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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069502

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has pointed to the need to increase our knowledge in fields related to human breathing. In the present study, temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, and median particle size diameter measurements were taken into account. These parameters were analyzed in a computer classroom with 15 subjects during a normal 90-minute class; all the subjects wore surgical masks. For measurements, Arduino YUN, Arduino UNO, and APS-3321 devices were used. Natural ventilation efficiency was checked in two different ventilation scenarios: only windows open and windows and doors open. The results show how ventilation affects the temperature, CO2 concentration, and median particle diameter size parameters. By contrast, the relative humidity depends more on the outdoor meteorological conditions. Both ventilation scenarios tend to create the same room conditions in terms of temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, and particle size. Additionally, the evolution of CO2 concentration as well as the particle size distribution along the time was studied. Finally, the particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated together with particle concentration. Both parameters showed a similar trend during the time of the experiments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ventilação
2.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(5-6): 337-343, 2021 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080360

RESUMO

Environment contains numerous potentially toxic substances among which certain have demonstrated to be carcinogenic. They can reach the human organism mainly through the repiratory or digestive routes. Even if it is not always easy to demonstrate a causal relationship in observational studies whose interpretation is limited by numerous confounding factors, some compounds from the environment are clearly associated with a higher risk of cancers. The present article describes the effects of both outdoor and indoor air pollution, pesticides, some endocrine disruptors and radiations. The identification of environmental factors associated with a higher risk of cancer allows implement eradication strategies and thereby efficacious prevention.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Expossoma , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070834

RESUMO

Historically, reducing aerosol-based transmission of respired viruses in indoor environments has been of importance for controlling influenza viruses and common-cold rhinoviruses. The present public health emergency associated with SARS-CoV-2 makes this topic critically important. Yet to be tested is the potential effectiveness of simple interventions that create an isolation zone (IZ) for a suspected/confirmed sick or sensitive person requiring quarantine. The intent in existing homes is to find a practical means to mitigate exposure to airborne contaminants. In creating an IZ in an occupied single-family home in the study, four simple strategies were tested. The test configurations were: (1) IZ windows closed with IZ bathroom exhaust ventilation fan off, (2) IZ windows closed with IZ exhaust fan on, (3) IZ window open with IZ exhaust fan off, and (4) IZ window open with IZ exhaust fan on. Incense-generated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was used as a marker for virus transmission. The measured transfer of PM2.5 from the IZ into the main zone (MZ) of the house enabled us to determine the relative effectiveness of four containment strategies. Collectively, the data from pressure differential (across zones) and PM2.5 measurements suggested that the best containment strategy was achieved through continuously operating the bathroom exhaust fan while keeping the windows closed in the IZ (configuration 2). Interventions using open windows were found to be less reliable, due to variability in wind speed and direction, resulting in an unpredictable and sometimes detrimental pressure differential in the IZ with reference to MZ. Our findings strongly suggest a simple IZ exhaust ventilation strategy has the potential for mitigating the risk from the airborne spread of contaminants, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Environ Res ; 198: 111265, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of exposure to particulate matter (PM) on human health is a global public health concern. To develop an effective strategy to reduce PM exposure, we performed detailed questionnaire surveys regarding the type of lifestyle required to avoid PM exposure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We correlated the data with real-time PM concentration during the winter season. METHODS: We enrolled 104 patients with COPD aged 40 years or older. Detailed questionnaire surveys were conducted among participants, and internet of things-based sensors were installed at their homes to measure the indoor PM2.5 concentration, which was continuously monitored between December 2019 and February 2020. The associations among PM2.5 concentration, patients' lifestyles, and the impact of both concentration and lifestyle on COPD exacerbation were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean outdoor PM2.5 concentration was higher than mean indoor PM2.5 concentration during the study period (21.28 ± 5.09 µg/m3 vs. 12.75 ± 7.64 µg/m3), with a mean difference of 8.53 ± 7.99 µg/m3. Among the various social factors and practices that aim to avoid exposure to PM, six practices and economic statuses were confirmed to reduce indoor PM2.5 concentration compared to outdoor concentration; Contrarily, these practices created a significant difference between the outdoor and indoor PM2.5 concentrations. The six practice items that showed a significant difference were 1) checking air quality forecast (the difference: -13.31 ± 1.35 µg/m3, p = 0.013), 2) indoor air filter operated (-15.43 ± 1.32 µg/m3, p < 0.001), 3) ventilating home by opening the windows (-13.14 ± 1.28 µg/m3, p = 0.013), 4) checking filters of the air filter (-13.95 ± 1.50 µg/m3, p = 0.002), 5) refraining from going out when outside PM is high (-12.52 ± 1.37 µg/m3, p = 0.039), 6) wearing a mask when going out (-13.38 ± 1.32 µg/m3, p = 0.017). The higher the household income and economic level, the more significant the difference in the PM2.5 concentration. Severe exacerbation was more prevalent among patients with acute exacerbation as the exposure time of PM2.5≥35 µg/m3 or PM2.5≥75 µg/m3. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle and economic levels can affect the indoor PM2.5 concentration, which may impact COPD exacerbation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 3): S318-S330, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects children's health and academic perfor-mance. The aim of this pilot study was to determine IAQ in elementary schools different in their inter-nal and external characteristics, in settings of COVID-19 epidemics. METHODS: IAQ parameters: fine particulate matter (PM2,5) mass concentration, CO2 concentration, tempera-ture and relative humidity were measured in parallel in four elementary schools/classrooms during October (non-heating season) and four months (including holiday in January) of heating season. IAQ parameters were measured in settings of anti-epidemic restrictions (≤13 students in classroom, frequent ventilation). RESULTS: During October, except in one school, PM2,5 concentrations were below the upper recommended value (25 µg/m³), but started rising in all schools in the heating season. The highest concentrations of PM2,5 were registered in two schools with closed or shortly opened windows. CO2 concentrations were mostly in the recommended range (up to 1000ppm) except in the school with constantly closed windows and in three schools in February when concentrations were higher. Except in one, the same school, and in January, both temperature and relative humidity were out of the recommended range (24,0-27,0°C in non-heating; 20,0-24,0°C in heating season; and 45-55%), with temperature mainly above and relative humidity mainly below it in three schools. The largest deviation in temperature and relative humidity were registered in urban schools. Registered differ-ences may be explained by different internal and external characteristics. CONCLUSION: Despite anti-epidemic restrictions, most of the measured IAQ parameters were out of the recom-mended values in heating season. In addition, further deterioration of IAQ could be expected if all students had been presented in the classroom. Finally, to assure a healthy school environment in heating season, further optimisation of both indoor and outdoor conditions is needed in both pandemic and non-pandemic settings.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Environ Res ; 198: 111196, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939980

RESUMO

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is one of the important risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Although PM concentrations have been assessed using air quality monitoring stations or modelling, few studies have measured indoor PM in large-scale birth cohorts. The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) measured indoor and outdoor air quality in approximately 5000 households when the participating children were aged 1.5 and 3 years. PM was collected using portable pumps for 7 days (total of 24 h), inside and outside each home. Prediction models for indoor PM concentrations were built using data collected at age 1.5 years and post-validated against data collected at age 3 years. Median indoor/outdoor PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 concentrations at age 1.5 years [3 years] were 12.9/12.7 [12.5/11.3] µg/m3 and 5.0/6.3 [5.1/6.1] µg/m3, respectively. Random forest regression analysis found that the major predictors of indoor PM2.5 were indoor PM10-2.5, outdoor PM2.5, indoor smoking, observable smoke and indoor/outdoor temperature. Indoor PM2.5, outdoor PM10-2.5, indoor humidity and opening room windows were important predictors of indoor PM10-2.5 concentrations. Indoor benzene, acetaldehyde, ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations were also found to predict indoor PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 concentrations, possibly due to the formation of secondary organic aerosols. These findings demonstrate the importance of reducing outdoor PM concentrations, avoiding indoor smoking, using air cleaner in applicable and diminishing sources of VOCs that could form secondary organic aerosols, and the resulting models can be used to predict indoor PM concentrations for the rest of the JECS cohort.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(5): 350-357, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977902

RESUMO

SETTING: Indoor volatile organic compound (VOC) levels, which are generally correlated with each other, may have an additive or synergistic effect on health. VOC synergy with allergens is a suspected mechanism affecting respiration.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of exposure to interactions between VOCs and allergens on respiratory symptoms in individuals aged ≥15 years.DESIGN: A national cross-sectional survey measured 20 VOCs and dog and cat aeroallergens in 490 main residential dwellings in France. A standardised questionnaire was used to elicit responses on respiratory conditions in 1012 inhabitants. Four VOC factor scores (linear combinations of VOCs) were generated using principal component analysis. In order to take into account the phenomenon of multi-pollution, marginal models were used to model the relationships between exposure to VOC mixture and respiratory conditions. Stratified models were used to examine the interaction between allergens and VOCs.RESULTS: The aromatic hydrocarbon score was associated with rhinitis and wheezing, the aliphatic hydrocarbon score with asthma and cough, the halogenated hydrocarbons with asthma, wheezing and rhinitis. Aldehydes and Can f1 had a significant synergistic effect on wheezing and rhinitis. Aliphatic hydrocarbons had an antagonist effect with Can f1 on wheezing.CONCLUSION: Our data support evidence of adverse effects of exposure to VOC mixture on respiratory conditions; this effect is aggravated in the presence of pet allergens.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Alérgenos , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , França/epidemiologia
9.
J Environ Manage ; 290: 112539, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990056

RESUMO

The transition to sustainable energy requires an assessment of drivers of the use of clean and dirty fuels for cooking. Literature highlights the importance of access to clean fuel for switching from dirty fuels to clean fuels. Though access to cleaner fuels, such as electricity promotes clean fuel use, it does not necessarily lead to a complete transition to the use of clean fuels. Households continue using traditional fuels in addition to the clean fuels. The main objective of this paper is to explain the choice of dirty cooking fuels even when access to electricity is provided. We use nationally representative household survey data to study the household energy use decisions in three middle-income countries, namely, India, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. The study discusses the role of access to natural gas, free fuel, convenience or multi-use of fuels featured by the heating system installed, built-in environment, and other socio-economic factors in household fuel choice for cooking. The results show that access to natural gas increases the likelihood of opting for clean fuel, while the availability of free fuel in rural areas and the coal-based heating system promote the use of solid fuels.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Carvão Mineral , Culinária , Índia , Modelos Logísticos
10.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(5): 699-713, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037627

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a key class of atmospheric emission released from highly complex petrochemical, transport and solvent sources both outdoors and indoors. This study established the concentrations and speciation of VOCs in 60 homes (204 individuals, 360 × 72 h samples, 40 species) in summer and winter, along with outdoor controls. Self-reported daily statistics were collected in each home on the use of cleaning, household and personal care products, all of which are known to release VOCs. Frequency of product use varied widely: deodorants: 2.9 uses home per day; sealant-mastics 0.02 uses home per day. The total concentration of VOCs indoors (range C2-C10) was highly variable between homes e.g. range 16.6-8150 µg m-3 in winter. Indoor concentrations of VOCs exceeded outdoor for 84% of households studied in summer and 100% of homes in winter. The most abundant VOCs found indoors in this study were n-butane (wintertime range: 1.5-4630 µg m-3), likely released as aerosol propellant, ethanol, acetone and propane. The cumulative use VOC-containing products over multiday timescales by occupants provided little predictive power to infer 72 hour averaged indoor concentrations. However, there was weak covariance between the cumulative usage of certain products and individual VOCs. From a domestic emissions perspective, reducing the use of hydrocarbon-based aerosol propellants indoors would likely have the largest impact.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Produtos Domésticos , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 579299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026697

RESUMO

Quality-of-life is improving daily with continuous improvements in urban modernization, which necessitates more stringent requirements for indoor air quality. Fuzzy assessment enables us to obtain the grade of the evaluation object by compound calculation with the help of membership function and weight coefficient, overcoming the limitations of traditional methods applied to develop environmental quality indices. First, this study continuously measured SO2, O3, NO2, NO, CO, CO2, PM10, PM2.5, and other chemical pollutants during the daytime operating hours of a library and a canteen. We analyzed the concentration distributions of the particles in the air were discussed based on 31 different particle diameters. Finally, the experimental data in department store and waiting hall were analyzed by fuzzy evaluation, with the following results. (1) The library and canteen PM10 concentrations peaked at 07:45 in the morning and was elevated during the afternoon (48.9 and 59 µg/m3, respectively). (2) The Pearson correlation coefficient of the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the library was 0.98. PM10 and SO2 in the canteen were negatively correlated, with a correlation coefficient of -0.65. PM2.5 and PM1 were always highly positively correlated. (3) The high concentration of particles in the library was associated with the small particle size range (0.25~0.45 µm). (4) By applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the library grade evaluation was the highest level, and the waiting hall was the lowest. This study enhances our understanding of the indoor chemical contamination relationships for public buildings and highlights the urgent need for improving indoor air quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula
12.
J Environ Radioact ; 234: 106647, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992858

RESUMO

Very few studies have been done on radon in South Africa, even though South Africa holds nearly a tenth of the global uranium deposits. This study aimed to map and estimate the radon risk for South Africa, and to identify potential hotspots. In this study, the uranium content of the different types of rock was determined and uranium concentrations in geological units were then projected. A uranium distribution map of South Africa was then constructed, and indoor radon concentrations were estimated and mapped based on the uranium levels of areas. Towns in areas where indoor radon measurements were conducted compared well with the estimated radon values. The maps predicted high estimated indoor radon concentrations in areas at several geological structures. Towns in these areas that have not been measured were identified. The south-western and north-eastern regions of South Africa pose the highest radon risk according to this study, and extensive radon measurements in the towns of these regions is proposed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Urânio , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Cidades , Fenômenos Geológicos , Radônio/análise , África do Sul , Urânio/análise
13.
J Environ Radioact ; 235-236: 106651, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049192

RESUMO

In order to study effectiveness of soil radon mitigation systems in dwellings basements, it is necessary to develop robust numerical models that can estimate time-varying radon concentration in the basements. However, development of such models is a very challenging topic. Indeed, there are three difficult tasks that have to be solved: i°) to characterize soil and foundation materials hydraulic properties, and geometry, length, and position of cracks inside these materials, ii°) to solve discontinuity due to free gas flow in a basement volume embedded within a tortuous porous material, and iii°) to characterize the dwelling occupation mode by the inhabitants. The purpose of this work is twofold: first, to investigate the performance of a meshed-basement model (BM1), compared to classical mass balance models (BM2), in simulating measured fluctuations in time of point-radon concentration in the basement; and second, to study efficiency of soil depressurization systems (SDS) designs in reducing the higher radon concentrations in basements due to higher under-pressurizations. Application of both models to an experimental dwelling showed that BM1 is more efficient than BM2 in that it can better simulate both measured radon concentration and radon-entry-rate. Numerical SDS-scenarios by using BM1 showed that the basement sub-slab depressurization (SSD) alone is a costly solution for radon mitigation. However, scenarios combining SSD with a sump pumping well (SPW) design in the soil adjacent to the wall, showed to be a good alternative because it involves less energy for soil air extraction.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Habitação , Radônio/análise , Solo
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147324, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940416

RESUMO

Despite the growing interest in energy-efficient homes (EEHs), there is still a lack of evidence regarding whether the mechanical ventilation system of an EEH positively or negatively impacts indoor air quality (IAQ) and the health and wellbeing of occupants. This study aimed to evaluate the IAQ level and daily health symptoms of adults and children living in EEHs compared to conventional buildings over the course of one year. A two-way mixed analysis of variance was conducted to compare the level of IAQ between the two housing types. A binomial generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and generalized additive mixed model was developed to investigate the association between IAQ and daily risks of symptoms. Differences in the daily prevalence of symptoms between the two housing types were assessed using a Poisson GLMM model. Overall, the indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), carbon dioxide (CO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were lower in EEH after controlling for seasonality. The indoor temperature and relative humidity level were relatively constant in the EEH. We also found that an increased level of indoor air quality parameters, particularly CO2, which is closely related to the indoor ventilation rate, was associated with the daily risk of eye fatigue, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis symptoms. Considering that EEH effectively reduced indoor air pollutants and IAQ improvement was associated with a reduction in the risk of individual symptoms, the IAQ improvement of EEH may have positively impacted occupants' health. Symptoms such as eye fatigue and skin dryness, which have been reported in previous studies as potential side effects of mechanical ventilation, were reported in this study; however, they were not found to be statistically significantly different from those reported in the conventional building.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Respiração Artificial , Ventilação
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147111, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940420

RESUMO

Atmospheric particles are a major environmental health risk. Assessments of air pollution related health burden are often based on outdoor concentrations estimated at residential locations, ignoring spatial mobility, time-activity patterns, and indoor exposures. The aim of this work is to quantify impacts of these factors on outdoor-originated fine particle exposures of school children. We apply nested WRF-CAMx modelling of PM2.5 concentrations, gridded population, and school location data. Infiltration and enrichment factors were collected and applied to Athens, Kuopio, Lisbon, Porto, and Treviso. Exposures of school children were calculated for residential and school outdoor and indoor, other indoor, and traffic microenvironments. Combined with time-activity patterns six exposure models were created. Model complexity was increased incrementally starting from residential and school outdoor exposures. Even though levels in traffic and outdoors were considerably higher, 80-84% of the exposure to outdoor particles occurred in indoor environments. The simplest and also commonly used approach of using residential outdoor concentrations as population exposure descriptor (model 1), led on average to 26% higher estimates (15.7 µg/m3) compared with the most complex model (# 6) including home and school outdoor and indoor, other indoor and traffic microenvironments (12.5 µg/m3). These results emphasize the importance of including spatial mobility, time-activity and infiltration to reduce bias in exposure estimates.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147498, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975113

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate associations between indoor air quality (IAQ) in K-12 classrooms and student academic performance. During the academic years 2015-2017, various IAQ factors in 220 classrooms in the US were measured seasonally, excluding summer. Measurements were taken during occupied and unoccupied times in several classrooms within each school. Occupied measurements included indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) and formaldehyde concentrations, and fine and coarse particle counts. Unoccupied measurements consisted of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) concentrations. Ventilation rates of classrooms were estimated using measured CO2 concentrations. In addition to IAQ data, classroom aggregated student achievement scores and demographic information were collected from participating school districts. Demographic data included percentage rates of free and reduced lunch recipients (PFRL), high-performance students (PGIF), and special education students (PSPED). A multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between IAQ factors and student scores using demographic data as controls. The results revealed associations between student scores and ventilation system type, ventilation rates, fine particle counts, and O3 and CO concentrations. This research provides valuable information to school districts and design engineers, enabling them to design school environments for improved student performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Ventilação
19.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2021-05-12.
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-53938

RESUMO

O risco de contrair COVID-19 é maior em ambientes com aglomerações e com ventilação inadequada, onde pessoas infectadas passam longos períodos juntas e muito próximas. Estes são os ambientes onde o vírus parece se disseminar com maior eficiência, por gotículas respiratórias ou aerossóis, tornando as precauções, portanto, ainda mais importantes. A compreensão e controle da ventilação das edificações pode melhorar a qualidade do ar que respiramos e reduzir o risco de problemas de saúde em ambientes fechados, inclusive melhorando a prevenção contra o vírus que causa a propagação da COVID-19 nesses ambientes. Este roteiro foi desenvolvido após uma revisão abrangente da literatura disponível e de uma avaliação dos documentos de orientação disponíveis das principais e mais renomadas autoridades internacionais em ventilação de edificações. As evidências e orientações disponíveis foram consultadas, reunidas e avaliadas quanto a quaisquer discrepâncias por especialistas internacionais membros do Painel Consultivo de Especialistas no Controle de Engenharia e Meio Ambiente (ECAP) da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) para a COVID-19. O processo de desenvolvimento do roteiro incluiu duas sessões de consulta a especialistas por meio de reuniões virtuais e duas rodadas de apresentações por escrito, visando reunir contribuições técnicas e assegurar a construção de um consenso para a adaptação das recomendações. Esse processo considerou as metas de prevenção e controle de infecções (PCI), as implicações de recursos, valores e preferências, a ética e as lacunas de pesquisa no escopo do desenvolvimento do roteiro.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Aglomeração , Aerossóis , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Espaços Confinados , Ventilação , Meio Ambiente
20.
Environ Res ; 198: 111215, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939977

RESUMO

Surface active substances (SAS) have the potential to form films at different interfaces, consequently influencing the interfacial properties of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). They can be derived from both human activities and natural processes and can be found in an indoor and outdoor environment. This paper's fundamental question is the possible role of the SAS in stabilizing respiratory aerosols in the closed space. In that context, we discuss results of preliminary measurements of the SAS and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the water-soluble fractions of PM2.5 and PM10 that were sampled simultaneously in primary school inside and outside of the building. The concentrations of SAS were determined using highly sensitive electrochemical measurements. It was observed that SAS and DOC concentrations have been enhanced indoor in both PM fractions. Consistent with these results, a discussion arises on the possibility that SAS could play a crucial role in respiratory droplet dispersion as stabilizers, especially in a closed space. At the same time, we assume that they could prolong the lifetime of respiratory aerosols and as well viability of some (possible SARS-CoV-2) virus inside of the droplets.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
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