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1.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109743, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706121

RESUMO

The Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a standard approach for evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes. This paper presents the LCA of Living Wall Systems (LWS), a new technology for greening the building envelope and improve sustainability. Impacts of manufacture, operation, and use of the systems selected, were evaluated through an LCA. LWS are closely related to several environmental benefits, including improved air quality, increased biodiversity, mitigation of heat island effects, and reduced energy consumption due to savings in indoor cooling and heating. Two prototypes have been selected, taking into account the modularity and the use of organic substrate as selection criteria. The systems evaluated were a plastic-based modular system and a felt-based modular system. The inventory data was gathered through the manufacturers. The LCA approach has been used to assess the impact of these solutions by focusing on the construction phase and its contribution to both the energy balance and the entire life cycle of a building. This approach has never been done before for LWS. The study found that out of the two systems through the manufacturing, construction, and maintenance stage of the LCA, the felt-based LWS has an impact on almost 100% of the impact categories analyzed, while plastic-based LWS has the lowest influence on the total environmental impact.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Biodiversidade
2.
Ambio ; 49(1): 62-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879268

RESUMO

As evidence for the devastating impacts of air pollution on human health continues to increase, improving urban air quality has become one of the most pressing tasks facing policy makers world-wide. Increasingly, and very often on the basis of conflicting and/or weak evidence, the introduction of green infrastructure (GI) is seen as a win-win solution to urban air pollution, reducing ground-level concentrations without imposing restrictions on traffic and other polluting activities. The impact of GI on air quality is highly context dependent, with models suggesting that GI can improve urban air quality in some situations, but be ineffective or even detrimental in others. Here we set out a novel conceptual framework explaining how and where GI can improve air quality, and offer six specific policy interventions, underpinned by research, that will always allow GI to improve air quality. We call GI with unambiguous benefits for air quality GI4AQ. However, GI4AQ will always be a third-order option for mitigating air pollution, after reducing emissions and extending the distance between sources and receptors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Humanos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134390, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the effect of ambient air pollution exposure on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is limited. No published studies have examined maternal weekly air pollution exposure and GDM, and the possible effect modification by folic acid supplementation has not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between air pollution exposure and GDM at trimester and weekly levels, and to explore the potential effect modification by folic acid supplementation. METHODS: A total of 5421 pregnant women were recruited during 2011-2014 in Guangzhou, China. Daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2 levels were collected from 10 monitoring stations. Individual's exposure during pregnancy was estimated using inverse-distance weighting approach. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the trimester-specific association between air pollution exposure and GDM. Distributed lag models (DLMs) were applied to estimate maternal weekly air pollution exposure and GDM. Stratified analyses by folic acid supplementation and interaction test were performed. RESULTS: The GDM incidence was 11.69%. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in first trimester SO2 was associated with increased GDM risk in the single pollutant model, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.22 (1.02-1.47). In DLMs, an IQR increase in SO2 during 4th to 10th gestational weeks was associated with increased GDM risk, with the strongest effect in the 7th gestational week. When stratified by maternal folic acid supplementation, first trimester exposure to SO2 was associated with increased GDM risk among women taking folic acid supplements (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.03-1.53) and P value for interaction was 0.13. No significant effects were observed for PM2.5, PM10 and NO2. CONCLUSION: First trimester exposure to SO2 was associated with increased GDM risk, especially during the 4th to 10th gestational weeks. The effect might be stronger among women taking folic acid supplements.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado , Gravidez
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134397, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677469

RESUMO

Children are vulnerable to air pollution-induced lung function deficits, and the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in children. To evaluate the joint effects of long-term PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) exposure and obesity on children's lung function, a cross-sectional sample of 6740 children (aged 7-14 years) was enrolled across seven northeastern Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013. Weight and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), were measured according to standardized protocols. Average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure levels were estimated using a spatiotemporal model, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) exposure were estimated using data from municipal air monitoring stations. Two-level logistic regression and general linear models were used to analyze the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and air pollutants. The results showed that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with lung function impairment and there were significant interactions with BMI. Associations were stronger among obese and overweight than normal weight participants (the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PM1 and lung function impairments in three increasing BMI categories were 1.50 (1.07-2.11) to 2.55 (1.59-4.07) for FVC < 85% predicted, 1.44 (1.03-2.01) to 2.51 (1.53-4.11) for FEV1 < 85% predicted, 1.34 (0.97-1.84) to 2.04 (1.24-3.35) for PEF < 75% predicted, and 1.34 (1.01-1.78) to 1.93 (1.26-2.95) for MMEF < 75% predicted). Consistent results were detected in linear regression models for PM1, PM2.5 and SO2 on FVC and FEV1 impairments (PInteraction < 0.05). These modification effects were stronger among females and older participants. These results can provide policy makers with more comprehensive information for to develop strategies for preventing air pollution induced children's lung function deficits among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre , Capacidade Vital
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134403, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678873

RESUMO

One of the key challenges noted in the sustainable development goals for good health and wellbeing (SDGs 3) is both ambient and household air pollution. Household solid fuel combustion represents one of the biggest threat to human health in South Africa. This study helps to understand the impact of solid fuel burning in an indoor and ambient environment. Continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM4) was carried out in two houses, one used coal as a primary source of energy, while the other did not. For solid fuel burning (SFB) house the winter PM4 average 24-h concentration ranges between 60.9 µg m-3 and 207.5 µg m-3 while at non-solid fuel burning (NSFB) house it ranges between 15.3 µg m-3 and 84.2 µg m-3. In both houses, the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5 (40 µg m-3) were exceeded during winter. The summer PM4 levels ranged between 17.4 µg m-3 and 36.6 µg m-3 in the solid fuel burning house and between 14.2 µg m-3 and 39.9 µg m-3 at the non-solid fuel-burning house. During mornings and evenings, indoor concentrations were higher than the outdoor; these periods coincide with the fuel-burning pattern in this community. In the mid-afternoon, the outdoor PM levels sometimes went higher than the indoor levels, perhaps as a result of the pollution from the power plants in the neighbourhood. Using the linear regression model, there were no significant correlations between indoor/outdoor PM4 concentrations during the winter, but there were good correlations for both houses during the summer. There was an observed difference in the thermal comfort at the SFB and NSFB. The temperature at SFB went below the World Health Organisation standard in winter and above during the summer while at NSFB, the temperature was managed within the standard in both seasons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Carvão Mineral , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Poluição do Ar , Culinária , Características da Família , Calefação , Humanos , Centrais Elétricas , Estações do Ano , África do Sul , Madeira
6.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124603, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442773

RESUMO

Environmental pollution is a risk factor for kidney dysfunction. However, the combined toxicity of air pollutants on kidney function is scarce. We estimated the relationship between combined toxicity of air pollutants and kidney function among adult women (n = 7071, 18-65 years old) in Mianyang City, Southwest China. We measured serum concentrations of uric acid, urea, creatinine, and cystatin C, and we calculated the individual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using a cystatin C-based equation developed specifically for Chinese patients with CKD equation. Air pollution data were collected to calculate the individual average daily dose (ADD) of pollutants based on the air quality complex index (AQCI). Mean AQCI was higher in winter and lower in summer, and followed the monthly and seasonal trends of air pollutants. Concomitantly, individual ADD was also higher in winter and lower in summer, and the seasonal differences were reflected in the levels of kidney biomarkers (including uric acid, urea, creatinine, cystatin C, and eGFR). With an interquartile range (IQR: 1.04-1.50 m3/day/kg) increases of ADD, the serum concentrations of uric acid, urea, creatinine, and cystatin C increase [B (95%CI): 1.774 (0.318, 3.231) umol/L, 0.218 (0.1888, 0.247) mmol/L, 1.501 (1.016, 1.986) umol/L, and 0.006 (0.003, 0.009) mg/L, respectively], whereas eGFR decreases [B (95%CI): -0.776 (-1.106, -0.446) mL/min/1.73 m2]. Totally, the relationship between combined toxicity of air pollutants and kidney function in Chinese adult women suggests that the toxicity of combined air pollutants inversely affects kidney function, which might accelerate the risk of CKD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ureia/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124904, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to ambient levels of air pollution has been reported to adversely affect birth outcomes, yet few studies have investigated refined susceptible windows for adverse birth outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at estimating associations between maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) and birth outcomes, including birth weight, low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB), and identify specific susceptible windows. METHODS: A total of 3692 singleton live births were enrolled between 2013 and 2016 in Shanghai Birth Cohort, China. Based on mothers' residential addresses, weekly mean concentrations of PM2.5 over gestation were estimated based on an incorporated evaluating approach combining satellite-based estimates and ground-level measurements. Distributed lag non-liner models (DLNMs) were fitted by incorporating with multiple liner models and Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate weekly-as well as trimester-exposure-lag-response associations between average PM2.5 level and birth weight, LBW and PTB, and to identify critical windows. RESULTS: In this study, gestational exposure to PM2.5 was associated with adverse birth outcomes in infants, and critical windows were identified as 31st-34th gestational weeks for reduced birth weight, 38th-42 nd weeks for LBW and 27th-30th weeks for PTB, respectively. Trimester-specific associations were found for all birth outcomes during the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient PM2.5 exposure exhibited adverse impacts on multiple outcomes including reduced birth weight, LBW and PTB in the late pregnancy. The study provides further evidence supporting harmful effects of maternal PM2.5 exposure on birth outcomes and identifying critical windows.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 1-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791483

RESUMO

In order to study the concentrations of major components, characteristics and comparison in hazy and non-hazy days of PM10 in Beijing, aerosol samples were collected at urban site in Beijing from December 29, 2014 to January 22, 2015. Heavy metals like Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, As, V, Cr and Cd were deeply studied considering their toxic effects on human being; nine water-soluble inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and carbon fractions (OC and EC) were also analyzed. The concentrations of heavy metals were 1.03-1.98 times higher in hazy days than those in non-hazy days, mainly due to biomass burning and coal burning. The trends in total heavy metals concentrations were basically consistent with the trends in PM concentrations except for two obvious periods (12.29-12.30; 1.14-1.15); but when air masses accumulated locally or around Beijing, trends in PM concentrations and heavy metals were opposite. The proportion for NO3-/SO42- indicated that mobile sources such as automobiles were important reasons for haze in Beijing. Correlation between OC and EC during non-hazy days was strong (R2 = 0.95) but it was low (R2 = 0.67) during hazy days, and large variations for OC/EC values occurred in hazy days. The calculated mass concentration of SOC is 2.58 µg/m3, which only accounted for 10.1% of the OC concentration. When air masses from the far north-west, they decreased PM concentration in Beijing and they were relatively clean; however, those from the near east, south-east and south of the mainland increased PM concentration and they were dirty.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis , Poluição do Ar , Pequim , Biomassa , Carbono , Carvão Mineral , Íons , Metais Pesados , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 213-227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791494

RESUMO

Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and its surrounding areas are very important to air pollution control in China. To analyze the characteristics of BTH and its surrounding areas of China, we collected 5,641,440 air quality data from 161 air monitoring stations and 37,123,000 continuous monitoring data from air polluting enterprises in BTH and surrounding cities to establish an indicator system for urban air quality portraits. The results showed that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of <10 µm (PM10) and SO2 improved significantly in 31 cities from 2015 to 2018, but ozone deteriorated. Air quality in BTH and the surrounding areas showed obvious seasonal characteristics, among which PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 showed a "U" type distribution from January to December, while O3 had an "inverted U" distribution. The hourly changes in air quality revealed that peaks of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 appeared from 8:00 to 10:00, while those for O3 appeared at 15:00-16:00. The exposure characteristics of the 31 cities showed that six districts in Beijing had the highest air quality population exposure, and that exposure levels in Zhengzhou, Puyang, Anyang, Jincheng were higher than the average of the 31 investigated cities. Additionally, multiple linear regression revealed a negative correlation between meteorological factors (especially wind and precipitation) and air quality, while a positive correlation existed between industrial pollution emissions and air quality in most of BTH and its surrounding cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/análise
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 361-376, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791509

RESUMO

In recent years, haze has posed a serious threat to the global climate change, ecological balance and human health. In this study, the laboratory experiments and field observations were performed and a possible charging mechanism was proposed to investigate the space charge properties in haze events. The laboratory experiments showed that the charge polarity of primary aerosol is determined by species of combustion fuels while the magnitude is dependent on the combustion completeness. The field observations revealed that the space charge of atmosphere aerosol in haze events differs from that of fair weather and is closely related to PM2.5 concentration when Relative Humidity (RH) < 60%, with 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than the case when RH ≥ 60%. The analysis of equivalent charge-to-mass ratio (ECTM) suggested that in haze events the space charge is governed by primary aerosol emitted by combustion of fossil fuel in a low relative humidity, whereas it is manipulated by the secondary chemical reaction of atmosphere aerosol in a high relative humidity. And we can identify the main pollutants in haze events according to the polarity of atmosphere aerosol and quickly take measures when RH < 60%. Accordingly, the dust-haze of RH < 80% can be divided into dry-dust-haze when RH < 60% and wet-dust-haze when 60% ≤ RH < 80%. Our study firstly elucidated the space charge properties of atmosphere aerosol in haze events and can provide a new perspective for the prevention and control of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar , Atmosfera/química , China
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 377-388, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791510

RESUMO

Up to 1980s, the most used preservative for herbaria specimens was HgCl2, sublimating at ambient air conditions; ionic Hg then reduces to Hg0 (gaseous elemental mercury, GEM) and diffuses throughout poor ventilated environments. High GEM levels may indeed persist for decades, representing a health hazard. In this study, we present new GEM data from the Central Italian Herbarium and Tropical Herbarium Studies Centre of the University of Florence (Italy). These herbaria host one of the largest collection of plants in the world. Here, HgCl2 was documented as plant preservative up to the 1920s. GEM surveys were conducted in July 2013 and July and December 2017, to account for temporal and seasonal variations. Herbaria show GEM concentrations well above those of external locations, with peak levels within specimen storage cabinets, exceeding 50,000 ng/m3. GEM concentrations up to ~7800 ng/m3 were observed where the most ancient collections are stored and no ventilation systems were active. On the contrary, lower GEM concentrations were observed at the first floor. Here, lower and more homogeneously distributed GEM concentrations were measured in 2017 than in 2013 since the air-conditioning system was updated in early 2017. GEM concentrations were similar to other herbaria worldwide and lower than Italian permissible exposure limit of 20,000 ng/m3 (8-hr working day). Our results indicate that after a century from the latest HgCl2 treatment GEM concentrations are still high, i.e., the treatment itself is almost irreversible. Air conditioning and renewing is probably the less expensive and more effective method for GEM lowering.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Itália
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 49-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791517

RESUMO

To clarify the aerosol hygroscopic growth and optical properties of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, integrated observations were conducted in Heshan City of Guangdong Province from October 19 to November 17, 2014. The concentrations and chemical compositions of PM2.5, aerosol optical properties and meteorological parameters were measured. The mean value of PM2.5 increased from less than 35 (excellent) to 35-75 µg/m3 (good) and then to greater than 75 µg/m3 (pollution), corresponding to mean PM2.5 values of 24.9, 51.2, and 93.3 µg/m3, respectively. The aerosol scattering hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH = 80%)) values were 2.0, 2.12, and 2.18 for the excellent, good, and pollution levels, respectively. The atmospheric extinction coefficient (σext) and the absorption coefficient of aerosols (σap) increased, and the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased from the excellent to the pollution levels. For different air mass sources, under excellent and good levels, the land air mass from northern Heshan had lower f(RH) and σsp values. In addition, the mixed aerosol from the sea and coastal cities had lower f(RH) and showed that the local sources of coastal cities have higher scattering characteristics in pollution periods.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Material Particulado/análise , Molhabilidade
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2565-2571, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854647

RESUMO

Based on the annual average concentration values, the health effects and health benefits as well as 95% confidence intervals of PM10 and PM2.5 pollution control from 2014 to 2016 in Zhengzhou were evaluated by applying the Poisson regression relative risk model. Results showed that the health benefits of PM10 pollution control were 18.18 billion RMB (15.04, 21.12), 24.25 billion RMB (20.25, 27.94), and 20.62 billion RMB (17.33, 23.92), which accounted for 2.7%, 3.3%, and 2.5% of the GDP of Zhengzhou, respectively, in 2014-2016. The health benefits of PM2.5 pollution control were 17.88 billion RMB (14.37, 21.16), 21.65 billion RMB (17.46, 25.53), and 17.25 billion RMB (13.78, 20.55), which accounted for 2.6%, 3.0%, and 2.1% of the GDP of Zhengzhou, respectively, in 2014-2016. After the PM10 and PM2.5 pollution was controlled, the number of urban beneficiaries was higher than that of rural areas, and acute bronchitis beneficiaries were higher than the beneficiaries of other health end-points. For chronic bronchitis, adults benefited more than children, while the opposite occurred for asthma. In this study, chronic bronchitis had the highest health benefit, followed by asthma, and outpatient and inpatient setting had the lower health benefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asma/prevenção & controle , Bronquite Crônica/prevenção & controle , Criança , China , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 2961-2966, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854692

RESUMO

To quantitatively assess the health benefits brought by the implementation of the Action Plan of Air Pollution Prevention and Control, we firstly analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of PM2.5 population-weighted concentrations over China from 2013 to 2017. The BenMAP model was used to analyze the differences in premature death between the PM2.5 baseline scenario in 2013 and the control scenario in 2017 in 338 prefecture-level cities nationwide, so as to quantitatively analyze the number of premature deaths in 31 provinces. The results show that compared with other provinces, the largest reduction in premature deaths due to the significant decrease of PM2.5 concentration occurred in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its surrounding regions, and the environmental health benefits from air quality have been greatly improved. The results show that from 2013 to 2017 the population weighted PM2.5 concentration was decreasing year by year due to the significant decrease in PM2.5 concentration; Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, and the surrounding areas witnessed the largest reduction in premature deaths. In 2017, the number of avoided premature deaths in 280 prefecture-level cities nationwide increased, but declined in 58 cities. Taking the target value of the first phase of the WHO transition period (an annual average PM2.5 concentration of 35 µg·m-3) as the control scenario, it is estimated that the number of premature deaths in 2013 was approximately 101293, and in 2017 was approximately 41080. The implementation of the Action Plan helped to avoid approximately 60213 premature deaths. According to the method of 'willingness to pay', the monetary benefits are estimated to be approximately 54.97 billion yuan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18349, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) acts as an environment pollutant and thus plays a vital role in the development of human lung cancer. Whether PM is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) morbidity and mortality, however, is not clear. Recently, several studies have reported inconsistent results for the association between PM and BC risk. This meta-analysis examines the indefinite relationship between exposure to PM and BC morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Based on a search of Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted and analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 and Stata14.0 to estimate the association between PM and BC morbidity and mortality. The heterogeneity for the included studies was evaluated using a Chi-square test and the I statistic. Forest plot was used to illustrate the pooled HR and mean difference. A Funnel plot, Begg test, and Egger test were performed to explore the publication bias between the included studies.All analyses were based on previous published studies, thus, no ethical approval and patient consent are required. RESULTS: A total of 14 of 284 publications with 1,004,128 BC cases were gathered. The analysis showed each 10 µg/m of PM2.5 (diameter ≤2.5 µm) was associated with 1.17 (95% CI: 1.05-1.30, P = .004) fold risk BC mortality, and each 10 µg/m of PM10 (diameter ≤10 µm) was associated with 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, P = .021) fold risk BC mortality. However, neither PM10 nor PM2.5 was found to be significantly associated with BC morbidity. Publication bias was detected in studies on PM2.5 and BC mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that PM exposure may raise the mortality but not the morbidity of BC. Still, further studies may be necessary to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(22): 13228-13237, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691557

RESUMO

Despite the proliferation of control technologies, air pollution remains a major concern across the United States, suggesting the need for a paradigm shift in methods for mitigating emissions. Based on data about annual emissions in U.S. counties and current land cover, we show that existing forest, grassland, and shrubland vegetation take up a significant portion of current U.S. emissions. Restoring land cover, where possible, to county-level average canopy cover can further remove pollution of SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 by an average of 27% through interception of particulate matter and absorption of gaseous pollutants. We find such nature-based solutions to be cheaper than technology for several National Emission Inventory sectors. Our results with and without monetary valuation of ecological cobenefits identify sectors and counties that are most economically attractive for nature-based solutions as compared to the use of pollution control technologies. We also estimate the sizes of urban and rural populations that would benefit from this novel ecosystem-based approach. This suggests that even though vegetation cannot fully negate the impact of emissions at all times, policies encouraging ecosystems as control measures in addition to technological solutions may promote large investments in ecological restoration and provide several societal benefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado , População Rural , Estados Unidos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17899, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702666

RESUMO

This survey was to investigate the short-term effect of particulate matters (PMs) exposure on clinical and microbiological variables, especially septic emboli, in infective endocarditis (IE). The study analyzed 138 IE patients in Far Eastern Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2015 and clinical variables were retrospectively requested. The data of air quality were recorded and collected by a network of 26 monitoring stations spreading in Northern part of Taiwan. We found that IE patients with septic emboli were found to be exposed to a significantly higher level of PM2.5 (32.01 ±â€Š15.89 vs. 21.70 ±â€Š13.05 µg/m, P < .001) and PM10 (54.57 ±â€Š24.43 vs 40.98 ±â€Š24.81 µg/m, P = .002) on lag 0 day when compared to those without. Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis revealed that that ambient exposure to PM2.5 (odds ratio: 3.87, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-8.31; P = .001) and PM10 (odds ratio: 4.58, 95% confidence interval: 2.03-10.32; P < .001) significantly increased risk of septic emboli in IE patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that short-term exposure to PMs was associated with septic emboli in IE.


Assuntos
Endocardite/microbiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/envenenamento , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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