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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128376, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182138

RESUMO

Indoor air pollution has traditionally received less attention than outdoors pollution despite indoors pollutant levels are typically twice higher, and people spend 80-90% of their life in increasing air-tight buildings. More than 5 million people die every year prematurely from illnesses attributable to poor indoor air quality, which also causes multi-millionaire losses due to reduced employee's productivity, material damages and increased health system expenses. Indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, biological pollutants and over 400 different chemical organic and inorganic compounds, whose concentrations are governed by several outdoor and indoor factors. Prevention of pollutant is not always technically feasible, so the implementation of cost-effective active abatement units is required. Up to date no single physical-chemical technology is capable of coping with all indoor air pollutants in a cost-effective manner. This problem requires the use of sequential technology configurations at the expenses of superior capital and operating costs. In addition, the performance of conventional physical-chemical technologies is still limited by the low concentrations, the diversity and the variability of pollutants in indoor environments. In this context, biotechnologies have emerged as a cost-effective and sustainable platform capable of coping with these limitations based on the biocatalytic action of plants, bacteria, fungi and microalgae. Indeed, biological-based purification systems can improve the energy efficiency of buildings, while providing additional aesthetic and psychological benefits. This review critically assessed the state-of-the-art of the indoor air pollution problem and prevention strategies, along with the recent advances in physical-chemical and biological technologies for indoor pollutants abatement.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142346, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182182

RESUMO

The biological effects of low dose-rate radiation exposures on humans remains unknown. In fact, the Japanese nation still struggles with this issue after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Recently, we have found a unique area in Indonesia where naturally high radiation levels are present, resulting in chronic low dose-rate radiation exposures. We aimed to estimate the comprehensive dose due to internal and external exposures at the particularly high natural radiation area, and to discuss the enhancement mechanism of radon. A car-borne survey was conducted to estimate the external doses from terrestrial radiation. Indoor radon measurements were made in 47 dwellings over three to five months, covering the two typical seasons, to estimate the internal doses. Atmospheric radon gases were simultaneously collected at several heights to evaluate the vertical distribution. The absorbed dose rates in air in the study area vary widely between 50 nGy h-1 and 1109 nGy h-1. Indoor radon concentrations ranged from 124 Bq m-3 to 1015 Bq m-3. That is, the indoor radon concentrations measured exceed the reference levels of 100 Bq m-3 recommended by the World Health Organization. Furthermore, the outdoor radon concentrations measured were comparable to the high indoor radon concentrations. The annual effective dose due to external and internal exposures in the study area was estimated to be 27 mSv using the median values. It was found that many residents are receiving radiation exposure from natural radionuclides over the dose limit for occupational exposure to radiation workers. This enhanced outdoor radon concentration might be as a result of the stable atmospheric conditions generated at an exceptionally low altitude. Our findings suggest that this area provides a unique opportunity to conduct an epidemiological study related to health effects due to chronic low dose-rate radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Radiação de Fundo , Humanos , Indonésia , Doses de Radiação , Radônio/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141904, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890872

RESUMO

Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a collection of nonspecific syndromes linked with the built environment. The occurrence of SBS is associated with humidity, ventilation, moulds and microbial compounds exposure. However, no study has reported the association between indoor microbiome and SBS. In this study, 308 students were surveyed for SBS symptoms from 21 classrooms of 7 junior high schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia, and vacuum dust from floor, desks and chairs was collected. High throughput amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA gene and ITS region) and quantitative PCR were conducted to characterize the absolute concentration of bacteria and fungi taxa. In total, 326 bacterial and 255 fungal genera were detected in dust with large compositional variation among classrooms. Also, half of these samples showed low compositional similarity to microbiome data deposited in the public database. The number of observed OTUs in Gammaproteobacteria was positively associated with SBS (p = 0.004). Eight microbial genera were associated with SBS (p < 0.01). Bacterial genera, Rhodomicrobium, Scytonema and Microcoleus, were protectively (negatively) associated with ocular and throat symptoms and tiredness, and Izhakiella and an unclassified genus from Euzebyaceae were positively associated with the throat and ocular symptoms. Three fungal genera, Polychaeton, Gympopus and an unclassified genus from Microbotryaceae, were mainly positively associated with tiredness. The associations differed with our previous study in microbial compounds (endotoxin and ergosterol) and SBS in the same population, in which nasal and dermal symptoms were affected. A higher indoor relative humidity and visible dampness or mould in classrooms were associated with a higher concentration of potential risk bacteria and a lower concentration of potential protective bacteria (p < 0.01). This is the first study to characterize the SBS-associated microorganisms in the indoor environment, revealing complex interactions between microbiome, SBS symptoms and environmental characteristics.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Microbiota , Síndrome do Edifício Doente , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Instituições Acadêmicas , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/epidemiologia
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 336-345, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183712

RESUMO

This study experimentally studied the dispersion of exhaled pollutant in the breathing microenvironment (BM) in a room equipped with a displacement ventilation (DV) system and indoor air stability conditions (i.e., stable and unstable conditions). The vertical temperature differences and the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the BM were measured. Results show that when DV is combined with the stable condition (DS), pollutant tends to accumulate in the BM, leading to a high pollutant concentration in this region. Whereas, when DV is combined with the unstable condition (DU), pollutant diffuses to a relatively wider area beyond the BM, thus the pollutant concentration in the BM is substantially reduced. Moreover, increasing the flow rate can reduce the pollutant concentration in the BM of the DS but yields little difference of the DU. In addition, personal exposure intensity increases with time, and the DS has a relatively higher increase rate than DU. The results suggest that indoor air stability will affect the performance of DV systems. DS will lead to a higher health risk for people when they stay in the indoor environment with pollutant sources, and DU is recommended for minimizing pollutant level in the BM in order to reduce the pollutant concentration and providing better air environments for the occupants.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Dióxido de Carbono , Humanos , Ventilação
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141334, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846247

RESUMO

Cooking is a major source of indoor particulate matter (PM), especially ultrafine particles (UFPs). Long-term exposure to fine and ultrafine particles (UFPs) has been associated with adverse human health effects. Toxicological studies have demonstrated that exposure to PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 µm) may result in increased blood pressure (BP). Some clinical studies have shown that acute exposure to PM2.5 causes changes in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), depending on the source of particles. Studies assessing the effect of exposure to cooking PM on BP and heart rate (HR) using electric or gas stoves are not well represented in the literature. The aim of this investigation was to perform controlled studies to quantify the exposure of 50 healthy volunteer participants to fine and ultrafine particles emitted from a low-emissions recipe for frying ground beef on an electric stove. The BP and heart rate (HR) of the volunteers were monitored during exposure and after the exposure (2 h post-exposure). Maximum UFP and PM2.5 concentrations were 6.5 × 104 particles/cm3 and 0.017 mg/m3, respectively. Exposure to UFPs from frying was associated with statistically significant increases in the SBP. The lack of food and drink during the 2 h post-cooking period was also associated with a statistically significant reduction in SBP. No statistically significant changes in DBP were observed. Physiological factors, including heat stress over the stove, movements and anxiety, could be responsible for an elevation in HR at the early stages of the experiments with a subsequent drop in HR after 90 min post-cooking, when study participants were relaxed in a living room.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Culinária , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141734, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882555

RESUMO

We estimated associations between ambient air pollution, home environment and asthma as well as rhinitis among adults across China. A total of 40,279 young adults from eight Chinese cities participated in a questionnaire survey (participation rate 75%). There were questions on health and home environment. Information on city level gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, ambient temperature and PM10 and NO2 were collected from registers. Two-level logistic regression models were used to study health associations. Totally 1.6% reported asthma and 6.6% reported allergic rhinitis (AR). Higher temperature was associated with more asthma but less AR. Higher GDP was associated with less asthma but more AR. Higher degree of urbanization, higher level of NO2 and living near heavily trafficked road were risk factors for asthma and AR. Participants in older buildings reported more asthma. Redecoration and buying new furniture were related to more asthma and AR (OR = 1.15-1.91). Using natural gas (OR = 1.34) and biomass (OR = 1.35) for cooking were risk factors for AR. Burning mosquito coils and incense increased the risk of asthma and AR. Cat keeping (OR = 2.88), dog keeping (OR = 2.04), cockroaches (OR = 1.54) and rats or mice (OR = 1.46) were associated with asthma. Cockroaches increased the risk of AR (OR = 1.22). Air humidifier and air cleaner were linked to asthma and AR. Frequent cleaning and exposing bedding to sunshine were protective. In conclusion, urbanization, NO2 and traffic exhaust can increase the risk of adult asthma and AR. Higher ambient temperature was related to more asthma but less AR. Indoor animals such as cats, dogs, rats/mice and presence of cockroaches were associated with asthma or AR. Indoor chemical sources such as redecoration and new furniture were other risk factors. Cooking with natural gas or biomass and burning mosquito coils and incense were associated with asthma or AR. Frequent cleaning and exposing bedding to sunshine were protective.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Rinite Alérgica , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Animais , Asma/epidemiologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Cães , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141726, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889464

RESUMO

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are of concern because of their high pulmonary deposition efficiency. However, present control measures are generally targeted at fine particles (PM2.5), with little effect on UFPs. The health effects of UFPs at different PM2.5 concentrations may provide a basic for controlling UFPs but remain unclear in polluted areas. School children spend the majority of their time in the classrooms. This study investigated the different short-term effects of indoor UFPs on school children in Beijing, China when indoor PM2.5 concentrations exceeded or satisfied the recently published Chinese standard for indoor PM2.5. Cardiopulmonary functions of 48 school children, of whom 46 completed, were measured three times. Indoor PM2.5 and UFPs were monitored in classrooms on weekdays. Measurements were separated into two groups according to the abovementioned standard. Mixed-effect models were used to explore the health effects of the air pollutants. Generally, UFP-associated effects on children's cardiopulmonary function persisted even at relatively low PM2.5 concentrations, especially on heart rate variability indices. The risks associated with high PM2.5 concentrations are well-known, but the effects of UFPs on children's cardiopulmonary function deserve more attention even when PM2.5 has been controlled. UFP control and standard setting should therefore be considered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127295, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536422

RESUMO

Good air quality is documented as a significant factor of social justice. The human health hazards associated with air pollution are not distributed equally across cities; the most vulnerable people are more exposed to ambient air as they commute to work and wait for buses or trains at the stations. Aerosols play important roles in atmosphere quality and the climate; their oxidation at the nanoscale level may possibly increase the reactivity and toxicity of atmospheric particulates. Indoor school environments are characterized by high concentrations of different airborne particulate and gaseous pollutants. The documentation of nanoparticles (NPs), ultra-fine particles (UFPs), and micron-size particle species present in indoor primary schools are an important aspect in the recognition of their influence in respirational difficulties and decreased cognitive progress in children. This work utilizes the study of condensed water, sampled with portable dehumidifiers (PD), to describe NPs and UFPs in the vapor stage of enclosed zones. The acquired extracts were analyzed by advanced electron microscopy techniques. A total of 392 NPs and 251 UFPs were examined in a set of 22 samples acquired in moderately limited or inadequately ventilated indoor areas from several schools. Noting that NPs-related disorders happen at particular places of respirational structure, identification of site-specific NPs accumulation should be anticipated in direction to better verify the corresponding human health outcomes resulting from respirable NPs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Nanopartículas/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Atmosfera , Criança , Cidades , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(11): 725-735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132246

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitization potential of 82 compounds classified as volatile and/or semi-volatile organic compounds using the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), given that these chemical compounds have been detected frequently and at high concentrations in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution and other studies. The skin sensitization potential of 81 of these compounds was evaluable in our study; one compound co-eluted with cysteine peptide and was therefore not evaluable. Twenty-five of the evaluated compounds were classified as positive. Although all glycols and plasticizers detected frequently and at high concentrations in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution were negative, hexanal and nonanal, which are found in fragrances and building materials, tested positive. Monoethanolamine and 1,3-butanediol, which cause clinical contact dermatitis, and several compounds reported to have weak sensitization potential in animal studies, were classified as negative. Thus, it was considered that compounds with weak sensitization potential were evaluated as negative in the DPRA. Although the sensitization potential of the formaldehyde-releasing preservative bronopol has been attributed to the release of formaldehyde (a well-known contact allergen) by its degradation, its degradation products-bromonitromethane and 2-bromoethanol-were classified as positive, indicating that these degradation products also exhibit sensitization potential. The compounds that tested positive in this study should be comprehensively assessed through multiple toxicity and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Testes de Irritação da Pele/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade , Aldeídos , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Formaldeído , Glicolatos , Humanos , Japão , Odorantes , Peptídeos , Plastificantes , Pele , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/classificação
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 764, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200258

RESUMO

Indoor radon (222Rn) measurements were carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in some dwellings from southwestern Nigeria. This was aimed at statistically assessing influence of building characteristics on the measured radon and estimating excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR). The measured radon concentrations followed lognormal distribution and were significantly influenced by some building properties. The arithmetic mean (1.60 mSv) of annual effective doses (AEDs) due to indoor radon was observed to be higher than the world average level (1.15 mSv) but less than lower limit (3 mSv) of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The evaluated excess lifetime cancer risk ranged from 1.5 to 28.1 (MPy)-1 with an average value of 6.3 (MPy)-1, indicating that after exposure to indoor radon for 70 years, 6 people in every 1000 are likely to suffer the risk of developing lung cancer. Adequate ventilation systems were recommended for houses with high level of radon to avoid unnecessary exposure to radon. However, the investigated data would form important component of the database required to set up guidelines and policy of controlling radon at home.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Habitação , Humanos , Nigéria , Radônio/análise
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008116

RESUMO

During the first outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic the population, focusing primarily on the risk of infection, was generally inattentive to the quality of indoor air. Spain, and the city of Madrid in particular, were among the world's coronavirus hotspots. The country's entire population was subject to a 24/7 lockdown for 45 days. This paper describes a comparative longitudinal survey of air quality in four types of housing in the city of Madrid before and during lockdown. The paper analysed indoor temperatures and variations in CO2, 2.5 µm particulate matter (PM2.5) and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations before and during lockdown. The mean daily outdoor PM2.5 concentration declined from 11.04 µg/m3 before to 7.10 µg/m3 during lockdown. Before lockdown the NO2 concentration values scored as 'very good' 46% of the time, compared to 90.9% during that period. Although the city's outdoor air quality improved, during lockdown the population's exposure to indoor pollutants was generally more acute and prolonged. Due primarily to concern over domestic energy savings, the lack of suitable ventilation and more intensive use of cleaning products and disinfectants during the covid-19 crisis, indoor pollutant levels were typically higher than compatible with healthy environments. Mean daily PM2.5 concentration rose by approximately 12% and mean TVOC concentration by 37% to 559%. The paper also puts forward a series of recommendations to improve indoor domestic environments in future pandemics and spells out urgent action to be taken around indoor air quality (IAQ) in the event of total or partial quarantining to protect residents from respiratory ailments and concomitantly enhanced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, as identified by international medical research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Dióxido de Carbono , Cidades , Habitação/classificação , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Material Particulado , Espanha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(10): 4462-4469, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124378

RESUMO

To explore the difference in the emission of air pollutants from coal stoves, five new and common residential coal stoves (square briquette, baffled heat exchange, heating and cooking integrated gasification positive burning, and gasification reverse burning stove) were selected. The emission level of major air pollutants was determined using simulated combustion in the laboratory for quantitatively evaluating the environmental effects of different coal stoves. Moreover, the factors and reasons for the differences were identified, and suggestions for the reduction of emission were proposed. The results showed that: ① the emissions of air pollutants from different coal stoves were significantly different; the heating and cooking integrated stove had the largest emission intensity (2.9 kg ·t-1) of air pollutants (SO2, NOx, and TSP), which was 1.6 times of the average value, and the square briquette stove had the lowest emission level, which was 65% of the average value. ② The emissions of gaseous pollutants from the coal stoves in different combustion stages also showed evident differences. In the high-fire stage, the NOx emission concentration of the square briquette stove was 0.49 mg ·m-3, which was 45%-72% lower than that of the other stoves; the SO2 emission concentration of the gasification reverse burning stove was 1.38 mg ·m-3, which was 28% lower than that of the other stoves. ③ The application technology and combustion type were the main factors affecting the emission levels of the coal stoves. The stove with square briquette technology and gasification reverse burning technology could have great environmental benefit. However, the cost of the two stoves was 20 and 18 thousand yuan, respectively, which was clearly higher than that of the other types of stoves. ④ Considering the difference in the emission of air pollutants from the different stoves, it was suggested to adopt differentiated economic policy and strict emission and product standards, promoting the use of energy-saving and environment-friendly coal stoves to reduce the emission of air pollutants from coal-fired stoves.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Utensílios Domésticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Culinária , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(10): 2031-2057, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084679

RESUMO

Hygroscopic particulate matter (PM) constituents promote uptake of aerosol water (AW), depending on relative humidity (RH), which can constrain qualities such as organic aerosol (OA) phase state and inorganic aerosol (IA) deliquescence and efflorescence. This work provides a first incorporation of AW predictions into residential indoor PM simulations. The indoor model, IMAGES, which simulates factored OA concentrations and thermodynamics using the 2D-volatility basis set, was expanded to predict speciated IA concentrations, AW with κ-Köhler theory of hygroscopic growth, and OA phase state with glass transition temperatures. Since RH is the largest driver of AW and varies with meteorology, simulations were conducted using a database of historical ambient weather and pollution records spanning the sixteen U.S. climate zones, facilitating assessment of seasonal and regional trends. Over this diverse simulation set, the residential indoor AW mass was ∼10 to 100 times smaller than dry PM mass. This relative AW amount indoors was about ∼10 times smaller than outdoors, since indoor-emitted aerosol is likely less hygroscopic. The indoor OA phase state was typically semisolid, suggesting kinetic limitations might inhibit thermodynamic OA partitioning equilibrium from being established indoors. Residences in hot and humid climates during the summertime may have liquid indoor OA, while amorphous solid indoor OA can exist in cold climates. Deliquescence and efflorescence of recirculated IA within HVAC systems during cooling or heating, respectively, was also modeled. Oftentimes, two IA populations with different histories existing as wet or dry aerosol were generated by HVAC operation depending on indoor and outdoor environmental conditions and the HVAC operating mode.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Umidade , Água
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(34): 43389-43395, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965644

RESUMO

Radon exhaled from building material surfaces is an important source of indoor radon. Yangjiang, located in the southern part of mainland China, is well-known as a high background radiation area (HBRA). Rather, high levels of radon and thoron concentration have been observed in adobe and brick houses. Reducing the indoor radon concentration remains an important issue in the high background radiation areas of China and the world. Generally, the walls of Chinese dwellings are solid. In this paper, a simple one-dimensional model for predicting the radon diffusion in a cavity wall is proposed, and an analysis formula describing the radon exhalation rate from cavity wall surfaces is presented. The influence on the radon exhalation rate due to leakage through structural joints and building material cracks is analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the radon exhalation rate from a cavity wall surface is far lower than that from a solid wall. The structure of cavity walls themselves is therefore useful as a mechanism for reducing the indoor radon in high background radiation areas across the world.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Radiação de Fundo , China , Materiais de Construção , Expiração , Habitação , Radônio/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867076

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Evidence suggests that air pollution has a negative impact on asthma outcomes in both adult and pediatric populations. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the effect of various outdoor and indoor pollutants on asthma outcomes, their burden on its management, as well as to highlight the measures that could result in improved asthma outcomes. Traffic-related air pollution, nitrogen dioxide and second-hand smoking (SHS) exposures represent significant risk factors for asthma development in children. Nevertheless, a causal relation between air pollution and development of adult asthma is not clearly established. Exposure to outdoor pollutants can induce asthma symptoms, exacerbations and decreases in lung function. Active tobacco smoking is associated with poorer asthma control, while exposure to SHS increases the risk of asthma exacerbations, respiratory symptoms and healthcare utilization. Other indoor pollutants such as heating sources and molds can also negatively impact the course of asthma. Global measures, that aim to reduce exposure to air pollutants, are highly needed in order to improve the outcomes and management of adult and pediatric asthma in addition to the existing guidelines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111027, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888595

RESUMO

The available evidence on the indoor air quality of operating rooms (ORs) in the Low- and Middle-income Countries (LMICs) is very scarce. Moreover, there is no study on the comparing the concentration of indoor air pollutants in different ORs. Therefore, this study aimed to measure and compare the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations in the air of different ORs in hospitals of Sabzevar, Iran. Moreover, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of exposure to these pollutants were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations technique. This cross-sectional study was based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) passive sampling of eight ORs including General surgery, Curettage, Eye surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic, Laparoscopic, Cesarean and Ear, nose, throat (ENT) in two monthly campaigns from November 2019 to February 2020. One-way ANOVA and Post-hoc analyses were used to compare the concentration of BTEX compounds in different ORs. The overall mean (standard deviation (SD)) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and total BTEX concentrations were 10.0 (1.8), 7.2 (1.9), 1.8 (0.6), 0.4 (0.2) and 19.4 (4.1) µg/m3. The Curettage OR had the highest (12.93 µg/m3) and ENT OR had the lowest (7.42 µg/m3) benzene concentrations. The highest concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene and total BTEX were observed in General surgery OR. The cancer risks of exposure to benzene in all ORs were higher than the acceptable range recommended by Unite State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1 × 106). However, the hazard quotient (HQ) values for all ORs were at safe level (HQ < 1). Overall, our study suggested that the concentrations of BTEX compounds were significantly difference in different ORs and benzene had a carcinogenic risk for personnel and surgical staff in different ORs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Fumaça/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
19.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115464, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866878

RESUMO

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers (BTEX) are known to affect environmental air and health quality. In this study, the levels of BTEX compounds were determined in indoor air environments during the winter generated by several different heaters: diesel pot-bellied heater with chimney (DH); electric heater (EH); unfluted gas heater (GH); kerosene heater (KH); and wood pot-bellied heater with chimney (WH). The samples were collected using a diffusion passive adsorbent (activated charcoal) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the heaters differ in the quantity of BTEX released during operation. The KH was the most polluted heater based on BTEX measurement, followed by DH. The ∑BTEX for heaters were observed as follows: KH (290 µg m-3); DH (120 µg m-3); GH (84 µg m-3); WH (31 µg m-3); EH (16 µg m-3). Toluene was the predominant compound in all air samples. In KH and DH, the toluene to benzene ratios (T/B) were higher than 4 due to fuel evaporation, while GH had a T/B ratio of 3.9, indicating that the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was the main source. Moreover, a risk assessment was performed to evaluate where the cancer risks (CR) for benzene and ethylbenzene exceeded the critical values (10-6). KH was found to be the most harmful heater for residents, followed by DH and GH. For non-carcinogenic compounds, hazard quotients (HQ) were found to be less than one and thus unlikely to cause health problems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Jordânia , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 634, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909141

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds, VOCs, are air pollutants widely produced by biogenic and anthropogenic sources. This work quantitatively studied the presence of these gases in the internal and external environments of schools, comparing one in an urban area (La Salle School, Canoas, RS) and another in a rural area (Santa Cassia Farm School, Nova Santa Rita, RS). The aim of this study was to compare if this environmental differences (location) influence their gases concentration. Monitoring campaigns were conducted for 6 months, occurring every 2 weeks in both schools during class hours, 1 day indoors and 1 day outdoors. The results showed higher concentrations of total volatile organic compounds in the urban school external environment compared with the same rural school environment and, in the comparison between environments, the internal environments of the two schools obtained higher VOC concentrations than the external ones, except in November and December at the urban school.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
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