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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111939, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476847

RESUMO

It has been documented that arsenic has a potential risk to human health and identified as a risk factor for hearing impairment. However, there are few studies that confirm the ototoxic effect of arsenic, especially on the human auditory system. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the correlation between auditory thresholds at different frequencies (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 kHz) and arsenic levels in drinking water samples. A total of 240 people, divided into two equal groups: exposed and reference, were selected for the auditory tests. It should be noted that, at frequencies from 0.25 to 1 kHz, no hearing loss was observed in the both groups. Based on the results, no significant correlations (p > 0.05) were found between hearing thresholds and confounding variables including gender and BMI. However, smoking and age are known to be the main variables for hearing loss in univariate regression analysis. In the case of age, the hearing loss risk in the older participants was increased compared with the younger participants (4 kHz (OR =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and 8 kHz (OR =1.12; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.18)). Smoking habits had significant associations with hearing loss risk at 4 kHz (OR = 3.48; 95% CI: 1.47, 8.22) and 8 kHz (OR = 3.01; 95% CI: 1.14, 7.95). The multivariate regression analysis showed that age, smoking status, and exposure to arsenic were significantly associated with increased risk of hearing loss. Moreover, no statistically significant correlation (p˃0.05) was observed between arsenic exposure and hearing loss in the logistic regression model compared to the reference group. These outcomes suggest that further investigation and cohort studies with a larger number of participants should be conducted to find an association between arsenic exposure and hearing loss in general population.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Audição/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Arsênico/toxicidade , Limiar Auditivo , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(12): 126002, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microplastics (MPs) have contaminated all compartments of the marine environment including biota such as seafood; ingestion from such sources is one of the two major uptake routes identified for human exposure. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the levels of MP contamination in seafood and to subsequently estimate the annual human uptake. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched from launch (1947, 1974, and 1900, respectively) up to October 2020 for all studies reporting MP content in seafood species. Mean, standard deviations, and ranges of MPs found were collated. Studies were appraised systematically using a bespoke risk of bias (RoB) assessment tool. RESULTS: Fifty studies were included in the systematic review and 19 in the meta-analysis. Evidence was available on four phyla: mollusks, crustaceans, fish, and echinodermata. The majority of studies identified MP contamination in seafood and reported MP content <1 MP/g, with 26% of studies rated as having a high RoB, mainly due to analysis or reporting weaknesses. Mollusks collected off the coasts of Asia were the most heavily contaminated, coinciding with reported trends of MP contamination in the sea. According to the statistical summary, MP content was 0-10.5 MPs/g in mollusks, 0.1-8.6 MPs/g in crustaceans, 0-2.9 MPs/g in fish, and 1 MP/g in echinodermata. Maximum annual human MP uptake was estimated to be close to 55,000 MP particles. Statistical, sample, and methodological heterogeneity was high. DISCUSSION: This is the first systematic review, to our knowledge, to assess and quantify MP contamination of seafood and human uptake from its consumption, suggesting that action must be considered in order to reduce human exposure via such consumption. Further high-quality research using standardized methods is needed to cement the scientific evidence on MP contamination and human exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7171.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Microplásticos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731582

RESUMO

Chromium is a potentially toxic metal occurring in water and groundwater as a result of natural and anthropogenic sources. Microbial interaction with mafic and ultramafic rocks together with geogenic processes release Cr (VI) in natural environment by chromite oxidation. Moreover, Cr (VI) pollution is largely related to several Cr (VI) industrial applications in the field of energy production, manufacturing of metals and chemicals, and subsequent waste and wastewater management. Chromium discharge in European Union (EU) waters is subjected to nationwide recommendations, which vary depending on the type of industry and receiving water body. Once in water, chromium mainly occurs in two oxidation states Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and related ion forms depending on pH values, redox potential, and presence of natural reducing agents. Public concerns with chromium are primarily related to hexavalent compounds owing to their toxic effects on humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. Risks for human health range from skin irritation to DNA damages and cancer development, depending on dose, exposure level, and duration. Remediation strategies commonly used for Cr (VI) removal include physico-chemical and biological methods. This work critically presents their advantages and disadvantages, suggesting a site-specific and accurate evaluation for choosing the best available recovering technology.


Assuntos
Cromo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Cromo/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Chemosphere ; 256: 126856, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454349

RESUMO

The southern Yellow Sea (SYS) is considered to be of the most prolific fishing grounds in the China Sea. In this study, the seasonal and spatial distributions of total dissolved iron (DFe) are investigated across four seasons in the SYS, from July 2013 to January 2016. This investigation showed that the DFe values of all samples exhibited seasonal variations: summer (1.7-15.8 nM), autumn (0.9-38.5 nM), winter (3.0-69.8 nM), and spring (3.0-100.2 nM). The DFe values in both surface and bottom waters also exhibited distinct temporal changes. The influence of water masses on the distribution of DFe as well as other factors, such as major nutrient concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphate, and hydrologic factors, was investigated in this study. Based on the investigation of DFe and major nutrients in the SYS, the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass was identified as the most conservable water mass in the study area. The results of this study further indicate that in winter, DFe0.4 µm (using a 0.4 µm filter) is considerably higher than DFe0.2 µm (using a 0.2 µm filter) in the surface water of the SYS coastal area. Therefore, the dissolution of colloidal Fe in this area had a significant effect on DFe.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Ferro/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Nitrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126590, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443271

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in various environmental media and have thus attracted extensive attention worldwide. To prevent and control PAH pollution in China, the study of ambient water quality criteria (AWQC), human health risks, and aquatic ecological risk is critical. There are no reports to date on the human health AWQC of PAHs in China. Therefore, this study first derived the human health AWQC values of 12 PAHs based on exposure data and bioaccumulation factor in China. We found that local exposure parameters and other relevant factors were key during the development of AWQC in different countries and regions, which led to differences with the reference value recommended by USEPA. Based on the incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR), hazard quotients (HQ) and potentially affected fraction (PAF) methods, the health and ecological risks of 16 PAHs were assessed subsequently. And the results are as follows: the non-carcinogenic PAHs' health risks ranged from 1.01 × 10-10 to 1.60 × 10-9, and carcinogenic PAH health risks ranged from 5.03 × 10-7 to 4.74 × 10-5. The toxic effects of 8 PAHs on aquatic organisms exhibited the following order: benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) > anthracene (Ant) > pyrene (Pye) > phenanthrene (Phe) > fluoranthene (Flua) > acenaphthene (Ace) > fluorene (Flu) > naphthalene (Nap). Among these, the ecological risks posed by Ant and BaP were the highest, according to the HQ and PAF methods.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Benzo(a)pireno , Carcinógenos/análise , China , Fluorenos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fenantrenos , Pirenos , Medição de Risco , Qualidade da Água
6.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126430, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200178

RESUMO

By convention, dissolved trace elements in the river water are considered to be the fraction that passes through a 0.45 µm filter. However, several researchers have considered filtration cut-off other than 0.45 µm for the separation of dissolved trace elements from particulate fraction. Recent research indicated that trace elements could exist in particulate form as colloids and natural nanoparticles. Moreover, the trace elements in the continental dust (aerosols) constitute a significant component in their geochemical cycling. Due to their high mobility, the trace elements in the micron and sub-micron scale have biogeochemical significance in the coastal zone. In this context, this study focuses on the highly mobile fraction of trace elements in particulates (<11 µm) and dissolved form in the Lower Baram River. A factor model utilizing trace elements in the dissolved and mobile phase in the particulates (<11 µm) along with water column characteristics and the partition coefficient (Kd) of the trace elements indicated a more significant role for manganese oxyhydroxides in trace element transport. Perhaps, iron oxyhydroxides play a secondary role. The factor model further illustrated the dissolution of aluminium and authigenic clay formation. Except for Fe and Al, the contamination risk of mobile trace elements in particulates (<11 µm) together with dissolved form are within the permissible limits of the Malaysian water quality standards during monsoon (MON) and postmonsoon (POM) seasons.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Bornéu , Coloides/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Manganês/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
7.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126533, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217410

RESUMO

Despite frequent detection of atrazine (ATZ) and its degradates (including hydroxyatrazine, ATZ-OH; deethylatrazine, DEA; deisopropylatrazine, DIA; and deethyldeisopropylatrazine, DACT) in a variety of water bodies, documentation of their occurrence and distribution in tap water in China is still scarce. A nationwide survey about ATZ and its degradates (ATZs) in tap water from 31 provinces in 7 regions of mainland China and Hong Kong was conducted during June 2019. At least one of the analytes was found in all the water samples (n = 884). The median sum concentrations of ATZs (ΣATZs) was 21.0 ng/L (range: 0.02 ng/L-3.04 µg/L). The predominant compounds of ATZs in tap water were ATZ and DEA, with a detection frequency of 99.5% and 98.0%, respectively, followed by ATZ-OH (87.3%), DACT (84.0%), and DIA (78.1%). Significant regional variations (p < 0.05) were found in the concentrations of ATZs in tap water, and the highest concentration of ΣATZs (median: 254 ng/L, range: 0.44 ng/L-3.04 µg/L) was found in Northeastern China, followed by Eastern (37.2 ng/L, 0.02-706 ng/L), Northern (30.2 ng/L, 0.04-317 ng/L), Central (29.3 ng/L, 0.04-256 ng/L), Southern (25.0 ng/L, 0.04-297 ng/L), Southwestern (17.2 ng/L, 0.02-388 ng/L), and Northwestern China (3.22 ng/L, 0.06-214 ng/L). The level of ΣATZs in groundwater from rural area of China was about 1/3 of that found in tap water. ATZs cannot be removed by boiling tap water. The highest estimated daily intake of ΣATZs (248 ng/kg-body weight/day) was found in the infant population of Changchun, Jilin, Northeastern China.


Assuntos
Atrazina/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Atrazina/análogos & derivados , China , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Subterrânea , Herbicidas/análise , Hong Kong , Humanos , Triazinas/análise , Água
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023897

RESUMO

Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia play a major role in global drug trade and abuse. Use of amphetamine-type stimulants has increased in the past decade in Malaysia. This study aimed to apply wastewater-based epidemiology for the first time in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to estimate the consumption of common illicit drugs in urban population. Influent wastewater samples were collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Kuala Lumpur in the summer of 2017. Concentrations of twenty-four drug biomarkers were analyzed for estimating drug consumption. Fourteen drug residues were detected with concentrations of up to 1640 ng/L. Among the monitored illicit drugs, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy had the highest estimated per capita consumptions. Consumption and dose of amphetamine-type stimulants (methamphetamine and MDMA) were both an order of magnitude higher than those of opioids (heroin and codeine, methadone and tramadol). Amphetamine-type stimulants were the most prevalent drugs, replacing opioids in the drug market. The prevalence trend measured by wastewater-based epidemiology data reflected the shift to amphetamine-type stimulants as reported by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Narcotics Cooperation Center. Most of the undetected drug residues were new psychoactive substances (NPSs), suggesting a low prevalence of NPSs in the drug market.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Humanos , Malásia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Águas Residuárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126015, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032874

RESUMO

Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment core from Dianchi Lake, southwest China, were analysed. The influence of changes in China's energy structure for 2-6 ringed PAHs was investigated to assess sources and the impact of socioeconomic development on temporal changes in concentrations. The concentration of the ΣPAH16 ranged from 746 to 2293 ng g-1. Prior to the 1960s relatively low concentrations of the ΣPAH16 and a larger proportion of 2-3-ring PAHs indicated that biomass combustion was the main source of PAHs. A rapid increase in the concentrations of 2-3 ring PAHs between 1975 and 2004 was attributed to population growth and coal consumption. A declining trend since 2004 was interpreted as being due to local changes in household energy usage. Increased concentrations of 4-ring PAH between 1975-2005 and 5-6-ring PAHs between the 1980s to 2004 showed correlations with increased coal consumption and the number of motor vehicles, respectively. These were caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization in the Dianchi watershed following the implementation of the Reform and Open Policy in 1978. A subsequent decline in the concentrations of 4-ring and 5-6-ring PAHs may have been due to decreased coal consumption and improvements in emission standards, respectively. Source apportionment by a PMF model revealed that coal combustion (29.2%), vehicle emissions (24.2%), petrogenic sources (21.8%), and biomass combustion (24.9%) were the sources of PAHs in the lake sediment core, and that coal combustion was the most important regional source of PAHs pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomassa , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Lagos/química , Urbanização , Emissões de Veículos/análise
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110813, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056606

RESUMO

Turkey, with her two important straits, is geographically in the middle of one of the major transportation routes and will continue to face risks the oil tankers pose in those sensitive areas. This paper revisits the site of an oil tanker accident that occurred at the northern entrance of the Istanbul Strait in 1994. The aim of the study was to simulate the same accident in PISCES-II Simulator to compare the response actions of the time with the present capabilities. Effort is also made to understand how the negative impacts of an oil spill accident can be lessened. Therefore, the study is planned to set to cover two separate response scenarios for the identical oil spill incident, actually simulating the 1994 M/T Nassica accident. The results showed that oil pollution response in places with strong currents like Istanbul Strait needs special care to sea conditions as well as related assets.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Petróleo/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes , Turquia
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110820, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056613

RESUMO

This study evaluates the geographical distribution of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in wild mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis as well as in associated suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments from the Algerian coast. The bioaccumulation (metal concentrations in tissue), bioavailability (metal indices) and bioconcentration of trace metals from the adjacent environment were assessed. The computed pollution load index (PLI) indicates that the sediments are not polluted by these metals, except for Zn which shows a moderate level of contamination. All the metals in SPM samples are in a 'safe range' with respect to the computed degree of contamination (DC < 2). The target hazard quotients (THQ) and the hazard index (HI) values indicate a risk level with Fe. However, the Cr measured in mussels is considered 'extreme', according to the consumption rate limit for mussels (CRlim) which limits their consumption to 0.5 kg/day.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bivalves , Ecossistema , Humanos , Metais Pesados , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125797, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918104

RESUMO

In this review, we present comparative and comprehensive views on the foundations, potentials and limitations of the previously reported mathematical models for the estimation of the concentration of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) generated during the chlor(am)ination of water. To this end, DBPs models were divided into two major categories: static variable (SV) and dynamic variable (DV) or differential models. In SV models, variables remain in their original form throughout a chlor(am)ination modelling period while DV models consider the changes driven by a chlor(am)ination treatment as the variables. This classification and the comparative study of the two types of models led to a better understanding of the assumptions, potentials, and limitations of the existing DBP models. In opposition to several claims in the literature, certain DV models based on UV absorbance/fluorescence failed to selectively track the chromophores responsible for DBP formation. In this critical review, a conceptual model for the photophysics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) based on the theory of electron delocalization was proposed to explain some inconsistent spectroscopic properties of DOM following chlor(am)ination and several unique photophysical properties of DOM. New insights for the development and deployment of mathematical models were also provided to estimate DBPs in various settings.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Água , Purificação da Água/métodos
13.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125887, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978656

RESUMO

Studies conducted globally have identified wastewater effluent as a key source of UV filters released into the aquatic environment. We assessed the annual release of UV filters from wastewater treatment plant effluent in Australia and evaluated the removal of these chemicals during wastewater treatment. Effluent samples were collected from 33 sites alongside matching influent samples. Sample collection predominately occurred during the Australian Census in August 2016, which allowed for accurate per capita normalisation of the results. A subset of sites was also sampled over the Southern Hemisphere summer (December-February) period. Five UV filters were detected with at least one detected in 95% of effluent samples. The summed concentration of UV filters ranged from 130 ng L-1 to 8400 ng L-1 and averaged 2800 (±1900) ng L-1. Of the target UV filters, 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA) and benzophenone 4 (BP4) showed the lowest removal efficiencies (11 ± 36% and 51 ± 43%, respectively) across all sites and were the most abundant in effluent. Average estimated removal efficiencies of the other compounds were between 59 (±24) % (4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC)) and 74 (±22) % (benzophenone 1 (BP1)). We did not find a trend in seasonal differences in the per capita release of UV filters in effluent samples. We estimate that approximately 40% of UV filter loads measured in influent are breaking through to the effluent resulting in the release of approximately 20 kg day-1 of the selected UV filters into the aquatic environment from treated wastewater effluent in Australia.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Protetores Solares/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Benzofenonas , Cânfora/análogos & derivados , Estações do Ano , Protetores Solares/química , Águas Residuárias/química
14.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125907, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978658

RESUMO

Coastal waters are the critical ecologically fragile regions under the influence of the fastest economic developing pace and the extensive anthropogenic activities in coastal zone. Little information on the seasonal distribution, risks, and sources of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are emerging contaminants to pose potential risks at very low concentrations in coastal waters at continental-scale is available. This study investigated the coastline-based distribution, risks, and sources of target EDCs in coastal water of China. EDCs in coastal waters of China showed significant spatio-temporal variation with phenolic compounds serving as predominant EDCs. Bisphenol A (BPA) was detected in all water samples with average concentration of 449.2/186.3 ng/L in winter/summer while estrone was the main steroidal estrogen with the average concentration of 87.2/2.7 ng/L in winter/summer. EDCs in coastal waters of South China Sea Area showed higher concentrations. EDCs in coastal waters exerted high ecological risks and estrone/BPA averagely accounted for over 61%/71% of total risk quotient in winter/summer. Average estradiol equivalent concentration of all target EDCs reached 68.87/1.76 ng/L in winter/summer. EDCs in coastal waters did not pose potential non-cancer health risks for humans. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was firstly used to identify and quantify possible sources of EDCs. The PMF analysis showed that wastewater and sewage might be the main source for EDCs in coastal waters. EDCs in coastal waters showed high estradiol equivalent concentration and ecological risks at continental-scale, highlighting that EDCs contamination has become a crucial stress affecting the sustainable development of coastal regions.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos , China , Estradiol/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Estrona/análise , Humanos , Fenóis , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110577, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910512

RESUMO

Oil Spill Chemicals (OSCs) represent a risk to the environment and human health, especially in nearshore environments used for recreational purposes. Importantly, the starting point for human health risk assessment is to define the concentration of OSCs at nearshore locations. The objective of this study was to evaluate nearshore sampling data of OSC concentrations in different environmental matrices within time-space specific categories. The categories correspond to OSC concentration values for samples collected prior to nearshore oiling, post nearshore oiling and at no time impacted by oil as predicted by historic oil spill trajectories generated by an Oil Spill Trajectory Model. In general, concentration values for the post category were higher than prior which were higher than unimpacted. Results show differences in PAH concentration patterns within each matrix and for each category. Concentration frequency distributions for most chemicals in each category were log-normally distributed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição por Petróleo/estatística & dados numéricos , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
16.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110670, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669709

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the historical variation, source identification, and distribution of heavy metal pollution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using 210Pb dating. Our results suggest that the heavy metal concentrations were higher in the western part of the estuary. For all heavy metals, Cd was significantly enriched in the sediments. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) has experienced rapid economic development in the past 40 years, a decreasing trend in heavy metal fluxes after 2004 was identified, which suggests a reduction in heavy metal concentrations due to the removal of heavy polluting industries and the effective control of sewage discharge. A binary mixing model reveals that the contributions of anthropogenic Pb ranged from 45.4 to 64%. Based on lead isotopic ratios (206/207Pb and 208/206Pb), it was found that geologic materials and industrial pollution were the main sources of heavy metals in the PRE sediments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Radioisótopos de Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Chumbo/química , Rios
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110704, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740180

RESUMO

Estuaries are very sensitive ecosystems to human activities and the natural evolution of their drainage basins located upstream. Pollution derived from human activities, such as historical mining or recent industrial wastes, can significantly affect their environmental quality. This paper analyzes the silver and copper contents of four cores extracted in two estuaries of SW Spain. Its chronology and vertical evolution allow to differentiate the effects of several pollution episodes (natural, Roman, 19th-20th centuries) on its different sedimentary environments in the last 6 million years. Possible future applications are included in the fields of environmental management or even education.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Prata/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecossistema , Estuários , Humanos , Espanha
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 134883, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780178

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination in surface water of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is a distinctly important issue for the water security of the Yangtze River Basin in China. Surface water samples of 46 river sections in the main stream and tributaries of the entire TGR area were collected during high and low water level operation periods of 2015 to 2016 to investigate the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of six heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and assess their health risks. Results indicated that average concentrations of heavy metals in the surface water were lower than the threshold values for the first-grade water quality based on the Chinese standard of GB3838-2002 except for Zn. Heavy metals concentrations at high water levels was slightly lower compared with that at the low water levels in the main stream, As, Cd, Cr and Cu exhibited certain inter-annual decline variations in 2015 and 2016. Heavy metals showed distinctly regional variation and mainly distributed in upstream urban sections of the TGR area. The total health risks caused by heavy metals at the low water level periods, most of which exceeded the maximum acceptable risk level recommended by ICRP (5×10-5 a-1), were slightly higher than that at the high water level periods. The average annual health risks caused by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic heavy metals was ranked as Cr > As > Cd > Pb > Cu > Zn, meanwhile this value via drinking water ingestion was 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of dermal contact. Carcinogenic heavy metals of Cr and As were the main causes of health risk and should be prioritized as the main focus of aquatic environment risk management in the TGR area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Qualidade da Água
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6009-6021, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863380

RESUMO

Marine pollution is an important driver of ocean biodiversity loss, which can be mitigated by the construction of artificial reefs (ARs). Many studies have explored how ARs affect marine organisms, but our understanding of the changes in heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons after AR construction is limited. In the current study, we assessed the heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contents of the seawater (surface and bottom seawater) and surface sediment before and after AR construction in AR habitat and in nearby non-reef control habitat in the Pearl River Estuary, China. AR construction tended to decrease the contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg but tended to increase Zn content in seawater and in surface sediment. Petroleum hydrocarbon content changed irregularly in seawater and surface sediment. Effects of AR construction were similar in the nearby non-reef habitat vs. the AR habitat. Seawater heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contents were correlated with the seawater physicochemical properties (mainly temperature, inorganic nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, available phosphate, and suspended particulate organic matter), and sediment heavy metal content was correlated with sediment organic matter content. Additional studies over longer time periods and at larger spatial scales are needed to clarify how AR construction affects heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contents in marine environments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios , Água do Mar
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