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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124603, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442773

RESUMO

Environmental pollution is a risk factor for kidney dysfunction. However, the combined toxicity of air pollutants on kidney function is scarce. We estimated the relationship between combined toxicity of air pollutants and kidney function among adult women (n = 7071, 18-65 years old) in Mianyang City, Southwest China. We measured serum concentrations of uric acid, urea, creatinine, and cystatin C, and we calculated the individual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using a cystatin C-based equation developed specifically for Chinese patients with CKD equation. Air pollution data were collected to calculate the individual average daily dose (ADD) of pollutants based on the air quality complex index (AQCI). Mean AQCI was higher in winter and lower in summer, and followed the monthly and seasonal trends of air pollutants. Concomitantly, individual ADD was also higher in winter and lower in summer, and the seasonal differences were reflected in the levels of kidney biomarkers (including uric acid, urea, creatinine, cystatin C, and eGFR). With an interquartile range (IQR: 1.04-1.50 m3/day/kg) increases of ADD, the serum concentrations of uric acid, urea, creatinine, and cystatin C increase [B (95%CI): 1.774 (0.318, 3.231) umol/L, 0.218 (0.1888, 0.247) mmol/L, 1.501 (1.016, 1.986) umol/L, and 0.006 (0.003, 0.009) mg/L, respectively], whereas eGFR decreases [B (95%CI): -0.776 (-1.106, -0.446) mL/min/1.73 m2]. Totally, the relationship between combined toxicity of air pollutants and kidney function in Chinese adult women suggests that the toxicity of combined air pollutants inversely affects kidney function, which might accelerate the risk of CKD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ureia/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 641, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586255

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of antimony and barium in air quality samples and assess the potential suitability of these metals as tracer elements for non-exhaust traffic emissions sources. Air quality filters sampled at monitoring sites around the UK for the purposes of the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network were subjected to microwave digestion in hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid, then analysed by ICP-MS for a suite of metals including antimony and barium. The average antimony concentration found across all the network sites was 1.84 ng m-3; the average barium concentration was 6.33 ng m-3. The range of antimony concentrations observed was 0.13-8.02 ng m-3; barium concentrations ranged from levels below the detection limit of 0.18 to 39.9 ng m-3. There are no legislative limits for antimony and barium in ambient air, but the maximum concentrations found are well below the Workplace Exposure Limits specified by the UK Health and Safety Executive. The highest concentrations were found at roadside sites situated to monitor traffic environments, supporting the suitability of antimony and barium to be considered tracer elements for traffic emissions sources. Strong correlations were observed between antimony, barium and copper, indicating they share a common traffic-related source. Based on the strong correlation with copper at urban and traffic locations, indicative annual UK atmospheric emission estimates for antimony and barium in brake and tyre wear were calculated as 6 and 19 tonnes respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Antimônio/análise , Bário/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Reino Unido
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 499-506, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596261

RESUMO

We investigated how UV treatment of indoor pool water affects the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines (NCl3) in the air above one therapy pool. One-hundred and sixty-two samples of tTHMs (sum of the four most common THMs in swimming facilities) and thirty-six samples of NCl3 were collected simultaneously at poolside and in the extract channel in a room with one therapy pool for 2 days a week over a period of 5 weeks. When the UV lamp was on, the concentration of combined chlorine in the water decreased 58%, the concentration of tTHMs in the air increased 37%, and the concentration of NCl3 in the air decreased 15%. Between 42% and 56% of the gases in the air are recirculated back into the poolroom along with the recycled air. The correlation between NCl3 and THMs in the air was stronger when the UV treatment was on (r2 = 0.963) compared to when the UV treatment was off (r2 = 0.472). Using a linear mixed model, 30% of the variability in THMs was attributed to UV treatment. For NCl3, the number of bathers was the most important predictor variable. UV treatment has a limited effect on airborne NCl3 but increases the air concentration of tTHMs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Piscinas , Purificação da Água/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cloretos , Cloro , Trialometanos/análise , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 604, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485762

RESUMO

The municipality of Limoeiro do Norte-Ceará, located in northeastern Brazil, stands out as a major center of agribusiness due to the high productivity indexes, especially in the irrigated fruit production, with a high consumption of pesticides, including glyphosate, considered potentially carcinogenic by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the atmospheric pollution caused by the use of glyphosate herbicide in the rural and urban zones of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, evaluating the impacts on the environment and health of the population. Samplings were performed over a period of 4 months using calibrated air samplers. Concentrations of TSP and glyphosate were estimated by gravimetric and liquid chromatography methods, respectively. The results showed TSP levels between 10.8 and 137.4 µg/m3 (mean of 41.1 µg/m3) in rural zone and between 3.87 and 97.7 µg/m3 (average of 38.1 µg/m3) in the urban zone. The glyphosate associated with TSP in the rural zone presented levels between 0.002 and 0.144 µg/m3 (mean of 0.055 µg/m3) and the atmospheric TSP (gas phase) showed levels between 0.313 and 2.939 µg/m3 (average of 1.218 µg/m3). The glyphosate associated with TSP in the urban zone ranged from 0.009 to 2.576 µg/m3 (mean of 1.006 µg/m3). These values can be considered high and dangerous to human health and to the environment.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Brasil , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Glicina/análise , Herbicidas/análise
6.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113030, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conjunctivitis has hazardous effects on patients' quality of life through influencing school performance, work productivity, and daily activities such as driving. However, limited evidence is available on the contributory role of air pollution on conjunctivitis, particularly in China. METHODS: We obtained data of 81,351 conjunctivitis outpatients from the largest comprehensive hospitals of four cities, China, between Jan 1, 2013 and Dec 31, 2014. Data on air pollutants, including particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), particulate matter ≤10 µm in diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were collected from China National Environmental Monitoring Centre. Conjunctivitis outpatient visits were linked with air pollution concentrations by the visiting dates. A time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression model was used to examine the effect of short-term exposure to air pollution on conjunctivitis outpatient visits. RESULTS: We found that the associations between air pollutants (per 10 µg/m3 increase) and hospital outpatient visits for asthma were [odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals]: 1.004(1.002-1.007) for PM2.5, 1.004 (1.002-1.005) for PM10, 1.012(1.005-1.020) for NO2, 1.006 (1.001-1.011) for SO2, and 1.007 (1.003-1.010) for O3, respectively at lag0 day. Outpatients aged 35-64 years showed significant associations with exposure to PM2.5 (1.005, 1.001-1.010), PM10 (1.005, 1.002-1.008), NO2 (1.014, 1.003-1.026), and O3 (1.005, 1.000-1.011), while those aged 15-34 years showed significant associations with exposure to O3 (1.010, 1.004-1.017). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to air pollution has impacts on outpatient visits for conjunctivitis in China. This study suggests that improving air quality could protect eye health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Conjuntivite/induzido quimicamente , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , China , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Razão de Chances , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Qualidade de Vida , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113010, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554142

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects more boys than girls. Recent animal studies found that early life exposure to ambient particles caused autism-like behaviors only in males. However, there has been little study of sex-specificity of effects on ASD in humans. We evaluated ASD risk associated with prenatal and first year of life exposures to particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by child sex. This retrospective cohort study included 246,420 singleton children born in Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals between 1999 and 2009. The cohort was followed from birth through age five to identify 2471 ASD cases from the electronic medical record. Ambient PM2.5 and other regional air pollution measurements (PM less than 10 µm, ozone, nitrogen dioxide) from regulatory air monitoring stations were interpolated to estimate exposure during each trimester and first year of life at each geocoded birth address. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression models to adjust for birth year, KPSC medical center service areas, and relevant maternal and child characteristics. Adjusted HRs per 6.5 µg/m3 PM2.5 were elevated during entire pregnancy [1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.33)]; first trimester [1.10 (95% CI, 1.02-1.19)]; third trimester [1.08 (1.00-1.18)]; and first year of life [1.21 (95% CI, 1.05-1.40)]. Only the first trimester association remained robust to adjustment for other exposure windows, and was specific to boys only (HR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.27); there was no association in girls (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76-1.07; interaction p-value 0.03). There were no statistically significant associations with other pollutants. PM2.5-associated ASD risk was stronger in boys, consistent with findings from recent animal studies. Further studies are needed to better understand these sexually dimorphic neurodevelopmental associations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , California , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113031, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454569

RESUMO

Myopia is caused by complex genetic and environmental factors. However, information regarding the effect of long-term exposure to air pollutants on the risk of development of myopia is lacking. We collected data from two linked databases: the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the Taiwan Air Quality-Monitoring Database (TAQMD). A total of 15,822 children (16.3%) were diagnosed with myopia within the cohort. The incidence rate of myopia increased with exposure to increasing concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), increasing from 15.8 to 24.5 and from 13.7 to 34.4, per 1000 person-years, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for myopia increased with elevated PM2.5 and NOx exposure concentrations in Q4 to 1.57 and 2.60, respectively, compared to those exposed to the corresponding concentrations in Q1. In the animal experiments, PM2.5 induced myopia in hamsters by enhancing inflammation and was inhibited by resveratrol treatment compared to the control group. The change in axial length in the PM2.5 group was 0.386 ± 0.069 mm versus 0.287 ± 0.086 mm in the control group and 0.257 ± 0.059 mm in the PM2.5 + resveratrol group. We provide both clinical and experimental correlations that exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with the pathogenesis of myopia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Miopia/etiologia , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taiwan/epidemiologia
9.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 705-715, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic evaluation of the results of time-series studies of air pollution is challenged by differences in model specification and publication bias. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of inhalable particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) and fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries or regions. Daily data on mortality and air pollution were collected from 652 cities in 24 countries or regions. We used overdispersed generalized additive models with random-effects meta-analysis to investigate the associations. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. Concentration-response curves from each city were pooled to allow global estimates to be derived. RESULTS: On average, an increase of 10 µg per cubic meter in the 2-day moving average of PM10 concentration, which represents the average over the current and previous day, was associated with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.50) in daily all-cause mortality, 0.36% (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.43) in daily cardiovascular mortality, and 0.47% (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58) in daily respiratory mortality. The corresponding increases in daily mortality for the same change in PM2.5 concentration were 0.68% (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77), 0.55% (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.66), and 0.74% (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95). These associations remained significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants. Associations were stronger in locations with lower annual mean PM concentrations and higher annual mean temperatures. The pooled concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily mortality with increasing PM concentration, with steeper slopes at lower PM concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show independent associations between short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in more than 600 cities across the globe. These data reinforce the evidence of a link between mortality and PM concentration established in regional and local studies. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Risco
10.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112952, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369913

RESUMO

We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of six air pollutants (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3)) in western China, including the spatiotemporal characteristics of air pollutants, their relationship with meteorological factors and emission sources, and the efficiency of emission control strategies for the region. Based hourly observations at 23 sites in western China from June 2016 to May 2017, concentrations of most pollutants were higher outside the Tibetan Plateau, lowest in summer and highest in winter, the exception being O3. This was partially because meteorological conditions in winter were found to the most unfavorable to pollutant dispersion and dilution than other seasons. Pollutant concentrations at most sites were correlated with the residential emissions which were higher in winter, but anti-correlated with the industrial emissions which were lower during the winter holiday period. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations of four pollution control strategies indicated that reduction of residential emissions is crucial to alleviate PM2.5, PM10, and CO pollution in western China, although reduction of industrial and transport emissions can reduce SO2 and NO2, respectively. Since PM2.5 and PM10 were also found to be the species most and next frequently responsible for extremely serious pollution in western China, respectively, we recommend pollution control regulations that target residential emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Habitação , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Meteorologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
11.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1863-1871, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369942

RESUMO

Alternative transportation fuels (ATFs) can reduce air pollution. However, the influence of conventional fuels-diesel and gasoline, and particularly ATFs on photochemical air pollution is not well-characterized, limiting assessments of ATFs and air quality. This is mainly due to frequent use of lumped chemical mechanisms by related atmospheric modeling. Here we hypothesized that applying a chemical mechanism that is specifically developed according to both emission fractions and photochemical ozone creation potential of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key to gaining reliable insights into the impact of transportation fuels on photochemistry. We used a heterogeneous chemical mechanism with 927 reactions and relatively detailed emission inventories to specifically meet the requirements for reliable simulation of the effect of exhaust emissions from vehicles fueled by selected model fuels-diesel, gasoline, and mixtures of 15% gasoline with 85% ethanol (E85) or 85% methanol (M85)-on photochemistry. These dispersion-box model simulations revealed a strong influence of atmospheric background balance between VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOX = [NO] + [NO2]) on the impact of exhaust emissions on photochemistry, with higher tendency toward ozone (O3) formation or destruction for more VOC-limited or NOX-limited conditions, respectively. Accordingly, higher [NOX]/[VOC] exhaust emission, such as from diesel and M85, resulted in lower O3, not only locally but also downwind of the emission. This offers a new perspective and measure for transportation fuel assessment. Rapid conversion of O3 to hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals downwind of the exhaust emission indicates the importance of simulating the impact of road transportation on photochemistry at high spatial and temporal resolution. Peroxyacetyl nitrate formation was more sensitive to VOC emission under VOC-limited conditions than to NOX emission under NOX-limited conditions. Secondary formaldehyde dominated over primary emitted formaldehyde several minutes after emission. These findings should be verified using a 3D modeling study under varying meteorological conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Gasolina/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Fotoquímica , Transportes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 180(2): 135-141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this panel study was to document the relationship between exposure to cypress pollen and allergic symptoms. METHODS: The study group included 47 patients with allergy to cypress pollen who completed a daily diary and a weekly evaluation of quality of life (QoL) during the cypress pollen season. Different patients were included in three consecutive pollen seasons: 2014-2015, 2015-2016, and 2016-2017. Daily cypress pollen counts were obtained from the National Aerobiological Network. Air pollution and meteorological data were recorded on a daily basis. The pollen-symptoms relationship was quantified by calculating odds ratios for an increase of 1 log of grains of pollen/m3, taking into account potential confounding factors. The QoL score was expressed with a beta coefficient that increased with 1 grain of pollen/m3. RESULTS: There was a marked increase in rhinitis and ocular symptoms during the pollen season, with a plateau effect at high levels of exposure, but no relationship with bronchial symptoms. The QoL score had a linear and significant relationship with the cypress pollen count. We did not detect any threshold level. CONCLUSION: This panel study demonstrated a significant association between exposure to cypress pollens and allergic symptoms, with a plateau effect for high exposures.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Cupressus/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112949, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376599

RESUMO

In this study, various remote sensing data, modeling data and emission inventories were integrated to analyze the tempo-spatial distribution of biomass burning in mainland Southeast Asia and its effects on the local ambient air quality from 2001 to 2016. Land cover changes have been considered in dividing the biomass burning into four types: forest fires, shrubland fires, crop residue burning and other fires. The results show that the monthly average number of fire spots peaked at 34,512 in March and that the monthly variation followed a seasonal pattern, which was closely related to precipitation and farming activities. The four types of biomass burning fires presented different tempo-spatial distributions. Moreover, the monthly Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), concentration of particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) total column also peaked in March with values of 0.62, 45 µg/m3 and 3.25 × 1018 molecules/cm2, respectively. There are significant correlations between the monthly means of AOD (r = 0.74, P < 0.001), PM2.5 concentration (r = 0.88, P < 0.001), and CO total column (r = 0.82, P < 0.001) and the number of fire spots in the fire season. We used Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model to resolve the sources of PM2.5 into 3 factors. The result indicated that the largest contribution (48%) to annual average concentration of PM2.5 was from Factor 1 (dominated by biomass burning), followed by 27% from Factor 3 (dominated by anthropogenic emission), and 25% from Factor 2 (long-range transport/local nature source). The annually anthropogenic emission of CO and PM2.5 from 2001 to 2012 and the monthly emission from the Emission Database for Global Atmosphere Research (EDGAR) were consistent with PMF analysis and further prove that biomass burning is the dominant cause of the variation in the local air quality in mainland Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aerossóis/análise , Agricultura , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ásia Sudeste , Atmosfera/análise , Biomassa , Fogo , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Incêndios Florestais
14.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 1030-1037, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the relationship between arthritis diagnosis in those over 50 and exposure to extreme air pollution in utero or infancy (<1 year of age). METHODS: Compare rates of arthritis diagnosis between groups that experienced differential air pollution exposure in early-life due to quasi-random variation in birth location and date relative to the 1952 Great Smog in London. We use regression-estimated difference-in-differences analyses based on English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) data. RESULTS: In the 2816 respondent sample, aged 51-62, the arthritis diagnosis rate is 22.8%, with 16.4% reporting osteoarthritis and 4.6% reporting rheumatoid arthritis. We estimate that exposure to the Great Smog in infancy increases the arthritis diagnosis rate by 23.4 percentage points (95% CI: 1.97 to 44.8). Decomposing these results by type of arthritis reveals that the rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis rate increases due to infant exposure are larger and more significant than those for osteoarthritis: 14.9 percentage points (95% CI: 0.495 to 29.4) versus 9.5 percentage points (95% CI: -11.9 to 30.8). In utero exposure is not associated with significant increases in arthritis diagnosis rates. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are the first to link early-life air pollution exposure to later-life arthritis diagnoses, and suggest a particularly strong link for RA. These findings are consistent with those of shorter-term, correlational studies, and indicate that health effects of air pollution exposure can span decades and extend beyond cardiopulmonary systems.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Artrite/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Londres/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Regressão , Smog/análise
15.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113036, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465899

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution (AAP) is recognized a cardiovascular risk factor and lipid profile dysregulation seems to be one of the potential mediators involved. However, results from epidemiologic research on the association between exposure to AAP and altered lipid profile have been inconsistent. This study aims to systematically review and meta-analyse epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to ambient air pollutants (particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, back carbon) and lipid profile parameters (Total cholesterol; High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol; Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol; TG-Triglycerides) or dyslipidaemia. Systematic electronic literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases (last search on 24th May 2019) using keywords related to the exposure (ambient air pollutants) and to the outcomes (lipid profile parameters/dyslipidaemia). Qualitative and quantitative information of the studies were extracted and fixed or random-effects models were used to obtain a pooled effect estimate per each pollutant/outcome combination. 22 studies were qualitatively analysed and, from those, 3 studies were quantitatively analysed. Particulate matters were the most studied pollutants and a considerable heterogeneity in air pollution assessment methods and outcomes definitions was detected. Age, obesity related measures, tobacco consumption, sex and socioeconomic factors were the most frequent considered variables for confounding adjustment in the models. In a long-term exposure scenario, we found a 3.14% (1.36%-4.95%) increase in TG levels per 10 µg/m3 PM10 increment and a 4.24% (1.37%-7.19%) increase in TG levels per 10 µg/m3 NO2 increment. No significant associations were detected for the remaining pollutant/outcome combinations. Despite the few studies included in the meta-analysis, our study suggests some epidemiologic evidence supporting the association between PM10 and NO2 exposures and increased TG levels. Due to the very low level of evidence, more studies are needed to clarify the role of lipid profile dysregulation as a mediator on the AAP adverse cardiovascular effects.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
16.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113026, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419658

RESUMO

The data of most toxic particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10) obtained from a dense SAFAR observational network in four Indian mega cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Ahmedabad) located in North-West part of India, not very far from each other, have been presented in this work. In spite of similar kind of sources of anthropogenic local emissions, each city has its unique air pollution footprints. The paper addresses the role of geographical location based prevailing meteorology in determining the variability of particulate matter in different seasons and processes responsible for the same. We hereby demonstrate that although Delhi has the highest level of particulate matters, the percentage share of PM2.5 in PM10 is highest for Mumbai (60%) as compared to 50% of Delhi. The pollutant levels of Delhi, Mumbai and Pune show strong seasonal variability whereas Ahmedabad does not show any significant variation for summer to winter. We have further discussed that the landlocked geography of Delhi and coastal location of Mumbai often play a dominant role in the distribution of air pollutants. Hence, the mitigation options require specific consideration of integrated approach for each city.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Índia , Meteorologia , Estações do Ano
17.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112926, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is associated with late-onset dementia (LOD). However, epidemiological studies for the entire population are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed approximately 94 million follow-up records from fee-for-service Medicare records for 13 million Medicare beneficiaries residing in the southeastern United States (U.S.) from 2000 to 2013. We used spatially and temporally continuous PM2.5 exposure data. To account for time-varying PM2.5 levels, we applied an Andersen-Gill counting process proportional hazard model; we stratified our analyses by subtype of dementia and level of urbanization of residence. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6 years, 1,409,599 hospitalizations with dementia occurred. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of hospitalization with dementia was 1.049 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.048 to 1.051) per 1 µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5. The hazard ratio for vascular dementia was higher (HR, 1.086; 95% CI, 1.082 to 1.090). In large, the magnitude of the effect grew as the level of urbanization increased (HR, 1.036; 95% CI, 1.031 to 1.041 in rural areas versus HR, 1.052; 95% CI, 1.050 to 1.054 in metropolitan areas). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to higher PM2.5 was associated with increased hospitalizations with dementia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicare , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Estados Unidos
18.
JAMA ; 322(6): 546-556, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408135

RESUMO

Importance: While air pollutants at historical levels have been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, it is not known whether exposure to contemporary air pollutant concentrations is associated with progression of emphysema. Objective: To assess the longitudinal association of ambient ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and black carbon exposure with change in percent emphysema assessed via computed tomographic (CT) imaging and lung function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Air and Lung Studies conducted in 6 metropolitan regions of the United States, which included 6814 adults aged 45 to 84 years recruited between July 2000 and August 2002, and an additional 257 participants recruited from February 2005 to May 2007, with follow-up through November 2018. Exposures: Residence-specific air pollutant concentrations (O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon) were estimated by validated spatiotemporal models incorporating cohort-specific monitoring, determined from 1999 through the end of follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percent emphysema, defined as the percent of lung pixels less than -950 Hounsfield units, was assessed up to 5 times per participant via cardiac CT scan (2000-2007) and equivalent regions on lung CT scans (2010-2018). Spirometry was performed up to 3 times per participant (2004-2018). Results: Among 7071 study participants (mean [range] age at recruitment, 60 [45-84] years; 3330 [47.1%] were men), 5780 were assigned outdoor residential air pollution concentrations in the year of their baseline examination and during the follow-up period and had at least 1 follow-up CT scan, and 2772 had at least 1 follow-up spirometric assessment, over a median of 10 years. Median percent emphysema was 3% at baseline and increased a mean of 0.58 percentage points per 10 years. Mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and NOx, but not O3, decreased substantially during follow-up. Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon at study baseline were significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema per 10 years (O3: 0.13 per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.03-0.24]; PM2.5: 0.11 per 2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.03-0.19]; NOx: 0.06 per 10 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.01-0.12]; black carbon: 0.10 per 0.2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.01-0.18]). Ambient O3 and NOx concentrations, but not PM2.5 concentrations, during follow-up were also significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema. Ambient O3 concentrations, but not other pollutants, at baseline and during follow-up were significantly associated with a greater decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second per 10 years (baseline: 13.41 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.7-26.1]; follow-up: 18.15 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 1.59-34.71]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study conducted between 2000 and 2018 in 6 US metropolitan regions, long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants was significantly associated with increasing emphysema assessed quantitatively using CT imaging and lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carbono/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Nature ; 572(7767): 51-55, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367029

RESUMO

The cooling of the Earth's climate through the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds offsets an unknown fraction of greenhouse gas warming. An increase in the amount of water inside liquid-phase clouds induced by aerosols, through the suppression of rain formation, has been postulated to lead to substantial cooling, which would imply that the Earth's surface temperature is highly sensitive to anthropogenic forcing. Here we provide direct observational evidence that, instead of a strong increase, aerosols cause a relatively weak average decrease in the amount of water in liquid-phase clouds compared with unpolluted clouds. Measurements of polluted clouds downwind of various anthropogenic sources-such as oil refineries, smelters, coal-fired power plants, cities, wildfires and ships-reveal that aerosol-induced cloud-water increases, caused by suppressed rain formation, and decreases, caused by enhanced evaporation of cloud water, partially cancel each other out. We estimate that the observed decrease in cloud water offsets 23% of the global climate-cooling effect caused by aerosol-induced increases in the concentration of cloud droplets. These findings invalidate the hypothesis that increases in cloud water cause a substantial climate cooling effect and translate into reduced uncertainty in projections of future climate.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Aerossóis/química , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Humanas , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/análise , Água/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Efeito Estufa/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva , Incerteza
20.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 864-871, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349195

RESUMO

It is estimated that 10% of the worldwide population lives in the vicinity of an active volcano. However, volcanogenic air pollution studies are still outnumbered when compared with anthropogenic air pollution studies, representing an unknown risk to human populations inhabiting volcanic areas worldwide. This study was carried out in the Azorean archipelago of Portugal, in areas with active non-eruptive volcanism. The hydrothermal emissions within the volcanic complex of Furnas (São Miguel Island) are responsible for the emission of nearly 1000 tons of CO2 per day, along with H2S, the radioactive gas - radon, among others. Besides the gaseous emissions, metals (e.g., Hg, Cd, Al, Ni) and particulate matter are also released into the environment. We test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to volcanogenic air pollution alters the histomorphology of the bronchioles and terminal bronchioles, using the house mouse, Mus musculus, as bioindicator species. Mus musculus were live-captured at three different locations: two villages with active volcanism and a village without any type of volcanic activity (reference site). The histomorphology of the bronchioles (diameter, epithelium thickness, smooth muscle layer thickness, submucosa thickness and the histological evaluation of the peribronchiolar inflammation) and of the terminal bronchioles (epithelium thickness and classification) were evaluated. Mice chronically exposed to volcanogenic air pollution presented bronchioles with increased epithelial thickness, increased smooth muscle layer, increased submucosa thickness and increased peribronchiolar inflammation. Similarly, terminal bronchioles presented structural alterations consistent with bronchodysplasia. For the first time we demonstrate that chronic exposure to non-eruptive volcanically active environments causes inflammation and histomorphological alterations in mice lower airways consistent with asthma and chronic bronchitis. These results reveal that chronic exposure to non-eruptive volcanic activity represents a risk factor that can affect the health of the respiratory system of humans inhabiting hydrothermal areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Erupções Vulcânicas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , Asma , Bronquíolos/patologia , Gases , Humanos , Inflamação , Metais , Camundongos , Material Particulado , Portugal
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