Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.322
Filtrar
1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3291-3303, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212655

RESUMO

Clarifying the current situation of regional water pollutants and the relationship between pollutants and pollution sources is considered essential for managing the water environment. Water quality identification index (WQI), cluster analysis (CA), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and stable isotope analysis in R (SIAR) were employed to interpret a large and complex water quality data set of the Qinhuai River catchment generated during 2015 to 2019 to monitor of 11 parameters at 29 different sampling sites. WQI analysis indicated that water quality in Qinhuai River catchment is considered to have "moderate pollution," and an improving trend of water quality was observed at the interannual scale. TN was the most deteriorated of all pollution parameters. CA and PMF results on the spatial scale revealed that sampling sites located at downtown of Nanjing and Lishui District or Jangling University town were highly polluted due to the sewage from domestic sewage and business service sewage (28.88%) as well as industrial wastewater (27.43%), while sampling sites located at Hushu Street Administrative District, Ergan River, and Sangan River were slightly polluted by rural domestic wastewater and garbage (28.79%), and agricultural non-point source pollution (24.3%). The middle-lower reaches (Jiangning Development Zone and Moling Street) and middle reaches (Lukou Street Administrative District) were moderately polluted by industrial wastewater (27.25%), sewage from domestic wastewater and business service wastewater (31.62%) as well as inner sources (24.76%). The SIAR results showed that NO3--N was the main nitrogen form, and the NO3--N mainly originated from sewage (61%) and soil (34%) in the Yuntaishan River sub-catchment. These results will aid in the development of measures required to control water pollution in river catchments.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Urbanização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 484, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241705

RESUMO

Understanding the complexity of catchment-scale human activities, natural factors, and stream water quality is particularly important for basin water resources management. Thorough investigations on how multiple environmental factors quantitatively and simultaneously affect water quality are limited. This study employed Spearman's correlation and ridge regression analysis (RRA) to disentangle the hydraulic geometry and land use contributions to water quality variables (WQVs). Nine and six indicators were used to describe the hydraulic geometry and land use characteristics, respectively, in the Taihu Basin. The results revealed significant correlations between the land use, hydraulic geometry, and stream water quality. Built-up land and cropland negatively impacted the stream water quality, while woodland had the opposite trend. The structure and morphological connectivity of the river network were associated with most WQVs. The hydrologic connectivity characteristics strongly influenced ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), permanganate index (CODMn), and dissolved oxygen (DO). Six equations that estimated the stream water quality were established through RRA. Human factors impose a greater impact on the stream water quality than natural factors in the Taihu Basin. Our findings provide quantitative insights to mitigate water pollution via reasonable management and control of the river structure and connectivity and land-use patterns.


Assuntos
Rios , Qualidade da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Poluição da Água/análise
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 487, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245365

RESUMO

The stress on the freshwater resources of the planet earth has led the United Nations to add a goal regarding clean water in sustainable development goals list in order to address the global availability of clean water. The widespread use of fertilizers and industrial effluents caused the groundwater contamination in the Haripur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To investigate and assess the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination, geographic information system (GIS)-based DRASTIC model has been employed. The DRASTIC index values lie between 88 and 190. The lower the DI value, the lower will be the susceptibility towards pollution and vice versa. The indices were classified into five zones, i.e., low (< 109), medium (110-129), moderate (130-149), high (150-169), and very high vulnerable zones (> 170) on the basis of equal intervals. The low vulnerable zone covers almost 6% of the study area, i.e., 118 km2. Medium vulnerable zone encompasses an area of approximately 23%, i.e., 506 km2. The moderate vulnerable zone is the largest in the district covering almost 965 km2, approximately 45% of the study area. The high and very high vulnerable zone encompasses almost 23% and 3% of the study area which means 506 km2 and 66 km2 respectively. A spatial distribution map was generated for nitrate concentration to validate the DRASTIC indices. The results demonstrate a fair relation between groundwater susceptibility and spatial nitrate distribution. This index map will provide a baseline study for this area to develop the safe zones for groundwater exploitation and controlling the current state of deterioration of environmental norms. The areas of high vulnerability are the firsthand task to improve the current situation of crisis especially in the southern parts such as the Hattar industrial area and its surroundings drained by those effluents. These further need specific tasks to restore and reclaim the polluted ecosystem by using proper technological solutions for disposal of these effluents.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água Subterrânea , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Paquistão , Poluição da Água/análise
4.
Anal Chem ; 93(24): 8393-8398, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101434

RESUMO

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an important indicator of organic pollutants in water bodies. Most of the present testing methods have the disadvantages of having complicated steps, being time-consuming, and using toxic and hazardous substances. In this work, rapid potentiometric detection of chemical oxygen demand (COD) using a portable self-powered sensor chip was successfully developed. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode was etched by laser, and the photocatalytic materials TiO2/CuS and Pt were modified onto the photoanode and the cathode to prepare the sensor chip. Based on the principle of photocatalytic degradation, organic pollutants can be oxidized by TiO2/CuS, and the concentration will affect the generated voltage. The quantitative detection of COD in the range of 0.05-50 mg/L can be rapidly achieved within 5 min by a miniature device. Besides good portability and sensitivity, the proposed sensor also has the advantages of environmental friendliness and ease of use, which is an ideal choice for the on-site detection of water pollution.


Assuntos
Luz , Poluição da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletrodos , Oxigênio/análise , Potenciometria , Poluição da Água/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147086, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088114

RESUMO

Determining the source of fecal contamination in a water body is important for the application of appropriate remediation measures. However, it has been suggested in the extant literature that this can best be achieved using a 'toolbox' of molecular- and culture-based methods. In response, this study deployed three indicators (Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC)), one culture-dependent human marker (Bacteroides (GB-124) bacteriophage) and five culture-independent markers (human adenovirus (HAdV), human (HMMit), cattle (CWMit), pig (PGMit) and poultry (PLMit) mitochondrial DNA markers (mtDNA)) within the River Tagus catchment (n = 105). Water samples were collected monthly over a 13-month sampling campaign at four sites (impacted by significant specific human and non-human inputs and influenced by differing degrees of marine and freshwater mixing) to determine the dominant fecal inputs and assess geographical, temporal, and meteorological (precipitation, UV, temperature) fluctuations. Our results revealed that all sampling sites were not only highly impacted by fecal contamination but that this contamination originated from human and from a range of agricultural animal sources. HMMit was present in a higher percentage (83%) and concentration (4.20 log GC/100 mL) than HAdV (32%, 2.23 log GC/100 mL) and GB-124 bacteriophage with the latter being detected once. Animal mtDNA markers were detected, with CWMit found in 73% of samples with mean concentration of 3.74 log GC/100 mL. Correlation was found between concentrations of fecal indicators (EC, IE and SC), CWMit and season. Levels of CWMit were found to be related to physico-chemical parameters, such as temperature and UV radiation, possibly as a result of the increasing presence of livestock outside in warmer months. This study provides the first evaluation of such a source-associated 'toolbox' for monitoring surface water in Portugal, and the conclusions may inform future implementation of surveillance and remediation strategies for improving water quality.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Bacteriófagos , Animais , Bovinos , DNA Mitocondrial , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Portugal , Rios , Suínos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 408, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114104

RESUMO

Bengaluru, widely known for its pleasant climate and IT activities, is one of the fastest growing cities of the world. It houses more than 200 lakes. Lakes are important in a city like Bengaluru which does not have a perennial river, thus is dependent on many lakes for both water supply and recreation. Water quality of these lakes is essential, as they are open spaces as well as interact with groundwater. In this study, ten lakes of three different subwatersheds-rural, semi-urban and urban were studied. Physicochemical analysis of the lakes was carried out. The water quality index was then computed using the weighted arithmetic method and overall index of pollution method. It is found that in the city of Bengaluru, urban subwatersheds host lakes of very poor water quality and need immediate attention. Also, the lakes in semi-urban watersheds must be protected to avoid further deterioration and protection of water bodies. The current study presents the lake water quality of three different types of subwatersheds and hence will be useful in understanding the effect of land use on water quality. It will be helpful for decision makers to take further action in protecting not only the land but also the water quality present in the lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Qualidade da Água , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Poluição da Água/análise
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112372, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940371

RESUMO

Floating marine debris (FMD) were abundantly reported in the Northern Chilean Patagonia in 2009 where sea-based activities (mussel and salmon aquaculture) are responsible for most of them. Identifying the sources of FMD is important to take the necessary actions to diminish their abundance. In 2019 eleven transects were opportunistically conducted to evaluate the abundance, spatial distribution and composition of FMD in the same area, and to compare them with the previous study using the same methodology. FMD identified were classified into the same six categories from the previous study, however "Others" category were now the dominant one indicating that new pollutants have been increasing during the last decade. Inside the "others" category, plastics buoy and other floating devices, that normally are used by the salmon aquaculture, were the main items. Similarly than the previous study, styrofoam and domestic plastics were also the other most abundant items. In general, also, an increase in abundance compared with the previous study was found. The highest abundances were similarly found in the "Golfo de Corcovado" zone ranging from 50 to 230 items km-2. Our results, as well as the previous study, confirm that sea-based activities are still responsible for the FMD found in the Northern Patagonia. To avoid the origin of this contamination it is urgent to implement public policies that effectively reduce FMD, and hold the aquaculture industries responsible.


Assuntos
Poluentes da Água , Poluição da Água , Chile , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 104: 40-52, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985743

RESUMO

The Yongding New River is essential for the water supplies of Tianjin. To date, there is no comprehensive report that assesses the year-round water quality of the Yongding New River Main stream. Moreover, little attention has been given to determining a combined weight for improving the traditional comprehensive water quality identification index (ICWQII) by the game theory. Seven water quality parameters were investigated monthly along the main stream of the Yongding New River from May 2018 to April 2019. Organic contaminants and nitrogen pollution were mainly caused by point sources pollution, and the total phosphorus mainly by non-point source pollution. Dramatic spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters were jointly caused by different pollutant sources and hydrometeorological factors. In terms of this study, an improved comprehensive water quality identification index (ICWQII) based on entropy weight or variation coefficient and traditional CWQII underestimated the water qualities, and an ICWQII based on the superstandard multiple method overvalued the assessments. By contrast, water qualities assessments done with an ICWQII based on the game theory matched perfectly with the practical situation. The ICWQII based on game theory proposed in this study takes into account not only the degree of disorder and variation of water quality data, but also the influence of standard-exceeded pollution indicators, whose results are relatively reasonable. All findings and the ICWQII based on game theory can provide scientific support for decisions related to the water environment management of the Yongding New River and other waters.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Teoria do Jogo , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise
9.
Lab Chip ; 21(12): 2417-2426, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973613

RESUMO

Water is the most important ingredient of life. Water fecal pollution threatens water quality worldwide and has direct detrimental effects on human health and the global economy. Nowadays, assessment of water fecal pollution relies on time-consuming techniques that often require well-trained personnel and highly-equipped laboratories. Therefore, faster, cheaper, and easily-used systems are needed to in situ monitor water fecal pollution. Herein, we have developed colorimetric lateral flow strips (LFS) able to detect and quantify Escherichia coli species in tap, river, and sewage water samples as an indicator of fecal pollution. The combination of LFS with a simple water filtration unit and a commercially available colorimetric reader enhanced the assay sensitivity and enabled more accurate quantification of bacteria concentration down to 104 CFU mL-1 in 10 minutes, yielding recovery percentages between 80% and 90% for all water samples analyzed. Overall, this system allows for monitoring and assessing water quality based on E. coli species as a standard microbiological indicator of fecal pollution. Furthermore, we have developed a novel bioluminescent, bacteria-based method to quickly characterize the performance of a great variety of LFS materials. This new method allows evaluating the flow rate of big analytes such as bacteria through the LFS materials, as a suggestive means for selecting the appropriate materials for fabricating LFS targeting big analytes (≈2 µm). As a whole, the proposed approach can accelerate and reduce the costs of water quality monitoring and pave the way for further improvement of fecal pollution detection systems.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Microfluídica , Colorimetria , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112231, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798816

RESUMO

Long-term assessments are needed to identify water quality trends and their socio-environmental drivers for coastal management and watershed restoration. This study provides the first long-term assessment of fecal bacterial pollution in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico using enterococci data spanning the Texas coast from 2009 to 2020. The data were representative of 66 beaches, 169 stations, and over 75,000 samples. Findings demonstrate that 22 beaches are 'hotspots' of pollution and experienced enterococci levels that frequently exceeded the USEPA beach action value. Further, enterococci were correlated with time, population size, and sea level. Weak correlations detected in some counties highlight the multifactorial nature of water quality; additional factors are likely influencing enterococci levels. The correlation with sea level is concerning, as counties vulnerable to sea level rise frequently reported enterococci concentrations exceeding the beach action value. In consideration of sea level rise predictions, targeted studies are needed to pinpoint drivers of fecal pollution.


Assuntos
Praias , Qualidade da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Golfo do México , Elevação do Nível do Mar , Texas , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112085, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690007

RESUMO

Nangasai basin is a semi-arid watershed where agriculture is the main source of economy. In present day, increasing population demands increase in food productivity which leads to increase use of fertilizers and chemical pesticides in agriculture. These fertilizers on the other hand mix up with the groundwater and increase the pollution, which affects human health adversely. So, for controlling the groundwater contamination risk proper water resource management and assessment of groundwater vulnerability is extremely important. Total 7 hydrogeological parameters have been considered for this study, and the final groundwater vulnerability map has been prepared by overlay weighted method with the help of DRASTIC index, which is classified into 5 vulnerable classes (very high, high, moderate, low, and very low). In the south and south-eastern regions of the basin namely Deghi, Bankada, Baram, Macha, Katin, Tilabani high groundwater contamination is been observed. For validating the model, the water quality parameters-nitrate and TDS have been used with the accuracy of 89% and 86% respectively. Using effective as well as scientifically approved methods, the anthropogenic and agricultural contamination can be controlled and managed which will lower the risk of contamination. This map can be further utilized as a base map for management of groundwater pollution and its planning.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Índia , Nitratos , Praguicidas , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos
12.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670061

RESUMO

Paper substrates are promising for development of cost-effective and efficient point-of-care biosensors, essential for public healthcare and environmental diagnostics in emergency situations. Most paper-based biosensors rely on the natural capillarity of paper to perform qualitative or semi-quantitative colorimetric detections. To achieve quantification and better sensitivity, technologies combining paper-based substrates and electrical detection are being developed. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of electrical measurements by means of a simple, parallel-plate electrode setup towards the detection of whole-cell bacteria captured in nitrocellulose (NC) membranes. Unlike current electrical sensors, which are mostly integrated, this plug and play system has reusable electrodes and enables simple and fast bacterial detection through impedance measurements. The characterized NC membrane was subjected to (i) a biofunctionalization, (ii) different saline solutions modelling real water samples, and (iii) bacterial suspensions of different concentrations. Bacterial detection was achieved in low conductivity buffers through both resistive and capacitive changes in the sensed medium. To capture Bacillus thuringiensis, the model microorganism used in this work, the endolysin cell-wall binding domain (CBD) of Deep-Blue, a bacteriophage targeting this bacterium, was integrated into the membranes as a recognition bio-interface. This experimental proof-of-concept illustrates the electrical detection of 107 colony-forming units (CFU) mL-1 bacteria in low-salinity buffers within 5 min, using a very simple setup. This offers perspectives for affordable pathogen sensors that can easily be reconfigured for different bacteria. Water quality testing is a particularly interesting application since it requires frequent testing, especially in emergency situations.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Impedância Elétrica , Eletrodos , Água
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 199, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733712

RESUMO

Developing a predictive decision model for assessing the vulnerability of hidden groundwater reservoir formation to contamination risk via unavoidable anthropogenic activities is a key to managing water resources looming security crisis globally. This study explored multiple and robust methodologies including GIS, analytical hierarchy process (AHP)-based data mining, statistical and geophysical techniques for developing a novel "GODL" vulnerability method: a modified GOD model to ameliorate these challenges. The input for the modeling was based on the 65 located depth sounding geophysical data occupied in a schist belt environ, Southwestern Nigeria. From the geophysical data interpreted results, four factors, namely, groundwater hydraulic confinement (G), aquifer overlying strata (O), depth to water table (D), and longitudinal conductance (L), regarded as aquifer vulnerability causative factors (AVCFs) were derived. The GIS-based produced AVCFs' themes were synthesized by employing the conventional GOD and the AHP-driven GODL algorithms. Based on these algorithms applied results, the GOD-based aquifer vulnerability prediction zone map and GODL-based aquifer vulnerability prediction zone (AVPZ) map were produced in GIS environment. The produced AVPZ maps were validated by applying the statistical model evaluation to the water chemistry correlation results. The validation result exhibits 70% prediction accuracy for the developed GODL model compared with 66% for the GOD model. The GODL model demonstrated better performance than the GOD model. The AVPZ maps produced in this study can be used for precise decision-making process in environmental planning and groundwater management.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluição da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nigéria , Poluição da Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4992-5000, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715349

RESUMO

Recently, crAssphage has been proposed as a human-specific marker for tracking fecal contamination. However, its performance has always been validated in a limited number of host samples, which may obscure our understanding of its utility. Furthermore, few studies have quantified confidence of fecal contamination when using crAssphage. Here, we evaluate the performance and confidence of crAssphage by analyzing a large panel of metagenomic data sets combined with Bayesian analyses. Results demonstrate that crAssphage exhibits superior performance with high host sensitivity and specificity, indicating its suitability for tracking human fecal sources. With the marker, a high confidence (>90%) can be obtained and particularly, multiple samples with positive results provide a near certainty of confidence. The application of crAssphage in the sediments of three Chinese urban rivers shows a high confidence of >97% of human fecal contamination, suggesting the serious challenge of sewage pollution in these environments. Additionally, significant correlation is observed between crAssphage and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), expanding the utilization of crAssphage for pollution management of ARGs. This study highlights the benefit of using metagenomic-based analysis for evaluating the performance and confidence of microbial source tracking markers in the coming era of big data with increasing resources in available metagenomic data.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Esgotos , Teorema de Bayes , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Humanos , Rios , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 169, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683469

RESUMO

Rural headwater catchments are important to describe the connectivity of pollution sources to water bodies. Strategies to optimize water quality monitoring networks, as parameter definition, sampling, and statistical approach, have been widely discussed. The objectives of this study were to describe the spatial and temporal dynamics (intra- and inter-events) of water quality and to establish its implications for environmental monitoring programs. The monitoring was carried out in a rural headwater catchment (1.2 km2) with shallow soils, high slopes, and intense agricultural activity in Southern Brazil. To better describe the impact of agriculture on water resources, the monitoring strategy was based on definition of the best set of parameters and different sampling frequency to incorporate intra- and inter-event variability and statistical analysis approach. We also analyzed parameters in different sub-basins with physiographic traits. Three hydrological compartments were analyzed: surface flow, groundwater, and base flow. Physico-chemical parameters, the concentration of elements associated with agricultural activity, and biological parameters were evaluated. Total phosphorus and turbidity were the parameters most affected by agricultural activity. They reflected on the inter- and intra-events, the impacts of soil and water degradation by agricultural activity, and the precarious rural sanitation conditions. Spatiotemporal variability of the parameters characterizes the different mechanisms for transferring pollutants from diffuse sources to water bodies. Spatial and temporal patterns in water quality changes were used to discuss environmental monitoring strategies, such as parameter and sampling frequency definition, to improve soil and water conservation programs at the catchment scale.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1945, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782425

RESUMO

Exploring the capability of organisms to cope with human-caused environmental change is crucial for assessing the risk of extinction and biodiversity loss. We study the consequences of changing nutrient pollution for the freshwater keystone grazer, Daphnia, in a large lake with a well-documented history of eutrophication and oligotrophication. Experiments using decades-old genotypes resurrected from the sediment egg bank revealed that nutrient enrichment in the middle of the 20th century, resulting in the proliferation of harmful cyanobacteria, led to the rapid evolution of grazer resistance to cyanobacteria. We show here that the subsequent reduction in nutrient input, accompanied by a decrease in cyanobacteria, resulted in the re-emergence of highly susceptible Daphnia genotypes. Expression and subsequent loss of grazer resistance occurred at high evolutionary rates, suggesting opposing selection and that maintaining resistance was costly. We provide a rare example of reversed evolution of a fitness-relevant trait in response to relaxed selection.


Assuntos
Coevolução Biológica , Cianobactérias/patogenicidade , Daphnia/genética , Aptidão Genética , Poluição da Água/análise , Animais , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Daphnia/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Eutrofização , Genótipo , Humanos , Lagos/química , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 113, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544253

RESUMO

Rivers are an important urban water resource. This study adopted multivariate linear regression (MLR) and logistic regression (LR) with multiple thresholds to assess river fecal pollution in the Tamsui River watershed using auxiliary environmental data. First, environmental data between 2015 and 2017 on land use, antecedent precipitation, population density, sewerage infrastructure, and river water quality were obtained using geographic information systems and served as explanatory variables. River fecal coliforms (FC), the dependent variable, were also collected for the same period. Then, MLR was used to establish an overall prediction model after validation, and to determine significant factors influencing the level of river fecal pollution. Finally, after stratifying the fecal pollution as low, medium, and high levels, LR with multiple thresholds was employed to explore key factors affecting different FC pollution levels. The study results revealed that land use type and river water quality (other than FC) strongly affected river FC pollution. The discharge of household sewage and wastewater from urban areas was a major source of river FC pollution, particularly for low and medium pollution levels, while farmland land use was negatively correlated with the medium and high levels of river FC pollution in the highly urbanized watershed. Biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids were highly correlated with medium and high pollution levels in river water.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Fezes , Análise Multivariada , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(3): 610-621, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600365

RESUMO

This study describes microbial and chemical source tracking approaches for water pollution in rural and urban catchments. Culturable faecal indicator bacteria, represented by Escherichia coli, were quantified. Microbial source tracking (MST) using host-specific DNA markers was applied to identify the origins of faecal contamination. Chemical source tracking (CST) was conducted to determine contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) of human/anthropogenic origin, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In addition, the eutrophication-causing macronutrients nitrogen and phosphorus were studied. MST tests revealed both anthropogenic and zoogenic faecal origins, with a dominance of human sources in the urban stream; non-human/environmental sources were prevalent in the rural creek. CST analyses revealed a higher number of CECs in the urban stream than in the rural watercourse. Positive correlations between PPCPs and both E. coli and the human DNA marker were uncovered in the urban stream, while in the rural creek, PPCPs were only highly correlated with the anthropogenic marker. Interestingly, macronutrients were strongly associated with primary faecal pollution origins in both watercourses. This correlation pattern determines the main pollutant contributors (anthropogenic or zoogenic) to eutrophication.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Nutrientes , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
19.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116654, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582625

RESUMO

Numerous genetic markers for microbial source tracking (MST) have been evaluated by testing a panel of target and nontarget faecal samples. However, the performance of MST markers may vary between faecal and water samples, thereby resulting in inaccurate water quality assessment. In this study, a 30-day sampling study was conducted in an urban river impacted by human- and sewage-associated pollution to evaluate the performance of different human-associated markers in environmental water. Additionally, marker decay was assessed via a microcosms approach. Overall, Bacteroidales 16sRNA and crAssphage markers exhibited higher prevalence in the study area, and their detection frequencies exceeded 90%. In contrast, Bacteroidales protein markers exhibited poor detection frequencies compared to other markers, with the prevalence of Hum2 and Hum163 reaching only 63% and 84%, respectively. Regarding marker abundance, there was no significant difference in the detection concentrations between Bacteroidales 16sRNA and crAssphage markers (p > 0.05); however, the concentrations of Bacteroidales protein markers were nearly 1 order of magnitude lower than those of other MST markers. The microcosm experiments indicated that the decay rate of crAssphage markers was significantly lower than that of other bacterial target markers, which may improve their detectability when the pollution source is located far from the sampling site. Due to the observed differences in performance and decay patterns among Bacteroidales 16sRNA, crAssphage, and Bacteroidales protein markers, we recommend the simultaneous use of multiple markers from different target microorganisms to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the pollution sources. This approach would also provide an accurate assessment of pollution levels and health risks.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Humanos , Rios , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111955, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497859

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities especially water pollution can affect the diversity and composition of microbial communities and promote the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, water samples and guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were sampled from six sampling sites along the Uberabinha River in southeastern Brazil, both microbial communities and ARGs of surface waters and intestinal microbiota of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were detected. According to the results of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were dominant phyla in both water and intestinal microbiota, but the abundance of putative pathogens was higher at heavily polluted sites. Up to 83% of bacteria in intestinal microbiota originated from water microbiota; this proportion was relatively higher in less polluted compared to polluted environments. ARGs providing resistance of tetracyclines and quinolones were dominant in both water and gut microbiota. The relative abundances of class I integrons and ARGs were as high as 1.74 × 10-1/16S rRNA copies and 3.61 × 10-1/16S rRNA copies, respectively, at heavily polluted sites. Correlation analysis suggests that integrons and bacteria play key roles in explaining the widespread occurrence of ARGs in the surface, but not in intestinal microbiota. We could rule out the class I integrons a potential intermediary bridge for ARGs between both types of microbiomes. Our results highlight the tight link in microbial communities and ARGs between ambient microbiota of stream ecosystems and intestinal microbiota of fish. Our study could have far-reaching consequences for fisheries and consumer safety and calls for investigations of gut microbiota of target species of both commercial fisheries and recreational (hobby) angling.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Poecilia/fisiologia , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bactérias/genética , Brasil , Integrons , Microbiota/genética , Poecilia/genética , Poecilia/microbiologia , Quinolonas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios/microbiologia , Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...