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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124701, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499316

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, a class of flame retardants and endocrine disruptors, have been substituted in new products by organophosphate (OPFR) and replacement brominated flame retardants (RBFR). OPFRs and RBFRs readily migrate from consumer products into dust where humans are exposed via incidental ingestion and inhalation. We quantified concentrations and loadings of OPFRs and RBFRs in house dust samples (n = 317) collected from the homes of Cincinnati women between 2003 and 2006 and examined their associations with demographic and house characteristics. Tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl)-phosphate (TCIPP, geometric mean [GM]: 2140 ng g-1, range: 70.1-166,000 ng g-1), tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP, GM: 1840 ng g-1, range: 55.2-228,000 ng g-1), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP, GM: 1070 ng g-1, range: 34.1-62,100 ng g-1), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB, GM: 59.5 ng g-1, range: 2.82-7800 ng g-1), and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP, GM: 121 ng g-1, range 2.17-13,600 ng g-1) were all detected in >90% of dust samples; tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP, GM: 669 ng g-1, range: 56.8-160,000 ng g-1) was detected in 80.1% of samples. Concentrations of EH-TBB and BEH-TEBP increased in house dust from 2003 to 2006. The number of people living in the home, race, education, floor type, and year of sample collection were associated with some OPFR and RBFR concentrations and loadings. This study suggests that OPFRs and RBFRs were ubiquitous in house dust during the PBDE phase-out and justifies more research on the consequences of exposure to these environmental chemicals.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Halogenação , Humanos , Ohio
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134502, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693950

RESUMO

Organophosphate (OP) esters are emerging environmental contaminants, but little is known about their occurrence in dust. In this study, 19 OP triesters and their 11 diester degradation products were measured in indoor dust and outdoor dust collected from China. ∑OP triester concentrations in indoor dust (median: 2380 ng/g dry weight [dw]) were an order of magnitude higher than those in outdoor dust (446 ng/g dw). The median concentrations of ∑OP diesters in indoor and outdoor dust were 260 and 96.8 ng/g dw, respectively. Dust samples collected from eastern and southern China contained higher concentrations of ∑OP di- and tri-esters than those from the other regions. Dust from the most urbanized areas in China including Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou exhibited the highest concentrations of ∑OP di- (>1000 ng/g dw) and triesters (>4000 ng/g dw). We also found notable concentrations of emerging aryl-OP triesters in dust (3.85-10.6 ng/g dw). Significant correlations existed between the concentrations of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEHP) and tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) (rho = 0.672-0.691, p < 0.01), as well as DPHP and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) (rho = 0.537-0.766, p < 0.01) in dust samples, indicating that OP diesters originated from the degradation of triesters. High molar concentration ratios of DEP to triethyl phosphate (TEP) and DPHP to TPHP/ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) suggested that these OP triesters degrade readily. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of ∑OP di- (R2 = 0.390, p < 0.05) and tri-esters (R2 = 0.475, p < 0.01) in paired indoor-outdoor dust samples, which suggested that indoor dust was the source of OP esters to the outdoor environment. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of ∑OP diesters through dust ingestion was 0.21 ng/kg bw/d for adults and 2.59 ng/kg bw/d for children. The exposure levels of OP diesters, DEP and DPHP, were comparable to those of their parent triester compounds.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ésteres/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama , Humanos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134137, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493575

RESUMO

This study conducted on-site measurements of indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in 251 occupied residences in China, with multiple visits throughout a whole year. Over 1000 samples were collected for measurement of VOCs in 8 cities, covering different climate regions. Overall, the concentrations of total VOCs (TVOCs) in occupied residences are in the range of 104-1151 µg/m3, with 20% of the samples over the Chinese standard of 600 µg/m3. A higher concentration was evident in the summer (mean = 705 µg/m3) compared to other seasons, especially winter (mean = 289 µg/m3). The TVOCs of residences in areas with central heating (severe cold regions and cold regions) are generally higher than those in areas without central heating. In winter, temperature was the dominant factor, whereas in summer, the building infiltration rate was the key factor influencing the indoor TVOC levels. The TVOCs concentration was also found to be directly proportional to the city economy level. Twenty-nine VOC species with a detection frequency higher than 40% were identified in all samples. Toluene is the most common VOC, with the highest detection rate (90%). The median concentration for a single VOC was between 1 and 14 µg/m3. Aldehydes were found to be the largest contributors to total VOCs in the Chinese residential buildings (mass proportion 22%), followed by benzene series (20%), alkenes (18%), and alkanes (15%). Aldehydes, especially long-chain saturated carbonyls, are likely to be the characteristic VOCs in the Chinese dwellings, with Chinese cooking as the major emission source. In addition, n-butane/i-butane showed maximum concentration in some residences (approximately 105 µg/m3 higher than other VOCs) owing to cooking fuel.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Cidades , Habitação , Estações do Ano
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 86: 107-119, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787175

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs), typical pollutants widely used as plasticizers, are ubiquitous in various indoor and outdoor environments. PAEs exist in both gas and particle phases, posing risks to human health. In the present study, we chose four typical kinds of indoor and outdoor environments with the longest average human residence times to assess the human exposure in Hangzhou, including newly decorated residences, ordinary residences, offices and outdoor air. In order to analyze the pollution levels and characteristics of 15 gas- and particle-phase PAEs in indoor and outdoor environments, air and particulate samples were collected simultaneously. The total PAEs concentrations in the four types of environments were 25,396, 25,466.8, 15,388.8 and 3616.2 ng/m3, respectively. DEHP and DEP were the most abundant, and DMPP was at the lowest level. Distinct variations in the distributions of indoor/outdoor, gas/particle-phase and different molecular weights of PAEs were observed, showing that indoor environments were the main sources of PAEs pollution. While most PAEs tended to exsit in indoor sites and gas-phase, the high-molecular-weight chemicals tended to exist in the particle-phase and were mainly found in PM2.5. PAEs were more likely adsorbed by small particles, especially for the indoor environments. There existed a good correlation between the particle matter concentrations and the PAEs levels. In addition, neither temperature nor humidity had obvious effects on the distributions of the PAEs concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 693, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667634

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollutants and heat stress from traditional cooking fires is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries globally and have an adverse effect on the environment. According to the World Health Organization, 3.8 million people die annually prematurely from illness related to household air pollution. Families living in poverty are at the highest risk, especially women and children. In this study, exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was measured among resource-poor women cassava processors. The test locations were chosen in the peri-urban settlements of Abeokuta in the Ogun State of Nigeria, where household women entrepreneurs roast garri (granulated cassava) for sale in the local market. The measurements were taken for two types of stoves which are generally existing in the study location. First, a rectangular stove (RS) with two operators and, second, a circular stove (CS) with one operator; both stoves used wood as fuel. The emissions were compared with a modern mechanical liquefied petroleum gas burner-based garri roaster (GS). Hours spent per day in front of garri stoves ranged from 6 to 12 h for both stoves, with a frequency of 1 to 3 days of operation per week. It was found that CS operators were spending significantly more time in producing garri, which is due to the low capacity of the CS. The average PM2.5 concentrations for RS and CS were 381 and 273 µg/m3, respectively, estimated to be 21 and 41 µg/m3 on an annual mean level basis. Similarly, for PM10, the mean concentration levels were 1580 and 594 µg/m3 for RS and CS, respectively. The annual mean levels for PM10 were about 89 µg/m3 for both types of stoves. CO exposure during garri processing was up to five times higher than the recommended concentrations with a 4-h mean of 48 and 50 mg/m3 for RS and CS, respectively. NO2 levels were very low, ~ 0 ppm. This investigative research concluded that wood-fired small-scale garri producers in Nigeria are exposed to very unhealthy levels of PM, CO and thermal stress. The concentration levels of both PM and CO were exceeding the global as well as Nigerian ambient air quality standard regulations. Along with air pollution, thermal stress was a significant issue, which is known to exacerbate the negative effect of air pollution on the human body.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Manihot , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Feminino , Fogo , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Nigéria , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Madeira/química
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(11): 117003, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has become the leading cause of death worldwide, and environmental pollutants are increasingly recognized as risk factors for atherosclerosis. Liver X receptors (LXRs) play a central role in atherosclerosis; however, LXR activity of organic pollutants and associated potential risk of atherosclerosis have not yet been characterized. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore whether LXR-antagonistic chemicals are present in indoor house dust and, if so, to characterize this activity in relation to changes in macrophages in vitro and cardiovascular disease indicators in vivo in an atherosclerosis ApoE-/- mouse model. METHODS: We used a His-LXRα-pull-down assay and a nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry method to screen house dust collected from Chinese homes for LXRα- and LXRß-antagonist activity. A chemical identified in this manner was assessed for its ability to induce cholesterol efflux and foam cell formation in RAW264.7 macrophages, to down-regulate the expression of two LXR-dependent genes, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and finally to induce atherosclerotic lesions in vivo using an ApoE-/- mouse model. RESULTS: We identified the flame retardants triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) in house dust samples and demonstrated their ability to antagonize LXRs. The potency of TPHP was similar to that of the LXR-antagonist SR9238. TPHP could also inhibit cholesterol efflux and promote foam cell formation in RAW264.7 macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages and significantly promoted atherosclerotic lesion formation in the ApoE-/- mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: We found LXR-antagonist chemicals in environmental samples of indoor dust from Chinese homes. One of the chemicals, TPHP, was able to promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the ApoE-/- mouse model. These results highlight the need to assess the LXR-antagonist activities of pollutants in future environmental management programs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5039.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Poeira/análise , Animais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , China , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Células RAW 264.7
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 659, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630273

RESUMO

A major campaign was carried out in indoor and outdoor environments in a school located in the university campus of the city of São Paulo. Elements, PAH, oxy-PAH, water-soluble ions and black carbon were determined and compared with preliminary campaigns. The results indicated that the concentrations of particles and organic compounds were higher indoors. Some high molecular weight compounds, attributed to vehicular emissions, were more abundant outdoors. The associated health risk was found to be low. 2-Methylanthraquinone and benzo(a)anthracene-7,12-dione were detected in the indoor samples, denoting the infiltration of vehicle exhaust. The observation of black carbon also corroborates the contribution of traffic emissions. For most of the elements, except for chromium, iron and manganese, the concentrations obtained in indoors were higher than outdoors, mainly due to soil resuspension. Chromium and manganese likely derived from emissions of the vehicle powered by mixtures of ethanol and gasoline. Water-soluble inorganic ions species denoted the influence of soil resuspension and human activities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Brasil , Cidades , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Solo/química , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113320, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610505

RESUMO

Smoky coal burning is a predominant manner for heating and cooking in most rural areas, China. Air pollution is associated with the risk of atherosclerosis, however, the link between indoor air pollution induced by smoky coal burning and atherosclerosis is not very clear. Therefore, we designed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association of long-term exposure to smoky coal burning pollutants with the risk of atherosclerosis. 426 and 326 participants were recruited from Nangong, China and assigned as the coal exposure and control group according to their heating and cooking way, respectively. The indoor air quality (PM2.5, CO, SO2) was monitored. The association between coal burning exposure and the prevalence of atherosclerosis was evaluated by unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounding factors. The inflammatory cytokines mRNAs (IL-8, SAA1, TNF-α, CRP) expression in whole blood were examined by qPCR. People in the coal exposure group had a higher risk of carotid atherosclerosis compared with the control (risk ratio [RR], 1.434; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.063 to 1.934; P = 0.018). The association was stronger in smokers, drinkers and younger (<45 years old) individuals. The elevation of IL-8 (0.24, 95%CI, 0.06-0.58; P < 0.05), CRP (0.37, 95%CI, 0.05-0.70; P < 0.05), TNF-α (0.41, 95%CI, 0.14-0.67; P < 0.01) mRNAs expression in whole blood were positively related to coal exposure. Our results suggested long-term exposure to smoky coal burning emissions could increase the risk of carotid atherosclerosis. The potential mechanism might relate that coal burning emissions exposure induced inflammatory cytokines elevation which had adverse effects on atherosclerotic plaque, and then promoted the development of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral/análise , Fumaça/análise , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/induzido quimicamente , China/epidemiologia , Culinária/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Calefação/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , População Rural
9.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113338, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610506

RESUMO

Biomass is a dominant solid fuel type worldwide. Traditional biomass combustion leads to severe indoor and ambient environmental problems. Biomass pellet utilization in forced-draft gasifier stoves is regarded as an improved approach to these problems. Previous studies on forced-draft biomass stoves mainly considered average emission amounts and lacked details of the combustion properties and dynamic correlations between emissions and combustion. This study used a dynamic measurement system to test a typical forced-draft gasifier stove consuming wood pellets and maize straw pellets. Real-time fuel burning rate, that partly reflects the combustion performance, and CO, NOx and PM2.5 emission rates, over a whole combustion course, were monitored. In all tests, the burning rate rose to a high and stable level, and then sharply subsided. CO, NOx and PM2.5 emission rates varied across the combustion course. CO (NOx) emissions have a negative (positive) logarithmic linear relationship with burning rate, while no consistent relationship was observed for PM2.5 emission rate. The identified relationships between burning rate and pollutant emission rates suggest the possibility of estimating emission performance of forced-draft biomass pellet stoves based on combustion indicators, or vice versa.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biomassa , Calefação/instrumentação , Utensílios Domésticos , Madeira/química
10.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113176, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520905

RESUMO

Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and size-segregated particulate matter (PM) in indoor air and outdoor air, along with personal exposure, were monitored in rural households of Northern China. The daily average concentrations of 28 species were 1310 ±â€¯811, 738 ±â€¯321, 465 ±â€¯247, and 655 ±â€¯250 ng/m3 in kitchen air, bedroom air, and outdoor air, and for personal exposure, respectively. PAHs tended to occur in the particulate phase with increasing molecular weight. Absorption by particulate organic carbon was dominant in the gas-particle partitioning process. The daily averaged concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 were 104 ±â€¯39.5 and 88.4 ±â€¯39.3 µg/m3 in kitchen air, 79.0 ±â€¯63.2 and 65.7 ±â€¯57.5 µg/m3 in bedroom air, 52.9 ±â€¯16.5 and 41.5 ±â€¯12.5 µg/m3 in outdoor air, and 71.7 ±â€¯30.8 and 61.5 ±â€¯28.4 µg/m3 for personal exposure, respectively. The non-priority components contributed 5.5 ±â€¯2.8% to the total PAHs, while their fraction of carcinogenic risk reached 85.6 ±â€¯6.9%. The mean cancer risk posed to rural residents via inhalation exposure to PAHs exceeded the current acceptable threshold of 1.0 × 10-6 and the national average estimated in China. The personal exposure levels of PAHs and PM in households using clean energy were lower than those in households using traditional biomass by 30.0%, 29.4%, and 38.5% for PAH28, PM2.5, and PM1.0, respectively. However, the cancer risk of personal inhalation exposure to PAH28 from using liquid petroleum gas (LPG) was higher than that from using firewood, implying the adoption of LPG may not effectively reduce the cancer risk despite the decreasing exposure levels of PAH28 and PM with respect to the use of firewood. Cooking individuals suffered higher exposure levels of PAH28 and PM1.0 compared with non-cooking individuals, and the cancer risk of personal inhalation exposure to PAH28 for cooking individuals was 1.7 times that for non-cooking individuals. Cooking was a critical factor that affected the personal exposure levels of the local male and female residents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Biomassa , China , Culinária/métodos , Poeira/análise , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , População Rural
11.
J Environ Radioact ; 208-209: 106044, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521882

RESUMO

This paper presents a geostatistical simulation approach to not only map the county-level indoor radon concentration (IRC) distributions in South Korea, but also quantify the uncertainty that can be used as decision-supporting information. For county-level IRC mapping in South Korea, environmental factors including geology, radium concentration in surface soil, gravel content in subsoil, and fault line density, which are known to be associated with the source and migration of radon gas, were incorporated into IRC measurements using multi-Gaussian kriging with local means. These four environmental factors could account for about 36% of the variability of noise-filtered IRCs, implying that regional variations of IRCs were affected by these factors. Sequential Gaussian simulation was then applied to generate alternative realizations of county-level IRC distributions. By summarizing the multiple simulation results, we identified some counties that lay on the great limestone series showed elevated IRCs. In addition, there were some counties in which the proportion of grids exceeding the recommended level was high but the uncertainty was also large according to the analysis of several uncertainty measures, which indicates that additional sampling is required for these counties. From the local cluster analysis in conjunction with simulation results, we found that the counties with higher levels of IRC belonged to the statistically significant clusters of high values, and these counties should be the prime targets for radon management and in-depth survey. The geographical distributions of IRC and uncertainty measures presented in this study provide guidance for effective radon management if they are consistently combined with both future IRC measurements and a geogenic radon potential map.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Contaminação Radioativa do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , República da Coreia , Análise Espacial
12.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113100, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542674

RESUMO

Diesel-fueled buses have been replaced by Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to minimize the high level of emissions in urban areas. However, differences in indoor exposure levels to Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX) in those vehicles have not been investigated so far. The primary aim of this study was to determine if passengers are exposed to different BTEX levels when using buses powered by CNG or by diesel, and further explore if indoor levels are influenced by external air quality. For this purpose, BTEX air concentrations were measured in bus cabins (CNG and diesel), parking stations and in a background urban area using passive air samplers. Results showed that BTEX concentrations inside vehicles were higher than outside, but no significant differences were found between buses powered by CNG or by diesel. In CNG vehicles, high and significant positive correlation was found between benzene and the number of journeys in the same route (rs = 0.786, p < 0.05), vehicle operating time (rs = 0.738, p < 0.05), exposure time (rs = 0.714, p < 0.05) and exposure index (rs = 0.738, p < 0.05), but this was not observed for diesel vehicles. Benzene in bus cabins was found to be significantly below reference value for human health protection. However, excepting p-xylene, all other aromatic pollutants have a mean concentration significantly above the lowest effect level (p ≤ 0.002 for all comparisons). Additionally, higher BTEX levels in cabin buses than in outdoor air suggest the presence of other emission sources in indoor cabins. These findings emphasize the need for further studies to fully characterize indoor emission sources in order to minimize the negative impact of BTEX exposure to human health.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/análise , Gás Natural/toxicidade , Tolueno/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Xilenos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Veículos Automotores
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505746

RESUMO

An increased understanding of airborne microorganism populations should enable a better interpretation of bioaerosol exposure found in a working environment. An assessment of the contamination levels of mesophilic bacterial aerosol (MBA) and fungal aerosol (FA) was carried out using two evaluation indices for microbiological pollution-the total index of microbiological contamination per cubic meter (TIMC/m3) and the indoor-outdoor index (IOI). An advantage of selected indices is the inclusion of several co-existing factors that have an impact on the formation of bioaerosol. When properly used, they also highlight the low efficiency of the ventilation system caused by an insufficient air exchange. In this study, the microbial air quality (MAQ) of the working environment was assessed during the spring season at a sorting plant located in Southern Poland. Sampling was undertaken in the plant using an Andersen six-stage impactor which allows the obtainment of information about the size distribution of the air microflora. The value of average concentrations of MBA and the average concentration of FA collected in the preliminary cabin of the sorting plant (PCSP) and the cleaning cabin of the sorting plant (CCSP) were analyzed. The obtained values of MBA were 1.6 times higher indoors, compared to outdoors, while FA was 1.7 times higher outdoors than indoors. The maximum TIMC/m3 value was obtained in PCSP (2626). The calculated IOI in this study suggests that MBA concentrations are influenced by internal sources, as opposed to FA. The purpose of this work was to present the usefulness of using indices in assessing air quality.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Polônia , Estações do Ano
14.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113263, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546073

RESUMO

The removal of particulate matter (PM) is an important issue in public health and the global atmospheric environment. Various PM removal methods have been suggested to effectively remove PM particles. However, the effects of various factors on PM deposition are not completely clear. We quantitatively investigated the effects of flow and humidity difference in a closed chamber on PM deposition. To elucidate the parameters affecting the deposition of PM particles, PM removal efficiency and deposition constant were examined at different flow rates, flow directions, and relative humidity (RH) inside the closed system. The highest PM deposition rate was achieved under humid condition with the upward direction flow at a fan speed of RPM = 150. Mean velocity fields inside the test chamber were obtained by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to quantitatively examine the effect of flow conditions on the PM deposition. The flow structure and RH inside the closed chamber have significant influence on PM deposition.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Humanos , Umidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenômenos Físicos
15.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124778, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549670

RESUMO

The radiation dose effects due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident are of public concern. Although indoor dust is an important exposure route for some hazardous chemicals, the radiation exposure dose from the radioactive caesium (Cs) in it has not been well investigated. Hence, in this study, we measured the radioactive Cs in the indoor dust of private houses in order to estimate the resulting human exposure. We collected vacuum cleaner dust twice (in April and June 2012, n = 250 and 241, respectively) in the prefectures of Chiba and Ibaraki, from houses located 150-200 km south from the FDNPP. The activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the indoor dust were measured using germanium γ-ray detectors, and the exposure dose was calculated and the household-to-household variations were analysed. The median activity concentrations of 134Cs + 137Cs in the indoor dust collected in April and June were 1470 and 1340 Bq kg-1, respectively. The median committed effective doses via indoor dust ingestion were estimated as 0.73, 0.66, and 0.43 × 10-3 mSv year-1, and those via inhalation were estimated as 0.03, 0.04, and 0.06 × 10-3 mSv year-1 for one- and ten-year-old children and adults, respectively. Those were much smaller than the annual dose limit of 1 mSv year-1, which was set as a goal to be achieved in the a few years or decades (clear period has not been set). Within the detached houses, multiple regression analysis showed that wet wiping of floor was a significant reduction factor of the Cs concentration in dust; however, the small determination coefficient implies the presence of factors that were not considered in this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Centrais Nucleares , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Radioatividade
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109639, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mounting evidence have linked traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) with increased risk of preterm birth (PTB), whether it can interact with indoor environmental factors remains unknown, and its window(s) susceptibility at the stage of gestation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore PTB risk for prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and home environmental factors during pregnancy, so as to identify critical window(s) in the combined effect of traffic air pollution and main home environmental factor(s) on PTB development. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 3,509 preschool children was performed in Changsha, China during 2011-2012. The PTB prevalence was reported by the parents based on a questionnaire. We estimated each mother's exposure to traffic-related air pollutant NO2 in different windows of gestation, including conception month, three trimesters, birth month, and whole gestation. Maternal exposure to home environmental factors was considered by renovation (new furniture/redecoration) in pregnancy, and mold/damp stains and window condensation during perinatal period. Associations of PTB with both ambient NO2 and home environmental factors, and their interactions on PTB were evaluated by logistic regression models using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Traffic air pollutant NO2 exposure in utero was significantly associated with PTB, with adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) of 1.41 (1.00-1.98) for an IQR increase in NO2 exposure during whole pregnancy, particularly in the conception month and 1st trimester. We further found a positive relationship between perinatal exposure to mold/damp stains in the homes and PTB, OR (95% CI) = 1.73 (1.04-2.90). Especially, we detected a significant interaction between outdoor NO2 and indoor mold/damp stains on PTB risk. Male and female foetus were respectively more susceptible to perinatal mold/dampness at home and outdoor NO2 exposure in early gestation. CONCLUSION: Our finding indicates that both outdoor traffic air pollutant and indoor mold/dampness play key roles in PTB development, and their interaction effect in early pregnancy significantly increases PTB risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113147, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522002

RESUMO

This study investigated the spatial and temporal distributions of particulate and gaseous air pollutants in a primary school in Beijing and assessed their health impact on the children. The results show that air quality inside the classroom was greatly affected by the input of outdoor pollutants; high levels of pollution were observed during both the heating and nonheating periods and indicate that indoor and outdoor air pollution posed a threat to the children's health. Traffic sources near the primary school were the main contributors to indoor and outdoor pollutants during both periods. Moreover, air quality in this primary school was affected by coal combustion and atmospheric reactions during the heating and nonheating periods, respectively. Based on the estimation by exposure-response functions and the weighting of indoor and outdoor pollutants during different periods, the levels of PM2.5, PM 10 and O3 at school had adverse respiratory health effects on children. Longer exposures during the nonheating period contributed to higher health risks. These results emphasized that emission sources nearby had a direct impact on air quality in school and children's respiratory health. Therefore, measures should be taken for double control on air pollution inside and outside the classroom to protect children from it.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Carvão Mineral , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540179

RESUMO

Estimating long-term exposure to indoor radon is necessary to determine the effects of indoor radon exposure on health. However, measuring long-term exposure to radon is labor intensive and costly. While developing models for estimating indoor radon concentrations are very difficult and unrealistic due to the many factors affecting radon concentrations, several studies have attempted to estimate indoor radon concentrations with mathematical models based on mass balance equations. However, these models are only applicable to specific regions or situations, and some require actual measurement data. This study sought to develop a widely applicable model for estimating mean annual indoor radon concentrations in actual residences considering seasonal variations in indoor radon. The model is based on a mass balance equation using data on geographical factors, building characteristics, meteorological factors, and nationwide radon surveys. The primary factor in our model is the infiltration factor, which can vary according to region, building materials, cracks, floor type, etc. In this study, infiltration factor was calculated according to the type of housing and groundwater usage, and the results thereof were applied to estimate indoor radon concentrations. Overall, measured concentrations and estimates of indoor radon concentrations using the infiltration factor were similar. This model showed better performance than our previous model, except for a few high concentration residences.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Radônio/análise , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano
19.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(3): 245-250, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494643

RESUMO

Indoor air concentrations are susceptible to temporal and spatial variations and have long posed a challenge to characterize for vapor intrusion scientists, in part, because there was a lack of evidence to draw conclusions about the role that building and weather conditions played in altering vapor intrusion exposure risks. Importantly, a large body of evidence is available within the building science discipline that provides information to support vapor intrusion scientists in drawing connections about fate and transport processes that influence exposure risks. Modeling tools developed within the building sciences provide evidence of reported temporal and spatial variation of indoor air contaminant concentrations. In addition, these modeling tools can be useful by calculating building air exchange rates (AERs) using building specific features. Combining building science models with vapor intrusion models, new insight to facilitate decision-making by estimating indoor air concentrations and building ventilation conditions under various conditions can be gained. This review highlights existing building science research and summarizes the utility of building science models to improve vapor intrusion exposure risk assessments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco/métodos
20.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113054, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473392

RESUMO

Indoor air pollution is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Air purifiers are widely used to reduce indoor air pollutants. Ionization air purifiers are becoming increasingly popular for their low power consumption and noise, yet its health effects remain unclear. This randomized, double-blind crossover study is conducted to explore the cardiorespiratory effects of ionization air purification among 44 children in Beijing. Real or sham purification was performed in classrooms for 5 weekdays. Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and negative air ions (NAI) were monitored, and cardiorespiratory functions were measured. Mixed-effect models were used to establish associations between exposures and health parameters. Real purification significantly decreased PM and BC, e.g. PM0.5, PM2.5, PM10 and BC were decreased by 48%, 44%, 34% and 50%, respectively. O3 levels were unchanged, while NAI was increased from 12 cm-3 to 12,997 cm-3. Real purification was associated with a 4.4% increase in forced exhaled volume in 1 s (FEV1) and a 14.7% decrease in fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO). However, heart rate variability (HRV) was altered negatively. Interaction effects of NAI and PM were observed only on HRV, and alterations in HRV were greater with high NAI. Ionization air purifier could bring substantial respiratory benefits, however, the potential negative effects on HRV need further investigation.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Ionização do Ar , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fuligem
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