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2.
J Bras Pneumol ; 46(5): e20200183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027470

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the highly contagious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is probably systemic, has a major respiratory component, and is transmitted by person-to-person contact, via airborne droplets or aerosols. In the respiratory tract, the virus begins to replicate within cells, after which the host starts shedding the virus. The individuals recognized as being at risk for an unfavorable COVID-19 outcome are those > 60 years of age, those with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, those with hypertension, and those with chronic lung diseases, as well as those using chemotherapy, corticosteroids, or biological agents. Some studies have suggested that infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with other risk factors, such as smoking, external environmental pollution, and certain climatic conditions. The purpose of this narrative review was to perform a critical assessment of the relationship between COVID-19 and these potential risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997670

RESUMO

Sediment and soil contamination with toxic heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+), represents a major long-term remediation challenge. Resuspension of contaminated sediments into the water column, or the uptake of toxic metals from top soil, can lead to exposure of aquatic or terrestrial organisms, followed by bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and biomagnification, which may pose a threat to public health. We have developed a novel nanoscale engineered material, namely ligand-coated dense nanoparticles (Ligand DNPs), which contain a dense WO3 nanoparticle core and a shell functionalized with a metal-binding organic ligand (EDTA), to effectively sequester heavy metal ions deeper into the soil and sediments. We demonstrate that one application of Ligand DNPs can remove from 60% to almost 80% of the Cd and Pb in two different soil matrices, driving these metal ions deeper into the sediment or soil column via gravity, and making them less bioavailable. Ligand DNPs can provide a relatively fast, convenient, and efficient in-situ approach for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with heavy metals.


Assuntos
Quelantes/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/química , Óxidos/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Tungstênio/química , Engenharia Química , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ligantes , Metais Pesados/análise , Nanocompostos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Light pollution is increasingly an area of concern for health and quality of life research. Somewhat surprisingly, there are relatively few descriptions of perceptions of light pollution in the literature. The current study examined such perceptions in a Irish sample. METHODS: A survey was circulated as part of a citizen science initiative of a national newspaper; the survey included questions regarding night sky brightness and the impact of light at night on sleep and animal behaviour. Complete responses from 462 respondents were analysed. RESULTS: Urban location was, as anticipated, associated with reported brighter night skies, and public lighting was reported as the main source of light at night for urban settings, whilst neighbours' domestic lighting was the most commonly reported source for rural settings. Respondents from rural settings were more likely to report that light at night impinged on sleep, whilst city dwellers were more likely to report recent changes in wildlife behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Citizen science approaches may be useful in gathering data on public perceptions of light pollution and its impacts. In the current study, this perception was strongly influenced by location, highlighting the importance of assessing experiences and attitudes across a number of geographical settings.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Poluição Ambiental , Luz , Qualidade de Vida , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Luz/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3614, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681015

RESUMO

Larval metamorphosis and recruitment represent critical life-history transitions for most teleost fishes. While the detrimental effects of anthropogenic stressors on the behavior and survival of recruiting fishes are well-documented, the physiological mechanisms that underpin these patterns remain unclear. Here, we use pharmacological treatments to highlight the role that thyroid hormones (TH) play in sensory development and determining anti-predator responses in metamorphosing convict surgeonfish, Acanthurus triostegus. We then show that high doses of a physical stressor (increased temperature of +3 °C) and a chemical stressor (the pesticide chlorpyrifos at 30 µg L-1) induced similar defects by decreasing fish TH levels and affecting their sensory development. Stressor-exposed fish experienced higher predation; however, their ability to avoid predation improved when they received supplemental TH. Our results highlight that two different anthropogenic stressors can affect critical developmental and ecological transitions via the same physiological pathway. This finding provides a unifying mechanism to explain past results and underlines the profound threat anthropogenic stressors pose to fish communities.


Assuntos
Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Metamorfose Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127757, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726721

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most common RNA modifications in eukaryotes involved in the regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression, as well as the occurrence and development of diseases related to environmental exposures. Adverse factors produced by environmental exposures, such as reactive oxygen species, inflammation, and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, mediate m6A modification, thereby regulating downstream gene and protein expression, and signaling pathways, such as FTO/m6A RNA/p53 axis, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and PARP/METTL3/m6A RNA/Pol κ pathway. Moreover, an imbalance in m6A methylation levels directly mediates disease pathogenesis. To date, some studies have detailed the mechanisms underlying environmental exposure-mediated global changes in RNA m6A methylation. Based on our current understanding, we aimed to elaborate on the molecular mechanisms through which RNA m6A methylation regulates gene expression under environmental exposures. In this review, we outline the biogenesis and functions of RNA m6A modification. Furthermore, we focus on the effects of environmental exposures on m6A levels and highlight the relationships between environmental exposures (doses and time) and m6A levels. Although the molecular mechanisms regulating gene expression remains to be elucidated, m6A has potential applications as a disease biomarker.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Exposição Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA/genética , Adenosina/genética , Células Eucarióticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metilação , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(7): 540-546, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599638

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic affects people around the world. However, there have been striking differences in the number of infected individuals and deaths in different countries. Particularly, within Central Europe in countries that are similar in ethnicity, age, and medical standards and have performed similar steps of containment, such differences in mortality rates remain inexplicable. We suggest to consider and explore environmental factors to explain these intriguing variations. Countries like Northern Italy, France, Spain, and UK have suffered from 5 times more deaths from the corona virus infection than neighboring countries like Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and Denmark related to the size of their respective populations. There is a striking correlation between the level of environmental pollutants including pesticides, dioxins, and air pollution such as NO2 known to affect immune function and healthy metabolism with the rate of mortality in COVID-19 pandemic in these European countries. There is also a correlation with the use of chlorination of drinking water in these regions. In addition to the improvement of environmental protective programs, there are possibilities to lower the blood levels of these pollutants by therapeutic apheresis. Furthermore, therapeutic apheresis might be an effective method to improve metabolic inflammation, altered vascular perfusion, and neurodegeneration observed as long-term complications of COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Halogenação , Metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Água , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 816, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A great number of studies have confirmed that children are a particularly vulnerable population to air pollution. METHODS: In the present study, 332,337 outpatient visits of 15 hospitals for respiratory diseases among children (0-13 years), as well as the simultaneous meteorological and air pollution data, were obtained from 2014 to 2016 in Lanzhou, China. The generalized additive model was used to examine the effects of air pollutants on children's respiratory outpatient visits, including the stratified analysis of age, gender and season. RESULTS: We found that PM2.5, NO2 and SO2 were significantly associated with the increased total respiratory outpatient visits. The increments of total respiratory outpatient visits were the highest in lag 05 for NO2 and SO2, a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 and SO2 was associated with a 2.50% (95% CI: 1.54, 3.48%) and 3.50% (95% CI: 1.51, 5.53%) increase in total respiratory outpatient visits, respectively. Those associations remained stable in two-pollutant models. Through stratification analysis, all air pollutants other than PM10 were significantly positive associated with the outpatients of bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infection. Besides, both NO2 and SO2 were positively related to the pneumonia outpatient visits. PM2.5 and SO2 were significantly related to the outpatient visits of other respiratory diseases, while only NO2 was positively associated with the asthma outpatients. We found these associations were stronger in girls than in boys, particularly in younger (0-3 years) children. Interestingly, season stratification analysis indicated that these associations were stronger in the cold season than in the transition or the hot season for PM10, PM2.5 and SO2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the air pollution exposure may account for the increased risk of outpatient visits for respiratory diseases among children in Lanzhou, particularly for younger children and in the cold season.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Respiratórios/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia
11.
Mutat Res ; 853: 503170, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522350

RESUMO

We examined possible early-effect biomarkers and polymorphisms of susceptibility in primary school children living near the Atoyac River in central México, which receives waste from multiple industries. We observed a significant increase in micronucleated reticulocytes associated with the oxidative stress index (OSI) and the OGG1 GG (S326C) genotype, and a significant decrease of reticulocytes carrying the transferrin receptor, inversely correlated with OSI.


Assuntos
DNA Glicosilases/genética , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo Genético/efeitos dos fármacos , Reticulócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353047

RESUMO

Equipment manufacturing industry is one of the major industries of the Chinese economy. Previous researches have revealed that the industry has dilemmas of unreasonable industrial structure and high pollution. Using the data of 30 provinces in 2006-2015 in China, this study calculated a comprehensive pollution indicator when estimating the possible pollution reduction brought by the optimization of industrial structure and then evaluated the reasonable level of capital allocation of provinces and industries by using the methods of nonlinear programming and stochastic frontier method. Under the target of collaborative emission reduction, the results show that the optimized output of China's equipment manufacturing industry could be increased by 5.42%, the energy intensity could be reduced by about 10.4%, and the comprehensive emission intensity could be reduced by about 7.47%. Due to the industry heterogeneity and regional heterogeneity, industrial capacity should be transferred between industries and regions. Since the capital investment in the equipment manufacturing industry is significantly mismatched between industries and regions, the capital allocation of provincial industries in China needs to be adjusted properly. This study provides theoretically and practically reference for collaborative pollution reduction, industry restructure, spatial layout and capital investment, which contributes to achieving the stereoscopic optimization of equipment manufacturing industry.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Manufatureira/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/química , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 39, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As low- and middle-income countries urbanize and industrialize, they must also cope with pollution emitted from diverse sources. MAIN TEXT: Strong and consistent evidence associates exposure to air pollution and lead with increased risk of cardiovascular disease occurrence and death. Further, increasing evidence, mostly from high-income countries, indicates that exposure to noise and to both high and low temperatures may also increase cardiovascular risk. There is considerably less research on the cardiovascular impacts of environmental conditions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the levels of pollution are often higher and the types and sources of pollution markedly different from those in higher-income settings. However, as such evidence gathers, actions to reduce exposures to pollution in low- and middle-income countries are warranted, not least because such exposures are very high. Cities, where pollution, populations, and other cardiovascular risk factors are most concentrated, may be best suited to reduce the cardiovascular burden in LMICs by applying environmental standards and policies to mitigate pollution and by implementing interventions that target the most vulnerable. The physical environment of cities can be improved though municipal processes, including infrastructure development, energy and transportation planning, and public health actions. Local regulations can incentivize or inhibit the polluting behaviors of industries and individuals. Environmental monitoring can be combined with public health warning systems and publicly available exposure maps to inform residents of environmental hazards and encourage the adoption of pollution-avoiding behaviors. Targeted individual or neighborhood interventions that identify and treat high-risk populations (e.g., lead mitigation, portable air cleaners, and preventative medications) can also be leveraged in the very near term. Research will play a key role in evaluating whether these approaches achieve their intended benefits, and whether these benefits reach the most vulnerable. CONCLUSION: Cities in LMICs can play a defining role in global health and cardiovascular disease prevention in the next several decades, as they are well poised to develop innovative, multisectoral approaches to pollution mitigation, while also protecting the most vulnerable.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pobreza/tendências , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 213-218, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074713

RESUMO

Aniline is one of the important chemical raw materials in daily life and the chemical industry. Aniline exposure might occur through intact skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. It could pose negative impacts on many organs and systems of the human body, including toxicity or carcinogenicity to blood, liver, and spleen. This paper summarized the direct effects of aniline on human health and the indirect hazards of aniline on human health through environmental pollution and discussed the future research directions of aniline-induced health hazards.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1768, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019964

RESUMO

There are numerous studies highlighting the impacts of direct and indirect stressors on marine organisms, and multi-stressor studies of their combined effects are an increasing focus of experimental work. Lophelia pertusa is a framework-forming cold-water coral that supports numerous ecosystem services in the deep ocean. These corals are threatened by increasing anthropogenic impacts to the deep-sea, such as global ocean change and hydrocarbon extraction. This study implemented two sets of experiments to assess the effects of future conditions (temperature: 8 °C and 12 °C, pH: 7.9 and 7.6) and hydrocarbon exposure (oil, dispersant, oil + dispersant combined) on coral health. Phenotypic response was assessed through three independent observations of diagnostic characteristics that were combined into an average health rating at four points during exposure and recovery. In both experiments, regardless of environmental condition, average health significantly declined during 24-hour exposure to dispersant alone but was not significantly altered in the other treatments. In the early recovery stage (24 hours), polyp health returned to the pre-exposure health state under ambient temperature in all treatments. However, increased temperature resulted in a delay in recovery (72 hours) from dispersant exposure. These experiments provide evidence that global ocean change can affect the resilience of corals to environmental stressors and that exposure to chemical dispersants may pose a greater threat than oil itself.


Assuntos
Antozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Antozoários/fisiologia , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Temperatura Alta , Hidrocarbonetos/administração & dosagem , Oceanos e Mares , Temperatura , Água
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936018

RESUMO

A soil that had been remediated by soil washing and chemical oxidation was evaluated, comparing it to an uncontaminated control soil ~30 m away. Profile descriptions were made of both soils over a 0-1 m depth, and samples were analyzed from each soil horizon. Samples were also analyzed from surface soil (0-30 cm). The control soil (a Fluvisol), had several unaltered A and C horizons, but the remediated soil presented only two poorly differentiated horizons, without structure and much lower in organic matter (<0.5%). In surface samples (0-30 cm), the bulk density, sand-silt-clay contents, field capacity, organic matter, and porosity were different with respect to the control (p > 0.05), and there was much greater compaction (3.04 vs. 1.10 MPa). However, the hydrocarbon concentration in the remediated soil was low (969.12 mg kg-1, average), and was not correlated to soil fertility parameters, such as porosity, organic matter, pH, moisture, field capacity or texture (R2 < 0.69), indicating that the impacts (such as compaction, lower field capacity and moisture content) were not due to residual hydrocarbons. Likewise, acute toxicity (Microtox) was not found, nor water repellency (penetration time < 5 s). It was concluded that the fertility deterioration in this soil was caused principally from the mixture of upper (loam) and lower (silty clay to silty clay loam) horizons during remediation treatment. Another important factor was the reduction in organic material, probably caused by the chemical oxidation treatment.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/química , México
20.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113070, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757565

RESUMO

In Iraq, war contamination is the result of dispensed bombs, bullets, detonation of chemical and conventional weapons, and burn-pit emissions by US bases. Increases in congenital anomalies were reported from Iraqi cities post-2003. These cities were heavily bombed and encircled by US bases with burn-pits. Thorium is a radioactive compound and a direct depleted-uranium decay-product. Radioactive materials, including depleted uranium, are routinely stored in US bases and they have been shown to leak into the environment. We conducted a case-control study to investigate associations of residential proximity to Tallil Air Base, a US military base near Nasiriyah, as well as levels of uranium and thorium in hair and deciduous teeth with congenital anomalies. The study was based on a sample of 19 cases and 10 controls who were recruited during late Summer and early Fall of 2016. We developed mixed effects logistic regression models with village as the random effect, congenital anomaly as the outcome and distance to the US base and hair metal levels (one at a time) as the predictor variable, controlling for child's age, sex and paternal education. We also explored the mediation of the association between proximity to the base and congenital anomalies by hair metal levels. We found an inverse association between distance to Tallil Air Base and risk of congenital anomalies and hair levels of thorium and uranium. The results of our mediation analyses were less conclusive. Larger studies are necessary to understand the scope of war contamination and its impact on congenital anomalies in Iraq.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Cabelo/química , Instalações Militares , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque , Probabilidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Risco , Tório/toxicidade , Estados Unidos , Urânio/toxicidade , Armas
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