamination is one of the ultimate causes of amphibian decline, ecotoxicological studies are important to discuss the appropriate solutions to avoid species extinction. Thus, this study investigates the genotoxic effects on Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and juveniles after being exposed to 1, 10 and 100 µg/L NP and 0.025, 0.25 and 2.5 ng/L CPA, by counting the nuclear abnormalities after exposure. The laboratory experiments lasted 28 days. The experimental conditions were the same except for the water volume since tadpoles and juveniles exhibit different habits at different developmental stages. Compared to juveniles, tadpoles were more susceptible to both compounds as indicated by the increased nuclear abnormalities observed in the highest NP concentration and all tested CPA concentrations. The juveniles, on the other hand, responded only to the two highest CPA concentrations. We concluded that CPA, even at very low concentrations, is extremely harmful to both anuran developmental stages and, particularly, to tadpoles. The significant effects observed on tadpoles is an important outcome of this study since 100 µg/L or higher NP concentrations are frequently detected in the environment.


Assuntos
Anuros/embriologia , Acetato de Ciproterona/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Rana catesbeiana/embriologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Anuros/genética , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/genética , Poluição Ambiental , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rana catesbeiana/genética
6.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 910-920, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234257

RESUMO

The toxic sensitivity in different physiological levels of chromium (Cr) contaminated soils with environmentally equivalent concentrations (EEC) was fully unknown. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed to a Cr-contaminated soil at the EEC level (referred to as Cr-CS) to characterize the induced toxicity at the whole body, organ, tissue, subcellular structure and metabolic levels. The results showed that the survival rate, weight and biodiversity of the gut microorganisms (organ) had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between control and Cr-CS groups. Qualitative histopathological and subcellular evaluations from morphology showed earthworms obvious injuries. The organelle injuries combined with the metabolic changes provided additional evidence that the Cr-CS damaged the nucleus and probably disturbed the nucleic acid metabolism of earthworms. 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate, dimethylglycine, betaine and scyllo-inositol were sensitive and relatively quantitative metabolites that were recommended as potential biomarkers for Cr-CS based on their significant weights in the multivariate analysis model. In addition, the relative abundance of Burkholderiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Microscillaceae of the earthworm guts in the Cr-CS group significantly increased, particularly for Burkholderiaceae (increased by 13.1%), while that of Aeromonadaceae significantly decreased by 5.6% in contrast with the control group. These results provided new insights into our understanding of the toxic effects of the EEC level of Cr contaminated soil from different physiological levels of earthworms and extend our knowledge on the composition and sensitivity of the earthworm gut microbiota in Cr contaminated soil ecosystems. Furthermore, these toxic responses from gut microorganisms to metabolites of earthworms provided important data to improve the adverse outcome pathway and toxic mechanism of the Cr-CS if the earthworm genomics and proteomics would be also gained in the future.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Animais , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Burkholderiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromo/análise , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organelas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 952-960, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234262

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) tends to mobilize in flooded paddy soil due to the reductive dissolution of the iron (oxyhydr)oxides to which As sorbs, resulting in elevated As accumulation in rice that poses a potential risk to the food safety and human health. Microbial sulfate reduction is an important biogeochemical process in paddy soils, but its impact on As mobilization remains poorly understood. In this study, we incubated eight As-contaminated paddy soils under flooded conditions to investigate the effect of sulfate addition on As mobility. Porewater Fe and As concentrations and As species were determined. Among the eight soils, an addition of 50 mg S kg-1 as sodium sulfate decreased porewater arsenite only in two soils, which also showed a high mobilization of Fe2+. Further experiments showed that the addition of sulfate to these two soils stimulated microbial sulfate reduction but decreased porewater concentrations of both arsenite and Fe2+. Additionally, the supply of sulfate increased the fractions of As associated with acid volatile sulfides in the solid phase and decreased As uptake by rice in pot experiments under similar conditions. The effect of sulfate addition on porewater As was diminished by the addition of molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reducing bacteria. These results suggest the formation of secondary FeS minerals which co-precipitate or sorb arsenite as a likely mechanism of As immobilization, which was also supported by thermodynamic modeling of the pore water. Thus, sulfate additions can immobilize As and reduce its availability to rice plants in paddy soils containing a high potential for microbial Fe reduction, providing an efficient way to mitigate the As transfer to the food chain.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsenitos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Ferro/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfatos/química , Inundações , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Óxidos , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 1): 321, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222514

RESUMO

The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Aquatic Resources Survey (NARS) is a 5-year ongoing cycle of nationwide aquatic resource surveys which provide a report card on the condition of our nation's waters. The surveys are performed using a randomized, statistically valid design and provide statistically robust data which are used to develop the reports. These reports assess how well existing pollution prevention programs are protecting those waters, and how to better target future protection efforts. This presentation will focus on the results and uses of the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) outcomes. Some of the outcomes from the NWCA include (1) robust multi-metric indices used to evaluate condition across varying wetland types, streams, and ecoregions and (2) physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stress (risk factors) which identify the factors which contribute most to poor condition. (3) A wealth of quality-assured, statistically valid data which can be mined to pursue other questions within both regulatory and non-regulatory programs by providing a more robust look at wetland and stream condition. There are a variety of ways in which knowledge of condition can be used to better evaluate environmental states and inform decision-making. Knowledge of risk factors, for example, can be used to prioritize restoration efforts to improve the health of streams and wetlands in poor condition, as well as to identify practices to be avoided in reviewing permit applications for work in waters. The use of multi-metric plant condition indices could be useful in better identifying achieved "lift" in wetland mitigation banks, as well as providing a more robust measure of mitigation or restoration success. It is our hope to generate some seeds for future thought and discussion on ways in which the products of these NARS surveys can enhance the protection and restoration of these aquatic resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , United States Environmental Protection Agency/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas Alagadas , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Rios , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency/organização & administração , United States Environmental Protection Agency/normas
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 409, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165273

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the concentrations, distributions, toxicities, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils from different areas in Ulsan, South Korea. Samples were collected from 41 sites, including a waste treatment facilities area (WA), traffic facilities area (TA), child playground area (CA), industrial area (IA), railroad facilities area (RA), ore and iron scraps fields area (OA), and residential area (ReA). Ulsan was chosen for research area because it used to be an environmental hot spot in South Korea, and 16 PAHs in the US EPA priority pollutant list were selected. The concentration of total PAHs (t-PAHs) ranged from 61.7 to 12,421 µg/kg, and the average concentration of t-PAHs was 706.9 µg/kg. The distribution of PAHs by ring number indicated that the portion followed the order of 4 rings > 5 rings > 3 rings > 6 rings > 2 rings. According to PAH origin indices, LMW/HMW (low molecular weight 2-3 ring PAHs over high molecular weight 4-6-ring PAHs), phenanthrene/anthracene ratio and fluoranthene/pyrene ratio, benzo(g,h,i)perylene/indeno (1,2,3-c,d)pyrene ratio, vehicular emissions, and the combustion of fossil fuel were the sources of PAHs. The strong correlation (R2 = 0.995) between t-PAHs and total carcinogenic PAHs (t-PAHcarc) indicated that the concentration of t-PAHcarc increased in proportion with that of t-PAHs. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of PAHs in the soils ranged from 44.0 to 1929.9 µg TEQ/kg. It is imperative to set regulatory levels for PAHs for periodic monitoring and rapid remediation action of contaminated soils, because there are no national standards in South Korea for 15 PAHs with the exception of benzo(a)pyrene.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Solo/química , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Fluorenos/análise , Fluorenos/toxicidade , Humanos , Indústrias , República da Coreia , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 413, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168661

RESUMO

A suite of trace metals was determined in twenty surface sediments collected from Lake Qaroun, which is designated as a natural reserve in 1989 to examine their spatial distribution and their potential environmental impact on the lake. Contamination factor (Cf), enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), and pollution load index (PLI) are applied to evaluate the quality of the lake. The highest concentrations were detected in the eastern portion of the lake near Al-Bats drain. The levels of Ba exceeded the toxicity reference value (TRV) (20 ng/g dw) set by US EPA for all sediments, while sediments collected from Al-Bats region exceeded the TRV for Zn (68 ng/g dw). Arsenic, Ba, Sn, Co, Cu, and Hg are poorly correlated with background value of Fe suggesting anthropogenic activities over the entire lake. The values of Cf and Igeo confirmed that the eastern portion of the lake has been found moderately to considerably contaminated by As, Sn, and Zn. Sediments collected from the eastern location (S1) were very highly enriched of Sn (22.47); however, the other eastern locations were highly enriched of Sn, As, Cd, Co, and Ba. It is clear that sites near Al-Bats and El-Wadi drains are hot spots, which got immense amounts of domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes. Behind the influence of these discharges, concentrations are decreased. The PLI over the entire lake ranged from 0.247 to 0.801 for all sites, which reflect unpolluted status.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Ecologia , Egito , Lagos/química , Medição de Risco , Qualidade da Água
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 416, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172361

RESUMO

Pesticide contamination is one of the most serious threats for agricultural soils. Excessive pesticide levels in soil can exert negative effects on soil-dwelling organisms by decreasing their bioavailability and, consequently, lowering soil quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a mixture of spiroxamine, tebuconazole, and triadimenol (S + Te + Tr) on the biological activity of soil determined based on the proliferation of microorganisms and their diversity, enzymatic activity of soil, and resistance of Triticum aestivum L. A pot experiment was performed on sandy loam (pH 7.0) treated with four doses of the tested active ingredients: 0.000, 0.092, 2.76, 13.80, and 27.60 mg kg-1. Soil without the fungicide served as the control sample. The tested fungicide induced changes in the biological activity of soil. When administered to the soil in the highest dose (27.60 mg kg-1 DM of soil), it inhibited its biological activity. It significantly inhibited the proliferation of organotrophs, actinomycetes, and fungi, but still the most susceptible to its effects turned out to be fungi. Fungicide dose of 27.60 mg kg-1 decreased counts of organotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi by on average 0.009 log, 0.100 log, and 0.282 log, respectively, compared to the control sample. Administration of the S + Te + Tr mixture to soil decreased also values of colony development index (CD) determined for all tested groups of microorganisms. Values of the ecophysiological diversity index (EP) decreased in the case of organotrophs and actimomycetes and increased in the case of fungi. The S + Te + Tr mixture inhibited activities of dehydrogenases, urease, and acid phosphatase. Significant changes were also reported in the growth of spring wheat. The resistance index (RS) calculated based on plant yield demonstrated spring wheat to be very susceptible to the tested preparation administered to soil in doses of 13.80 and 27.60 mg kg-1.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Compostos de Espiro/análise , Triazóis/análise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Urease
12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 273-279, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mercury release in the environment is mainly the result of human activity, particularly from coal-fired power stations, residential heating systems, waste incinerators, and as a result of mining for mercury, gold and other metals, which have led to widespread global mercury pollution. Excessive exposure to mercury is associated with a wide range of adverse health effects, including damage to the central nervous system, digestive and immune systems, and to lungs, kidneys, skin and eyes. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the study is to summarize the selected mercury sources in the environment of the Slovak Republic, regarding waste incinerators, landfill waste, crematoria, chemical plants, rivers and soils. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Although the neurologic symptoms of Minamata disease were identified sufficiently for specialists to classify mercury as the causative agent, the acceptance of mercury´s environmental impacts will require several decades of research. Several new issues have arisen - the need for energy conservation leads to the use of fluorescent lighting, which contain mercury; emissions driven by increases in coal combustion, incineration and economic development have sent more mercury into the air, soil and water. CONCLUSIONS: Mercury is toxic to human health, posing a particular threat to the development of the child in utero and early in life. The systematic analytical controls of contaminants in water, soil and air are important. The installation of modern cleaning technologies to comply with the maximum emission level can substantially minimized the environmental impact of incinerators. Since human cremation is also an increasing practice, further research on mercury emissions is necessary.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Eslováquia
13.
Chemosphere ; 232: 224-231, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154183

RESUMO

Contamination of soils with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a global problem, in particular at fire-fighter training sites due to the usage of PFAS-containing aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFFs). In this study, an electrodialytic remediation method was applied for the first time to remove PFASs from contaminated soil. The electrodialytic remediation system was evaluated in a laboratory-scale experiment with current densities of 0.19 mA cm-2 and 0.38 mA cm-2 over 21 days, using PFAS-contaminated soil from a fire-fighter training site at Stockholm Arlanda Airport, Sweden. Of the 23 PFASs targeted, significant (p < 0.05) PFAS electromigration towards the anode was observed for C3-C7 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA) and C4, C6, and C8 perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) since these PFASs were predominantly negatively charged. In contrast to the electromigration of the charged PFASs, N-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (MeFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA) and ethyl FOSAA (EtFOSAA) showed significant (p < 0.05) transport towards the cathode, which is probably attributed to electro-osmotic flow of these predominantly neutral PFASs. Mass balance calculations showed that for the shortest-chained PFASs (i.e., PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFBS, and PFHxS), up to 20% was extracted from the soil to the anolyte, which showed that electrodialysis is a possible in-situ remediation technique for PFAS-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aeroportos , Alcanossulfonatos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Solo/química , Suécia , Água
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 443, 2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203464

RESUMO

In order to explore the level of heavy metal pollution in human hair of residents in Huainan City and provide theoretical guidance for prevention and control of heavy metal pollution, human hair samples from 174 residents in Huainan City were collected so that heavy metal (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, and Fe) concentrations in scalp hair could be tested, and meanwhile their relationship with sex, age, and spatial distribution characteristics could be explored as well. According to the final analysis, the average concentration of Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and As in human hair amounted to 1.56, 6.41, 14.96, 31.13, 166.54, and 1.07 mg/kg. The highest average of Cr and Pb contents in human hair occurred in the area of Xiejiaji District; Fe, Zn, and Hg were in Datong District; and Cu and As were in Panji District respectively. Overall, the lowest risk of heavy metal exposure existed in Tianjia'an District. Heavy metal content in hair varied across sexes and ages. Pb concentration in hair would decrease as age increased. The highest Pb concentration appeared in children between ages 0 and 10, the amount of which was significantly different from that in other age groups; hence, children appear to be more susceptible to Pb pollution than other ages. Contents of Cr, Fe, Zn, and As in hair would also increase with age; Fe content in hair was particularly correlated with age. The contents of Cr, Pb, Fe, and As in men's hair were higher than those in women's, whereas the case of Cu and Zn was just the opposite. There were significant differences between sexes concerning the contents of Cr, Cu, and As, and a highly significant difference about Zn between sexes as well. These results indicated that the contents of heavy metal in residents' hair would be closely related to the features of the local environment and population.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Cabelo/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Couro Cabeludo , População Urbana
15.
Chemosphere ; 232: 356-365, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158630

RESUMO

Organic amendments (OA) have been applied in many mercury (Hg)-polluted paddy soils to meet increasing food demands with scarce land resources. However, little is known on the effects of different OAs on Hg dissolution and the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil pore waters, both of which may be associated with Hg mobility. Consequently, DOM composition and Hg release levels were investigated in soil pore waters after applying food waste compost (FC), fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA) to Hg-polluted paddy soils. FA and HA treatments promoted increased abundances of humic- and fulvic-like substances in pore water DOM while FC amendment increased soluble microbial by-products. FA amendment and high levels of both HA and FC amendments greatly promoted Hg dissolution in pore waters that could be attributed to the complexation of Hg with different DOM components. However, among all DOM components, only UVA fulvic and visible humic-like substances were positively correlated with Hg release levels and total organic carbon. These results indicate that discrepant DOM compositions are induced by different OA. Further, these differences may be associated with differential Hg dissolution in pore waters. Consequently, FA amendment and high level of FC or HA amendments should be limited to reduce potential Hg release into pore waters.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Benzopiranos , Poluição Ambiental , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Solubilidade
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 483, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The start-up of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant (2013) was accompanied by surveillance of health effects, which included a human biomonitoring campaign. Here we present the results of the risk perception survey of local residents before the plant went into operation. METHODS: The survey sample was 394 local residents: 198 residing near the plant (exposed group) and 196 residing in an area distant from the plant site (unexposed group). The survey questionnaire investigated awareness of environmental and health issues, including a section on the perception of environmental health risks. Multivariate Poisson regressions were performed to determine the differences in risk perception between the two groups (exposed vs. unexposed). RESULTS: The exposed group was more concerned about natural hazards (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-2.61), anthropogenic hazards (PR 1.35; 95% CI 1.03-1.77), and waste management (PR 1.19; 95% CI 0.94-1.50). There were no significant differences in opinions about environmental pollution-related diseases between the two groups, though the exposed considered themselves to be at risk for developing these diseases. The survey population placed its trust more in health care providers than in any other category. CONCLUSIONS: The risk perception survey questionnaire yielded data that enabled a better understanding and interpretation of the social context: residents living near the incineration plant were more concerned than those living distant from it, especially about anthropogenic hazards. This information was subsequently incorporated into the design the communication tools.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Incineração , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/efeitos adversos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Itália , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 179: 282-289, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071566

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in electronic equipment, as polymers in vehicles or construction, and in textiles. These additive flame retardants are emerging pollutants in Africa, released by the non-environmentally sound disposal of consumer products, often imported as secondhand, that have increasingly reached their end-of-life in the last decade. In Nigeria, which is a major receiver of e-waste and secondhand cars, there is a dearth of information regarding the levels of PBDEs in the environment, biota, and food. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the PBDE contamination of food samples of animal origin (chicken eggs and cow milk) around municipal waste dumpsites and background areas in Nigeria, to elucidate the role of dumpsites as potential sources of PBDE pollution and exposure in the country. Biological samples were collected over two years from two municipal waste dumpsites in Abuja. Fifty-six samples each of free-range chicken eggs and cow milk were collected. Control samples were collected approximately 5 km away from the dumpsites. After extraction and clean-up, the levels of POP-PBDEs listed in 2009 (major congeners of tetraBDE to heptaBDE), plus BDE-28 (Σ7PBDEs) were determined using GC-ECD. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test at α0.05. Levels of Σ7PBDEs (ng/g lipid weight (lw)) in chicken eggs at the two study sites ranged from 262.3 to 313.4 (ng/g lw), more than one order of magnitude higher than those at the control site in a village near the dumpsites (14.9 ±â€¯3.73 ng/g lw), and two and more orders of magnitude higher compared to PBDE levels in these products in industrial countries and Nigerian supermarkets. Median PBDE levels in cow milk from the two dumpsites were 49.1 and 81.5 ng/g lw, respectively, considerably higher than levels in other studies. Proper disposal methods of waste polymers containing PBDEs such as co-incineration in BAT cement kilns and plastic recycling with separation is urgently needed in Nigeria and other parts of Africa, to prevent open burning as well as crude recycle to reduce PBDE levels in the environment and human food.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Leite/química , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incineração , Nigéria , Plásticos/química , Reciclagem
19.
Nat Rev Genet ; 20(7): 375, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097779
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 82: 203-212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133265

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an effective brominated flame-retardant additive, which is mainly produced in the coastal area of China. This study collected soil samples from a HBCD production plant and its surrounding area in Weifang, Shandong Province, China, and analyzed the temporal-spatial distribution of HBCD and its diastereoisomers in soil. The analysis results showed that the concentration of HBCD in soil near the plant was much higher than normal values, with an annual average concentration reaching 5405 ng/g. Soils 1, 2 and 4 km away from the plant were also analyzed, showing that the concentration of HBCD in soil decreased accordingly with the distance from the pollution sources. In order to investigate the effect of the season on HBCD content, the soil samples were collected in all four seasons of the year 2017-2018. According to variations in the wind direction, the concentration of HBCD in soil was also changed. The distribution trend showed that the concentration of HBCD in soil in the downwind direction of the prevailing wind was higher than that in the upwind direction. In addition, this work analyzed the distribution of HBCD in vertical soil sections. It was found that the concentration of HBCD decreased with depth in the soil vertical profile. Finally, the various diastereoisomer patterns in the soil compartments were examined, finding that α-HBCD and γ-HBCD were the predominant diastereoisomers in the soil of the study area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Estereoisomerismo
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