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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111476, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892915

RESUMO

Various pollutants keep threatening the environmental status of the Mediterranean Sea, while the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires that Good Environmental Status needs to be achieved in European Seas by 2020. Previous reviews already established that the ambition levels of national Programmes of Measures (PoMs) are low. This study focuses on the analyses of the levels of coherence and coordination of the proposed PoMs in the Mediterranean, concentrating on nutrient, contaminant, and marine litter pollution, as well as the introduction of non-indigenous species. Coherence and pollinator analyses of the proposed measures of Mediterranean EU Member States (MS) were performed. The results demonstrate that while the current coordination between MS is almost non-existent, several measures are already addressing the same pressures in similar ways and could be easily coordinated on transnational level. Increased coordination and coherence of PoMs in the Mediterranean are vital for achieving good environmental status in future years.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo
2.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115000, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806400

RESUMO

The liverwort Lunularia cruciata was collected from the town of Acerra, in the heart of the so-called 'Land of Fires' a large area in the eastern part of Campania region of Italy affected by burning of waste and fraudulent dumping and one of the vertices of the "Italian Triangle of Death" so said for the high incidence and mortality from tumors. The data obtained from these samples were compared with samples collected in two other sites representing two different environmental conditions. The soil below the samples, and gametophytes, were collected and analyzed for the concentration of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V. DNA damage, Reactive Oxygen Species production and localization, activity of antioxidant enzymes and presence of chelating molecules were investigated. All biomarkers provided an answer closely related to the pollution conditions at the 3 sites. We discuss the data considering the possibility of using these biological changes as environmental pollution biomarkers. Finally, it is underlined the importance of phytochelatins due to of their specificity for metal pollution.


Assuntos
Fogo , Hepatófitas , Metais Pesados/análise , Rubiaceae , Poluição Ambiental , Itália
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756428

RESUMO

The management of the COVID-19 pandemic presents several unprecedented challenges in different fields, from medicine to biology, from public health to social science, that may benefit from computing methods able to integrate the increasing available COVID-19 and related data (e.g., pollution, demographics, climate, etc.). With the aim to face the COVID-19 data collection, harmonization and integration problems, we present the design and development of COVID-WAREHOUSE, a data warehouse that models, integrates and stores the COVID-19 data made available daily by the Italian Protezione Civile Department and several pollution and climate data made available by the Italian Regions. After an automatic ETL (Extraction, Transformation and Loading) step, COVID-19 cases, pollution measures and climate data, are integrated and organized using the Dimensional Fact Model, using two main dimensions: time and geographical location. COVID-WAREHOUSE supports OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) analysis, provides a heatmap visualizer, and allows easy extraction of selected data for further analysis. The proposed tool can be used in the context of Public Health to underline how the pandemic is spreading, with respect to time and geographical location, and to correlate the pandemic to pollution and climate data in a specific region. Moreover, public decision-makers could use the tool to discover combinations of pollution and climate conditions correlated to an increase of the pandemic, and thus, they could act in a consequent manner. Case studies based on data cubes built on data from Lombardia and Puglia regions are discussed. Our preliminary findings indicate that COVID-19 pandemic is significantly spread in regions characterized by high concentration of particulate in the air and the absence of rain and wind, as even stated in other works available in literature.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Data Warehousing , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública , Vento
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 283-290, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734360

RESUMO

The current study investigated the efficiency of sepiolite (SE), sodium humate (HS), microbial fertilizer (JF) and SE combined with JF/HS in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) (JF-2SE and HS-2SE) on Cd, Pb and As bioavailability in field trials with rice (Oryza sativa L.). The results showed that all the amendments remarkably decreased (p < 0.05) the contents of available Cd and available Pb in soil. Only JF-2SE treatment reduced available As concentration in soil. All the amendments were found to effectively reduce (p < 0.05) the contents of As in brown rice. Both JF-2SE and HS-2SE co-applications reduced the concentrations of Cd in brown rice to 0.108 and 0.135 mg kg-1, and that of Pb reduced to 0.2 and 0.175 mg kg-1, which met the national standard limit of China. Thus, the co-application of JF/HS-2SE can be a promising remediation strategy in Cd, Pb and As co-contaminated paddy soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental , Fertilizantes , Chumbo/análise , Silicatos de Magnésio , Oryza , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115028, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806414

RESUMO

Understanding the relationship between road-deposited sediments (RDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) is essential for managing non-point pollution. Studying the heavy metal concentrations of RDS and TSS in rainfall is important to the development of RDS management strategies and to the design of effective stormwater management practices. We investigated the heavy metal (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Pb) in RDS and TSS in rainfall runoff to assess the metal pollution level and to evaluate the contribution of RDS heavy metal pollution in the TSS. The heavy metal pollution in RDS and TSS in industrial areas was relatively higher in small particles (<125 µm), while TSS had a higher heavy metal concentration than RDS. In addition, the concentration of heavy metals in TSS increased rapidly during the initial rainfall. The amount of particles larger than 125 µm also increased, suggesting that large metal particles accumulated in industrial areas were also discharged in the form of non-point pollution. The amount of RDS per unit of industrial area (g/m2) and the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Zn) (mg/m2) were 15- and 8-54-fold higher than those of urban areas, respectively. Considering particles <125 µm, which can be easily transported or discharged during rainfall, the contribution rate of RDS to TSS was 41.3%, but the average contribution rate to heavy metals in TSS was 22.1%. The average load of heavy metals from industrial areas in TSS was 77.9%. The load of Cu, Ni, As, Cd, and Sn exceeded 90%, indicating that most of these metals were attributed to industrial activities related to metal processing. Our results suggest the importance of efficient road cleaning and rainfall runoff management strategies to solve the heavy metal pollution problem caused by non-point sources in industrial areas.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Movimentos da Água , Poluição Ambiental , Chuva
6.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 115029, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806453

RESUMO

Environmental complexity leads to differences in the spatial distribution of heavy metal pollution in soil and rice. Such spatial differences will seriously affect the safety of planted rice and can impact regional management and control. How to scientifically reveal these spatial differences is an urgent problem. In this study, the spatial mismatch relationship between Cd pollution in soil and rice grains (brown rice) was first explored by the interpolation method. To further reveal the causes of these, the specific recognition rules of the spatial relationship of Cd pollution were extracted based on a decision tree model, and the results were mapped. The results revealed a spatial mismatch in Cd pollution between the soil and rice grains in the study area, and the main results are as follows: (i) slight soil pollution and safe rice accounted for 68.88% of the area; (ii) slight soil pollution and serious rice pollution accounted for 13.39% of the area and (iii) safe soil and serious rice pollution accounted for 11.63% of the area. In addition, 11 recognition rules of Cd spatial pollution relationship between soil and rice were proposed, and the main environmental factors were determined: SOM (soil organic matter), Dis-residence (distance from residential area), soil pH and LAI (leaf area index). The average accuracy of rule recognition was 75.90%. The study reveals the spatial mismatch of heavy metal pollution in soil and crops, providing decision-making references for the spatial accurate identification and targeted prevention of heavy metal pollution spaces.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cádmio/análise , Árvores de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Solo
7.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 115086, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806464

RESUMO

In recent years, the Chinese government has made great efforts to jointly control and prevent air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, these efforts are challenged by technical constraints due to the significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity of PM2.5 across China. In this study, the Affinity Zone Identification Approach (AZIA), which combines rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) with revised clustering analysis, was developed and employed to regionalize PM2.5 pollution in China based on data from 1496 air quality monitoring sites recorded from 2013 to 2017. Two clustering methods, cluster analysis with statistical test (CAST) and K-center-point (K-medoids) clustering, were compared and revised to eliminate unspecified sites. Site zonation was finally extended to the municipality scale for the convenience of the controlling measures. The results revealed that 17 affinity zones with 5 different labels from clean to heavily polluted areas could be identified in China. The heavily polluted areas were mainly located in central and eastern China as well as Xinjiang Province, with regional average annual PM2.5 concentrations higher than 66 µg/m3. The new approach provided more comprehensive and detailed affinity zones than obtained in a previous study (Wang et al., 2015b). The North China Plain and Northeastern China were both further divided into northern and southern parts based on different pollution levels. In addition, five affinity zones were first recognized in western China. The findings provide not only a theoretical basis to further display the temporal and spatial variations in PM2.5 but also an effective solution for the cooperative control of air pollution in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluição Ambiental , China , Humanos , Material Particulado , Fenômenos Físicos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110905, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800240

RESUMO

The group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are particularly dangerous for the environment and by consequence for human health because of the risk to be transmitted in the food chain. Among them, the urgent problem of obsolete and forbidden organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) needs a rigorous management in many countries, including Kazakhstan. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides content in food products on the genetic status and health of the population living on the contaminated areas near destroyed warehouses for OCPs (4 villages of Talgar district and 1 control site, Almaty region). The food products sampled in Taukaraturyk (control site), and in 4 villages where non-utilized obsolete pesticides were discovered: Beskainar, Kyzylkairat, Amangeldy, and Belbulak. The contents of 24 pesticides in food products from plant (apples, pears, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet peppers) and animal (beef meat, cow milk, honey) origin, that grown in places of localization of non-utilized OCPs, were determined, sometimes in high and unacceptably high concentrations (before 2500 times over MRL). In pears, the pesticides content (especially DDT, γ-HCH, ß-HCH, endosulfan, and aldrin pesticide group), was higher than in other fruits. Among vegetables, the highest levels of all groups of pesticide were found in cucumbers. Beef meat samples demonstrated increased contents of ß-HCH, γ-HCH, endrin and dieldrin. In cow milk samples only the high concentration of dieldrin was found. The content of pesticides in meat was 4-5 times higher than in milk. The medical examinations, carried out among the cohorts living around the polluted by pesticides territories and control cohort from ecologically favorable village, showed that there were more individuals with high and middle levels of somatic health in the control group than in groups exposed to OCPs. The long-term effect of the pesticide contamination of the environment on genetic status of the population was assessed by chromosomal aberration (CA) frequencies. The highest level of chromosomal aberrations was identified for the examined residents of Kyzylkairat (41%) and Belbulak (38%), a high level in Amangeldy (12%), and middle level in Beskainar (6.5%). The association between the CA frequency, health status and the pesticides contents in food were assessed by a Spearman rank correlation. The low indicators of somatic health status were strictly associated with high levels of CA, and good health status indicates that the CA rates did not exceed the spontaneous level of mutagenesis. The strongest correlation was shown between high levels of chromosomal aberrations and the content of different pesticides in pears (Cr = 0.979-0.467), tomatoes (Cr = 0.877-0.476), cucumbers (Cr = 0.975-0.553) and meat (Cr = 0.839-0.368). The obtained results highlight the need to improve health protection by increasing the public awareness to the security of the storage of obsolete OCPs in order to strengthen food safety by efficient control services.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Aldrina/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieldrin/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Hexaclorocicloexano , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110913, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800248

RESUMO

Soil is considered as a sink for heavy metals. Human health is severely affected by the continuous intake of toxic heavy metals even in a very low concentration. In the present experiment, we determined the influence of nutritional status including control (fasted condition), glucose (fed state), plant protein (fed state), animal protein (fed state) and calcium (fed state) on soil cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) bioaccessibility using physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) method together with simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) model. The bioaccessibility of Cd was 1.06-73.58%, 0.44-54.79% and 0-17.78% and Cu was 3.81-67.32%, 4.98-71.14%, and 0-17.54% in the phase-I, phase-II and Phase-III respectively (in this study gastric phase, small intestinal phase and colon phase were considered as phase-I, phase-II and Phase-III respectively). The outcomes showed that, the average Cd bioaccessibility was higher with animal protein addition compared with other treatments in different phases. So, the effect of animal protein on Cd bioaccessibility was higher than other treatments in the phase-I, phase-II and phase-III. Due to the addition of plant protein, the higher average bioaccessibility of Cu was noticed in phase-I and phase-II in comparison to other treatments. However, in phase-III, the higher average bioaccessibility of Cu was found due to control treatment comparing with other treatments. Therefore, the influence of plant protein was higher than other nutrients on Cu bioaccessibility in the phase-I and phase-II. Moreover, other nutrients showed variable influence on Cd and Cu bioaccessibility. So, nutritional status has a significant effect on bioaccessibility as well as human health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Intestinos/química , Metais Pesados , Nutrientes , Solo
10.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111109, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854897

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HM) pollution is a major limitation to the application of composting products. Therefore, mitigating the toxicity of HM has attracted wide attention during composting. The toxicity of HM is mainly acted on microorganisms during composting, and the toxicity of different HM speciation is obviously various. There are many pathways to change the speciation to reduce the toxicity during composting. Therefore, in this review, the speciation distribution, toxicity mechanism and remediation ways of HM during composting were discussed in order to better solve HM pollution. The microbial remediation technology holds enormous potential to remediate for HM without damaging composting, however, it is hard to extract HM. The innovation of this review was to outline microbial remediation strategies for HM during composting based on two mechanisms of microbial remediation: extracellular adsorption and intracellular sequestration, to solve the problem how to extract microbial agents from the compost. Ultimately, a novel theoretical method of microbial remediation was proposed to remove HM from the compost.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Solo
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111427, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753211

RESUMO

Tidal flat is an important supplementary land resource. However, increasing tidal flat reclamation in China has resulted in severe environmental issues. Using single-metal pollution index and multi-metal Nemerow pollution index, this study aimed to evaluate the risks of heavy metal pollution among different tidal flat use types, including fish farm, farmland, pastoral land, industrial land, forest and unutilized land. The results indicated that, concentrations of all elements were higher than geochemical values; Cd posed the highest risk, followed by As and Ni. Fish farm created the highest risk, followed by farmland. Every one year increase in fish farming led to increases in sediment concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn and As by 0.73, 1.25, 0.68, 0.41, 1.22 and 0.20 mg.kg-1, respectively. Tidal flat reclamation in Jiangsu Province creates the risk of heavy metal pollution, and specific attention should be paid to the fodders and additives used in fish farming.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Solo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140097, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some studies have suggested that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induces neurodevelopmental disturbances in children and neurodegeneration in animals, the neurotoxic effect of PAH exposure is unclear in adults. The aim was to examine the associations of PAH exposure with brain structure and neuropsychological function in adults without known neurological diseases. METHODS: This study included 421 men and 528 women dwelling in four cities in the Republic of Korea. Urinary concentrations of four PAH metabolites (1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 2-hydroxyfluorene) were obtained. Participants underwent brain 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests. Cortical thickness and volume were estimated using the region-of-interest method. Separate generalized linear models were constructed for each sex, adjusting for age, years of education, cohabitation status, income, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and vascular risk factors. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) age was 68.3 (6.6) years in men and 66.4 (6.1) years in women. In men, those in quartile 4 (versus quartile 1, the lowest) of urinary 2-naphthol concentration had cortical thinning in the global (ß = -0.03, P = .02), parietal (ß = -0.04, P = .01), temporal (ß = -0.06, P < .001), and insular lobes (ß = -0.05, P = .02). Higher quartiles of urinary 2-naphthol concentration were associated with cortical thinning in the global (P = .01), parietal (P = .004), temporal (P < .001), and insular lobes (P = .01). In women, those in quartile 4 (versus quartile 1) of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration had cortical thinning in the frontal (ß = -0.03, P = .006) and parietal lobes (ß = -0.03, P = .003). Higher quartiles of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration were associated with cortical thinning in the frontal (P = .006) and parietal lobes (P = .001). In both sexes, verbal learning and memory scores significantly declined with an increase in quartile of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration. CONCLUSIONS: PAH exposure was associated with cortical thinning and decline in verbal learning and memory function in cognitively healthy adults. This suggests PAHs as an environmental risk factor for neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708953

RESUMO

The world is currently shadowed by the pandemic of COVID-19. Confirmed cases and the death toll has reached more than 12 million and more than 550,000 respectively as of 10 July 2020. In the unsettling pandemic of COVID-19, the whole Earth has been on an unprecedented lockdown. Social distancing among people, interrupted international and domestic air traffic and suspended industrial productions and economic activities have various far-reaching and undetermined implications on air quality and the climate system. Improvement in air quality has been reported in many cities during lockdown, while the death rate of COVID-19 has been found to be higher in more polluted cities. The relationship between the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and air quality is under investigation. In addition, the battle against COVID-19 could bring short-lived and long-lasting and positive and negative impacts to the warming climate. The impacts on the climate system and the role of the climate in modulating the COVID-19 pandemic are the foci of scientific inquiry. The intertwined relationship among environment, climate change and public health is exemplified in the pandemic of COVID-19. Further investigation of the relationship is imperative in the Anthropocene, in particular, in enhancing disaster preparedness. This short article intends to give an up-to-date glimpse of the pandemic from air quality and climate perspectives and calls for a follow-up discussion.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública
14.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 125-129, maio-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116382

RESUMO

As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a graduação em Medicina no Brasil destacam que os profissionais de saúde devem estar aptos para realizar ações de promoção, prevenção, reabilitação e proteção em saúde, nas quais a Vigilância em Saúde desempenha papel fundamental. Nesse contexto, este relato de experiência aborda uma estratégia ativa de ensino que visa, por meio de um júri simulado, aplicar conceitos de Vigilância em Saúde (Epidemiológica, Sanitária e Ambiental); fomentar a discussão técnica sobre sua atuação; e discutir vigilância, risco e mitigação do risco em situações de desastres. A atividade foi realizada dentro da disciplina de Saúde Coletiva com participação de 60 discentes do quinto período do curso de medicina e 2 docentes, duração de 4 horas e teve como situação problema o rompimento da barragem do município de Mariana em 2015 e os danos à saúde da população dessa área. Para melhor organização do júri simulado e para assegurar a participação ativa do maior número de discentes nas discussões, os alunos foram divididos nas seguintes funções: júri popular, escrivães, acusação, defesa, testemunhas e peritos. Além disso, as arguições deveriam ser respaldas por literatura científica e aplicar os conceitos epidemiológicos, sanitários e ambientais na situação proposta. Assim, este júri simulado busca aprimorar o processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Vigilância em Saúde por meio de uma atividade prática sobre sua atuação, que ressalte a participação do médico nessa esfera da saúde pública.


The National Curricular Guidelines for medical graduation in Brazil emphasizes that physicians should be able to develop health promotion, prevention, rehabilitation, and protective actions in which Health Surveillance plays a pivotal role. Thereby, this experience report addresses an active teaching strategy that aims, through a simulated jury, at applying the concepts of Health Surveillance (Epidemiological, Sanitary, and Environmental); promoting the technical discussion about its roles; and discussing health surveillance, risk, and risk mitigation in disaster situations. The activity is part of the Public Health discipline, and it was developed with 60 medical students from the fifth period and 2 teachers. The jury lasted 4 hours and the topic was the rupture of a tailing dam in the city of Mariana in 2015, addressing the damages to the health of the population. For better organization of the simulated jury and to ensure the participation of the largest number of students, they were divided into the following roles: popular jury, clerks, prosecution, defense, witnesses, and criminal investigators. In addition, the arguments should be supported by scientific literature and should also apply epidemiological, health and environmental concepts. Thus, this simulated jury sought to improve the teaching-learning process in Health Surveillance with a practical activity about its duties and highlight the importance and the role of physicians in this public health area.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/métodos , Colapso Estrutural/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes de Medicina/classificação , Ensino/educação , Vigilância Sanitária/normas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Saúde da População/história , Aprendizagem/ética
15.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110873, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721316

RESUMO

Metals are key materials extensively employed in several industries to produce technological and daily-life products. The mining industry that produces such commodities generates Tons of waste that if not remediated can be transferred to the surrounding environment, thus representing a water, air, and soil pollution threat. In this work, we evaluated the feasibility of microbial sulfate reduction (SR) as a management strategy for this waste. Mine tailings were sampled from two abandoned mining sites located in Sonora (northwestern Mexico) and treated in anaerobic microcosms under SR conditions using anaerobic sludge as the inoculum at two different tailing:inoculum ratios (TIR). Major TIR's were found to be the triggering factor for the highest SR activities observed (73.6 ± 8.8 mg SO42- L-1 day-1). This stimulation was linked to the dissolution of sulfate bearing minerals (anglesite, jarosite, and gypsum) which provided additional sulfate for microbial activity. However, under this condition, longer lag phases for SR were observed, which was potentially due to pH inhibition at early incubation stages (pH ~3.7). Despite this, all biologically SR performing treatments presented important sulfide precipitation which was associated to changes in the mineralogy of the mine tailings. Metals of environmental concern such as As, Cd, Co, Cr and, Pb were detected to have shifted from the aqueous extractable phase to the bound to Fe and Mn oxides and residual phases. This finding was in accordance with the non-detectable concentrations of these metals in the aqueous phase by the end of the biological treatment which proved the effectiveness of this approach. This study provides insights into the promising potential of anaerobic microbes for the environmental management of mine tailings.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , México , Mineração
16.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110881, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721320

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, as demand for minerals and metals has increased, the amount and volume of wastes and tailings has also increased dramatically. The management and reuse of mineral wastes and tailings not only help protect the environment but also are properly associated with economic benefits. As a result, mineral processing wastes disposal and storage has become a global issue. Along with the use of cemented paste as a backfill in underground spaces, the use of mineral processing wastes in the construction industry or as a substitute for cement is one of the new approaches to mineral tailings management. It is worth noting that the cement industry is facing crucial environmental issues. Portland cement production in industries increases the greenhouse effect and creates acidic rain. In fact, it generates greenhouse gases directly through carbon dioxide emission during clinker production as well as through energy consumption. In addition, the increasing stringency of environmental regulations has forced the mining industries to make efforts in order to manage tailings. One of the new and attractive techniques to reduce environmental problems and to obtain economic and technological benefits is to increase the use of tailings, for example, the use of mineral tailings as a substitute for cement. It is important to note that mineral tailings are not normally cemented and are accompanied by reduced strength of cement and concrete mortars; thus, there is a need for methods to increase their cementitious properties. Activation is one of the methods improving cementitious/pozzolanic properties of mineral tailings. Therefore, the present review study aimed to investigate the activation methods to improve the properties of tailings resulted from minerals processing in order to be used as a replacement for cement, to reduce the pollution caused by cement production, as well as to reduce the volume of unused mineral tailings. Different physical, chemical, and thermal activation methods were examined, and criticisms and research gaps of previous studies were presented.


Assuntos
Chuva Ácida , Materiais de Construção , Poluição Ambiental , Minerais
17.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110893, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721330

RESUMO

Trade-related CO2 emissions has been widely studied in existing research and them have mainly calculated the CO2 emissions embodied in overall trade; however, China's domestic value chain (DVC) has developed rapidly, and different regions have different emissions effects due to different trade patterns. This study divides Chinese interregional trade into four trade patterns from the perspective of domestic production fragmentation. Then we develop a decomposition model of the interregional trade-related CO2 emissions and pollution heaven hypothesis (PHH) of different trade patterns based on China's interregional input-output table for 2002 to 2010. Finally, we explore the influencing factors of the changes of environmental effects using structural decomposition analysis method. The results show that from 2002 to 2010, the volume of CO2 emissions embodied in interregional trade increased significantly with the share of CO2 emissions induced by traditional trade in intermediate products always representing a major proportion but which still underwent a downward trend. Interregional trade activities increase China's CO2 emissions, and the PHH holds at the national level. Among them, trade in final products is conducive to reducing national CO2 emissions while the other three patterns of interregional trade are opposite. In particular, the balance of avoided CO2 emissions (BAC) in trade related to the DVC is positive, meaning that the DVC is polluting. In addition, domestic trade activities of the central region, northwestern region, and northern coast are not conducive to reducing regional and national CO2 emissions while the southern coast and northeastern region are opposite.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , China , Clima
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 535, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696188

RESUMO

The information about concentration, sources, and pollution degree of heavy metals belong to deposited dust (DS) can be used for decision-making in air quality control, removal role of green space, and urban forest management. The objectives of the study were to identify and evaluate DS pollution degree with the introduction of a new index. DS samples were collected from five tree species. The concentration of heavy metals and pollution degree of DS were evaluated by enrichment factors (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), modified degrees of contamination (mCd), and a new comprehensive index as weighted degree of contamination factor (wCd). The values of EF showed that all samples were significant to extremely high enrichment and DS samples were emitted from anthropogenic activities. Igeo values indicated that DS samples were polluted by Cd (80-97%) and Pb (100%). In addition, mCd results showed more than 67% of samples were unpolluted. There was a clear fact that Igeo results showed high pollution levels for Pb, Cd, and low for Ni, and the mCd results were incompatible with them. When all heavy metals were used without their importance to mCd, calculation can cause bias from reality. For this reason, the new index was suggested as wCd for all heavy metals that its results showed high to very high degree of pollution and that it was compatible with other indices results.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111370, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658713

RESUMO

The spatiotemporal variation, seasonal variation, and potential ecological risk of eight heavy metals (HMs) in the Meishan Bay (MSB) a new artificial lagoon -from 2014 to 2019 were investigated. The levels of As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn in winter were higher than in other seasons, Hg in winter and summer were higher than in other seasons, while Cd in summer and spring (wet season) were the highest. The seasonal distribution of HMs was mainly affected by particle size, anthropogenic sources, rainfall, and water characteristics. The concentrations of these HMs showed a general downward trend, while Hg showed an upward trend from2014 to 2019. Higher levels of HMs were found outside the North dyke and some sluice gates. The sources of Cd, Zn, and Pb could be attributed to ship discharges and traffic exhaust, while pesticides and fertilizers were the main sources of Hg. Among all these HMs, Cd and Hg caused moderate pollution in the MSB.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 512, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661589

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to analyze the difference in ways in which metals polluting Brazilian port areas influence bacterial communities and the selection of resistant strains. The hypothesis tested was that port areas would have microbial communities significantly different from a pristine area, mainly due to a greater load of metals found in these areas. Sediment samples were collected in two port areas (Santos and São Sebastião) and one pristine area (Ubatuba). Total DNA was extracted and MiSeq sequencing was performed. A hundred strains were isolated from the same samples and were tested for metal resistance. The community composition was similar in the two port regions, but differed from the pristine area. Microbial diversity was significantly lower in the port areas. The phyla Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Thermodesulfobacteria exhibited positive correlations with copper and zinc concentrations. Chloroflex, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, and Chlorobi exhibited negative correlations with copper, chromium, and zinc. Cr and Zn had higher concentrations at port areas and were responsible to select more metal-resistant strains. Some genera were found to be able to easily develop metal resistance. The most isolated genera were Bacillus, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas. This type of study can illustrate, even in very complex natural environments, the influence of pollution on the community as a whole and the consequences of these changes.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Microbiota , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Microbiologia do Solo
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