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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134455, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733547

RESUMO

Microplastics are ubiquitous environmental contaminants leading to inevitable human exposure. Even so, little is known about the effects of microplastics in human health. Thus, in this work we review the evidence for potential negative effects of microplastics in the human body, focusing on pathways of exposure and toxicity. Exposure may occur by ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact due to the presence of microplastics in products, foodstuff and air. In all biological systems, microplastic exposure may cause particle toxicity, with oxidative stress, inflammatory lesions and increased uptake or translocation. The inability of the immune system to remove synthetic particles may lead to chronic inflammation and increase risk of neoplasia. Furthermore, microplastics may release their constituents, adsorbed contaminants and pathogenic organisms. Nonetheless, knowledge on microplastic toxicity is still limited and largely influenced by exposure concentration, particle properties, adsorbed contaminants, tissues involved and individual susceptibility, requiring further research.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 46, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844991

RESUMO

A by-product of industrialization and population growth, automobile scrap yards are a potential source of metal contamination in soil. This study evaluated the use of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry and magnetic susceptibility (χ) analysis in assessing metal soil contamination in scrap yards located in Brazil. Five automobile scrap yards were selected in Curitiba, Paraná State (CB1, CB2, and CB3) and Lavras, Minas Gerais State (LV1 and LV2). By evaluating metal concentrations and geoaccumulation index values, we verified moderate Cu, Pb, and Zr contamination and moderate to high Zn contamination, primarily in the topsoil (0-10 cm). Soil Zn concentrations in automobile scrap yards were on average four times higher than in reference soils, suggesting that galvanized automobile parts may be the primary source of this soil contaminant. Although other elements (i.e., As, Cr, Fe, Nb, Ni, and Y) were slightly increased compared to reference values in one or more soils, concentrations did not constitute contamination. Automobile scrap yard topsoil had higher χ values (5.8 to 52.9 × 10-7 m3 kg-1) at low frequency (χlf) compared to reference soil (3.6 to 7.5 × 10-7 m3 kg-1). The highest values of χlf occurred in LV soils, which also represented the highest Zn contamination. Magnetic multidomain characteristics (percent frequency-dependent susceptibility between 2 and 10) indicated magnetic particle contributions of anthropogenic origin. The use of pXRF and χlf as non-destructive techniques displays potential for identifying soil contamination in automobile scrap yards.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133489, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756826

RESUMO

Environmental lead (Pb) contamination is a persistent public health issue that prominently impacts communities across the United States. Multimedia Pb exposure assessments are utilized to provide a holistic evaluation of Pb exposure and inform the development of programs and regulations that are protective of human health. To conduct multimedia exposure assessments, robust, media-specific environmental Pb concentration data are necessary. To support this effort, systematic review and meta-analysis methods were used to conduct a comprehensive synthesis of research measuring Pb in multiple environmental media (soil, dust, water, food, and air) over a 20-year period within the United States. The breadth of the resulting database allowed for the evaluation of sample characteristics that can serve as indicators of environmental Pb contamination. Random effects models run on literature and national survey datasets generated overall mean estimates of Pb concentrations that can be used for multimedia Pb exposure modeling for general and high-exposure-risk populations. Results from our study highlighted several important trends: 1) The mean estimate of Pb in residential soils is three times higher for urbanized areas than non-urbanized areas; 2) The mean estimate of Pb in produce reported in the literature is approximately three orders of magnitude greater than commercially-sourced raw produce monitored in national surveys; 3) The mean estimate of Pb in soils from shooting ranges is two times greater than non-residential Pb contaminated Superfund sites reported in the literature; 4) Research reporting environmental Pb concentrations for school and daycare sites is very limited; 5) Inconsistent sample collection and reporting of results limited synthesis efforts; and 6) The U.S. EPA's Air Quality System was the most robust, publicly available national survey resource. Results from these analyses will inform future multimedia Pb exposure assessments and be useful in prioritizing future research and program development.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Chumbo/análise , Estados Unidos
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 713, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676983

RESUMO

Environmental pollution has received considerable attention over the last 50 years. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in pollution of the Nile Delta, Egypt, which is one of the longest settled deltaic systems in the world. Pollution in the delta is increasingly recognized as a serious health concern that requires proper management of ecosystems. Therefore, this project aimed to study the distribution and assess the risk associated with selected trace elements (TEs) in different soils (i.e., marine, fluvial, and lacustrine parent materials) in the northern Nile Delta. Mehlich-3 extraction was used to determine the availability of antimony, vanadium, strontium, and molybdenum in agro-ecosystems in this area and their spatial distributions were investigated. Five indices were used to assess ecological risk. Results showed that TEs were higher in the southern part of the study area because it is affected by multiple pollution sources. The available concentrations of TEs were Sr < V < Sb < Mo. The bioavailability of Sr was highest among the studied TEs. The studied indices suggested the study area was moderately polluted by Sr and Sb. Furthermore, the results showed that marine soils had higher TE levels then lacustrine and fluvial soils. The ecological risk assessment indicated that V and Mo were of natural origin, while Sr and Sb were anthropogenically linked. Therefore, the situation calls for planning to reduce pollution sources, especially in the protected north Nile Delta, so these productive soils do not threaten human and ecological health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Antimônio , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ecossistema , Egito , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Molibdênio , Medição de Risco
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 691, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667628

RESUMO

This study identified specific emission sources of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of two secondary iron and steel smelting factories in Osun state, southwestern Nigeria, using transplanted biomonitors. A total of 120 biomonitors consisting of lichen and moss were grown under a controlled environment and later transplanted to the surroundings of each factory for monitoring of air pollutants for 3 months in both wet and dry seasons. The elemental contents (K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr) of the biomonitors were determined by X-ray florescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The source identification was performed by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modelling approach using the elemental data set from the two smelters. Among the measured elements, Fe had the highest average concentration in the lichen and moss samples as well as in both seasons. The average concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Br were low. The varying average elemental concentrations of lichen and moss reflect the pattern of impact of smelting on atmospheric airborne pollution around the factories. The four factors resolved by PMF and their respective contributions were metal processing (39.0%), Fe source (28.0%), crustal/soil (22.0%) and road dust (11.0%) for moss and Fe source (34.0%), crustal/soil (26.0%), coal combustion (25.0%) and road dust (15.0%) for lichen. The study showcases lichen and moss as cheaper and yet efficient uninterrupted monitoring tools of air pollution sources associated with iron and steel smelting industrial activities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metalurgia , Aço , Poluição do Ar/análise , Briófitas/química , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro/análise , Líquens/química , Nigéria , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 748, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724064

RESUMO

The Indus Basin Irrigation Network (IBIN) plays a vital role in the agricultural system of Pakistan, irrigating seventeen million hectares of cultivated areas. Rapid urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural activities along the Indus basin have influenced the soil quality and human health; it is, therefore, critical to know its pollution characteristics. Soil samples from Indus basin, i.e., Abbottabad (ABT), Haripur (HRP), Attock (ATC), and Islamabad (ISB) have been analyzed for the total contents of potentially toxic metal(loid)s (PTMs) in the top layer. The topsoil samples from 0 to 10 cm depth have been further investigated using different pollution indices and human health risk assessment models. The contamination degree of soil pollution was highest in ISB (33.75), followed by ABT (25.30) and ATC (23.57). The assessment of the daily intake of PTMs by children and adults through different pathways revealed ingestion as the significant exposure pathway. Cr was found to be the major element posing non-carcinogenic health risks to children at ATC whereas the non-carcinogenic risks posed by all other PTMs were within the safe limit. Furthermore, life-time carcinogenic risks for Ni followed by Cr and Cd were greatly exceeded at all locations and As at ATC and ISB for both age groups, but comparatively children were found to be at a higher risk of carcinogenicity. Hence, efficient remediation strategies are needed to reduce the increasing content and health risks of PTMs in the Indus basin.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Criança , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Medição de Risco , Solo
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34448-34458, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637612

RESUMO

In the present (twenty-first) century, the pertinent challenge of attaining the regime of food security with low pollution amidst the drive for sustainable economy and energy efficiency is core to governance and intergovernmental agencies. Therefore, in an attempt to investigate environmental issues among the coastline Mediterranean countries (CMCs) for the first time, the current study examines the dynamic long-run nexus of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions with food production and inflation rate over the annual period 1995-2014. Using a dynamic Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach, the consumption of renewable energy in the panel of sixteen (16) CMCs is empirically observed to be an efficient policy vehicle for mitigating CO2 emissions. Also, in all the examined CMCs, consumption of renewables is observed to cause significant decline in CO2 emissions, thus securing a sustainable environment. However, in the long run and in the panel of CMCs, the study reveals that increase in food production (a drive toward food security) increases environmental risk. Additionally, the study found that high inflation regime in the panel CMCs is associated with low CO2 emissions especially in the long-run, thus necessitating efficient policy mechanism. In adopting the genetic resources of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources, as well as employing price control policy, the members of the CMCs might have unearthed a suitable policy directive in effectively sustaining environmental quality.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Alimentos , Região do Mediterrâneo
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34388-34400, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637616

RESUMO

This study empirically evaluates the impact of energy, environmental pollution, human capital, financial development, and physical capital on economic growth in countries like Brazil, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS-4) from 1981 to 2015. Relevant diagnostic tests, the Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (F.M.O.L.S.), Robust Least Squares (R.L.S.) methods, and the Dumitrescu-Hurlin Panel causality test are implemented for empirical investigation. The key outcomes from the F.M.O.L.S. and R.L.S. methods indicate that energy consumption, physical capital, human capital, and financial development contribute to economic growth, while environmental pollution attenuates economic growth. Moreover, the Dumitrescu-Hurlin Panel causality test results reveal about the bidirectional and unidirectional causality between energy consumption, environmental pollution, investment, human capital, and financial sector expansion and growth. Thus, based on the findings, this study recommend that the BRICS countries' policy makers need to formulate public policy to ensure adequate energy supply, enhance foreign investments, improve health sector, develop financial sector, and regulate environmental pollution to achieve sustainable development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Índia , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , África do Sul
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34468-34478, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642017

RESUMO

This research article aims to investigate the moderating role of financial development in Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in the context of Malaysia for the period 1970-2016. As the time series variables are integrated of different order therefore, Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model has been employed to estimate the long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The results indicate that EKC does exist for Malaysia and financial development has negative impact on carbon emission. Moreover, financial development is found to have significant moderating impact on income environment relation. More financial development brings early turning point of the EKC. The results recommend that financial development can be used as one of the policy measures to reduce the environmental cost of economic growth in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Renda , Malásia
10.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113214, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541812

RESUMO

Magnetic properties of urban street dust can be used as a proxy of urban pollution. In this study, magnetic measurements on 160 street dust samples, collected from five different functional areas (industrial, traffic, commercial, residential and clean areas) in sixteen administrative districts in Shanghai, China, were systematically conducted. It is showed that magnetic carriers were predominately coarse-grain ferrimagnetic particles. Meantime, concentration-related magnetic parameters showed significant variations among the functional areas and administrative units. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) decreased in the following order: industrial area (IA) > traffic area (TA) > commercial area (CoA) > residential area (RA) > clean area (ClA). Moreover, combined with the analyses conducted using a scanning electron microscope and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), it is found that spherical magnetic particles originating mainly from anthropogenic sources were abundant in industrial areas. Baoshan district, which is heavily impacted by industrial activities, showed the highest χ value among the administrative units. Additionally, the correlations of street dust χ value with population, value of industrial output and the gross domestic product (GDP) in Shanghai and other cities indicated that χ is positively correlated with the city GDP as well as the population size (PS) to some extent. This study demonstrates that magnetic parameters of street dust can be used as an effective tool for monitoring environmental pollution and industrial activities in urban environments.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Cidades , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Magnetismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X
11.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 96-104, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478619

RESUMO

Big cities have thrived on all continents, so have domestic and industrial wastes not to mention the often irrational use of agricultural inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) detrimental to plants and animals. One hundred and eighty million tons of fertilizers and 2.4 million tons of pesticides are spread every year worldwide. Such pollutions, whether urban or rural, have a significant impact on the biology of mosquitoes. Today some urban spaces have properly become a land of plenty for mosquitoes. The combined use of fertilizer and pesticides in the country, quite paradoxically also favor their proliferation. Ironically the very reasons that account for the multitudes of mosquitoes are the exact reasons responsible for the depletion of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 697: 134126, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491630

RESUMO

Heavy metals in agricultural soil receive much attention because they are easily absorbed by crop into the ecosystem. Managing the discharge of heavy metals from the source is an effective way to prevent and control heavy metals pollution. Grouped principal component analysis (GPCA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor models were utilized in this study to conduct source apportionment, and the former was optimal because of the accuracy of predicting. Based on the source contribution by GPCA/APCS, heavy metals were evaluated by fuzzy synthetic evaluation model and health risk assessment model. The results of source apportionment showed that heavy metals in Zhangye agricultural soil were mainly affected by steel industry, traffic, agrochemicals, manures, mining activities, leather industry and metal processing industry source. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation showed that the pollution levels of Chromium (Cr) derived by leather industry and metal processing industry and Nickel (Ni) derived by steel industry and traffic source were higher. Health risk assessment revealed that the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of Cr derived by leather industry and metal processing industry and Lead (Pb) derived by steel industry and traffic source were higher.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Lógica Fuzzy , Análise Multivariada , Medição de Risco
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455022

RESUMO

Despite achieving remarkable development, China's agricultural economy has been under severe environmental pressure. Based on previous studies, the present study further considers the sources of agricultural carbon emissions in depth, estimates China's agricultural carbon emissions from 1997 to 2016, and analyzes the agricultural pollution faced by China and its provinces. The study estimates the amount and intensity of agricultural carbon emissions in China from five carbon sources-agricultural materials, rice planting, soil N2O, livestock and poultry farming, and straw burning-and analyzes their spatial and temporal characteristics. The following results were obtained: (1) between 1997 and 2016, the amount of agricultural carbon emissions in China generally increased, while the intensity of agricultural carbon emissions decreased; (2) in the same period, the amount of carbon emissions from each category of carbon source generally increased, with the exception of rice planting; however, the amount of emissions fluctuated; (3) the amount and intensity of carbon emissions varied greatly among provinces; (4) the emissions from different categories of carbon source showed different concentration trends and agglomeration forms; (5) China's agricultural carbon emissions showed obvious spatial correlation, which overall was high-high agglomeration; however, its carbon emissions gradually weakened, and the spatial agglomeration of agricultural carbon emissions in each province changed between 1997 and 2016.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Análise Espaço-Temporal
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133791, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419679

RESUMO

The atoll of Hao, part of the Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia, hosted an air base which was used by France Air Force and Naval Aviation during the nuclear tests. Following the publication of a report in 2012 indicating widespread contamination of the atoll, we conducted a biomonitoring survey to assess the exposure to toxic metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of Hao residents and residents of Makemo, a nearby atoll without any known sources of industrial pollution. Adults and adolescents (≥12 years) randomly sampled from Hao (n = 275) and Makemo (n = 268) provided blood samples for contaminant analyses. Whole blood samples were analysed for cadmium, lead and total mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations of PCBs were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to document lifestyle and a food-frequency questionnaire was used to document dietary habits. Concentrations of contaminants were compared between atolls and associations with sociodemographic and personal characteristics of the participants were investigated. A significantly higher mean (geometric) of blood lead concentration was observed in Hao compared to Makemo (3.75 vs 3.40 µg/L, P = 0.02), whereas similar concentrations were noted for cadmium (0.49 vs 0.50 µg/L, P = 0.58) and mercury (11.4 vs 11.5 µg/L, P = 0.78). Mean total PCBs plasma concentration was significantly higher in Hao than in Makemo participants (0.75 vs 0.32 µg/L, P < 0.001). A significant proportion of participants exceeded toxicological reference values for mercury and lead in both atolls. The higher body burden of PCBs and Pb in Hao compared to Makemo residents may be linked to past air base activities in Hao. According to international standards, PCBs exposure is low; however, exposure to both mercury and lead is high and further investigations are required to identify specific sources of exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Polinésia
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 583, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435834

RESUMO

Identification, assessment, elimination, and control of hazards in every workplace represent the key to success as well as a critical part of any health and safety programme. Due to the complexity of the operations, equipment, and procedures in the rolling industry, this industry always involves some degree of hazard. Hence, it is necessary to apply an effective risk assessment method to manage hazards. In this research, environmental failure mode and effect analysis (E-FMEA) was used to identify possible risks, analyze environmental risks, and determine the highest risk priorities in an aluminium rolling industry. For this purpose, the production process, equipment, and tasks were examined. Stack emissions, as well as factory sewage, were analyzed according to the standard methods. Considering the results of the analysis and according to the expert panel comments, potential harmful factors were identified and classified regarding the possibility of occurrence, capability for discovery, pollution level, and intensity of their effect on the environment. Using the E-FMEA method, 210 aspects and environmental consequences were identified where 27 cases had a low risk, 148 had a moderate risk, and 35 had a high risk. For those classes of risks with a priority number above 118, correction and control operations were accomplished. The results of the repeated risk assessment approved that the protective measures have been satisfactorily effective; the control operations were performed well and the risk priority number (RPN) was mitigated to the low- or moderate-risk levels.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metalurgia , Metais , Humanos , Medição de Risco
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 696: 133915, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461694

RESUMO

One of the most polluted areas in Chile is the Ventanas Industrial Area (VIA; 32.74°S / 71.48°W), which started in 1958 and today comprises around 16 industries in an area of ca. 4 km2. A lack of consistent long-term instrumental records precludes assessing the history of contamination in the area and also limits the evaluation of mitigation actions taken since the late 1980s. Here, we use dendrochemistry as an environmental proxy to analyze environmental changes over several decades at the VIA. We present chemical measurements of tree rings from planted, exotic Cupressus macrocarpa growing near the VIA with 4-year resolution over a period of 52 years (1960-2011). These data provide unprecedented information on regional anthropogenic pollution and are compared with a tree-ring elemental record of 48 years (1964-2011) from the Isla Negra (INE) control site not exposed to VIA emissions. For the 48 years of overlap between both sites, higher concentrations of Zn, V, Co, Cd, Ag, Fe, Cr, and Al were especially registered after the year 2000 at VIA compared to INE for the periods under study. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, As, Fe, Mo, Cr, and Zn increased through time, particularly over the period 1980-1990. Decontamination plans activated in 1992 appear to have had a positive effect on the amount of some elements, but the chemical concentration in the tree rings suggest continued accumulation of pollutants in the environment. Only after several years of implementation of the mitigation measures have some elements tended to decrease in concentration, especially at the end of the evaluated period. Dendrochemistry is a useful tool to provide a long-term perspective of the dynamics of trace metal pollution and represents a powerful approach to monitor air quality variability to extend the instrumental records back in time.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Árvores/química , Chile , Indústrias
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 696: 133902, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470322

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as brominated flame retardants. Because of their toxicity and persistence, some PBDEs were restricted under the Stockholm Convention in 2009. Since then, many studies have been carried out on PBDEs in China and in many other countries. In the present review, the occurrences and contamination of PBDEs in air, water, sediment, soil, biota and daily food, human blood, hair, and other human tissues in China are comprehensively reviewed and described. The human exposure pathways and associated health risks of PBDEs are summarized. The data showed no obvious differences between North and South China, but concentrations from West China were generally lower than in East China, which can be mainly attributed to the production and widespread use of PBDEs in eastern regions. High levels of PBDEs were generally observed in the PBDE production facilities (e.g., Jiangsu Province and Shandong Province, East China) and e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, East China, and Guiyu City and Qingyuan City, both located in Guangdong Province, South China) and large cities, whereas low levels were detected in rural and less-developed areas, especially in remote regions such as the Tibetan Plateau. Deca-BDE is generally the major congener. Existing problems for PBDE investigations in China are revealed, and further studies are also discussed and anticipated. In particular, non-invasive matrices such as hair should be more thoroughly studied; more accurate estimations of human exposure and health risks should be performed, such as adding bioaccessibility or bioavailability to human exposure assessments; and the degradation products and metabolites of PBDEs in human bodies should receive more attention. More investigations should be carried out to evaluate the quantitative relationships between internal and external exposure so as to provide a scientific basis for ensuring human health.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , China , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 631-643, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325863

RESUMO

Contaminants in the marine environment are widespread, but ship-based sampling routines are much narrower. We evaluated the utility of seabirds, highly-mobile marine predators, as broad samplers of contaminants throughout three tropical ocean regions. Our aim was to fill a knowledge gap in the distributions of, and processes that contribute to, tropical marine contaminants; and explore how species-specific foraging ecologies could inform or bias our understanding of contaminant distributions. Mercury and persistent organic pollutant (POPs) concentrations were measured in adults of five seabird species from four colonies in the central Pacific (Laysan and Tern Islands, Hawaii; Palmyra Atoll) and the eastern Caribbean (Barbuda). Blood-based total mercury (THg) and 89 POPs were measured in two seabird families: surface-foraging frigatebirds (Fregata spp.) and plunge-diving boobies (Sula spp.). Overall, largescale contaminant differences between colonies were more informative of contaminant distributions than inter-specific foraging ecology. Model selection results indicated that proximity to human populations was the best predictor of THg and POPs. Regional differences in contaminants were distinct: Barbudan Magnificent Frigatebirds had more compounds (n=52/89 POP detected) and higher concentrations (geometric mean THg=0.97µgg-1; mean ΣPOP53=26.6ngmL-1) than the remote colonies (34-42/89 POP detected; range of THg geometric means=0.33-0.93µgg-1; range of mean ΣPOP53:7.3-17.0ngmL-1) and had the most recently-synthesized POPs. Moderate differences in foraging ecologies were somewhat informative of inter-specific differences in contaminant types and concentrations between nearshore and offshore foragers. Across species, contaminant concentrations were higher in frigatebirds (THg=0.87µgg-1; ΣPOP53=17.5ngmL-1) compared to boobies (THg=0.48µgg-1; ΣPOP53=9.8). Ocean currents and contaminants' physiochemical properties provided additional insight into the scales of spatial and temporal contaminant exposure. Seabirds are excellent, broad samplers with which we can understand contaminant distributions in the marine environment. This is especially important for tropical remote regions that are under-sampled.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise
19.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 811-820, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344542

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the effect of mining activity on the environment of the Qhorveh mining area in the west of Iran, the geological, ecological and environmental data, related to social development and regional economic status, were used. The geological data included seven sub-indices, such as vegetation coverage, land utilization type, and fault activity; ecological data, with two sub-indices, such as degree of ecological environment recovery; and finally, environmental data, with three sub-indices, such as soil and dust pollutions. These were selected based on the literature and expert opinion which were utilized for environmental pollution and geo-ecological (EPGE) risk assessment of the study site. Remote sensing (RS) image, field sampling, digital elevation map, and data retrieved from different government agencies were used to generate layers for the sub-indices in the geographic information system (GIS) environment. In addition, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to determine the weight of sub-indices. Five levels consisting of best, good, middle, poor and worst were used to describe the EPGE risk assessment of the Qhorveh mining area. Results showed that worst and poor levels of EPGE risk are in the east and northeast of the study area where the gold and pumice mines are located while best and good levels of EPGE risk are in its center where the stone mines are located. According to the results of this research, the EPGE risk assessment of the Qhorveh mining area is affected by the environmental pollution index with its highest weight (0.3908). It can be concluded that the integration of the RS, GIS and AHP methods proposed in this study improved the evaluation quality of EPGE risk assessment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração , Ecologia , Meio Ambiente , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25789-25801, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270767

RESUMO

The significance of the natural geographical characteristics and ecological formation of the Coastline Mediterranean Countries (CMC) suggests a further examination of the dynamics of the renewable energy consumption (renewables) within the aforesaid region. As such, the dynamic impact of carbon emissions and the housing construction policy vis-à-vis dwellings, building and residential developments on the renewable energy consumption is investigated among Spain, France, Slovenia, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon and Israel. The dynamic autoregressive distributed lag methods of the pooled mean group, mean group and dynamic fixed-effect estimators are adopted for the empirical investigation over the periods 1999-2014 with real income and tourism employed as an additional variable. Using the PMG estimators, empirical results show that positive and statistically significant relationship exists among the variables in the long run. A 1% increase in housing construction policy, real income tourism and carbon emissions leads to (0.955), (8.622), (0.007) and (6.805) increase in renewable energy growth, while deviations in the short run significantly adjust to long-run equilibrium under an unforeseen disturbance at a moderate annual speed of about 73% annually. The inference from the short-run estimated coefficients indicates that housing construction policy is not a driver of renewables in Israel. From a policy standpoint, proposed strategic housing development policy and environmental pollution mitigation policy by policymakers should be void of causing a disservice toward the enrichment of renewable energy generation domestically in the panel countries.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , França , Grécia , Habitação , Renda , Líbano , Energia Renovável , Eslovênia , Espanha , Turquia
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