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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502737

RESUMO

This paper presents a calibration system for low-cost suspended particulate matter (PM) sensors, consisting of reference instruments, enclosed space in a metal pipe (volume 0.145 m3), a duct fan, a controller and automated control software. The described system is capable of generating stable and repeatable concentrations of suspended PM in the air duct. In this paper, as the final result, we presented the process and effects of calibration of two low-cost air pollution stations-university measuring stations (UMS)-developed and used in the scientific project known as Storm&DustNet, implemented at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków (Poland), for the concentration range of PM from a few up to 240 µg·m-3. Finally, we postulate that a device of this type should be available for every system composed of a large number of low-cost PM sensors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Calibragem , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Umidade , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148393, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465048

RESUMO

The ambient atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in Anhui Province, China, which links the Yangtze River Delta region, China's fastest growing economy area, with the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China's most polluted region, are influenced not only by local emissions, but also by changes in regional circulation. During the period 2013-2017, when China adopted a series of pollution abatement measures, there were still occasional pollution episodes with significant increases in PM2.5 concentrations. PM2.5 rise instead during the period 2013-2017 in Anhui (the Center of the Yangtze-Huaihe, YH), when pollution emissions continued to decrease? What is the controlling mechanism behind these? By analyzing elements such as ground-based PM2.5 concentration and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure affecting it as well as larger scale circulation, combined with the analysis of a parameterized index, one can find that aerosol pollution in the YH region can usually be classified into three types. (1) There is a short-term transport stage (TS) in the initial stage of pollution, then as the pollutant concentrations increase, the PBL height decreases, the temperature inversion is gradually formed or strengthened, the wind speed decreases and the relative humidity of the lower layer increases, forming a two-way feedback mechanism in the cumulative stage (CS). (2) Pollutant concentrations will not drop rapidly in the later stage of CS, while a short-term TS will occur again. (3) The explosive rise (ER) events are mainly affected by transportation in the YH. The first of these types tends to be accompanied by the emergence and maintenance of heavy pollution periods (HPEs), and some phases is accompanied by explosive rises (ERs) in PM2.5 that at least double in a short period of time. To sum up, deterioration of meteorological conditions explaining approximately 68% to the increase in PM2.5 in the ER.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3635-3645, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468658

RESUMO

Environmental surveillance by the people fosters the protagonism of individuals in a situation of environmental vulnerability to generate and evaluate data regarding the pollution to which they are exposed. The scope of this work was to analyze such experiences in two areas impacted by the steel industry: Santa Cruz/RJ and Piquiá de Baixo/MA. At these sites, community environmental monitoring (CEM) activities were conducted to measure 2.5 micrometer particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the atmosphere, between November/2016 and July/2017. Such activities were conducted using a low-cost and easy-to-operate air quality monitor. Monthly averages of PM2.5 levels in Piquiá and Santa Cruz were high, depending on the period assessed, since they surpassed the annual average recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 10 µg/m3, and, on several occasions, the recommended daily average of 25 µg/m3. The main idea of this monitoring proposal was to establish a process capable of presenting a counterpoint to official information on local atmospheric pollution scenarios, with the involvement of affected communities. The pollution data produced enable these communities to participate in public debates and decision-making processes in a more informed way.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado , Aço
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9969322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475950

RESUMO

To explore the influence of weather conditions on the choice of the intercity travel mode of travelers, four modes of traveler transportation were studied in Xi'an, China, in March 2019: airplane, high-speed rail, conventional train, and express bus. The individual characteristics of travelers and intercity travel activity data were obtained, and they were matched with the weather characteristics at the departure time of the travelers. The Bayesian multinomial logit regression was employed to explore the relationship between the travel mode choice and weather characteristics. The results showed that temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind, air quality index, and visibility had significant effects on the travel mode selection of travelers, and the addition of these variables could improve the model's predictive performance. The research results can provide a scientific decision basis for traveler flow transfer and the prediction of traffic modes choice due to the effects of climate change.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Transportes , Viagem , Tempo (Meteorologia)
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 619, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476626

RESUMO

Motor vehicle emissions especially occur at signalized intersections during idling, acceleration, and deceleration phases. The reduction of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles is on the focus of environmental studies. The main targets of this paper are the modeling of motor vehicle particulate matter (PM10) emissions by American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and California Line Source for Queuing and Hot Spot Calculations (CAL3QHCR) models and investigating the effectiveness of a hypothetical green wave scenario as a pollution reduction strategy. The portion of D010 State Road in Zonguldak (Turkey) is selected. Vehicle counting is applied for determining the traffic volume. Then, the PM10 emission inventory is prepared. After that, PM10 pollution distribution maps at signalized intersections are created by running air quality models. Next, the CAL3QHCR model is run again for the green wave scenario which assumes free flow at signalized intersections. The maximum PM10 concentrations predicted by AERMOD and CAL3QHCR models are 16.8 µg/m3 and 14.9 µg/m3, respectively. Although these values are below the threshold value, it can be said that air quality may pose a threat to public health in the existence of other sources. With the implementation of signal optimization, the PM10 pollution is reduced by 10-50% at intersections. Cumulative model validation is employed including other PM10 sources in the study area. PM10 contribution of other sources at Zonguldak air quality monitoring station is determined by the AERMOD model. Finally, the sum of model outputs is validated against measured concentrations. According to the validation, both models are found as satisfactory and AERMOD performed better than CAL3QHCR.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 618, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476627

RESUMO

Recent studies concluded that air quality has improved due to the enforcement of lockdown in the wake of COVID-19. However, they mostly concentrated on the changes during the lockdown period, and the studies considering the consequences of de-escalation of lockdown are inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during the pre-lockdown, strict lockdown, unlocking, and post-lockdown scenarios. In addition, we assessed the influence of meteorology, mobility, air mass transport, and biomass burning on PM2.5 using Google's mobility data, back trajectory model, and satellite-based fire incident data. Average PM2.5 concentrations in Ghaziabad, Noida, and Faridabad decreased by 60.70%, 63.27%, and 60.40%, respectively, during the lockdown. When compared with the preceding year (2019), the reductions during the shutdown period (25 March-31 May) were within the range of 36.34-44.55%. However, considering the entire year, this reduction in PM2.5 is momentary, and a steady increase in traffic density and industrial operations within cities during post-lockdown reflects a potent recovery of aerosol level, during which the average mass of PM2.5 three- to four-folds higher than the lockdown period. Back trajectories and fire activity results showed that biomass burning in the nearby states (Haryana and Punjab) influence aerosol load. We conclude that a partial lockdown in the event of a sudden surge in pollution would be a beneficial approach. However, reducing fossil fuel consumption and switching to more environmentally friendly energy sources, developing green transport networks, and circumventing biomass burning are efficient ways to improve air quality in the long term.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Biomassa , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Meteorologia , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 622, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477984

RESUMO

In this study, monthly particulate matter (PM2.5) of Paris for the period between January 2000 and December 2019 is investigated by utilizing a periodogram-based time series methodology. The main contribution of the study is modeling the PM2.5 of Paris by extracting the information purely from the examined time series data, where proposed model implicitly captures the effects of other factors, as all their periodic and seasonal effects reside in the air pollution data. Periodicity can be defined as the patterns embedded in the data other than seasonality, and it is crucial to understand the underlying periodic dynamics of air pollutants to better fight pollution. The method we use successfully captures and accounts for the periodicities, which could otherwise be mixed with seasonality under an alternative methodology. Upon the unit root test based on periodograms, it is revealed that the investigated data has periodicities of 1 year and 20 years, so harmonic regression is utilized as an alternative to Box-Jenkins methodology. As the harmonic regression displayed a better performance both in and out-of-sample forecasts, it can be considered as a powerful alternative to model and forecast time series with a periodic structure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Previsões , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11538-11548, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488351

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured by satellites is widely used to estimate anthropogenic emissions. The Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) operational SO2 product is overestimated compared to the ground-based multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements in China and shows an opposite variation to the surface measurements, which limits the application of TROPOspheric monitoring instrument (TROPOMI) products in emissions research. Radiometric calibration, a priori profiles, and fitting windows might cause the overestimation of S-5P operational SO2 product. Here, we improve the optimal-estimation-based algorithm through several calibration methods. The improved retrieval agrees reasonably well with the ground-based measurements (R > 0.70, bias <13.7%) and has smaller biases (-28.9%) with surface measurements over China and India. It revealed that the SO2 column in March 2020 decreased by 51.6% compared to March 2019 due to the lockdown for curbing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, and there was a decrease of 50% during the lockdown than those after the lockdown, similar to the surface measurement trend, while S-5P operational SO2 product showed an unrealistic increase of 19%. In India, the improved retrieval identified obvious "hot spots" and observed a 30% decrease of SO2 columns during the lockdown.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1593, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global asthma-related mortality tallies at around 2.5 million annually. Although asthma may be triggered or exacerbated by particulate matter (PM) exposure, studies investigating the relationship of PM and its components with emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric asthma are limited. This study aimed to estimate the impact of short-term exposure to PM constituents on ED visits for pediatric asthma. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated non-trauma patients aged younger than 17 years who visited the ED with a primary diagnosis of asthma. Further, measurements of PM with aerodynamic diameter of < 10 µm (PM10), PM with aerodynamic diameter of < 10 µm (PM2.5), and four PM2.5 components (i.e., nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC)) were collected between 2007 and 2010 from southern particulate matter supersites. These included one core station and two satellite stations in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A time-stratified case-crossover study was conducted to analyze the hazard effect of PM. RESULTS: Overall, 1597 patients were enrolled in our study. In the single-pollutant model, the estimated risk increase for pediatric asthma incidence on lag 3 were 14.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2-27.4%], 13.5% (95% CI, 3.3-24.6%), 14.8% (95% CI, 2.5-28.6%), and 19.8% (95% CI, 7.6-33.3%) per interquartile range increments in PM2.5, PM10, nitrate, and OC, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, OC remained significant after adjusting for PM2.5, PM10, and nitrate. During subgroup analysis, children were more vulnerable to PM2.5 and OC during cold days (< 26 °C, interaction p = 0.008 and 0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Both PM2.5 concentrations and its chemical constituents OC and nitrate are associated with ED visits for pediatric asthma. Among PM2.5 constituents, OC was most closely related to ED visits for pediatric asthma, and children are more vulnerable to PM2.5 and OC during cold days.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366765

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the long- and short-term effects of air pollution on COVID-19 transmission simultaneously, especially in high air pollution level countries. Methods: Quasi-Poisson regression was applied to estimate the association between exposure to air pollution and daily new confirmed cases of COVID-19, with mutual adjustment for long- and short-term air quality index (AQI). The independent effects were also estimated and compared. We further assessed the modification effect of within-city migration (WM) index to the associations. Results: We found a significant 1.61% (95%CI: 0.51%, 2.72%) and 0.35% (95%CI: 0.24%, 0.46%) increase in daily confirmed cases per 1 unit increase in long- and short-term AQI. Higher estimates were observed for long-term impact. The stratifying result showed that the association was significant when the within-city migration index was low. A 1.25% (95%CI: 0.0.04%, 2.47%) and 0.41% (95%CI: 0.30%, 0.52%) increase for long- and short-term effect respectively in low within-city migration index was observed. Conclusions: There existed positive associations between long- and short-term AQI and COVID-19 transmission, and within-city migration index modified the association. Our findings will be of strategic significance for long-run COVID-19 control.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos
12.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117521, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380221

RESUMO

Based on the wind erosion equation and the use of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite remote sensing data combined with parameter normalization processing, an optimized high spatial-temporal resolution soil fugitive dust (SFD) emission inventory compiling method was proposed in this study. The "2 + 26" cities in northern China, where heavy pollution frequently occurs, were used as a case study. Using the optimized method, we estimated that the PM50, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from SFD of "2 + 26" cities in 2018 were 2,014,927, 1,007,463, and 151,120 tons, respectively. The dust emissions and emission factors of each city presented significant differences and were generally of a greater level in high-latitude areas (such as cities in Hebei Province) than in low-latitude areas (such as cities in Henan and Shandong Province). Moreover, with an increase in latitude, vegetation cover factors generally exhibit an upward trend, while temperature and rainfall exhibit a downward trend. The dust emissions in the different months showed significant differences. The total dust emission reached the highest level in "late winter-early spring" season (February to April), and the monthly emission accounted for 15-17% of the annual emissions. While in the "summer-autumn" season (July to November), it is the lowest level of the whole year, monthly emissions accounted for 3-5% of the annual emissions. The emission inventory method proposed in this study can provide a reference for dust emission assessment and further pollution prevention and control work.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Solo
13.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117525, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380223

RESUMO

Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with many adverse health effects, leading to additional social costs. The Blue Sky Protection Campaign (BSPC) has been implemented in 2018 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) area to control air pollution. This study assesses PM2.5-related health and economic benefits of the BSPC in the BTH region. Results show that by 2020, PM2.5 reduction can avoid 3561 thousand morbidity cases (equivalent to a 24% reduction in the 2020 baseline scenario) and 24 thousand premature deaths (12%) in the BTH region, with the majority benefit in Hebei. By 2030, the avoided morbidity and mortality cases will be 2943 (18%) thousand and 20 (9%) thousand, respectively. PM2.5 reductions are highly effective in reducing work time loss, which will decrease the total annual work time by 1.7 × 108 h (24%) in the BTH region by 2020. From the economic aspect, the reduced PM2.5 concentration will save 30 million USD (25%) health expenditures and avoid 60 billion USD (13%) economic loss by using the value of statistical life (VSL) by 2020. In 2030, the health expenditures and economic loss will also decrease significantly, with 17 million USD (18%) and 63 billion USD (10%), respectively, in the BTH region. Besides, the economic benefits far exceed the policy costs of the BSPC, and the Δ benefit/Δ cost ratios of Beijing are significantly higher than those of Hebei. The BSPC in BTH has significant positive health and economic impacts. This study can provide a basis for future PM2.5-related health risk studies at an urban level in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Políticas
14.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117664, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380230

RESUMO

The impacts of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions have provided a valuable global experiment into the extent of improvements in air quality possible with reductions in vehicle movements. Mexico City, London and Delhi all share the problem of air quality failing WHO guideline limits, each with unique situations and influencing factors. We determine, discuss and compare the air quality changes across these cities during the COVID-19, to understand how the findings may support future improvements in their air quality and associated health of citizens. We analysed ground-level PM10, PM2.5, NO2, O3 and CO changes in each city for the period 1st January to August 31, 2020 under different phases of lockdown, with respect to daily average concentrations over the same period for 2017 to 2019. We found major reductions in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and CO across the three cities for the lockdown phases and increases in O3 in London and Mexico City but not Delhi. The differences were due to the O3 production criteria across the cities, for Delhi production depends on the VOC-limited photochemical regime. Levels of reductions were commensurate with the degree of lockdown. In Mexico City, the greatest reduction in measured concentration was in CO in the initial lockdown phase (40%), in London the greatest decrease was for NO2 in the later part of the lockdown (49%), and in Delhi the greatest decrease was in PM10, and PM2.5 in the initial lockdown phase (61% and 50%, respectively). Reduction in pollutant concentrations agreed with reductions in vehicle movements. In the initial lockdown phase vehicle movements reduced by up to 59% in Mexico City and 63% in London. The cities demonstrated a range of air quality changes in their differing geographical areas and land use types. Local meteorology and pollution events, such as forest fires, also impacted the results.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Londres , México , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117670, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380231

RESUMO

Severe surface ozone pollution has become widespread in China. To protect public health, Chinese scientific communities and government agencies have striven to mitigate ozone pollution. However, makers of pollution mitigation policies rarely consider epidemiological research, and communication between epidemiological researchers and the government is poor. Therefore, this article reviews the current mitigation policies and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone from an epidemiological perspective and proposes recommendations for researchers and policy makers on the basis of epidemiological evidence. We review current nationwide ozone control measures for mitigating ozone pollution from four dimensions: the integration of ozone and particulate matter control, ozone precursors control, ozone control in different seasons, and regional cooperation on the prevention of ozone pollution. In addition, we present environmental and epidemiological evidence and propose recommendations and discuss relevant ozone metrics and the criteria values of the NAAQS. We finally conclude that the disease burden attributable to ozone exposure in China may be underestimated and that the epidemiological research regarding the health effects of integrating ozone and particulate matter control is insufficient. Furthermore, atmospheric volatile organic compounds are severely detrimental to health, and related control policies are urgently required in China. We recommend a greater focus on winter ozone pollution and conclude that the health benefits of regional cooperation on ozone control and prevention are salient. We argue that daily average ozone concentration may be a more biologically relevant ozone metric than those currently used by the NAAQS, and accumulating epidemiological evidence supports revision of the standards. This review provides new insight for ozone mitigation policies and related epidemiological studies in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444225

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the mortality risk associated with air pollution in a Swedish cohort with relatively low exposure. Air pollution models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), primary emitted carbonaceous particles (BC/pOC), sea salt, chemically formed particles grouped as secondary inorganic and organic aerosols (SIA and SOA) as well as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The exposure, as a moving average was calculated based on home address for the time windows 1 year (lag 1), 1-5 years (lag 1-5) and 1-10 years (lag 1-10) preceding the death. During the study period, 1151 cases of natural mortality, 253 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 113 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed during 369,394 person-years of follow-up. Increased natural mortality was observed in association with NO2 (3% [95% CI -8-14%] per IQR) and PM2.5 (2% [95% CI -5-9%] for an IQR increase) and its components, except for SOA where a decreased risk was observed. Higher risk increases were observed for CVD mortality (e.g., 18% [95% CI 1-39%] per IQR for NO2). These findings at low exposure levels are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444236

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) flare is related to increased joint damage, disability, and healthcare use. The impact of short-term air pollution exposure on RA disease activity is still a matter of debate. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM)10, PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) affected RA disease activity (DAS28 and SDAI) in 422 consecutive RA residents in Lombardy, North of Italy. Air pollutant concentrations, estimated by Regional Environmental Protection Agency (Lombardy-Italy) at the municipality level, were used to assign short-term exposure from the day of enrolment, back to seven days. Some significant negative associations emerged between RA disease activity, PM10, and NO2, whereas some positive associations were observed for O3. Patients were also stratified according to their ongoing Disease-Modifying anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) treatment: no DMARDs (n = 25), conventional synthetic DMARDs (n = 108), and biological or targeted synthetic DMARDs (n = 289). Therapy interaction seemed partially able to influence the relationship between short-term air pollution exposure and RA disease activity (PM2.5 levels and DAS28 at the day of the visit-O3 levels and disease activity scores for the seven days before the evaluation). According to our results, the impact of short-term air pollution exposure (seven days) minimally impacts disease activity. Moreover, our study suggests therapy could alter the response to environmental factors. Further evidence is needed to elucidate determinants of RA flare and its management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Artrite Reumatoide , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444295

RESUMO

Income inequality and environmental pollution are of great concern in China. It is important to better understand whether the narrowing of income inequality and environmental improvement contradict each other. The study aims to investigate the linkage between income inequality and environmental pollution. To illustrate the interplay between different income groups on environmental issues, we apply a mixed-strategy game. Based on the game-theoretic analytical result, the probability of residents supporting clean energy and environmental protection decreases as income inequality widens and increases as inequality narrows. This empirical study is based on the proportion of coal consumption and urban air pollution data from 113 key environmental protection cities and regions in China. The air quality data are from the National Environmental Air Quality Monitoring Network published in the China Statistical Yearbook from 2014-2018. Convincing results show that regions with higher income inequality suffer severe smog and related pollution and that economies with narrow income disparity experience significant improvements in smog and pollution control, with the expansion of the proportion of clean energy use. The results also provide no evidence of the impact of per capita income on pollution. We studied the relationship between individuals of different wealth levels within an economy, within a repeated-game setting. The finding suggests that the distribution of growth impacts pollution. Imposing higher taxes on air polluters while transferring the revenue to the lower-income group is suggested.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148158, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412397

RESUMO

The escalating concerns regarding air pollution problems surrounding port cities have attracted much research attention. The Port of Shenzhen is one of the busiest container ports worldwide, only third to Shanghai and Singapore globally. However, 70% of the freight transportation demand is satisfied via on-road trucks, leading to serious traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution issues in the city of Shenzhen. This study aims to assess the environmental benefits of modal shift of port-connecting freight transportation by increasing the use of rail and waterborne systems in Shenzhen. To evaluate the environmental benefits of the multimodal transportation strategy in 2025, we employed traffic datasets with a high spatial resolution and a transportation demand model to establish emission inventories and applied them in air quality simulations. Our results indicate that the implementation of multimodal transportation systems could notably reduce the truck volume along major freight corridors, except for roads adjacent to the planned inland ports. The freight traffic activities along the major freight corridors are reduced by nearly 70% over the original freight volume, resulting in a drastic reduction in the emission intensity. Under the most progressive policy-enhanced strategy (PPP) scenario, the total well-to-wheel (WTW) NOX, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and CO2 emissions could be reduced by 8881 t, 104.8 t and 688 × 103 t, respectively. The NO2 concentration in traffic-intensive areas could be reduced by 5 µg/m3, and the 8-h maximum O3 concentration could be reduced by 0.34 µg/m3 on the average (up to 1.1 µg/m3 in certain areas). Our research indicates that a shift from traditional road transport to cleaner railway and waterway transport could deliver transportation and environmental benefits to port cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Melhoria de Qualidade , Água
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148138, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412410

RESUMO

Although pollutant sources are often assumed to be spatially uniform, traffic in real cities may vary significantly in space. Consequently the local air quality within a street may not be determined solely by the traffic volume of the street. Using building-resolving large-eddy simulation, the relationship between traffic volume and air quality is investigated in the context of two idealised problems: (i) the influence of pollutants emitted from a main road on the surrounding side streets and (ii) the pedestrianisation of a central thoroughfare. It is shown that the spatial variation of traffic volume is of crucial importance within a near-field region defined by a radius of homogenisation (RAD). Furthermore, the actual impact depends strongly on the wind direction. Hence the benefits of pedestrianisation may be limited: for example, after removing 100% of the traffic along a street in a central business district, the annual-averaged local concentration decreases by ~30% when the urban background is neglected. The impact may be significantly lower when the background concentration is considered. This work is relevant to the formulation of effective traffic control policy and the improved understanding of spatially inhomogeneous pollutant sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Vento
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