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1.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111246, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858271

RESUMO

The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APCP) is an important pollution control policy formulated by the Chinese government to promote green development. However, there are few studies of its impact. Based on a province-level panel dataset from 2007 to 2017, we use a three-hierarchy meta-frontier slack-based data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) model and the global Malmquist (GM) index to estimate the green total factor productivity (GTFP) of China's chemical sub-industries. Next, we use the difference-in-differences (DID) method to explore the effect of the implementation of the APCP in 2013 on the GTFP of China's chemical industry. We find an increasing trend in the GTFP of China's chemical industry between 2007 and 2017. A decomposition of the change in GTFP shows that technical progress was the main driving factor and management inefficiency was the main inhibitory factor. The APCP had a significant positive effect on GTFP. Overall, in the post-implementation period, the increase in the GTFP of the treatment group was approximately 7.9% greater than in the control group. The APCP also significantly improved the technical efficiency change index. A dynamic effect analysis shows that the positive effect of the APCP on GTFP had an inverted U-shaped trend. A series of robustness tests, including counterfactual, re-grouping, and quasi-DID tests, suggest that our findings are reliable. In addition, changes in exports, capital deepening, and energy prices all significantly improved the GTFP of China's chemical industry.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Indústria Química , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Eficiência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(32): 39977-40000, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803583

RESUMO

Compressed natural gas is an alternative green fuel for automobile industry. Recently, the Indian government is targeting to replace all the conventional fuel vehicles by compressed natural gas (CNG) automobiles due to its several merits. Still, the presence of a significant amount of CO, CH4, and NOx gases in the CNG vehicle exhaust are quiet a matter of concern. Thus, to control the emissions from CNG engines, the major advances are under development of and oxidation is one of them in catalytic converter. In literature, the catalysts such as noble and non-noble metals have been reported for separate oxidation of CO and CH4.. Experimentally, it was found that non-noble metal catalysts are preferred due to its low cost, good thermal stability, and molding tractability. In literature, several articles have been published for CO and CH4 oxidation but no review paper is still available. Thus, the present review provides a comprehensive overview of separate as well as simultaneous CO and CH4 oxidation reactions for CNG vehicular emission control.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gás Natural , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Gases , Veículos Automotores , Gás Natural/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485967

RESUMO

With the continuous increase in greenhouse gas emissions in the world and the United States announcing withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, the conflicts between environmental protection and economic growth of developing and developed countries have become increasingly challenging. In this paper, following the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" specified in the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, we develop an optimal pollution control model based on a dynamic system for both developing and developed countries. We analyze how different perspectives of the developing and developed countries affect their investments in pollution control and how to determine their responsibilities based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. Our aim is to obtain a stable equilibrium mechanism to maximize the social welfare between the developing and developed countries and explore the optimal pollution control and economic growth path. Our results show that it is optimal for the developed countries to help developing countries with pollution control in their initial stage of economic growth. Once the developing countries reach a certain economic development level, they can contribute more to pollution control, while the developed countries can reduce their environmental investment. We show that by following this optimal path, the developing and developed countries can effectively control environment pollution without significant loss of social welfare.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental , Países Desenvolvidos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Paris
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26856-26867, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378110

RESUMO

Floating vegetated islands (FVIs) are extensively implemented in various river ecology restoration projects, given their capability of decontaminating pollutants. The fluid dynamical behaviors of turbulence through FVIs are studied in the flume by using the SonTek Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry. Through conventional spectral and quadrant analyses, flow characteristics, such as energy content and turbulent momentum exchange, are investigated as the flow encountered a series of root canopies. A shear layer with corresponding coherent vortex structures at the bottom of root canopies occurred, which is generated by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. These instabilities are usually derived from velocity differences between root canopy and gap region. Shear- and stem-scale vortices are identified by using spectral analysis. The power spectral density function on measured vertical velocity fluctuations in the flow direction near the bottom of root canopies from the leading edge of FVIs is computed. Given the flow developing downstream, a series of the spectral curves has gradually showed one dominant dimensionless frequency at 0.046. The sweep and ejection events have contributed prominently to the Reynolds stress in whole vertical direction. Momentum flux carried by sweeps outweighs its counterpart carried by ejections inside root canopies. However, the situation is different outside root canopies. The sweep-ejection contributions are brief but crucial to the total turbulent momentum exchange, which is in good agreement with considerable studies on turbulent flow through canopies.


Assuntos
Acústica , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Plantas , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Ilhas
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466397

RESUMO

Environmental pollution as a result of the improper disposal of pesticide packaging wastes (PPWs) has posed serious harm to groundwater, soil and public health. However, few studies focused on PPWs green disposal willingness and behaviors of farmers from the perspective of perceived value. Based on the first-hand data, collected from 635 farmers of grain-producing counties in Henan province of China, through the questionnaire survey method, this paper adopted a structural equation model (SEM) to empirically explore the formation mechanism of perceived value on PPWs green disposal, and green disposal willingness and behaviors were further in-depth investigated. The results showed that the action of farmers' green disposal of PPWs followed the causal relationship, whereby perceived value→behavioral willingness→behavioral performance, and farmers' perceived value came from the comprehensive tradeoff and comparison between perceived benefits and perceived risks. Meanwhile, the perceived benefits and perceived risks could have significant effects on green disposal willingness and behaviors directly and indirectly, among which perceived benefits (0.478) had the greatest positive total effects on the willingness, and perceived risks (-0.362) had the greatest negative total effects on the behaviors. Interestingly, there existed inconsistence between farmers' green disposal willingness and behaviors. When faced with the choice of PPWs green disposal, the farmers were generally risk averse, which resulted in them being more inclined to take conservative behaviors driven by the profit maximization, and even showed the "powerless" state with willingness but no actual action.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Fazendeiros , Praguicidas , Eliminação de Resíduos , Agricultura , China , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Embalagem de Produtos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230996, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243461

RESUMO

The use of compost in urban agriculture offers an opportunity to increase nutrient recycling in urban ecosystems, but recent studies have shown that compost application often results in phosphorus (P) being applied far in excess of crop nutrient demand, creating the potential for P loss through leachate and runoff. Management goals such as maximizing crop yields or maximizing the mass of nutrients recycled from compost may inadvertently result in P loss, creating a potential ecosystem disservice. Here, we report the results from the first two years of an experimental study in which four different crops grown in raised-bed garden plots with high background P and organic matter received one of two types of compost (municipal compost made from urban organics waste, or manure-based compost) at two different levels (applied based on crop N or P demand), while additional treatments received synthetic N and P fertilizer or no soil amendments. Because of the low N:P ratio of compost relative to crop nutrient uptake, compost application based on crop N demand resulted in overapplication of P. Crop yield did not differ among treatments receiving compost inputs, and the mass of P recovered in crops relative to P inputs decreased for treatments with higher compost application rates. Treatments receiving compost targeted to crop N demand had P leachate rates approximately twice as high as other treatments. These results highlight tradeoffs inherent in recycling nutrients through UA, but they also show that targeted compost application rates have the capacity to maintain crop yields while minimizing nutrient loss. UA has the potential to help close the urban nutrient loop, but if UA is to be scaled up in order to maximize potential social, economic, and environmental benefits, it is especially important to carefully manage nutrients to avoid ecosystem disservices from nutrient pollution.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Compostagem , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jardins , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Minnesota , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fósforo/análise , Reciclagem/métodos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Urbanização
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244988

RESUMO

In 2016, the issue of the Environmental Protection Tax Law indicated the enhancement of environmental protection in China. This study examines the market reaction to firms in heavy-polluting industries, and the effects of external legal institutional quality and internal environmental disclosure on firm value around the passage of Environmental Protection Tax Law. Using an event study approach coupled with ordinary least square regressions, the researchers find a significantly negative market reaction to firms in heavy-polluting industries, but this negative reaction varies depending on the expected increase in future regulatory costs. Specifically, the above negative reaction is stronger when the firm reveals that itself or its subsidiary belongs to heavy-polluting industry, however it would be mitigated when a firm is in a region with better quality of legal institutions or discloses environmental improvement activities. Overall, the results are consistent with the market perceiving that the environmental protection tax law enacted would increase regulatory costs for firms in heavy-polluting industries, and also show the higher-quality regional legal institutions and more efforts on environmental protection could relieve the market's pessimism caused by uncertainty.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Poluição Ambiental , Indústrias , Impostos , China , Revelação , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Indústrias/economia , Metalurgia
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 352-363, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081331

RESUMO

Coal-based olefin (CTO) industry as a complement of traditional petrochemical industry plays vital role in China's national economic development. However, high CO2 emission in CTO industry is one of the fatal problems to hinder its development. In this work, the carbon emission and mitigation potentials by different reduction pathways are evaluated. The economic cost is analyzed and compared as well. According to the industry development plan, the carbon emissions from China's CTO industry will attain 189.43 million ton CO2 (MtCO2) and 314.11 MtCO2 in 2020 and 2030, respectively. With the advanced technology level, the maximal carbon mitigation potential could be attained to 15.3% and 21.9% in 2020 and 2030. If the other optional mitigation ways are combined together, the carbon emission could further reduce to some extent. In general, the order of mitigation potential is followed as: feedstock alteration by natural gas > CO2 hydrogenation with renewable electricity applied > CCS technology. The mitigation cost analysis indicates that on the basis of 2015 situation, the economic penalty for feedstock alteration is the lowest, ranged between 186 and 451 CNY/tCO2, and the cost from CCS technology is ranged between 404 and 562 CNY/tCO2, which is acceptable if the CO2 enhanced oil recovery and carbon tax are considered. However, for the CO2 hydrogenation technology, the cost is extremely high and there is almost no application possibility at present.


Assuntos
Alcenos/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carvão Mineral , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Indústria Química , China , Poluição Ambiental/economia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033436

RESUMO

With the increasingly serious problem of environmental pollution, reducing carbon emissions has become an urgent task for all countries. The cap-and-trade (C&T) policy has gained international recognition and has been adopted by several countries. In this paper, considering the uncertainty of market demand, we discuss the carbon emission reduction and price policies of two risk-averse competitive manufacturers under the C&T policy. The two manufacturers have two competitive behaviors: simultaneous decision making and sequential decision making. Two models were constructed for these behaviors. The optimal decisions, carbon emission reduction rate, and price were obtained from these two models. Furthermore, in this paper the effects of some key parameters on the optimal decision are discussed, and some managerial insights are obtained. The results show that the lower the manufacturers' risk aversion level is, the higher their carbon emission reduction rate and utilities. As the carbon quota increases, the manufacturers' optimal carbon reduction rate and utilities increase. Considering consumers' environmental awareness, it is more beneficial for the government to reduce the carbon quota and motivate manufacturers' internal enthusiasm for emission reduction. The government can, through macro control of the market, make carbon trading prices increase appropriately and encourage manufacturers to reduce carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Política Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/economia , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/normas , Fatores de Risco
10.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126272, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109703

RESUMO

Reduction of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine exhausts is one of the key challenges in environmental protection, and can be achieved by NH3-assisted selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) using copper-exchanged chabazite zeolites (i.e. Cu-CHA, including Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SAPO-34) as catalysts. Understanding the redox chemistry of Cu-CHA in NH3-SCR catalysis is crucial for further improving the NOx reduction efficiency. Here, a series of Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts with different Cu ion exchange levels were prepared, thoroughly characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption using NH3 as a probe molecule, etc., and tested in NH3-SCR reactions under steady-state conditions. In situ studies by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), supplemented with density-functional theory calculations, provided solid evidence for the formation of ammonium ion (NH4+) intermediates resulting from the reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ by co-adsorbed NH3 and NO molecules on Cu-SSZ-13. Catalytic relevance of the NH4+ intermediates, as demonstrated by an increase of NO conversion over Cu-SSZ-13 pre-treated in NH3/NO atmosphere, can be attributed to the formation of closely coupled Cu+/NH4+ pairs promoting the Cu+ re-oxidation and, consequently, the overall NH3-SCR process. This study thus paves a new route for improving the NH3-SCR efficiency over Cu-CHA zeolite catalyst.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Cobre/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Zeolitas/química , Catálise , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Oxirredução , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102174

RESUMO

A current and universal challenge, particularly in developing nations, is the establishment of effective environmental regulation policies that protect the ecological environment without adversely affecting the international competitiveness of the domestic manufacturing industry. To deal with this dilemma, this study investigates the export competitiveness of China's manufacturing industry from the viewpoint of export value added. The Porter hypothesis is applied for an empirical investigation of the effect of environmental regulation on export competitiveness and to determine the presence of intra-industry heterogeneity. Furthermore, this study seeks to understand the mechanisms through which environmental regulation affects export competitiveness by exploring the two main approaches to technological innovation. The findings reveal that environmental regulation has a promotion effect of approximately 2% on the export competitiveness of China's manufacturing industry; however, this effect is non-linear and displays a "U-shaped" tendency, indicating that certain prerequisites must be fulfilled to validate the Porter hypothesis. In addition, the effect of environmental regulation displays significant intra-industry heterogeneity, which is evident primarily in heavily polluting sub-industries and to a lesser extent in moderately polluting sub-industries but insignificant in lightly polluting sub-industries. Environmental regulation also differs significantly in the mechanisms through which it affects different approaches to technological innovation. Independent research and development is affected by environmental regulation through the compliance cost effect, which limits export competitiveness, while technology introduction is affected by the innovation offset effect, which favors export competitiveness. These findings offer political implications for the sustainable development of the ecological environment and foreign trade.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento Competitivo , Política Ambiental , Invenções , Indústria Manufatureira , Tecnologia , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012840

RESUMO

The Single Europe Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) program develops and implements innovative technological and operational solutions to modernize European air traffic management and to eliminate the negative environmental impacts of aviation activity. This article presents our developments within the SESAR Solution "Safety Support Tools for Avoiding Runway Excursions". This SESAR Solution aims to mitigate the risk of runway excursion, to optimize airport operation management by decreasing the number of runway inspections, to make chemical treatment effective with respect to the environment, and to increase resilience, efficiency and safety in adverse weather situations. The proposed approach is based on the enhancement of runway surface condition awareness by integrating data from various sources. Dangerous windy conditions based on Lidar measurements are also discussed as another relevant factor in relation to runway excursions. The paper aims to explore four different data mining methods to obtain runway conditions from the available input data sources, examines their performance and discusses their pros and cons in comparison with a rule-based algorithm approach. The output of the SESAR Solution is developed in compliance with the new Global Reporting Format of the International Civil Aviation Organization for runway condition description to be valid from 2020. This standard is expected to provide concerned stakeholders with more precise information to enhance flight safety and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Aviação , Mineração de Dados , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Aeronaves , Europa (Continente)
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940904

RESUMO

Communities adjacent to concentrated areas of industrial land use (CAILU) are exposed to elevated levels of pollutants during flood disasters. Many CAILU are also characterized by insufficient infrastructure, poor environmental quality, and socially vulnerable populations. Manchester, TX is a marginalized CAILU neighborhood proximate to several petrochemical industrial sites that is prone to frequent flooding. Pollutants from stormwater runoff discharge from industrial land uses into residential areas have created increased toxicant exposures. Working with local organizations, centers/institutes, stakeholders, and residents, public health researchers sampled air, water, indoor dust, and outdoor soil while researchers from landscape architecture and urban planning applied these findings to develop a community-scaled master plan. The plan utilizes land use and built environment changes to increase flood resiliency and decrease exposure to contaminants. Using a combination of models to assess the performance, costs, and benefits of green infrastructure and pollutant load impacts, the master plan is projected to capture 147,456 cubic feet of runoff, and create $331,400 of annual green benefits by reducing air pollution and energy use, providing pollution treatment, increase carbon dioxide sequestration, and improve groundwater replenishment. Simultaneously, there is a 41% decrease across all analyzed pollutants, reducing exposure to and transferal of toxic materials.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão/organização & administração , Planejamento de Cidades/organização & administração , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Inundações/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947618

RESUMO

Emerging economies face the challenge of increasing labor costs but also provide an opportunity to promote environmental governance and green development. Based on the perspectives of impetus and capability, the effects of rising labor costs and market environment on green technological innovation are investigated in this study. The empirical studies used the data of high-pollution firms in China from 2009 to 2018. Results demonstrate that rising labor costs deteriorates high-pollution firm performance, while highly competitive industries are affected more than other industries. Meanwhile, the influence of rising labor costs on green technological innovation has a threshold effect which illustrates an "inversely U-shaped" variation trend with the increase of degree of market monopoly. The labor costs will make biggest impact on the green technological innovation in the moderately concentrated market environment. Basing from these results, this study provides the following suggestions for emerging economies' green development: Take rising labor cost as an opportunity to advance technological progress to the green direction, establish a sound market competition environment, and develop green finance to reduce the financing constraints of green technological innovation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Indústrias , China , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Invenções , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Chemosphere ; 241: 124952, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627107

RESUMO

Thermal treatment can effectively remediate diesel-contaminated soil, but is considered unsustainable because of its energy-intensive nature and potential to damage soil properties. Here, we used low temperature thermal treatment (LTTT) as an energy-efficient technique to remediate diesel-contaminated soil. The impacts of LTTT on the physiochemical and ecological properties of soils were investigated to evaluate the reusability of heated soil. Heating at 250 °C for 10 min reduced the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons from 6271 mg/kg to 359  mg/kg, which is lower than the Chinese risk screening level of 826 mg/kg. After LTTT, most soil physiochemical properties were nearly unchanged, and the NO3--N and NH4+-N contents increased. Moreover, LTTT-remediated soil was favorable for the germination and early growth of wheat. The microbial community changed substantially, but recovered after being mixed with uncontaminated soil. Finally, exploration of the mechanisms of LTTT revealed that pyrolysis was the dominant mechanism of diesel removal. A biochar-like pyrolytic carbon was formed, which improved the soil reusability.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/química , Carbono , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Microbiota , Reciclagem , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Temperatura , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124707, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479912

RESUMO

Site soils with persistent cyanide compounds (primarily iron-cyanide complex) pose potential hazards to the environment and require remediation before redevelopment. This study evaluated the possibility of thermal treatment on remediation of cyanide-contaminated soils via batch heating experiments spanning a wide temperature range (200-500 °C). The change with operation variables of total cyanide and some reaction intermediates (e.g. CN-) was analyzed in order to elucidate the optimal variables that guarantee cyanide removal while generating no hazardous byproducts. Temperature, heating time and cyanide species have been found to be important parameters influencing removal/destruction of cyanide in soils. For soils bearing K3[Fe(CN)6] and K4[Fe(CN)6], a removal efficiency of >99.9% can be obtained with temperatures over 350 °C at 1 h, while for samples bearing Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, a higher temperature (>450 °C) is needed to obtain an equivalent efficiency. During heating, the iron-cyanide complexes decomposed, releasing highly toxic free cyanides, which will subsequently be oxidized. However, a small percentage of free cyanide can always be detected as a result of incomplete oxidation, thus caution should be taken to minimize the accumulation of free cyanide during thermal treatment.


Assuntos
Cianetos/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Temperatura , Cianetos/química , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Ferrocianetos/análise , Ferrocianetos/química , Oxirredução , Poluentes do Solo/química
17.
Environ Manage ; 65(2): 243-256, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858172

RESUMO

Although the link between agriculture and diffuse water pollution has been understood for decades, there is still a need to implement effective measures to address this issue. In countries with light-touch regulation, such as New Zealand and Australia, most efforts to promote environmental management practices have relied on voluntary initiatives such as participatory research and extension programmes; the success of which is largely dependent on farmers' willingness and ability to adopt these practices. Increased understanding of the factors influencing farmer decision-making in this area would aid the promotion of effective advisory services. This study provides insights from 52 qualitative interviews with farmers and from observations of nine farmer meetings and field days. We qualitatively identify factors that influence farmer decision-making regarding the voluntary uptake of water quality practices and develop a typology for categorising farmers according to the factors that influence their decision-making. We find that in light-touch regulated countries certainty around policy and also around the effectiveness of practices is essential, particularly for farmers who delay action until compelled to act due to succession or regulation. The contribution of this paper is threefold: (i) it identifies factors influencing decision-making around the uptake of water quality practices in a light-touch regulated country; (ii) it develops a typology of different farmer types; and (iii) it provides recommendations on policy approaches for countries with light-touch regulation, which has potential relevance for any countries facing changes regarding their agricultural policy, such as post-Brexit policy in the UK.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Fazendeiros , Agricultura , Austrália , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , União Europeia , Nova Zelândia , Reino Unido
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795254

RESUMO

Under the background of the construction of ecological civilization in China, since China has a vast amount of territory and large distances between cities, the intensity of environmental supervision in different regions may affect the enthusiasm of enterprises to disclose carbon information. Based on the listed companies of the Chinese heavy pollution industry from 2009 to 2014, using the content analysis method, the paper researches the influence of the spatial heterogeneity regarding government regulation and spatial distance on enterprise carbon information disclosure and puts forward some suggestions. The empirical results show that carbon information disclosure is significantly positively related with the spatial heterogeneity of government regulation. The spatial heterogeneity of government regulation is significantly positively associated to non-financial carbon information disclosure. The relationship between government supervision and financial carbon information disclosure is not significant. Spatial distance and carbon information disclosure are significantly positively related. There is also a significant positive correlation between spatial distance and financial carbon information disclosure. Further study finds that in public enterprises, the spatial heterogeneity of government regulation will promote carbon information disclosure, and the influence of spatial heterogeneity of government regulation on non-financial and financial carbon information disclosure both are significantly positively related. In non-public enterprises, spatial distance and carbon information disclosure are significantly positively related, and spatial distance and non-financial carbon information disclosure are significantly positively related as well.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Revelação , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Regulamentação Governamental , Indústrias , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústrias/normas
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