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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124922, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563718

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of soil heavy metals, macronutrients, texture and pH as well as plant species richness and composition on soil respiration, enzymatic activity, microbial biomass, metabolic quotient (qCO2) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at sites of historical Zn-Pb mining. The study was conducted both on a large scale (65 heaps scattered over the area of 750 km2) and on a small scale (25 plots along two 48 m transects extending from heaps to adjacent fallow fields). Total concentrations of metals exceeded 400 (Cd), 20,000 (Pb) and 80,000 (Zn) mg kg-1 at the most polluted sites. Although they decreased along the heap-fallow direction, they still remained above environmental standards in fallow soils. In contrast, some soluble metal forms increased with the increasing distance from heaps. Soil organic matter had the strongest positive effect on most microbial parameters. Total and/or available heavy metals exhibited significant negative effects on microbial biomass, enzymatic activity and AMF, and a positive effect on qCO2. Organic matter alleviated negative effects of heavy metals on microorganisms; they were not observed where the increase in the contamination was accompanied by the increase in organic matter content. Plant species richness affected positively enzymatic activity and mycorrhization level. Plant species composition possibly contributed to the formation of soil microbial communities, but its effect was entangled in that of heavy metals as plant communities changed along pollution gradients (from metal-tolerant grasslands dominated by Festuca ovina to calcareous grasslands and ruderal communities at less polluted sites).


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/análise , Festuca/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Festuca/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Chumbo/análise , Microbiota , Mineração , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Zinco/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124496, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505446

RESUMO

Electrical resistance heating (ERH) is a promising thermal remediation method for treating volatile soil pollutants. However, the remediation of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) based on lab-scale ERH devices must be extensively studied to determine the factors affecting the remediation. Therefore, this study used a lab-scale ERH equipment to investigate the influence factors of ERH, PAH removal efficiency, and changes in soil properties through the treatment process. The results suggested that moisture and salinity were basic factors affecting electric conductive capability; heating 15 g of soil to the target temperature required at least 4 g solution of 0.1% salt. Meanwhile, higher electric strength can ensure heating efficiency and maximum temperature. The removal efficiency of PAHs, which is highly related to boiling point, was significantly affected by its benzene rings and bond structure; during 90 min ERH treatment, more than 40% of the pollutants were removed synchronously with the evaporation of water. Hence, co-boiling with water was confirmed to be the primary mechanism of ERH. The influence of the treatment on soil properties (organic matter, particle size, fertility, enzymatic activity) was limited, suggesting that soil functionality can be retained by ERH.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Impedância Elétrica , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura de Transição
3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124600, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446277

RESUMO

A high-gravity rotating packed bed (HiGee RPB) is very efficient at removing pollution because it exerts a strong high centrifugal and allows tiny droplets to form, which allows the control of gaseous and particulate air pollution. In this study, fine particles that are removed from integrated circuit (IC) chip carbonization process using a RPB are evaluated under different high gravity factors and liquid-to-gas ratios. The greatest number of particles captured per energy consumption is 17.77 mg kWh-1 in a RPB. This allow greater energy efficiency for the HiGee technology prevents an air-energy nexus. The maximum available particle removal efficiency for a RPB is determined using a response surface model (RSM). 99.5% of particles are removed at a high gravity factor of 262 and a liquid-to-gas ratio of 0.24. A semi-theoretical model is developed to determine the particle removal efficiency individually in packing and cavity zones of the RPB. More particles are removed in a cavity zone than in the packing zone as the high gravity factor increases. An empirical model shows that the particle removal efficiency depends on the operating factors. Finally, a comparison analysis of particulate matter treatment in various types of RPB is used to validate the performance in terms of particle removal using high-gravity technology for different industries.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Carbono , Centrifugação/métodos , Gases , Tamanho da Partícula
4.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124657, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473526

RESUMO

This study investigates the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil using activated persulfate (PS) with ultrasound (US) and US/Fe. Various controlling factors including different PS dosage, ultrasonic power, pH, soil water ratio and soil particle size were considered. It was found that petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency achieved up to 56.41% and 82.23% in US/PS and US/Fe/PS system, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the reaction rate of US/Fe/PS system was faster than US/PS system and the degradation efficiency enhanced significantly with the increasing ultrasonic power. Changing initial solution pH influenced the petroleum hydrocarbon reaction rate and the best performance would be achieved at pH of 5. The present work identified the main components of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in shale gas sites. The mechanism of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation on US/Fe/PS system were analyzed.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos da radiação , Gás Natural , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos da radiação , Sulfatos/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Poluentes Químicos da Água
5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124557, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422311

RESUMO

Field-collected chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soils and associated particulate matter (PM) were characterized for their total metal(loid)s content (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and physicochemical properties. Copper, Ni, Pb and Zn fractionation (using sequential extraction) and inhalation bioaccessibility (using two lung fluids) of trace elements were assessed in PM samples. In Gamble's solution (GS), low average bioaccessibility (up to 12%) was observed for As, Cu, Mn, and Ni. A strong correlation (r = 0.92, p < 0.005, n = 9) between the soluble and exchangeable fraction (F1) and bioaccessibility in GS was observed for Cu. Inhalation bioaccessibility in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) was higher for Cu (avg. 78.5 ± 4.2%), Mn (avg. 56.8 ± 12.1%), Zn (avg. 54.8 ± 24.5%) and As (avg. 45.4 ± 18.8%). Strong correlations between inhalation bioaccessibility in ALF and the mobile (i.e. F1+F2) metal fraction were observed for all tested metals (i.e. (Cu (r = 0.95, p < 0.005), Ni (r = 0.79, p < 0.05), Pb (r = 0.92, p < 0.005) and Zn (r = 0.98, p < 0.005)), n = 9). The oxidative potential (OP) of PM was also assessed using an ascorbate (AA) depletion assay (OPAA). Mobile Cu fractions were deemed to be the main factor influencing OPAA ((F1 (r = 0.99, p < 0.005), F2 (r = 0.97, p < 0.005)), n = 9) in PM samples. A strong correlation (r = 0.94, p < 0.005, n = 10) was also observed between Cu bioaccessibility in GS and OPAA.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pulmão/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Arseniatos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Oxirredução , Material Particulado/química
6.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124685, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521928

RESUMO

This review provides a summary of the levels and profiles of PCDD/Fs throughout China, as reported in peer reviewed literatures since 1997. The literature shows that PCDD/Fs are widespread in various environmental media including air, water, sediment, and soil. PCDD/Fs concentrations in air were relatively low in most regions, with only a few areas considered polluted. Many studies reported seasonal trends, with higher and lower concentrations in winter and summer, respectively. We analyzed the factors affecting the concentrations of dioxins in air and summarized the causes of seasonal changes. As hydrophobic organic compounds, PCDD/Fs readily accumulate in sediments. The distribution of dioxins in sediment in Bohai Sea area was mainly introduced and the factors affecting concentrations of dioxins were studied. The levels of dioxins in soil in different regions varied greatly, with higher levels in areas close to pollution sources. We examined the dioxins concentrations in soil in places where the levels were very low (including the Tibet Plateau and other remote areas), contaminated areas, and other areas. Apart from the contaminated areas, the dioxins concentrations in soil were low. The results of the relatively low number of studies that have investigated PCDD/Fs in water have reported no obvious pollution in some waters, apart from Dongting Lake. PCDD/Fs levels across China are similar to those worldwide. Point sources, mainly related to local geographic, economic, and historical factors, were the most common source of contamination. E-waste dismantling and chemical production has the greatest impact on PCDD/Fs in different media.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Solo/química , Tibet
7.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124624, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472353

RESUMO

The capacity of two iron-based nanomaterials, namely goethite nanospheres (nGoethite) and zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), to immobilize As in a polluted soil was evaluated and compared. The composition and morphology of the products were studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis and transmission electron microscopy, while zeta potential and average sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering. To assess As immobilization, soil subsamples were treated with nGoethite or nZVI at a range of Fe doses (0.5%, 2%, 5% and 10%) and then studied by the TCLP test and the Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The influence of both nanoparticles on As speciation was determined, as was impact on soil pH, electrical conductivity, Fe availability and phytotoxicity (watercress germination). For nZVI, notable results were achieved at a dose of 2% (89.5% decrease in As, TCLP test), and no negative effects on soil parameters were detected. Indeed, even soil phytotoxicity was reduced and only at the highest dose was a slight increase in As3+ detected. In contrast, excellent results were obtained for nGoethite at the lowest dose (0.2%) (82.5% decrease in As, TCLP test); however, soil phytotoxicity was increased at higher doses, probably due to a marked enhancement of electrical conductivity. For both types of nanoparticle, slight increases in Fe availability were observed. Thus, our results show that both nZVI and nGoethite have the capacity to effectively immobilize As in this brownfield. The use of lower doses of nGoethite emerges as a promising soil remediation strategy for soils affected by As pollution.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Ferro/química , Compostos de Ferro/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Minerais/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
8.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124700, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524602

RESUMO

An eight-year field trial was conducted to investigate the effects of four different N fertilization treatments of urea (CO(NH2)2, the control), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), and ammonium hydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2HPO4]) on cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in rice and soil microbial communities in a Cd-contaminated paddy of southern China. The results demonstrate that the different N treatments exerted different effects: the application of (NH4)2HPO4 and (NH4)2SO4 significantly increased rice grain yield and decreased soil-extractable Cd content when compared with those of the control, while NH4Cl had a converse effect. Expression of genes related to Cd uptake (IRT and NRAPM genes) and transport (HMA genes) by roots may be responsible for Cd phytotoxicity in rice grown in the different N fertilization treatments. Our results further demonstrate that N fertilization had stronger effects on soil bacterial communities than fungal communities. The bacterial and fungal keystone species were identified by phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN) analysis and mainly fell into the categories of Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria for the bacterial species and Ascomycota for the fungal species; all of these keystone species were highly enriched in the (NH4)2HPO4 treatment. Soil pH and soil available-Cd content emerged as the major determinants of microbial network connectors. These results could provide effective fertilizing strategies for alleviating Cd phytotoxicity in rice and enhance the understanding of its underlying microbial mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Acidobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Cloreto de Amônio/química , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Grão Comestível/química , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Oryza/microbiologia , Fosfatos/química , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ureia/química
9.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124706, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493754

RESUMO

The remediation effect of organic acids in heavy metal contaminated soil was widely studied. However, the comprehensive evaluation of organic acids on micro-ecological environment in heavy metal contaminated soil was less known. Herein, this experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid on soil fertility, cadmium (Cd) speciation and ecotoxicity in contaminated soil. Especially, to evaluate the ecotoxicity of Cd, high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the soil bacterial community structure and diversity after incubation with organic acids. The results showed that obvious changes in soil pH were not observed. Whereas, the contents of available phosphorus (Olsen-P) and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (Alkeline-N) evidently increased with a significant difference. Furthermore, compared to control, the proportion of acetic acid-extractable Cd increased by 3.06-6.63%, 6.11-9.43% and 1.91-6.22% respectively in the groups amended with malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid, which indicated that citric acid did better in improving the availability of Cd than malic acid and oxalic acid. In terms of biological properties, citric acid did best in bacteria count increase, enzyme activities and bacterial community structure improvement. Accordingly, these results provided a better understanding for the influence of organic acids on the micro-ecological environment in Cd contaminated soil, based on physicochemical and biological analysis.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Ecotoxicologia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Malatos/química , Malatos/farmacologia , Ácido Oxálico/química , Ácido Oxálico/farmacologia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124809, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527008

RESUMO

Honey is a highly nutritious natural product widely produced and consumed by people in Shirak and Syunik regions of Armenia. Unlike Shirak, Syunik is under the impact of mining industry. Since the environmental pollution can adversely impact the safety of honey and entail a probable risk to human health, it is important to evaluate the presence of potentially toxic trace elements in honey samples from both regions and draw comparisons. This study assesses the dietary exposure to trace elements and persistent organic pollutants through the intake of honey for the first time among people in Shirak and Syunik regions. 24-hour dietary recall method was used to investigate the consumption of honey. The presence of seven trace elements (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Ni) and persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites) were determined in honey samples using atomic absorption spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. In several samples, the concentrations of Cu were above the maximum allowable level. Non-carcinogenic risk values did not exceed the acceptable level, while carcinogenic risk values for Ni and As exceeded the risk level of 10-6 in both regions. Moreover, among the persistent organic pollutants, only the concentration of DDT in honey from Shirak was above the European Union maximum residue level.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , DDT/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Mel/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Oligoelementos/análise , Armênia , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Mel/toxicidade , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Espectrofotometria
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 46, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844991

RESUMO

A by-product of industrialization and population growth, automobile scrap yards are a potential source of metal contamination in soil. This study evaluated the use of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry and magnetic susceptibility (χ) analysis in assessing metal soil contamination in scrap yards located in Brazil. Five automobile scrap yards were selected in Curitiba, Paraná State (CB1, CB2, and CB3) and Lavras, Minas Gerais State (LV1 and LV2). By evaluating metal concentrations and geoaccumulation index values, we verified moderate Cu, Pb, and Zr contamination and moderate to high Zn contamination, primarily in the topsoil (0-10 cm). Soil Zn concentrations in automobile scrap yards were on average four times higher than in reference soils, suggesting that galvanized automobile parts may be the primary source of this soil contaminant. Although other elements (i.e., As, Cr, Fe, Nb, Ni, and Y) were slightly increased compared to reference values in one or more soils, concentrations did not constitute contamination. Automobile scrap yard topsoil had higher χ values (5.8 to 52.9 × 10-7 m3 kg-1) at low frequency (χlf) compared to reference soil (3.6 to 7.5 × 10-7 m3 kg-1). The highest values of χlf occurred in LV soils, which also represented the highest Zn contamination. Magnetic multidomain characteristics (percent frequency-dependent susceptibility between 2 and 10) indicated magnetic particle contributions of anthropogenic origin. The use of pXRF and χlf as non-destructive techniques displays potential for identifying soil contamination in automobile scrap yards.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 775, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773280

RESUMO

This study investigated the concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of Oji River due to point sources of pollution from abattoir and power plant and determined the ecological and human health risks associated with the PAHs in the sediments. Oji River in Nigeria receives contaminants from anthropogenic activities relating to waste tires used in singeing cow meats in abattoir and preparing hides and skin for local consumption. It also receives contaminants from power distribution station where the defunct coal power plant used to be situated. These activities have the potential to release polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that could accumulate in the river sediments. The PAHs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This study found that the abattoir is responsible for the occurrence of benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in the sediments around the abattoir. The occurrence and distribution of PAHs around the area affected by the power station was profound as among all the 16 priority PAHs; only naphthalene benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were not detected. The five-member ring PAHs were predominant in this section of the river affected by power station. Ecological risks of the PAHs due to the effects of the power station are significant. The total toxicity equivalence (TEQ) of the PAHs upstream the abattoir is insignificant but significant around the abattoir and within the area impacted by the power station. The values of the hazard index (HI) and risk index (RI) indicate insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risks in all the locations except the area within the influence of the power station where there are insignificant non-carcinogenic risks but significant carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Centrais Elétricas , Rios/química , Matadouros/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Mineral , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Nigéria , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Centrais Elétricas/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 713, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676983

RESUMO

Environmental pollution has received considerable attention over the last 50 years. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in pollution of the Nile Delta, Egypt, which is one of the longest settled deltaic systems in the world. Pollution in the delta is increasingly recognized as a serious health concern that requires proper management of ecosystems. Therefore, this project aimed to study the distribution and assess the risk associated with selected trace elements (TEs) in different soils (i.e., marine, fluvial, and lacustrine parent materials) in the northern Nile Delta. Mehlich-3 extraction was used to determine the availability of antimony, vanadium, strontium, and molybdenum in agro-ecosystems in this area and their spatial distributions were investigated. Five indices were used to assess ecological risk. Results showed that TEs were higher in the southern part of the study area because it is affected by multiple pollution sources. The available concentrations of TEs were Sr < V < Sb < Mo. The bioavailability of Sr was highest among the studied TEs. The studied indices suggested the study area was moderately polluted by Sr and Sb. Furthermore, the results showed that marine soils had higher TE levels then lacustrine and fluvial soils. The ecological risk assessment indicated that V and Mo were of natural origin, while Sr and Sb were anthropogenically linked. Therefore, the situation calls for planning to reduce pollution sources, especially in the protected north Nile Delta, so these productive soils do not threaten human and ecological health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Antimônio , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ecossistema , Egito , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Molibdênio , Medição de Risco
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 691, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667628

RESUMO

This study identified specific emission sources of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of two secondary iron and steel smelting factories in Osun state, southwestern Nigeria, using transplanted biomonitors. A total of 120 biomonitors consisting of lichen and moss were grown under a controlled environment and later transplanted to the surroundings of each factory for monitoring of air pollutants for 3 months in both wet and dry seasons. The elemental contents (K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr) of the biomonitors were determined by X-ray florescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The source identification was performed by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modelling approach using the elemental data set from the two smelters. Among the measured elements, Fe had the highest average concentration in the lichen and moss samples as well as in both seasons. The average concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Br were low. The varying average elemental concentrations of lichen and moss reflect the pattern of impact of smelting on atmospheric airborne pollution around the factories. The four factors resolved by PMF and their respective contributions were metal processing (39.0%), Fe source (28.0%), crustal/soil (22.0%) and road dust (11.0%) for moss and Fe source (34.0%), crustal/soil (26.0%), coal combustion (25.0%) and road dust (15.0%) for lichen. The study showcases lichen and moss as cheaper and yet efficient uninterrupted monitoring tools of air pollution sources associated with iron and steel smelting industrial activities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metalurgia , Aço , Poluição do Ar/análise , Briófitas/química , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro/análise , Líquens/química , Nigéria , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 748, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724064

RESUMO

The Indus Basin Irrigation Network (IBIN) plays a vital role in the agricultural system of Pakistan, irrigating seventeen million hectares of cultivated areas. Rapid urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural activities along the Indus basin have influenced the soil quality and human health; it is, therefore, critical to know its pollution characteristics. Soil samples from Indus basin, i.e., Abbottabad (ABT), Haripur (HRP), Attock (ATC), and Islamabad (ISB) have been analyzed for the total contents of potentially toxic metal(loid)s (PTMs) in the top layer. The topsoil samples from 0 to 10 cm depth have been further investigated using different pollution indices and human health risk assessment models. The contamination degree of soil pollution was highest in ISB (33.75), followed by ABT (25.30) and ATC (23.57). The assessment of the daily intake of PTMs by children and adults through different pathways revealed ingestion as the significant exposure pathway. Cr was found to be the major element posing non-carcinogenic health risks to children at ATC whereas the non-carcinogenic risks posed by all other PTMs were within the safe limit. Furthermore, life-time carcinogenic risks for Ni followed by Cr and Cd were greatly exceeded at all locations and As at ATC and ISB for both age groups, but comparatively children were found to be at a higher risk of carcinogenicity. Hence, efficient remediation strategies are needed to reduce the increasing content and health risks of PTMs in the Indus basin.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Criança , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Medição de Risco , Solo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34448-34458, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637612

RESUMO

In the present (twenty-first) century, the pertinent challenge of attaining the regime of food security with low pollution amidst the drive for sustainable economy and energy efficiency is core to governance and intergovernmental agencies. Therefore, in an attempt to investigate environmental issues among the coastline Mediterranean countries (CMCs) for the first time, the current study examines the dynamic long-run nexus of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions with food production and inflation rate over the annual period 1995-2014. Using a dynamic Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach, the consumption of renewable energy in the panel of sixteen (16) CMCs is empirically observed to be an efficient policy vehicle for mitigating CO2 emissions. Also, in all the examined CMCs, consumption of renewables is observed to cause significant decline in CO2 emissions, thus securing a sustainable environment. However, in the long run and in the panel of CMCs, the study reveals that increase in food production (a drive toward food security) increases environmental risk. Additionally, the study found that high inflation regime in the panel CMCs is associated with low CO2 emissions especially in the long-run, thus necessitating efficient policy mechanism. In adopting the genetic resources of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources, as well as employing price control policy, the members of the CMCs might have unearthed a suitable policy directive in effectively sustaining environmental quality.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Alimentos , Região do Mediterrâneo
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34388-34400, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637616

RESUMO

This study empirically evaluates the impact of energy, environmental pollution, human capital, financial development, and physical capital on economic growth in countries like Brazil, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS-4) from 1981 to 2015. Relevant diagnostic tests, the Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (F.M.O.L.S.), Robust Least Squares (R.L.S.) methods, and the Dumitrescu-Hurlin Panel causality test are implemented for empirical investigation. The key outcomes from the F.M.O.L.S. and R.L.S. methods indicate that energy consumption, physical capital, human capital, and financial development contribute to economic growth, while environmental pollution attenuates economic growth. Moreover, the Dumitrescu-Hurlin Panel causality test results reveal about the bidirectional and unidirectional causality between energy consumption, environmental pollution, investment, human capital, and financial sector expansion and growth. Thus, based on the findings, this study recommend that the BRICS countries' policy makers need to formulate public policy to ensure adequate energy supply, enhance foreign investments, improve health sector, develop financial sector, and regulate environmental pollution to achieve sustainable development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Índia , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , África do Sul
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34401-34411, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637617

RESUMO

The peri-urban soil is exposed to pollutants because of its proximity to the city, which may influence the quality of agricultural products. In this study, the occurrence of 16 trace elements (TEs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 33 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was analyzed in two soil sites of the peri-urban area of Barcelona (Spain) (S2 and S3) and a pristine site (S1). Levels of Pb (S2 164 and S3 150 mg kg-1) are around 2.5 times higher than the guideline values. Values for Cu (178 mg kg-1) in S2 are 1.8-fold higher, whereas for Zn, levels are slightly above the threshold in S2 (208 mg kg-1) and S3 (217 mg kg-1). The total concentrations of PAHs are significantly below the limits: 24 ng g-1 dw (S1), 38 ng g-1 dw (S2), 49 ng g-1 dw (S3), whereas only some CECs are detected with low concentrations. We also developed a simple and rapid method to assess soil pollution. Here, we use two plant growth indexes (seed germination rate and root elongation at the initial stage) of three seeds (lettuce, tomato, and cauliflower) to assess soil chemical contamination on agriculture. In the peri-urban soil, the concentration of Pb was 2.5 times higher than the guideline values, whereas for Cu and Zn, values were slightly above their limits, while only few PAHs and CECs were detected. Results for principal component analysis suggest that root elongation is a more sensitive measurement endpoint than germination rate, especially for lettuce. The germination rate of tomato relied on the nitrate in the soil and decreased sharply in the site with pollution of Cu and As. Under the specific conditions of this study, cauliflower should not be recommended to assess environmental pollution due to its low sensitivity to pollutants. In conclusion, this is a low-cost, simple, and rapid method for evaluating the effects of chemical pollution of agriculture soils on seed growth.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Agricultura , Cidades , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Sementes/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espanha , Oligoelementos/análise
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 661, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650240

RESUMO

Though not litigable in most European countries, portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (pXRF) provide cost- and time-effective as well as prompt information about hot spots of inorganic soil contaminants. The quality of aqua regia analysis of contaminants can be approximated by a thorough sample preparation, i.e., homogenization, grinding, and sieving of the examined soil before pXRF measurement is carried out. However, elaborate sample preparation causes a trade-off in terms of the desired straightforwardness of the pXRF method. For a first assessment of the in situ accuracy of pXRF measurements, two equal pXRF devices were used in parallel to determine the contents of As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Zn, and Zr of 9 identical points of a riparian soil profile. Maximum measurement values were not restricted to one pXRF device, but changed from element to element. Pearson correlation coefficients of the parallel measurements varied between 0.07 (Cu) and 0.80 (Zn), reflecting small-scale heterogeneity of the soil constituents as well as element-specific interferences. For each element, overall deviations between measurement parallels were expressed as the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and contrasted against the element-specific information depth in soil, i.e., the depth interval, from which the received spectral signals originate. From this, a gradual relation could be derived: The greater the information depth, the more stable the measured element value turns out. This context should be taken into account, when interpreting contents of elements with small atomic numbers.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Europa (Continente) , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos
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