Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.595
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111737, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396065

RESUMO

Soils and artificial surfaces of urban parks can be contaminated by toxic substances and offer risk to the human health, especially to children. Rio Grande city, southern Brazil, is a peculiar site from the point of view of environmental contamination, since the current levels of contamination reflect an accumulation of different polluting sources started in the 18th century up to the urban and industrial sources of the present. The history of Hg contamination refers to the use of Hg salts in textile activities in the 18th century and the consequent use of contaminated sediments to land urban areas. The current contamination involves metals such as Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn is related to the high degree of urbanization in the city, as well as the petrochemical and fertilizer industry. The study aimed to achieve a human health risk assessment of urban parks soils, specifically for Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. To carry out the risk assessment using the USEPA model, three urban parks with a history of contamination were studied, using different soil exposure pathways (oral, dermal and inhalation) in the carcinogenic (Ni and Pb) and non-carcinogenic (Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) scenarios for children and adults. The non-carcinogenic risk of Pb was found in the three urban parks studied, for children and Hg in two urban parks. Pb and Ni showed no carcinogenic risk. Even so, the high non-carcinogenic risk of Hg and Pb showed that the contamination of the past and the present are found in the urban parks of Rio Grande city, putting the health of children who use these collective spaces at risk.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adulto , Brasil , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Indústrias , Mercúrio , Parques Recreativos , Medição de Risco
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111961, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513524

RESUMO

Contaminated agricultural soil with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) poses a threat to food safety and can adversely affect human health. This study evaluates the potential health risk caused by PTEs contamination in cultivated soils and the possible related health effect. Sixty-four (64) soil samples from cultivated soils before crop cultivation and post-crop were harvested and twenty-four (24) soil samples from a natural game reserve park were collected and. The PTEs were analysed using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the following elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, Al, and Fe. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index (HI) was calculated to assess the human health risks for the different pathways to the exposed population. A carcinogenic probabilistic risk model based on the mathematical derivation and PTEs transmission pathways is presented. The mean concentrations of the PTEs in the cultivated soil varied in order of Al > Fe > Mn > Cr > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. Cr and Ni concentrations in all the cultivated soils were found to be higher than the Canadian guidelines and the Finnish permissible threshold guidelines for agricultural. The CF in the soil indicates extreme contamination suggestion an ecotoxicological effect. The PLI value also suggests that the soils have undergone some form of deterioration, particularly with Cr and Ni. The ingestion seems to be the major pathway followed by dermal to children. The HQ and HI values for the children were > 1 indicating an adverse health effect for the children residing around the cultivated fields. The simulated results indicate that the percentage of the affected humans that may be consuming crop derived from the contaminated soil increases by a factor of 2 as the contamination factor increases. The transmission compartments can be used as an effective measure in which mitigation can be effectively used.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Canadá , Carcinógenos/análise , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Rios , Solo/química , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111922, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472110

RESUMO

Human health is adversely affected by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the topsoil, entering the bodies via inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. To visualize human health risks, we investigated five PTEs (Cd, As, Pb, Hg, and Cr) in 72 farmland topsoil samples from a town in Chongqing City, southwest China. Based on the human health risk assessment model, sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and the positive matrix factorization model (PMF) were used to construct the spatial health risks and to analyze the sources of PTEs; finally, health risks were combined with the source by ArcGIS. Based on our results, the use of SIS is feasible for the prediction of the spatial distribution of PTEs. Among the risks, the non-cancer risk of As for children most likely exceeded the accepted level in some areas, making As a priority pollutant. Although the health risks of soil Cd were acceptable in the region, the spatial probability distribution of Cd> 0.3 mg/kg represents a threat as Cd enters the human food chain. Even if the industrial discharge was the lowest individual contributor (29.33%), due to the impact of industrial discharge, the total non-cancer risk with a high probability (>0.85) for children still exceeded the accepted level in the northwestern area, which should be regarded as the priority pollution source. The combined method was useful to reduce efforts in environmental management, thus providing a basis for soil remediation and pollution source control.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Criança , China , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indústrias , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111755, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396078

RESUMO

Air pollution constitutes potential threats to wildlife and human health; therefore, it must be monitored accurately. However, little attention has been given to understanding the toxicological effects induced by air pollution and the suitability of bird species as bioindicators. The Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus), a human commensal species, was used as a study model to examine toxic metal accumulation, retention of particulate matter (PM), immunological and antioxidant capacities, and hematological parameters in birds inhabiting those areas with relatively higher (Shijiazhuang city) or lower (Chengde city) levels of PM2.5 and PM10 in China. Our results showed that Shijiazhuang birds had significantly more particle retention in the lungs and toxic metal (including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, iron, manganese, and lead) accumulation in the feathers relative to Chengde birds. They also had lower superoxide dismutase, albumin, immunoglobulin M concentrations in the lung lavage fluid, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the lungs and hearts. Furthermore, although they had higher proportions of microcytes, hypochromia, and polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood (a symptom of anemia), both populations exhibited comparable body conditions, white cell counts, heterophil and lymphocyte ratios, and plasma T-AOC and corticosterone levels. Therefore, our results not only confirmed that Shijiazhuang birds experienced a greater burden from environmental PM and toxic metals but also identified a suite of adverse effects of environmental pollution on immunological, antioxidative, and hematological parameters in multiple tissues. These findings contribute to our understanding of the physiological health consequences induced by PM exposure in wild animals. They suggest that free-living birds inhabiting urban areas could be used as bioindicators for evaluating the adverse effects induced by environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pardais/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Antioxidantes , Cádmio , China , Cidades , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Plumas , Humanos , Material Particulado , Pardais/sangue
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111787, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333342

RESUMO

The potential association of exposure to phthalates with muscle strength was reported in previous animal experiments. However, their association was rarely directly investigated in general populations. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the association of exposure to phthalates with grip strength using cross-sectional analysis which included 2436 individuals aged ≥ 20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2011-2014. The multivariable linear regression models were performed with the adjustment of related covariates. The results suggested that a one-unit increase in log-transformed phthalate metabolites (µg/g creatinine) was inversely associated with grip strength, including Mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate (ß: -2.727 kg, 95% CI: -3.452, -2.002), Mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (ß: -3.721 kg, 95% CI: -4.836, -2.607), Mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexl) phthalate (ß: -4.669 kg, 95% CI: -5.761, -3.577), Mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (ß: -4.756 kg, 95% CI: -5.957, -3.554), Mono-carboxyoctyl phthalate (ß: -1.324 kg, 95% CI: -2.412, -0.235), Mono-carboxynonyl phthalate (ß: -2.036 kg, 95% CI: -3.185, -0.886), Mono-benzyl phthalate (ß: -2.940 kg, 95% CI: -3.853, -2.026), Mono-n-butyl phthalate (ß: -2.100 kg, 95% CI: -3.474, -0.726), Mono-isobutyl phthalate (ß: -2.982 kg, 95% CI: -4.331, -1.633), and Mono-ethyl phthalate (ß: -1.709 kg, 95% CI: -2.368, -1.050). In subgroup analyses, the associations remained largely unchanged when the samples were stratified by gender and age; However they became ambiguous among underweight subjects when the samples were stratified by BMI status. Overall, exposure to phthalates was inversely associated with grip strength among US adults, regardless of their genders and ages. The suggestive potential BMI status-specific effects of phthalates on grip strength were observed.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111773, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340953

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal that occurs widely in the environment and poses extensive threats to human health, animals, and plants. This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase Cd pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on Karst areas. The contributions of natural and anthropogenic factors to Cd accumulation were quantitatively assessed using the RF machine learning method. The results revealed that the main influencing factors were pH, organic carbon (Corg), and elevation. Moreover, the interaction effects of pH and Corg on distance and elevation were also quantified and visualised. It is observed that pH and Corg had stronger effects on soil Cd concentration than that of distance when pH > 7.02 and Corg > 1.53. In other words, higher Cd content in the soil along roadways may be caused by the interaction of distance, pH and Corg, with pH and Corg playing the dominant role in our case. Moreover, the maximum contribution of a single factor, elevation, to Cd concentration was about 0.13 mg/kg, and its interactions reached 1.082 mg/kg and 0.83 mg/kg, respectively, when combined with pH and Corg at 194.0 m. However, with increasing elevation, pH and Corg gradually took over the leading roles. This result not only gives us a quantitative understanding of the relationship between the factors that affect soil cadmium accumulation, but also provides an accurate method for source apportionment of heavy metals in soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Carbonato de Cálcio , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química
7.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128373, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182143

RESUMO

Since aquatic ecosystems receive runoff of most anthropogenic pollutants, risk assessment tools and protocols have been developed in order to protect them. However, most ecological risk assessments focus on the study of single species exposed to a single chemical, overlooking the environmental reality of multiple chemical exposures and stresses over generations. To advance in realistic predictions of population and community changes, the environmental disturbance history should be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate how environmental disturbance history (continuous expected sublethal exposure to one chemical for several generations) determines populations' responses to another stressors. The experiments were performed with Daphnia magna as model organisms. To create a disturbance history, dimethoate was used as first stressor at two different concentrations: medium (0.089 mg·L-1) and high (0.89 mg·L-1). The population exposed to medium concentration ("vulnerable population") showed no differences from the control population in the selected parameters (body size and reproductive success). Our interest in the vulnerable population was to determine whether, after a first stressor, the detected non-effect hides a population impairment, which might undermine populations' responses to future stressors. After 4 generations under dimethoate exposure, the vulnerable D. magna population was exposed to a second chemical stressor (glyphosate) and an environmental stressor (food scarcity) as compared to control. The vulnerable population showed both less resistance to glyphosate and less resistance to starvation, corroborating the hypothesis that a disturbance history of continuous expected sublethal chemical exposures undermines populations' responses to further chemical and environmental stressors.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348783

RESUMO

The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly regards the prevention and control of environmental pollution as one of the "three key battles" to build a well-off society. This paper analyzes the relationship between social capital and environmental pollution from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. From the theoretical perspective, social capital has two opposite effects on environmental pollution: the suppression and the promotion. The former indicates that the improvement of social capital level reduces the cost of residents' boycott to pollution and reduces pollution emissions, while the latter manifests that the improvement of social capital worsens environmental pollution due to the ability of polluting enterprises to withstand residents' boycott. Based on the panel data of China from 2008 to 2016, the empirical results show that social capital has inverted U-shaped characteristics on environmental pollution. Low level of social capital will increase pollution emissions and only when social capital reaches a certain level can it be beneficial to environmental protection. This paper attempts to better understand the functions of social capital in environmental governance and provides constructive proposals on how to exert the governance role of social capital on environmental protection for policy makers. Regions with higher levels of social capital should exert the suppression effect of social capital and regions with low levels should focus on improving the level of social capital, while formal regulation means shall be adopted to control pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Capital Social , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317027

RESUMO

High-polluting industries are regarded as the main sources of air pollutant emissions and the major factors that significantly destroy the ecological environment. Corporate innovation in high-polluting industries improves the energy consumption efficiency and reduces the emission of air pollutant, which mitigates the conflict between environment and economy. Using the sample of China's listed firms from 2010 to 2017, this study examines the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and financialization on corporate innovation in high-polluting industries. The results show that there is a positive association between CSR and corporate innovation, while there is a negative association between financialization and corporate innovation. Furthermore, the financialization of high-polluting firms can alleviate the promotion role of CSR in the innovation process. The financialization of state-owned enterprises in high-polluting industries may not have a crowding-out effect on research and development (R&D), but it can limit the R&D promotion effect of CSR engagements. In contrast, the financialization of non-state-owned enterprises will hinder corporate innovation, but it will not affect the association between CSR and technology innovation. We also find that the financialization of high-polluting firms with low financial constraints can alleviate the promotion role of CSR engagements in innovation. Meanwhile, the CSR engagements of high-polluting firms with high financial constraints play a stronger role in corporate innovation. During the implementation of environmental policies, the negative association between financialization and corporate innovation has been strengthened. Our findings can encourage high-polluting firms to make more efforts in environmental protection and social stability.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Corporações Profissionais , Responsabilidade Social , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias/ética , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Invenções , Corporações Profissionais/ética , Corporações Profissionais/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(10): 1565-1589, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170395

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) pollution is an environmental problem that adversely affects human and ecosystem health at local, regional, and global scales-including within New York State. More than two-thirds of the Hg currently released to the environment originates, either directly or indirectly, from human activities. Since the early 1800s, global atmospheric Hg concentrations have increased by three- to eight-fold over natural levels. In the U.S., atmospheric emissions and point-source releases to waterways increased following industrialization into the mid-1980s. Since then, water discharges have largely been curtailed. As a result, Hg emissions, atmospheric concentrations, and deposition over the past few decades have declined across the eastern U.S. Despite these decreases, Hg pollution persists. To inform policy efforts and to advance public understanding, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) sponsored a scientific synthesis of information on Hg in New York State. This effort includes 23 papers focused on Hg in atmospheric deposition, water, fish, and wildlife published in Ecotoxicology. New York State experiences Hg contamination largely due to atmospheric deposition. Some landscapes are inherently sensitive to Hg inputs driven by the transport of inorganic Hg to zones of methylation, the conversion of inorganic Hg to methylmercury, and the bioaccumulation and biomagnification along food webs. Mercury concentrations exceed human and ecological risk thresholds in many areas of New York State, particularly the Adirondacks, Catskills, and parts of Long Island. Mercury concentrations in some biota have declined in the Eastern Great Lakes Lowlands and the Northeastern Highlands over the last four decades, concurrent with decreases in water releases and air emissions from regional and U.S. sources. However, widespread changes have not occurred in other ecoregions of New York State. While the timing and magnitude of the response of Hg levels in biota varies, policies expected to further diminish Hg emissions should continue to decrease Hg concentrations in food webs, yielding benefits to the fish, wildlife, and people of New York State. Anticipated improvements in the Hg status of aquatic ecosystems are likely to be greatest for inland surface waters and should be roughly proportional to declines in atmospheric Hg deposition. Efforts that advance recovery from Hg pollution in recent years have yielded significant progress, but Hg remains a pollutant of concern. Indeed, due to this extensive compilation of Hg observations in biota, it appears that the extent and intensity of the contamination on the New York landscape and waterscape is greater than previously recognized. Understanding the extent of Hg contamination and recovery following decreases in atmospheric Hg deposition will require further study, underscoring the need to continue existing monitoring efforts.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Lagos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , New York
11.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126799, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957268

RESUMO

Enrichment of cadmium (Cd) during weathering and pedogenesis of carbonate rocks has resulted in large areas of lands with soil Cd concentrations exceeding the official guidelines in China and other countries. However, it is reported in many studies that the risk of soil contamination by Cd from this natural process can be neglected as most of the Cd is not bioavailable. Noticing that the previous studies focused only on eluvial areas but not on lowland alluvium, where Cd from the eluvial areas can be transported and accumulated, we selected the Qingyang county in Anhui province, where there are two small drainage basins developed wholly on carbonate bedrock, to compare the Cd speciation and activity between eluvium and alluvium, and to evaluate the risk of Cd pollution to the latter. By the application of systematic sampling and analysis of the bedrock, soil, and rice grain samples, and in comparison with the previously acknowledged "high background with low mobility" area in Guizhou, it was found that soil developed from alluvium has both higher total Cd and higher mobile Cd proportion than soil from the upland eluvium. A very high percentage of rice grain samples (51%) grown on the alluvial soil exceeded the food standard for Cd (0.2 mg kg-1). Therefore, the spatial division of alluvium and eluvium should be the first step in the assessment of the Cd risk in carbonate regions, and special attention should be given to soil developed from alluvium.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carbonatos/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Oryza , Solo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127342, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947679

RESUMO

Environmental contaminations by potentially toxic metals (PTMs) are associated with energy exploitation and present a significant problem in urban areas due to their impacts on human health. The PTMs status in Urumqi total environment inevitably impacted by extensive development of coal and oil industries has been lack of understanding comprehensively. A series of PTMs (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr) in the soil-dust-plant (foliage of Ulmus pumila L.) system of Urumqi (NW China) were screened by XRF and ICPMS. Multivariate statistics, risk models, GIS-based geostatistics, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modelling and blood lead levels of 0-6 aged children evaluated by IEUBK model are used to determine the priority pollutants, sources and health effects of the investigated elements. The spatial distribution of PTMs in soil-dust-plant system significantly coincides with coal combustion, traffic emission, and industrial activity. Although all PTM toxicants in soil, dust and tree foliage show some effects, the priority contaminants are observed for Cu, Pb and Zn as single element. The total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks from PTMs are beyond the tolerance range of 0-6 year's old children, and the dust (TCR = 1.07E-04) PTMs pose approximatively equivalent carcinogenic risk to soil PTMs (TCT = 1.09E-04). The predicted BLLs (75-83 µ g·L-1) of 1-2 years children are most strongly influenced by Pb in soil and dust, and therefore more attention should be focused on sources of Pb to support the primary health care of the toddlers in Urumqi.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/sangue , Carcinógenos , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Indústrias , Chumbo/sangue , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751191

RESUMO

The "driver-pressure-state-impact-response" (DPSIR) model has recently become a popular approach to deal with environmental problems. The combination of DPSIR with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a useful method to study low-carbon evaluation because the AHP model has a special advantage in multi-indexes evaluation. This paper constructs the low-carbon economy evaluation system and comprehensively evaluates the numerical value of low-carbon economic development of China's 30 regions from 2000 to 2015 by using the AHP method. It shows that the numerical value of low-carbon economy of China's 30 regions varies in terms of growth rate. The numerical value of east regional low-carbon economy shows a pattern that is gradually higher than that of the west region. The numerical value of low carbon economic development in the south region is higher than that of the north region by degrees. In addition, based on the model of coordination degree in 2015, the result indicated that the four subsystems have primary coordination in the east area and bare coordination in the central and west areas. It is indicated that the four sub-indexes should be developed at the same pace and promoting the development of a low-carbon economy in the mid-west areas is the key in China. Finally, we proposed that environmental regulations and policies should be formulated to improve coordination in various aspects and various departments. Calculating the degree of low-carbon economic coupling coordination may be helpful for policy makers to formulate effective policies and take actions in the future.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Poluição Ambiental/economia
14.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127799, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739694

RESUMO

There are many sources of urban road dust, such as soil dispersal, emissions of industrial enterprises and thermal power plants, road traffic-related processes. Chelyabinsk was selected as a typical Russian industrial city. This work was the first pollution study of road dust in Chelyabinsk. We examined 125 road dust samples were on the content toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, and Zn). The concentrations of trace elements in road dust were determined using ICP-MS. Results showed that the metal concentrations in dust were higher than the background value of local soil. The distribution curves of dust were asymmetric, had have two peaks, and showed significant unimodal distribution. The higher share of particles was in the range from 30 … 40 to 250 … 300 µm. The thoracic fraction volume (%) and concentrations of trace elements were higher near metallurgical plants. Cadmium, Сu, Mn, Ni, Sr, Pb and Zn were originated from industry and transport; electrometallurgical plant was source of Cr; Al, Co, and Fe derived from local soils and pavement erosion; As, Hg and Sb were the tracers of coal-fired power stations emission. Ingestion was a major exposure way of toxic elements in the dust. The results suggested that there was no significant potential health risk to both children and adults from exposure to any elements in road dust. The cancer risk for adults and children from exposure to As, Cd, Cr, and Pb was found to be at the acceptable or tolerable level. The study deals with the contamination of potentially toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn) in road dust collected from Chelyabinsk urban area.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Oligoelementos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Metalurgia , Metais Pesados/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Medição de Risco , Federação Russa , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(9): 1409-1421, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803564

RESUMO

The biobed is a purification system, which reduces soil pollution for receiving pesticide residues from handling and washing machinery in agricultural areas. The aims of this study were (1) to assess ecotoxicity effects over time to soil fauna, posed by Lorsban® 480 BR (Chlorpyrifos) and Dithane® NT (Mancozeb) residues when disposed of in a biobed system compared with two subtropical soils, and (2) to assess ecotoxicity effects over time to soil fauna simulating an accidental spillage with Lorsban® 480 BR at the biobed. A semi-field experiment was conducted for 420 days in southern Brazil, testing continuous disposal of washing pulverization tanks in biobeds, Typic Haploperox or Typic Hapludults. In addition, different biobeds received a single dose (1 L) of Lorsban® 480 BR to simulate an accidental spillage. Chronic ecotoxicity tests were performed using Folsomia candida, Eisenia andrei, and Enchytraeus crypticus in different sampling times for both experiments. F. candida was the most sensitive species. The biobed system was able to eliminate effects from residues of both pesticides over time in all species, which did not happen in both natural soils. In accidental spillage simulation, even 420 days after contamination, F. candida did not show reproduction. The biobeds can be a feasible alternative for the disposal and treatment residues of pesticides, also for handling and washing pesticides activities. The system was efficient in promoting degradation and reducing ecotoxicity effects posed by Lorsban® 480 BR and Dithane® NT for soil fauna. It is a safe alternative to avoid soil contamination.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Artrópodes , Brasil , Clorpirifos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Maneb , Oligoquetos , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Solo , Zineb
16.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127522, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with some chronic diseases, but little evidence exists on their possible relationship with neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to assess the relationship between PCB exposure and the occurrence of dementia and Parkinson disease in a prospective cohort study in a highly polluted area (Brescia-Caffaro). METHODS: PCB exposure was assessed by measuring serum levels of 24 congeners. Data on the onset of dementia and Parkinson disease were retrieved by the Brescia Health Protection Agency Database. We used Poisson regression models adjusted for possible confounders to calculate rate ratios (RRs). A mediation analysis was performed to evaluate the mediatory role of cardiovascular diseases. RESULTS: 699 subjects without neurologic diseases at baseline were enrolled (48.1% males, 63.2 years of mean age) in 2001-2013 and followed up to 2018. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 years, 36 and 20 subjects developed dementia and Parkinson disease. Subjects in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of the total PCBs distribution, compared with those in the 1st tertile, had a higher risk of dementia (RR = 2.30 and RR = 4.35). The estimates for Parkinson disease included the null value with wide confidence intervals. In the mediation analysis, the association between PCB exposure and dementia was dominated by the direct pathway and not by the hypertension-mediated pathway. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a positive association between total PCBs serum levels and the onset of dementia not mediated by hypertension. For Parkinson, the unstable risk estimates did not allow to draw a conclusion on a possible association.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/sangue , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 393-396, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699910

RESUMO

Lizards increasingly are recognized as suitable contaminant biomonitors in terrestrial ecosystems. Previously, we have shown that Bosk's fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus boskianus) living close to the Gabès-Ghannouche industrial complex for fertilizer and acid production in southern Tunisia were contaminated by heavy metals. However, the impact of this contamination on lizard health parameters has not been investigated. In this study, we used the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling test to assess whether the proximity to the industrial complex was associated with notable changes in lizard cell-mediated immune response (CMI). Our results showed significantly lower CMI in lizards living close to the industrial complex compared to those occurring farther away in a similar coastal habitat. Overall, our findings are consistent with the idea of immunotoxic effects of metal contamination. They also stress the usefulness of the PHA approach as an efficient tool for the evaluation of contaminant-related immunosuppression in lizards.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Lagartos/imunologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Indústrias , Metais Pesados/análise , Tunísia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532012

RESUMO

Various environmental factors influence the outbreak and spread of epidemic or even pandemic events which, in turn, may cause feedbacks on the environment. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic on 13 March 2020 and its rapid onset, spatial extent and complex consequences make it a once-in-a-century global disaster. Most countries responded by social distancing measures and severely diminished economic and other activities. Consequently, by the end of April 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous environmental impacts, both positive such as enhanced air and water quality in urban areas, and negative, such as shoreline pollution due to the disposal of sanitary consumables. This study presents an early overview of the observed and potential impacts of the COVID-19 on the environment. We argue that the effects of COVID-19 are determined mainly by anthropogenic factors which are becoming obvious as human activity diminishes across the planet, and the impacts on cities and public health will be continued in the coming years.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Ecossistema , Humanos , Saúde Pública
19.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126927, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417510

RESUMO

The waste rock, tailings and soil around an abandoned mine site in Gorno (northwest Italy) contain elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) exceeding the permissible limits for residential uses. Specifically, the maximum concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were 107 mg/kg, 340 mg/kg, 1064 mg/kg, and 148 433 mg/kg, respectively. A site-specific human health risk assessment (HHRA) was conducted for residential and recreational exposure scenarios, using an approach based on Risk Based Corrective Action (RBCA) method, refined by incorporating oral bioaccessibility data. Oral bioaccessibility analyses were performed by simulating the human digestion process in vitro (Unified BARGE Method). Detailed analysis of oral bioaccessible fraction (BAF i.e. ratio of bioaccessible concentrations to total concentrations on <250 µm fraction) indicated BAF of As (5-33%), Cd (72-98%), Co (24-42%), Cr (3-11%), Cu (25-90%), Ni (17-60%), Pb (16-88%) and Zn (73-94%). The solid phase distribution and mineralogical analyses showed that the variation of BAF is attributed to presence of alkaline calcareous rocks and association of PTE with a variety of minerals. The HHRA for ingestion pathway, suggested that bioaccessibility-corrected cancer risk reached up to 2.7 × 10-5 and 0.55 × 10-5 for residential and recreational senarios respectively (acceptable level is 1 × 10-5). The hazard index (HI) recalculated after incorporation of oral bioaccessible concentrations for a residential scenario ranged from 0.02 to 17.9. This was above the acceptable level (>1) for 50% of the samples, indicating potential human health risks. This study provides information for site-specific risk assessments and planning future research.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Minerais/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Solo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353020

RESUMO

This article proposes and examines gender and life-stage factors as determinants of public worry and risk avoidance in a nuclear fallout scenario. Drawing on a survey (N 2,291) conducted in Sweden, the article demonstrates statistically significant results that women as well as parents with children at home are more likely to express high levels of worry for radiation exposure and have a preference to move away from a fallout area despite assurance of successful remediation. Moreover, a negative relationship is shown between age and both worry for radiation exposure and preference to move. These novel results from Northern Europe thus support a life-stage framing of public risk attitudes. As radiation physicists develop new methods showing that women and children are at higher risk of cancer than other groups at the same radiation exposure, we may actually see the precaution among women and parents as a regulating mechanism for the higher objective risk they face. The results are moreover in agreement with studies of public risk reactions in Japan, creating a strong knowledge base that human-induced radiation pollution is largely an intolerable risk to the public. Considering the public opinion, managing an intolerable risk through risk mitigation by remediation alone is likely insufficient in many cases. A viable strategy would offer a range of social support options that enable individual decision-making and the protection of risk groups.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Cinza Radioativa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioatividade , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...