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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 544, 2020 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715319

RESUMO

Poorly ventilated environments such as residences can accumulate radon gas to levels that are harmful to humans and thus produce a public health risk. To assess the risk from natural radiation due to indoor radon exposure, 222Rn measurements, using an alpha RAD7 detector, were conducted in Timóteo, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. Indoor radon concentrations, along with meteorological parameters, were measured every 2 h during both wet and dry seasons in 2017 and 2018. The mean concentration of indoor radon varied between 18.0 and 412.8 Bq m-3, which corresponded to an effective annual dose of 1.2 and 7.6 mSv y-1. Average radon concentrations were significantly higher during the winter dry season, and there was a strong positive correlation with humidity in both wet and dry season. Furthermore, concentrations showed an inverse correlation with atmospheric pressure, wind speed, air temperature, and solar radiation. The radon levels are generally above the limits recommended by international standards, meaning that mitigation measures are needed to improve air quality to reduce human exposure and risk. Finally, through the statistical analysis, it was possible to determine the differences and similarities between the sampling points concerning the geology of the place and the geographical location.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio/análise , Brasil , Habitação , Humanos , Estações do Ano
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 525, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676945

RESUMO

The environmental quality of the learning environment is a critical element for good health and well-being among beneficiaries of tertiary institutions, ultimately influencing staff productivity and learning performance of students. High population densities, inefficient resource use and unique microenvironments within tertiary institutions can result in myriad environmental challenges which require targeted solutions. An environmental gap analysis is a pragmatic and evidence-based approach that can be used to evaluate the environmental quality of institutions through the provision of baseline data and comparison to relevant environmental standards. In this study, an environmental gap analysis was conducted at university campus, where air, noise, water and soil data were collected for 12 weeks at indoor and outdoor sites. The data obtained were averaged, graphed and benchmarked using relevant local and international guidelines to identify gaps. Additionally, the data were tested using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Generally, the levels of parameters monitored were acceptable and within respective local and international guidelines; however, air temperature and relative humidity of the indoor cafeteria as well as turbidity of tap water were not in conformance with guidelines. Improvements in maintenance of ventilation systems and water distribution infrastructure are recommended along with further investigations of drinking water and indoor air quality at the campus. The insight obtained in this study provided important baseline data, in an area where there is a dearth of information, from which deficiencies can be identified and evidence-based recommendations can be made.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ar Condicionado , Humanos , Temperatura , Universidades
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 165-171, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653176

RESUMO

As an important indoor pollutant, nitrous acid (HONO) can contribute to the concentration of indoor OH radicals by photolysis via sunlight penetrating into indoor environments, thus affecting the indoor oxidizing capability. In order to investigate the concentration of indoor HONO and its impact factors, three different indoor environments and two different locations in urban and suburban areas were selected to monitor indoor and outdoor pollutants simultaneously, including HONO, NO, NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), O3, and particle mass concentration. In general, the concentration of indoor HONO was higher than that outdoors. In the urban area, indoor HONO with high average concentration (7.10 ppbV) was well-correlated with the temperature. In the suburban area, the concentration of indoor HONO was only about 1-2 ppbV, and had a good correlation with indoor relative humidity. It was mainly attributed to the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on indoor surfaces. The sunlight penetrating into indoor environments from outside had a great influence on the concentration of indoor HONO, leading to a concentration of indoor HONO close to that outdoors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Ácido Nitroso/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Fotólise , Luz Solar
4.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611701

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in China in late 2019 and is caused by newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies had reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture media and deposited onto surfaces under a limited set of environmental conditions. Here, we broadly investigated the effects of relative humidity, temperature, and droplet size on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in a simulated clinically relevant matrix dried on nonporous surfaces. The results show that SARS-CoV-2 decayed more rapidly when either humidity or temperature was increased but that droplet volume (1 to 50 µl) and surface type (stainless steel, plastic, or nitrile glove) did not significantly impact decay rate. At room temperature (24°C), virus half-life ranged from 6.3 to 18.6 h depending on the relative humidity but was reduced to 1.0 to 8.9 h when the temperature was increased to 35°C. These findings suggest that a potential for fomite transmission may persist for hours to days in indoor environments and have implications for assessment of the risk posed by surface contamination in indoor environments.IMPORTANCE Mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical settings and public spaces is critically important to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases while effective vaccines and therapeutics are under development. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is thought to primarily occur through direct person-to-person transfer of infectious respiratory droplets or through aerosol-generating medical procedures. However, contact with contaminated surfaces may also play a significant role. In this context, understanding the factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 persistence on surfaces will enable a more accurate estimation of the risk of contact transmission and inform mitigation strategies. To this end, we have developed a simple mathematical model that can be used to estimate virus decay on nonporous surfaces under a range of conditions and which may be utilized operationally to identify indoor environments in which the virus is most persistent.


Assuntos
Fômites/virologia , Umidade , Modelos Teóricos , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Temperatura , Inativação de Vírus , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Plásticos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Porosidade , Saliva/química , Saliva/virologia , Aço Inoxidável , Propriedades de Superfície
5.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(2)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597101

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic influenced the normal course of clinical practice leading to significant delays in the delivery of healthcare services for patients non affected by COVID-19. In the near future, it will be crucial to identify facilities capable of providing health care in compliance with the safety of healthcare professionals, administrative staff and patients. All the staff involved in the project of a Covid-free hospital should be subjected to a diagnostic swab for COVID-19 before the beginning of healthcare activity and then periodically in order to avoid the risk of contamination of patients during the process of care. The modifications of various activities involved in the process of care are described: outpatient care, reception of inpatients, inpatient ward and operating room. For outpatient care, modality of appointment procedure, characteristics of waiting room and personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare professionals and administrative staff are presented. Reception of inpatients shall be conditional on a negative swab for COVID-19 obtained with a drive-in procedure. The management of the operating room represents the most crucial step of the patient's care process. The surgical team should be restricted and monitored with periodic swabs; surgical procedures should be performed by experienced surgeons according to standard procedures; surgical training experimental treatments and research protocols should be suspended. Adequate personal protective equipment and measures to reduce aerosolization in the operating room (closed circuits, continuous cycle insufflators, fume extraction) should be adopted. Prevention of possible transmission of the virus during procedures in open, laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery is to use a multi-tactic approach, which includes correct filtration and ventilation of the operating room, the use of appropriate PPE (FFP3 plus surgical mask and protective visor for all the staff working in the operating room) and smoke evacuation devices with a suction and filter system.   on behalf of the UrOP Executive Committee Giuseppe Ludovico, Angelo Cafarelli, Ottavio De Cobelli, Ferdinando De Marco, Giovanni Ferrari, Stefano Pecoraro, Angelo Porreca, Domenico Tuzzolo.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Departamentos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Assistência Ambulatorial , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Filtração , Guias como Assunto , Arquitetura Hospitalar , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Itália , Salas Cirúrgicas , Admissão do Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Equipamentos de Proteção , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Ventilação/instrumentação , Ventilação/métodos
6.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127119, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497835

RESUMO

Radon-based radiation from natural soil building materials is an important factor likely influencing residents' health as a contributing source of natural radiation. This survey aims to quantify the nuclide-specific α-radiation of isotopes 222Rn and 220Rn in common types of houses in a region of northern Vietnam, Dong Van karst plateau, to preliminarily (i) evaluate the total annual effective dose rates and (ii) assess the relative risk of cancer induction from indoor α-radiation for inhabitants. The average 222Rn concentrations in all house types were lower than 100 Bq m-3, but 220Rn abundances were far higher than 222Rn, even up to >1000 Bq m-3 in air close to a wall of unfired-soil bricks. The estimated total annual effective dose rates from indoor 222Rn and 220Rn and their progenies to residents with daily exposure of 13 h in the various types of houses range from 3.1 to 4.3 mSv a-1 for houses constructed with modified materials, but up to higher than 6 mSv a-1 in houses with raw building materials. The average risk of developing lung cancer as a consequence of a lifetime exposure to indoor α-radiation in affected homes ranges from 3.9% to 14.6%. 220Rn and its metallic progenies contribute more than 80% of the total average lung cancer risk from total radon, being responsible for a range of 2.7-14.6% of the risk of developing lung cancer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Radiação de Fundo , Materiais de Construção , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Solo , Vietnã
7.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127315, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535364

RESUMO

The study was conducted to assess the performance of improved and traditional cookstoves using wood as a fuel and three combinations of other fuel mixes - (i) wood and cow dung, (ii) wood and mustard stalks, and (iii) cow dung and mustard stalks). Energy and emission parameters such as specific energy consumption (SEC), emission factors (EFs) of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) were used to compare four different types of cookstoves. These included top-feed forced draft (TF-FD), top-feed natural draft (TF-ND), front-feed natural draft (FF-ND) and front-feed traditional (FF-TR) cookstoves. Controlled cooking test (CCT) was used as the test protocol. The results showed the performance of improved cookstove technologies can vary based on the fuel used for cooking. It was observed that emission factors for PM and CO increased by 67-96% and 45-90% respectively when all three improved cookstoves were tested with three fuel combinations against wood as cooking fuel. Among the tested cookstoves, a marked difference was observed between performance of forced draft and natural draft cookstoves. Forced draft cookstoves emitted higher amount of all pollutant emissions compared to natural draft cookstoves when used with mustard stalks in combination with either wood or cowdung. The results are of critical importance given that forced draft cookstoves have been promoted in geographical regions where fuel mix use is prevalent. Therefore, forced draft cookstove might not be the right choice when the goal is climate mitigation and reduction in impact on human health. It is imperative to study comprehensively the influence of various field variables on performance of cookstoves, which have severe implications on the performance of cookstoves.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Culinária/métodos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Utensílios Domésticos , Índia , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem , Tecnologia , Madeira/química
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(24): 30815-30830, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474777

RESUMO

The main aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of filter status (new and aged), pre-ionization, on the particle filtration in modern passenger cars. Measurements of in-cabin and outside PM2.5 (dp < 2.5 µm) concentration and UFP (ultrafine particle, dp < 100 nm) counts, to calculate I/O (indoor to outdoor) ratios, were performed. They were done at two locations, to study the influence of different outside conditions on the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) system. The measurements were performed in two new cars, with similar HVAC systems and settings, using a new filter and an aged synthetic filter. Furthermore, an ionization unit was installed upstream of the filter in both cars. This enabled the study of filter status, with and without ionization, under common driving conditions. The results show that the HVAC system performances were very similar at the two locations, with average I/O ratios of 0.35-0.40 without ionization and 0.15-0.20 with ionization applied, although the outside conditions were considerably different. Furthermore, the aged filter clearly worsened the filtration ability. Considering the corresponding average PM2.5 I/O ratios in one location as an example, the average for the new filter was 0.20 and 0.60 for the aged filter. The corresponding UFP I/O ratios were 0.24 and 0.57. Other findings are that the aged filter with ionization reached a performance close to the new filter (without ionization), and that increased ventilation airflow and decreased recirculation degree, as expected, led to an increase in the I/O ratio for both particle sizes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Automóveis , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia , Ventilação
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138505, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481214

RESUMO

Indoor dust often contains organic contaminants, which adversely impacts human health. In this study, the organic contaminants in the indoor dust from commercial offices and residential houses in Nanjing, China were extracted and their effects on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were investigated. Both dust extracts promoted proliferation of MCF-7 cells at ≤24 µg/100 µL, with cell viability being decreased with increasing dust concentrations. Based on LC50, house dust was less toxic than office dust. At 8 µg/100 µL, both extracts caused more MCF-7 cells into active cycling (G2/M + S) and increased intracellular Ca2+ influx, with house dust inducing stronger effects than office dust. Further, the expression of estrogen-responsive genes for TFF1 and EGR3 was enhanced by 3-9 and 4-9 folds, while the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes for cyclin D was enhanced by 2-5 folds. The results suggested that organic dust extract influenced cell viability, altered cell cycle, increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, and activated cell cycle regulatory and estrogen-responsive gene expressions, with house dust showing lower cytotoxicity but higher estrogenic potential on MCF-7 cells. The results indicate the importance of reducing organic contaminants in indoor dust to mitigate their adverse impacts on human health.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Estrogênios , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais
10.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114829, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559865

RESUMO

Numerous studies have focused on assessing the risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust via dermal contact. However, the dermal bioaccessibility and dermal absorption of PAHs in indoor dust have seldom been reported. In the present study, the effects of temperature, sweat ratio, solid-liquid ratio and incubation time on the dermal bioaccessibility of PAHs were examined. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrenewere selected for examination in an absorption assay with keratinocyte cells. The results showed the release of PAHs from indoor dust fitted a first-order one-compartment model. Naphthalene had the highest rate of release, which was consistent with the bioaccessibility assay results. In addition, the absorption rate of naphthalene and phenanthrene by keratinocytes was higher than that of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, with the latter being of higher molecular weight. These results indicated that low molecular weight PAHs were much more easily absorbed via dermal contact than were high molecular weight PAHs. The dermal bioavailability of PAHs in indoor dust was estimated by multiplying the bioaccessibility of PAHs in indoor dust by the ratio of dermal absorption by skin cells, and ranged from 0.12 to 51.0%. These data will be useful in risk assessments.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Benzo(a)pireno , Poeira , Humanos , Medição de Risco
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 329: 47-55, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380127

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of hexavalent and trivalent chromium, nickel, manganese, and iron in welding fumes (WFs) and to evaluate the significant association between the concentration of metals in the biological material of welders. The studies were conducted in welders (n = 67) and controls (n = 52). Stainless steel WFs were continuously collected in the workers' breathing zone during a shift. The serum and urine concentrations of Cr and Ni were determined by ICP-MS. The content of Mn in the whole blood was determined using ET-AAS. The content of Cr in the erythrocytes was determined using ICP-MS. The Cr concentration in the welders' urine positively correlated with a work environment concentration of Cr (R = 0.59, p < 0.0001), Cr(VI) (R = 0.58, p < 0.0001), and Cr(III) (R = 0.64, p < 0.0001) in the inhalable fraction. The Ni concentration in the welders' urine positively correlated with the Ni concentration in the inhalable and respirable fraction (R = 0.34, p < 0.005 and R = 0.44, p < 0.002). The correlation between the Mn concentration in the work environment air and the Mn concentration in the welders' whole blood (R = 0.46, p < 0.0001) was observed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional , Aço Inoxidável , Soldagem , Adulto , Humanos , Metais Pesados/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Med Hypotheses ; 141: 109781, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361528

RESUMO

The world is facing a pandemic of unseen proportions caused by a corona virus named SARS-CoV-2 with unprecedent worldwide measures being taken to tackle its contagion. Person-to-person transmission is accepted but WHO only considers aerosol transmission when procedures or support treatments that produce aerosol are performed. Transmission mechanisms are not fully understood and there is evidence for an airborne route to be considered, as the virus remains viable in aerosols for at least 3 h and that mask usage was the best intervention to prevent infection. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC) are used as a primary infection disease control measure. However, if not correctly used, they may contribute to the transmission/spreading of airborne diseases as proposed in the past for SARS. The authors believe that airborne transmission is possible and that HVAC systems when not adequately used may contribute to the transmission of the virus, as suggested by descriptions from Japan, Germany, and the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship. Previous SARS outbreaks reported at Amoy Gardens, Emergency Rooms and Hotels, also suggested an airborne transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our hypotheses but the assumption of such way of transmission would cause a major shift in measures recommended to prevent infection such as the disseminated use of masks and structural changes to hospital and other facilities with HVAC systems.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Ambiente Controlado , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ventilação , Aerossóis , Ar Condicionado/efeitos adversos , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Fômites/virologia , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Calefação/instrumentação , Calefação/métodos , Humanos , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Doença dos Legionários/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Engenharia Sanitária/instrumentação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Esgotos/virologia , Ventilação/instrumentação , Ventilação/métodos
13.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114263, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443219

RESUMO

An increasing number of epidemiological studies have examined air pollution as a possible contributor to adverse sleep health, but results are mixed. The aims of this systematic review are to investigate and summarize the associations between exposures to air pollutants and various sleep measures across the lifespan. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsycInfo were searched through October 2019 to identify original data-based research examining direct epidemiological associations between ambient and indoor air pollution exposures and various sleep health measures, including sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep disturbances, and daytime sleepiness. Twenty-two articles from 2010 to 2019 were selected for inclusion in this review, including a wide range of study populations (from early childhood to elderly) and locations (10 Asian, 4 North American, 3 European, 5 other). Due to variation in both exposure and outcome assessments, conducting a meta-analysis was not plausible. Twenty-one studies reported a generally positive association between exposure and poor sleep quality. While most studies focused on ambient air pollutants, five assessed the specific effect of indoor exposure. In children and adolescents, increased exposure to both ambient and indoor pollutants is associated with increased respiratory sleep problems and a variety of additional adverse sleep outcomes. In adults, air pollution exposure was most notably related to sleep disordered breathing. Existing literature generally shows a negative relationship between exposures to air pollution and sleep health in populations across different age groups, countries, and measures. While many associations between air pollution and sleep outcomes have been investigated, the mixed study methods and use of subjective air pollution and sleep measures result in a wide range of specific associations. Plausible toxicological mechanisms remain inconclusive. Future studies utilizing objective sleep measures and controlling for all air pollution exposures and individual encounters may help ameliorate variability in the results reported by current published literature.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Sono
14.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(7): 893-894, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389592

RESUMO

The potential for spread of COVID-19 infections in skilled nursing facilities and other long-term care sites poses new challenges for nursing home administrators to protect patients and staff. It is anticipated that as acute care hospitals reach capacity, nursing homes may retain COVID-19 infected residents longer prior to transferring to an acute care hospital. This article outlines 5 pragmatic steps that long-term care facilities can take to manage airflow within resident rooms to reduce the potential for spread of infectious airborne droplets into surrounding areas, including hallways and adjacent rooms, using strategies adapted from negative-pressure isolation rooms in acute care facilities.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Idoso , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Controle de Qualidade , Medição de Risco
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139356, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416534

RESUMO

Majority of countries across the globe have employed improving building ventilation, quarantine, social distancing, and disinfections as a general measure of preventing SARS-CoV-2 virus transmissions. However, arid Middle Eastern countries with hot climate (elevated outdoor temperature and humidity levels) are experiencing a different situation. Unfortunately, these harsh ambient climatic conditions in Middle Eastern countries make it impossible for most buildings to utilize natural/mechanical ventilation systems. Besides, indoor air temperatures of most buildings are very low due to overconsumption of air conditioning, thereby, it can be a potential factor of virus spread in most residential homes and public buildings. Most importantly, habitual indoor burning of incense which is the major source of coarse (PM10; aerodynamic diameter <10 µm) and fine (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) particulate matters (PM) could facilitate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus droplets and particles in indoor environments. In fact, it increases the spread of the virus via inhalation in these countries, especially where the wearing of masks is not regulated in public, commercial and residential buildings. It is therefore highly recommended for the relevant public health agencies to critically assess the role of poor indoor environmental conditions including the burning of incense on virus transmissions, which may help to develop control measures for the future viral outbreak effectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fumaça , Ventilação , Ar Condicionado , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado
16.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127143, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473469

RESUMO

In this study, preparation of a nylon film-TiO2 composite sheet with both physical durability under UV irradiation and TiO2 photocatalysis functionality was investigated. First, a nylon film was directly prepared on paper by interfacial polymerization using ethylenediamine and terephthaloyl chloride in a cyclohexane-chloroform mixture (3:1, v/v). Next, the nylon-coated paper was treated with tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to prepare polysiloxane on its surface. This was followed by fixation of TiO2 powder via electrostatic interactions with the polysiloxane. Although nylon films on paper usually decompose under TiO2 photocatalysis, the nylon film-TiO2 composite sheets prepared using 0.5%-1.0% (w/v) TiO2 did not decompose under photocatalysis. The residual rate of strength of the sheet remained at almost 100% after 240 h, which could be attributed to protection of the sheet by the polysiloxane layer. The nylon film was fibrous and could effectively adsorb acetaldehyde gas. All of the nylon film-TiO2 composite sheets prepared using 0.5%-5.0% TiO2 photocatalytically removed acetaldehyde under UV irradiation and no acetaldehyde gas was detected after 240-300 min. These results show the nylon film-TiO2 composite sheet can effectively remove acetaldehyde gas by photocatalysis and adsorption and could be applied to removal of volatile organic compounds in indoor air.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Nylons/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adsorção , Catálise , Polimerização , Siloxanas/química , Eletricidade Estática , Titânio/química , Raios Ultravioleta
17.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126816, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417508

RESUMO

This critical review summarizes the occurrence of 63 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in indoor air, dust, consumer goods and food. It includes their EU registration and (potential) risks. The increasing application of NBFRs calls for more research on their occurrence, environmental fate and toxicity. This review reports which NBFRs are actually being studied, which are detected and which are of most concern. It also connects data from the European Chemical Association on NBFRs with other scientific information. Large knowledge gaps emerged for 28 (out of 63) NBFRs, which were not included in any monitoring programs or other studies. This also indicates the need for optimized analytical methods including all NBFRs. Further research on indoor environments, emission sources and potential leaching is also necessary. High concentrations of 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were often reported. The detection of hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), 1,4-dimethyltetrabromobenzene (TBX), 4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-1,2-dibromocyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) and tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether (TBBPA-BDBPE) also raises concern.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Bromobenzenos , Poeira/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Halogenação , Bifenil Polibromatos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114698, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387676

RESUMO

Microbiota associated with airborne particulate matter (PM) is an important indicator of indoor pollution as they can be pathogenic and cause serious health threats to the exposed occupants. Present study aimed to investigate the level of culturable microbes associated with PM and their toxicological characterization in urban and rural houses of Pune city. Highest concentration of bacterial aerosols observed to be associated with PM10 size fraction in urban site (2136 ± 285 CFU/m3) whereas maximum fungal concentration has been measured in rural houses (1521 ± 302 CFU/m3). Predominantly found bacterial species were Bacillus sp., S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species were Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., and Penicillium sp. in both urban and rural residential premises. Concentration of endotoxin measured using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay exhibited that the level of endotoxin in both urban and rural sites are associated with household characteristics and the activities performed in indoor as well as outdoor. Cell free DTT assay confirmed the ability of these airborne microbes to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) varying along with the types of microorganisms. On exposure of A549 cells to airborne microbes, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed in terms of both necrosis and apoptosis pathway. Elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines in epithelial cells and macrophages clearly suggest the inflammatory nature of these airborne microbes. Results derived from the present study demonstrated that the indoor air of urban and rural houses of Pune is contaminated in terms of microbial load. Therefore, attention should be paid to control the factors favoring the microbial growth in order to safeguard the health of exposed inhabitants.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Material Particulado , Staphylococcus aureus
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(22): 27984-27994, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399886

RESUMO

This panel study aimed to evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and anxiety in schoolchildren. During 3 waves in March, July, and November 2018 with 7 days per wave, 52 children aged 10 years were recruited from two schools in a city in Korea. To assess outdoor exposure, we used PM2.5 concentration measures for every hour at the national measurement station (NMS) closest to the two participating schools. To assess indoor exposure, we measured PM2.5 concentration at the children's homes and in classrooms, based on 30-min average. Based on time-activity logs, personal average daily exposure values were calculated for each participant, according to exposure values assessed at 30-min intervals by location. Children's anxiety was assessed via the Korean version of the State Anxiety Inventory for children every day during each wave. Linear mixed effects model was conducted to analyze the association between PM2.5 exposure and anxiety using repeated measurements. Personal exposure to PM2.5 by time-activity log was the highest in March and at home. A low correlation coefficient was observed between PM2.5 concentrations at home and at the NMS (ρ = 0.36, p < 0.0001) whereas a high correlation coefficient was observed between PM2.5 concentrations in classrooms and at the NMS (ρ = 0.64, p < 0.0001). There was no association between PM2.5 exposure and anxiety in children based on the analysis of repeated measurements during the study period. Since previous studies reported controversial results, long-term follow-up studies are needed in various regions to further investigate the associations between PM2.5 exposure and children's mental health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Ansiedade , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138092, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408432

RESUMO

The burden of lung cancer associated with residential radon in existing housing can be reduced by interventions to screen and mitigate existing housing having radon levels above a mitigation threshold. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost effectiveness of radon interventions for screening and mitigation of existing housing for the 2016 population in Canada and to assess the structural uncertainty associated with the choice of model used in the cost-utility analysis. The incremental cost utility ratios are estimated using both a Markov cohort model and a discrete event simulation model. A societal perspective, a lifetime horizon and a discount rate of 1.5% are adopted. At a radon mitigation threshold of 200 (100) Bq/m3, the discounted ICERs for current rates of screening and mitigation of existing housing are 72,569 (68,758) $/QALY using a Markov cohort model and 84,828 (76,917) $/QALY using discrete event simulation. It appears that minimal structural uncertainty is associated with the choice of model used for this cost-utility analysis, and the cost effectiveness would improve at increased rates of radon testing and mitigation. The mitigation of radon in existing housing is estimated to be a practical policy option for reducing the associated lung cancer burden in Canada.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radônio/análise , Canadá , Análise Custo-Benefício , Habitação , Humanos , Incerteza
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