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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 213-218, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074713

RESUMO

Aniline is one of the important chemical raw materials in daily life and the chemical industry. Aniline exposure might occur through intact skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract. It could pose negative impacts on many organs and systems of the human body, including toxicity or carcinogenicity to blood, liver, and spleen. This paper summarized the direct effects of aniline on human health and the indirect hazards of aniline on human health through environmental pollution and discussed the future research directions of aniline-induced health hazards.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos
3.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125016, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683446

RESUMO

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a herbicide that is used worldwide in agricultural and urban activities to control pests, reaching natural environments directly or indirectly. The research on 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity has advanced rapidly, and for this reason, this review summarizes the available data in Web of Science (WoS) to provide insights into the specific characteristics of 2,4-D toxicity and mutagenicity. Contrary to traditional reviews, this study uses a new method to quantitatively visualize and summarize information about the development of this field. Among all countries, the USA was the most active contributor with the largest publication and centrality, followed by Canada and China. The WoS categories 'Toxicology' and 'Biochemical and Molecular Biology' were the areas of greatest influence. 2,4-D research was strongly related to the keywords glyphosate, atrazine, water and gene expression. The studies trended to be focused on occupational risk, neurotoxicity, resistance or tolerance to herbicides, and to non-target species (especially aquatic ones) and molecular imprinting. In general, the authors have worked collaboratively, with concentrated efforts, allowing important advances in this field. Future research on 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity should probably focus on molecular biology, especially gene expression, assessment of exposure in human or other vertebrate bioindicators, and pesticide degradation studies. In summary, this scientometric analysis allowed us to make inferences about global trends in 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity, in order to identify tendencies and gaps and thus contribute to future research efforts.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Atrazina , Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade
4.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113070, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757565

RESUMO

In Iraq, war contamination is the result of dispensed bombs, bullets, detonation of chemical and conventional weapons, and burn-pit emissions by US bases. Increases in congenital anomalies were reported from Iraqi cities post-2003. These cities were heavily bombed and encircled by US bases with burn-pits. Thorium is a radioactive compound and a direct depleted-uranium decay-product. Radioactive materials, including depleted uranium, are routinely stored in US bases and they have been shown to leak into the environment. We conducted a case-control study to investigate associations of residential proximity to Tallil Air Base, a US military base near Nasiriyah, as well as levels of uranium and thorium in hair and deciduous teeth with congenital anomalies. The study was based on a sample of 19 cases and 10 controls who were recruited during late Summer and early Fall of 2016. We developed mixed effects logistic regression models with village as the random effect, congenital anomaly as the outcome and distance to the US base and hair metal levels (one at a time) as the predictor variable, controlling for child's age, sex and paternal education. We also explored the mediation of the association between proximity to the base and congenital anomalies by hair metal levels. We found an inverse association between distance to Tallil Air Base and risk of congenital anomalies and hair levels of thorium and uranium. The results of our mediation analyses were less conclusive. Larger studies are necessary to understand the scope of war contamination and its impact on congenital anomalies in Iraq.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Cabelo/química , Instalações Militares , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque , Probabilidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Risco , Tório/toxicidade , Estados Unidos , Urânio/toxicidade , Armas
5.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124846, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550594

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) precipitation and dissolution in pore water is associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-induced reduction-oxidation of sulfur (S) under waterlogging and is vital for controlling the bioavailability in paddy soil. A 120-day soil incubation experiment, including application of sulfur (S, 30 mg kg-1) and wheat straw (W, 1.0%) alone or in combination (W + S) into Cd-contaminated paddy soil under waterlogging, was conducted to investigate the dynamic of dissolved Cd and its relationship with DOC, S2-, Fe2+, pH, Eh and pe + pH in soil pore water. The results showed that the lowest dissolved Cd concentration was observed in the W + S-treated soil pore water among all treatments when the soil Eh remained at lower values during the period of 15-60 days of incubation, which could be attributed to CdS precipitation and/or co-precipitation of Cd absorbed by FeS2 because of the reduction in sulfur. The application of S resulted in a Cd rebound in the pore water irrespective of W addition when the Eh began to increase from its lowest values during the period of 45-75 days of incubation, and SOB genera were observed in the S added soil. This could be attributed to re-dissolution of the precipitated Cd in soils under the SOB-driven oxidation of sulfide such as CdS and FeS2. In conclusion, DOC-driven reduction-oxidation of sulfur controls Cd dissolution in the pore water of Cd-contaminated paddy soil under waterlogging conditions. Further studies are required to investigate the interaction of sulfur and SOM-induced DOC on Cd bioavailability in rice-planted paddy soils.


Assuntos
Cádmio/uso terapêutico , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/química , Enxofre/uso terapêutico , Cádmio/farmacologia , Enxofre/farmacologia , Água
6.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124845, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561162

RESUMO

In the paper, hydrothermally (HT) treated, sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and hydrochloric acid (HCl) washed fly ashes (FA) were used to examine the applied effects with and without biochar (BC) on the bioavailability of heavy metals (HMs) and growth of maize (Zea mays L.) plants in coal-mining contaminated soil. Addition of BC in combination with these processed fly ashes (PFA) significantly increased the soil pH, EC, and soil organic carbon (SOC). Individual application of BC and PFA increased the available contents of Mg, Mn, and Fe, while the combination of BC and PFA significantly decreased the bioavailability of HMs in soil compared to control. The BC + HT-FA and BC + H2SO4-FA were most efficient treatments followed by BC + HCl-FA in promoting plant growth parameters (i.e., fresh and dry biomass, root and shoot lengths), reduction in the uptake of HMs and increase in the uptake of macronutrients. The results established that the combined application of BC and PFA synergistically increased HMs immobilization and maize biomass yields. The lowest transfer rate (TR), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF) for Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were detected in BC + HT-FA, followed by BC + H2SO4-FA and BC + HCl-FA treatments after 60 days of maize crop harvesting. It could be suggested that using BC along with PFA as a soil stabilizer may be a promising source to immobilize HMs in a coal-mining contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Minas de Carvão/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Zea mays/química , Disponibilidade Biológica
7.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124828, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568944

RESUMO

Biochar has been recommended as a multi-beneficial amendment for the in situ remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils due to its high recalcitrance, stability, specific surface area and retention capacity, which leads to a long-lasting influence on the immobilization of soil contaminants. The influence of biochar on the availability of heavy metals such as copper is not fully understood and may be related to a change in copper association with soils fractions. Therefore, a long-time laboratory incubation study was set up as a completely randomized design to test the effect of biochar from different sources (coconut husks-CHB, orange bagasse-OBB and sewage sludge-SSB) at two rates of application (30 and 60 t ha-1) on the distribution of copper in a copper-contaminated soil after 24 months incubation. Copper distribution was evaluated through a sequential extraction procedure that fractionated copper into five fractions: F1 (soluble and exchangeable), F2 (specifically bound), F3 (organic matter bound), F4 (Fe and Mn oxide bound) and F5 (residual). Copper availability, soil pH and organic matter were also evaluated. Corn seeds were germinated in the incubated biochar soil to investigate the effect of biochar on seed germination and plantlets characteristics. All biochars increased soil pH and the concentration of oxidizable organic matter, and reduced copper availability after the 24 months incubation. CHB caused a discrete influence on copper distribution among soil fractions. OBB30 increased F1 (54.5%), F3 (24.0%), F4 (32.2%) and F5 (64.1%), and reduced F2 (39.8%); OBB60 reduced F1 (61.8%), F2 (16.5%) and F3 (16.0%) and increased F4 (18.0%) and F5 (84.4%). SSB30 strongly reduced Cu concentration in F1 (96.2%), F2 (34.0%), and F3 (22.2%), and increased F4 (54.4%); SSB60 reduced F1 (57.5%) and F3 (59.4%). Considering the high stability of biochar, the association of copper to the organic fraction leads to a long-time reduction in copper availability in the contaminated soil, which can reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of the remediation process. SSB reduced seed germination but produced vigorous and well-developed plantlets. Therefore, with proper production procedure to reduce the volatile matter content, SSB may not interfere with seed germination and has the greatest potential to be used for the remediation of copper-contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cobre/química , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Sementes/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Zea mays/química , Germinação
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0221193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841549

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization has led to a growing sanitation crisis in urban areas of Bangladesh and potential exposure to fecal contamination in the urban environment due to inadequate sanitation and poor fecal sludge management. Limited data are available on environmental fecal contamination associated with different exposure pathways in urban Dhaka. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the magnitude of fecal contamination in the environment in low-income, high-income, and transient/floating neighborhoods in urban Dhaka. Ten samples were collected from each of 10 environmental compartments in 10 different neighborhoods (4 low-income, 4 high-income and 2 transient/floating neighborhoods). These 1,000 samples were analyzed with the IDEXX-Quanti-Tray technique to determine most-probable-number (MPN) of E. coli. Samples of open drains (6.91 log10 MPN/100 mL), surface water (5.28 log10 MPN/100 mL), floodwater (4.60 log10 MPN/100 mL), produce (3.19 log10 MPN/serving), soil (2.29 log10 MPN/gram), and street food (1.79 log10 MPN/gram) had the highest mean log10 E. coli contamination compared to other samples. The contamination concentrations did not differ between low-income and high-income neighborhoods for shared latrine swabs, open drains, municipal water, produce, and street foodsamples. E. coli contamination levels were significantly higher (p <0.05) in low-income neighborhoods compared to high-income for soil (0.91 log10 MPN/gram, 95% CI, 0.39, 1.43), bathing water (0.98 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.41, 1.54), non-municipal water (0.64 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.24, 1.04), surface water (1.92 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 1.44, 2.40), and floodwater (0.48 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.92) samples. E. coli contamination were significantly higher (p<0.05) in low-income neighborhoods compared to transient/floating neighborhoods for drain water, bathing water, non-municipal water and surface water. Future studies should examine behavior that brings people into contact with the environment and assess the extent of exposure to fecal contamination in the environment through multiple pathways and associated risks.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Pobreza , Características de Residência , Saneamento/métodos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Urbanização/tendências , Água/análise , Microbiologia da Água
9.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 181, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is an acquired enteropathy of the small intestine, characterized by enteric inflammation, villus blunting and decreased crypt-to-villus ratio. EED has been associated with poor outcomes, including chronic malnutrition (stunting), wasting and reduced vaccine efficacy among children living in low-resource settings. As a result, EED may be a valuable interventional target for programs aiming to reduce childhood morbidity in low and middle-income countries. MAIN TEXT: Several highly plausible mechanisms link the proposed pathophysiology underlying EED to adverse outcomes, but causal attribution of these pathways has proved challenging. We provide an overview of recent studies evaluating the causes and consequences of EED. These include studies of the role of subclinical enteric infection as a primary cause of EED, and efforts to understand how EED-associated systemic inflammation and malabsorption may result in long-term morbidity. Finally, we outline recently completed and upcoming clinical trials that test novel interventions to prevent or treat this highly prevalent condition. CONCLUSIONS: Significant strides have been made in linking environmental exposure to enteric pathogens and toxins with EED, and in understanding the multifactorial mechanisms underlying this complex condition. Further insights may come from several ongoing and upcoming interventional studies trialing a variety of novel management strategies.


Assuntos
Enterite , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Intestino Delgado , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Enterite/complicações , Enterite/etiologia , Enterite/fisiopatologia , Enterite/terapia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos
11.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113293, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563776

RESUMO

Despite their ecological and socioeconomic importance, mangroves are among the most threatened tropical environments in the world. In the past two decades, the world's mangrove degradation and loss were estimated to lie between an 35% and >80%. However, appropriate bioindicators for assessing the impact of external factors, and for differentiating polluted from unpolluted areas are still scarce. Here, we determine the physicochemical profiles of the soils of two mangroves, one exposed to and one not exposed to anthropogenic factors. By metagenomic analysis based on 16S rRNA, we generated the bacterial diversity profiles of the soils and estimated their functional profiles. Our results showed that the two examined mangrove forests differed significantly in the physicochemical properties of the soils, especially regarding organic carbon, phosphorus and metal content, as well as in their microbial communities, which was likely caused by anthropogenic pollution. The physicochemical differences between the soils explained 76% of the differential bacterial composition, and 64% depended solely on gradients of phosphorus, metal ions and potassium. We found two genera JL-ETNP-Z39 and TA06 exclusively in polluted and non-polluted mangroves, respectively. Additionally, the polluted mangrove was enriched in Gemmatimonadetes, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Nitrospirae. A total of 77 genera were affected by anthropic contamination, of which we propose 33 as bioindicators; 26 enriched, and 7 depleted upon pollution.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais/genética , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Microbiologia do Solo/normas , Áreas Alagadas , Colômbia , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109612, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476450

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are small plastic pieces with size less than 5 mm that have entered and polluted the environment. While many investigations including several critical reviews on MPs in the environment have been conducted, most of them are focused on their occurrences in marine environment. Current understanding on the occurrences, behaviors, and impacts of MPs in the terrestrial environment is far from complete. A systematic review of the literature was thus conducted to promote the research on MPs in the environment. This work is designed to provide a comprehensive overview that summarizes current knowledge and research findings on environmental occurrences, fate and transport, and impacts of MPs. In addition to discussing the occurrences, characteristics, and sources of MPs in the ocean, freshwater, sediments, soils, and atmosphere, the review also summarizes both the experimental and modeling data of the environmental fate and transport of MPs. Research findings on the toxic effects, bioaccumulation, and bioavailability of MPs in the environment are also covered in this critical review. Future perspectives are discussed as well.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , /análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , /toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos
13.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 96-104, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478619

RESUMO

Big cities have thrived on all continents, so have domestic and industrial wastes not to mention the often irrational use of agricultural inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) detrimental to plants and animals. One hundred and eighty million tons of fertilizers and 2.4 million tons of pesticides are spread every year worldwide. Such pollutions, whether urban or rural, have a significant impact on the biology of mosquitoes. Today some urban spaces have properly become a land of plenty for mosquitoes. The combined use of fertilizer and pesticides in the country, quite paradoxically also favor their proliferation. Ironically the very reasons that account for the multitudes of mosquitoes are the exact reasons responsible for the depletion of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416159

RESUMO

Background: Low-income families often depend on fuels such as wood, coal, and animal dung for cooking. Such solid fuels are highly polluting and are a primary source of indoor air pollutants (IAP). We examined the association between solid fuel use (SFU) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among under-five children in Afghanistan and the extent to which this association varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and gender. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on de-identified data from Afghanistan's first standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 2015. The sample consists of ever-married mothers with under-five children in the household (n = 27,565). We used mixed-effect Poisson regression models with robust error variance accounting for clustering to examine the associations between SFU and ARI among under-five children after adjusting for potential confounders. We also investigated potential effect modification by SES and sex. Additional analyses were conducted using an augmented measure of the exposure to IAP accounting for both SFU and the location of cooking/kitchen (High Exposure, Moderate, and No Exposure). Results: Around 70.2% of households reported SFU, whereas the prevalence of ARI was 17.6%. The prevalence of ARI was higher in children living in households with SFU compared to children living in households with no SFU (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.10; 95% CI: (0.98, 1.23)). We did not observe any effect modification by SES or child sex. When using the augmented measure of exposure incorporating the kitchen's location, children highly exposed to IAP had a higher prevalence of ARI compared to unexposed children (aPR = 1.17; 95% CI: (1.03, 1.32)). SES modified this association with the strongest associations observed among children from the middle wealth quintile. Conclusion: The findings have significant policy implications and suggest that ARI risk in children may be reduced by ensuring there are clean cookstoves as well as clean fuels and acting on the socio-environmental pathways.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30413-30425, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440973

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to determine the contamination levels of heavy metals in road dust of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), India and its consequent effect on human and environment. The levels of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe) in 9 districts (Z1-Z9) of NCT were monitored and the corresponding human health risk was estimated. District-wise evaluation of heavy metal pollution in the road dust was performed. The mean concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Fe in the road dust samples over the study area were 164.2 ± 53.2, 200.7 ± 45.3, 99.9 ± 64.8, 24.7 ± 5.7, 57.7 ± 25.9, 241.4 ± 39.8, and 11113.9 ± 1669.7 mg kg-1, respectively. PLI showed a high pollution load in the monitored nine locations, indicating an alarming condition and the urgent need for immediate remedial actions. Ecological risk assessment depicted that a 74% risk was attributed to Pb. Hazard quotient (HQ) values indicated that ingestion was the major pathway of road dust heavy metal exposure to human beings. Hazard index values showed that there was no probable non-carcinogenic risk of the heavy metals present in the road dust of the area. Children were found vulnerable to the risks of road dust metals. The findings of this study showed the alarming status of heavy metal contamination to road dust in NCT and the associated risk to human health.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Índia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Urbanização
16.
PLoS Biol ; 17(8): e3000353, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430271

RESUMO

The search for the genetic factors underlying complex neuropsychiatric disorders has proceeded apace in the past decade. Despite some advances in identifying genetic variants associated with psychiatric disorders, most variants have small individual contributions to risk. By contrast, disease risk increase appears to be less subtle for disease-predisposing environmental insults. In this study, we sought to identify associations between environmental pollution and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present exploratory analyses of 2 independent, very large datasets: 151 million unique individuals, represented in a United States insurance claims dataset, and 1.4 million unique individuals documented in Danish national treatment registers. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) county-level environmental quality indices (EQIs) in the US and individual-level exposure to air pollution in Denmark were used to assess the association between pollution exposure and the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. These results show that air pollution is significantly associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that pollutants affect the human brain via neuroinflammatory pathways that have also been shown to cause depression-like phenotypes in animal studies.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
17.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 390-408, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422435

RESUMO

One of the direct causes of biodiversity loss is environmental pollution resulting from the use of chemicals. Different kinds of chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants and some heavy metals, can be endocrine disruptors, which act at low doses over a long period of time and have a negative effect on the reproductive and thyroid system in vertebrates worldwide. Research on the effects of endocrine disruptors and the use of bioindicators in neotropical ecosystems where pressure on biodiversity is high is scarce. In Chile, although endocrine disruptors have been detected at different concentrations in the environments of some ecosystems, few studies have been performed on their biological effects in the field. In this work, Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), an introduced species, is used as a bioindicator for the presence of endocrine disruptors in aquatic systems with different degrees of contamination in a Mediterranean zone in central Chile. For the first time for Chile, alterations are described that can be linked to exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as vitellogenin induction, decreased testosterone in male frogs, and histological changes in gonads. Dioxin-like and oestrogenic activity was detected in sediments at locations where it seem to be related to alterations found in the frogs. In addition, an analysis of land use/cover use revealed that urban soil was the best model to explain the variations in frog health indicators. This study points to the usefulness of an invasive species as a bioindicator for the presence of endocrine-disruptive chemicals.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Xenopus laevis/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chile , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Gônadas/patologia , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , Reprodução , Testosterona/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 908-914, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426235

RESUMO

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a recently acknowledged form of anthropogenic pollution of growing concern to the biology and ecology of exposed organisms. Though ALAN can have detrimental effects on physiology and behaviour, we have little understanding of how marine organisms in coastal areas may be impacted. Here, we investigated the effects of ALAN exposure on coral reef fish larvae during the critical recruitment stage, encompassing settlement, metamorphosis, and post-settlement survival. We found that larvae avoided illuminated settlement habitats, however those living under ALAN conditions for 10 days post-settlement experienced changes in swimming behaviour and higher susceptibility to nocturnal predation. Although ALAN-exposed fish grew faster and heavier than control fish, they also experienced significantly higher mortality rates by the end of the experimental period. This is the first study on the ecological impacts of ALAN during the early life history of marine fish.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Luz/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Metamorfose Biológica/efeitos da radiação , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos da radiação
19.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 153(3): 100-105, ago. 2019. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183431

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Actualmente en España, la quema del carbón sigue siendo una de las fuentes principales de electricidad. Su combustión genera la emisión de múltiples sustancias nocivas, entre ellas, las partículas PM2,5 que se han relacionado con incrementos en morbimortalidad cardiovascular. Los objetivos del estudio son: 1) determinar la distribución geográfica nacional de dichas partículas y su posible asociación con la proximidad a las centrales térmicas de carbón y 2) estimar el impacto sobre la salud cardiovascular derivado de las emisiones de partículas PM2,5 de las centrales térmicas de carbón en España durante el año 2014. Métodos: Para realizar el estudio de dispersión de los contaminantes atmosféricos procedentes de las centrales térmicas se empleó el modelo matemático CALPUFF. Los datos demográficos y epidemiológicos se obtuvieron del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Se emplearon metodologías validadas en el ámbito internacional para valorar la asociación contaminante-respuesta. Resultados: El número total de defunciones atribuibles al carbón fue de 709 casos, de los cuales 586 (82,6%) se relacionaron con las partículas PM2,5. La mayor parte de ellas fueron debidas a infartos, ictus fatales y a insuficiencia cardiaca, que constituyeron un total de 170 de las muertes por PM2,5 (29%). Las tasas de incidencia más elevadas se observaron en Asturias y Castilla y León. Conclusiones: Este estudio describe un aumento de morbimortalidad cardiovascular en España relacionada con las emisiones procedentes de la quema de carbón. Refleja como aquellas comunidades con mayor presencia de centrales térmicas (Asturias y Castilla y León) fueron las más afectadas y extrapola que sus habitantes tienen un mayor riesgo de mortalidad por exposición a partículas PM2,5


Introduction and objectives: One of the main sources of energy in Spain is still coal combustion. It releases multiple pollutants into the atmosphere, such as PM2.5, that has been linked to an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to determine the national distribution of these particles and their proximity to coal plants, 2) to estimate the cardiovascular impact of PM2.5 particles in Spain in 2014. Methods: In order to complete the national pollutant dispersion study, we used the CALPUFF model. The epidemiologic and demographic data were obtained from the National Statistics Institute. The associations «pollutant-effect» were obtained by internationally validated methodologies. Results: The total number of deaths due to coal pollutants were 709, from which 586 (82.6%) were related to PM2.5 particles. Most of them were due to myocardial infarctions, fatal strokes and heart failure, adding up to 170 cases of mortality related to PM2.5 (29%). The greatest densities were found in the regions of Asturias and Castilla y León. Conclusions: This study describes an increase in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Spain, due to coal combustion pollutants. It finds a greater impact in the provinces of Asturias and Castilla León, where a higher presence of coal power plants can be found. This reflects that the people that live in those areas have a greater risk of cardiovascular death due to PM2.5 pollutant exposure from coal


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Centrais Termelétricas , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Centrais Elétricas , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(2-3 Suppl 1): 1-208, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This volume provides an update of the health status of the populations living in the National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) included in the SENTIERI Project. This update is part of an epidemiological surveillance programme carried out in NPCSs, promoted by the Italian Ministry of Health as a further step of a project started in 2006, when the health status of residents in contaminated sites was first addressed within the National Strategic Program "Environment and Health". The Report focuses on five health outcomes: mortality, cancer incidence, hospital discharges, congenital anomalies, and children, adolescents and young adults' health. A key element of SENTIERI project is the a priori evaluation of the epidemiological evidence of a causal association between the considered cause of disease and the exposure. When an a priori evidence is identified, it is given a greater importance in the comment of the study findings. METHODS: The present update of the SENTIERI Project concerns 45 NPCSs including in all 319 Italian Municipalities (out of over 8,000 Municipalities), with an overall population of 5,900,000 inhabitants at the 2011 Italian Census. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios (SHRs), referring to a time window of 2006-2013, were computed for all the 45 NPCSs, using as a reference the corresponding mortality and hospitalization rates of the Regions where each NCPS is located. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed by the Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM) for the 22 NPCSs served by a Cancer Registry. AIRTUM covers about 56% of Italy, with partly different time-windows. SIRs have been estimated using as reference population the 4 macroareas in which Italy is divided (North-West, North-East, Centre, South). Prevalence of congenital anomalies was computed for 15 NPCSs. RESULTS: An all-cause excess of 5,267 and 6,725 deaths was observed, respectively, in men and women; the cancer death excess was of 3,375 in men and 1,910 in women. It was estimated an excess of cancer incidence of 1,220 case in men and 1,425 in women over a five-year time window. With regard to the diseases with an a priori environmental aetiological validity, an excess for malignant mesothelioma, lung, colon, and gastric cancer, and for non-malignant respiratory diseases was observed. Cancer excess mainly affected NPCSs with presence of chemical and petrochemical plants, oil refineries, and dumping hazardous wastes. An excess of non-malignant respiratory disease was also detected in NPCSs in which steel industries and thermoelectric plants were present. An excess of mesothelioma was observed in NPCSs characterized by presence of asbestos and fluoro-edenite; it was also observed where the presence of asbestos was not reported in the legislative national decrees which define the NPCS areas. It is worth noting that, even if the presence of asbestos is not reported in many NPCSs legislative decrees, petrochemical plants and steel industries, for instance, are often characterized by the presence of a large amount of this mineral that, in the past, was extensively used as an insulating material. For the first time, the present Report includes a focus on the health status of children and adolescents (1,160,000 subjects, aged 0-19 years), and young adults (660,000 subjects, aged 20-29 years). Among infants (0-1 year), an excess of 7,000 hospitalizations was observed, 2,000 of which due to conditions of perinatal origin. In the age class 0-14, an excess of 22,000 hospitalizations for all causes was observed; 4,000 of them were due to acute respiratory diseases, and 2,000 to asthma. Data on cancer incidence for subjects aged 0-24 years were derived from general population cancer registries for twenty NPCSs, and from children cancer registries (age group: 0-19 years) for six NPCSs; 666 cases where diagnosed in the age group 0-24 years, corresponding to an excess of 9%. The main contributions to this excess are from soft tissue sarcomas in children (aged 0-14 years), acute myeloid leukaemia in children (aged 0-14 years) and in the age group 0-29 years, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer in young adults (aged 20-29 years). In seven out of 15 NPCSs, an excess prevalence rate of overall congenital anomalies at birth was observed. Congenital anomalies excesses included the following sites: genital organs, heart, limbs, nervous system, digestive system, and urinary system. CONCLUSIONS: The main findings of SENTIERI Project have been the detection of excesses for the diseases which showed an a priori epidemiological evidence of a causal association with the environmental exposures specific for each considered NPCS. These observations are valuable within public health, because they contribute to priority health promotion activities. Looking ahead, the health benefits of an improved environmental quality might be appreciated in terms of reduction of the occurrence of adverse health effects attributable to each Site major pollutant agents. Due to the methodological approach of the present study, it was not possible to adjust for several confounding factors reported to be risk factors for the studied diseases (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity). Even if excesses of mortality, hospitalization, cancer incidence, and prevalence of congenital anomalies were found in several NPCSs, the study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered diseases do not permit, for all of them, to draw conclusions in terms of causal links with environmental contamination. Moreover, it must be taken into consideration that economic factors and the availability of health services may also play a relevant role in a diseases outcome. A few observations regarding some methodological limitations of SENTIERI Project should be made. There is not a uniform environmental characterisation of the studied NPCSs in term of quality and detection of the pollutants, because this information is present in different databases which at present are not adequately connected. Moreover, the recognition of a contaminated site as a National Priority Site is based on soil and groundwater pollution, and the available information on air quality is currently sparse and not homogenous. Another limitation, in term of statistical power, is the small population size of many NPCSs and the low frequency of several health outcomes. A special caution must be paid in data interpretation when considering the correspondence between the contaminated areas and the municipality boundaries, as they do not always coincide perfectly: in some cases, a small municipality with a large industrial site, while in other settings only a part of the municipality is exposed to the sources of pollution. Furthermore, all available health information systems are currently accessible at municipality level. The real breakthrough is essentially comprised of the development and fostering of a networking system involving all local health authorities and regional environmental protection agencies operating in the areas under study. The possibility to integrate the geographic approach of SENTIERI Project with a set of ad hoc analytic epidemiological investigations, such as residential cohort studies, case control studies, children health surveys, biomonitoring surveys, and with socioepidemiological studies, might greatly contribute to the identification of health priorities for environmental remediation activities. Finally, as discussed in the last section of the report, there is a need to adopt, in each NPCS, a two-way oriented communication plan involving public health authorities, scientific community, and resident population, taking into account that the history, the cultural frame and the network of relationships specific of each local context play a major role in the risk perception perspective.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
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