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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1524, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmia is a common cardiovascular event that is associated with increased cardiovascular health risks. Previous studies that have explored the association between air pollution and arrhythmia have obtained inconsistent results, and the association between the two in China is unclear. METHODS: We collected daily data on air pollutants and meteorological factors from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2016, along with daily outpatient visits for arrhythmia in Hangzhou, China. We used a quasi-Poisson regression along with a distributed lag nonlinear model to study the association between air pollution and arrhythmia morbidity. RESULTS: The results of the single-pollutant model showed that each increase of 10 µg/m3 of Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), Coarse particulate matter (PM10), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and Ozone (O3) resulted in increases of 0.6% (- 0.9, 2.2%), 0.7% (- 0.4, 1.7%), 11.9% (4.5, 19.9%), 6.7% (3.6, 9.9%), and - 0.9% (- 2.9, 1.2%), respectively, in outpatient visits for arrhythmia; each increase of 1 mg/m3 increase of carbon monoxide (CO) resulted in increase of 11.3% (- 5.9, 31.6%) in arrhythmia. The short-term effects of air pollution on arrhythmia lasted 3 days, and the most harmful effects were observed on the same day that the pollution occurred. Results of the subgroup analyses showed that SO2 and NO2 affected both men and women, but differences between the sexes were not statistically significant. The effect of SO2 on the middle-aged population was statistically significant. The effect of NO2 was significant in both the young and middle-aged population, and no significant difference was found between them. Significant effects of air pollution on arrhythmia were only detected in the cold season. The results of the two-pollutants model and the single-pollutant model were similar. CONCLUSIONS: SO2 and NO2 may induce arrhythmia, and the harmful effects are primarily observed in the cold season. There is no evidence of PM2.5, PM10, CO and O3 increasing arrhythmia risk. Special attention should be given to sensitive populations during the high-risk period.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 624, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895739

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) concentrations are affected by anthropogenic emissions and sand transport jointly; however, the relative contributions from those two aspects are usually unknown. In our work, statistical analysis and back trajectories model were used to identify the dominant source in such area, by taking Yumen City as an example. We come to the conclusion that local emissions dominate the concentration of airborne pollutants, while sand transport plays a significant role on PM concentration. The conclusions were supported by the following results. (1) PM monthly mean concentrations at the two air quality stations, which are 70 km far away from each other, have the similar levels and variation trend; furthermore, a regression analysis of PM2.5 and PM10 daily concentrations between both stations indicated a significant correlation, suggesting that PM at both locations was influenced by the same emission sources; (2) statistical analysis results revealed that PM concentration has a positive correlation with wind speed, indicating the wind-blown dust and sand contribute mainly on PM concentration; (3) back-trajectory clustering analysis indicates that long-distance transport particulates from dust sources and their pathways had a significant impact on local PM concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140515, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887014

RESUMO

An ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between air pollution, and COVID-19 cases and fatality rates in London. The analysis demonstrated a strong correlation (R2 > 0.7) between increment in air pollution and an increase in the risk of COVID-19 transmission within London boroughs. Particularly, strong correlations (R2 > 0.72) between the risk of COVID-19 fatality and nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter pollution concentrations were found. Although this study assumed the same level of air pollution across a particular London borough, it demonstrates the possibility to employ air pollution as an indicator to rapidly identify the city's vulnerable regions. Such an approach can inform the decisions to suspend or reduce the operation of different public transport modes within a city. The methodology and learnings from the study can thus aid in public transport's response to COVID-19 outbreak by adopting different levels of human-mobility reduction strategies based on the vulnerability of a given region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Humanos , Londres , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 95001, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of developing or dying from coronavirus-2 (COVID-19). Methodological approaches to investigate the health impacts of air pollution on epidemics should differ from those used for chronic diseases, but the methods used in these studies have not been appraised critically. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to identify and critique the methodological approaches of studies of air pollution on infections and mortality due to COVID-19 and to identify and critique the methodological approaches of similar studies concerning severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Published and unpublished papers of associations between air pollution and developing or dying from COVID-19 or SARS that were reported as of 10 May 2020 were identified through electronic databases, internet searches, and other sources. RESULTS: All six COVID-19 studies and two of three SARS studies reported positive associations. Two were time series studies that estimated associations between daily changes in air pollution, one was a cohort that assessed associations between air pollution and the secondary spread of SARS, and six were ecological studies that used area-wide exposures and outcomes. Common shortcomings included possible cross-level bias in ecological studies, underreporting of health outcomes, using grouped data, the lack of highly spatially resolved air pollution measures, inadequate control for confounding and evaluation of effect modification, not accounting for regional variations in the timing of outbreaks' temporal changes in at-risk populations, and not accounting for nonindependence of outcomes. DISCUSSION: Studies of air pollution and novel coronaviruses have relied mainly on ecological measures of exposures and outcomes and are susceptible to important sources of bias. Although longitudinal studies with individual-level data may be imperfect, they are needed to adequately address this topic. The complexities involved in these types of studies underscore the need for careful design and for peer review. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7411.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Viés , Surtos de Doenças , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 85-95, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933743

RESUMO

Agriculture-oriented cities in Northeastern China have experienced frequent atmospheric pollution events. Deeper understandings of the pollution characteristics, haze causes and effects of management on local air quality are crucial for conducting integrated management approaches for the sustainable development of agriculture-oriented cities. Taking a typical agriculture-dominant city (i.e., Suihua) in Northeast China, we analyzed in detail the characteristics and causes of atmospheric pollution and evaluated the straw-burning prohibition using multisource data. The results showed a clear temporal pattern of air quality index (AQI) on an annual scale (i.e., 2015-April 2019), with two typical pollution periods occurring in late autumn and early spring. The large areas of concentrated straw burning at local and regional scales accounted for the first period (i.e., October and November), while dust emissions and farming disturbances comprised the second period. The interannual variation in pollution periods among these years was large, showing similar trends from 2015 to 2017 and the postponed late-autumn pollution period in 2018. Our evaluation has shown that the prohibition effect of straw burning significantly improved air quality in 2018, with a reduction of 59% ± 88% in the PM2.5 concentrations in October and November compared to 2015-2017. However, From October to April of the following year, the improvement effect was not significant due to postponement of straw burning to February or March. Our analysis also highlighted the roles of meteorological conditions, Therefore, combined with the promotion of straw utilization, scientifically prescribed burning considering the burning amount and location, meteorological conditions and regional transportation should be implemented.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Agricultura , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
7.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 378(2183): 20200188, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981442

RESUMO

We suggest that the unprecedented and unintended decrease of emissions of air pollutants during the COVID-19 lock-down in 2020 could lead to declining seasonal ozone concentrations and positive impacts on crop yields. An initial assessment of the potential effects of COVID-19 emission reductions was made using a set of six scenarios that variously assumed annual European and global emission reductions of 30% and 50% for the energy, industry, road transport and international shipping sectors, and 80% for the aviation sector. The greatest ozone reductions during the growing season reached up to 12 ppb over crop growing regions in Asia and up to 6 ppb in North America and Europe for the 50% global reduction scenario. In Europe, ozone responses are more sensitive to emission declines in other continents, international shipping and aviation than to emissions changes within Europe. We demonstrate that for wheat the overall magnitude of ozone precursor emission changes could lead to yield improvements between 2% and 8%. The expected magnitude of ozone precursor emission reductions during the Northern Hemisphere growing season in 2020 presents an opportunity to test and improve crop models and experimentally based exposure response relationships of ozone impacts on crops, under real-world conditions. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Air quality, past present and future'.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ozônio/análise , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039338, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A number of studies have shown that the airborne transmission route could spread some viruses over a distance of 2 meters from an infected person. An epidemic model based only on respiratory droplets and close contact could not fully explain the regional differences in the spread of COVID-19 in Italy. On March 16th 2020, we presented a position paper proposing a research hypothesis concerning the association between higher mortality rates due to COVID-19 observed in Northern Italy and average concentrations of PM10 exceeding a daily limit of 50 µg/m3. METHODS: To monitor the spreading of COVID-19 in Italy from February 24th to March 13th (the date of the Italian lockdown), official daily data for PM10 levels were collected from all Italian provinces between February 9th and February 29th, taking into account the maximum lag period (14 days) between the infection and diagnosis. In addition to the number of exceedances of the daily limit value of PM10, we also considered population data and daily travelling information for each province. RESULTS: Exceedance of the daily limit value of PM10 appears to be a significant predictor of infection in univariate analyses (p<0.001). Less polluted provinces had a median of 0.03 infections over 1000 residents, while the most polluted provinces showed a median of 0.26 cases. Thirty-nine out of 41 Northern Italian provinces resulted in the category with the highest PM10 levels, while 62 out of 66 Southern provinces presented low PM10 concentrations (p<0.001). In Milan, the average growth rate before the lockdown was significantly higher than in Rome (0.34 vs 0.27 per day, with a doubling time of 2.0 days vs 2.6, respectively), thus suggesting a basic reproductive number R0>6.0, comparable with the highest values estimated for China. CONCLUSION: A significant association has been found between the geographical distribution of daily PM10 exceedances and the initial spreading of COVID-19 in the 110 Italian provinces.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Correlação de Dados , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos
9.
Respir Med ; 171: 106085, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases are risk factors for severe disease in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory tract infection is one of the commonest causes of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). There has not been evidence suggesting the link between COVID-19 and AECOPD, especially in places with dramatic responses in infection control with universal masking and aggressive social distancing. METHODS: This is a retrospective study to assess the number of admissions of AECOPD in the first three months of 2020 in Queen Mary Hospital with reference to the admissions in past five years. Log-linear model was used for statistical inference of covariates, including percentage of masking, air quality health index and air temperature. RESULTS: The number of admissions for AECOPD significantly decreased by 44.0% (95% CI 36.4%-52.8%, p < 0.001) in the first three months of 2020 compared with the monthly average admission in 2015-2019. Compare to same period of previous years, AECOPD decreased by 1.0% with each percent of increased masking (p < 0.001) and decreased by 3.0% with increase in 1 °C in temperature (p = 0.045). The numbers of admissions for control diagnoses (heart failure, intestinal obstruction and iron deficiency anaemia) in the same period in 2020 were not reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The number of admissions for AECOPD decreased in first three months of 2020, compared with previous years. This was observed with increased masking percentage and social distancing in Hong Kong. We postulated universal masking and social distancing during COVID-19 pandemics both contributed in preventing respiratory tract infections hence AECOPD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Infecções Respiratórias , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distância Social , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867037

RESUMO

Seoul, the most populous city in South Korea, has been practicing social distancing to slow down the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and other air pollutants measured in Seoul over the two 30 day periods before and after the start of social distancing are analyzed to assess the change in air quality during the period of social distancing. The 30 day mean PM2.5 concentration decreased by 10.4% in 2020, which is contrasted with an average increase of 23.7% over the corresponding periods in the previous 5 years. The PM2.5 concentration decrease was city-wide and more prominent during daytime than at nighttime. The concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) decreased by 16.9% and 16.4%, respectively. These results show that social distancing, a weaker forcing toward reduced human activity than a strict lockdown, can help lower pollutant emissions. At the same time, synoptic conditions and the decrease in aerosol optical depth over the regions to the west of Seoul support that the change in Seoul's air quality during the COVID-19 social distancing can be interpreted as having been affected by reductions in the long-range transport of air pollutants as well as local emission reductions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Seul
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872261

RESUMO

Due to the suspension of traffic mobility and industrial activities during the COVID-19, particulate matter (PM) pollution has decreased in China. However, rarely have research studies discussed the spatiotemporal pattern of this change and related influencing factors at city-scale across the nation. In this research, the clustering patterns of the decline rates of PM2.5 and PM10 during the period from 20 January to 8 April in 2020, compared with the same period of 2019, were investigated using spatial autocorrelation analysis. Four meteorological factors and two socioeconomic factors, i.e., the decline of intra-city mobility intensity (dIMI) representing the effect of traffic mobility and the decline rates of the secondary industrial output values (drSIOV), were adopted in the regression analysis. Then, multi-scale geographically weighted regression (MGWR), a model allowing the particular processing scale for each independent variable, was applied for investigating the relationship between PM pollution reductions and influencing factors. For comparison, ordinary least square (OLS) regression and the classic geographically weighted regression (GWR) were also performed. The research found that there were 16% and 20% reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration across China and significant PM pollution mitigation in central, east, and south regions of China. As for the regression analysis results, MGWR outperformed the other two models, with R2 of 0.711 and 0.732 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The results of MGWR revealed that the two socioeconomic factors had more significant impacts than meteorological factors. It showed that the reduction of traffic mobility caused more relative declines of PM2.5 in east China (e.g., cities in Jiangsu), while it caused more relative declines of PM10 in central China (e.g., cities in Henan). The reduction of industrial operation had a strong relationship with the PM10 drop in northeast China. The results are crucial for understanding how the decline pattern of PM pollution varied spatially during the COVID-19 outbreak, and it also provides a good reference for air pollution control in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , China , Cidades , Humanos , Pandemias
12.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127310, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947673

RESUMO

We characterized the aerosol composition and sources of particulate matter (PM) in Sanmenxia, a polluted city located in the Fen-Wei Plain region of Central China. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by 18% from 72 µg m-3 in 2014 to 59 µg m-3 in 2019. All chemical species presented pronounced seasonal variations, with their highest concentrations in winter due to enhanced emissions and the frequent stagnant meteorological conditions. Nitrate was the major fraction of PM2.5 during all seasons (35-41%) except summer (25%), while sulfate was a dominant species in summer (29%) compared to other seasons (16-18%) from July 2018 to June 2019. The detailed analysis of a wintertime severe haze episode that lasted for approximately half a month demonstrated that secondary aerosols, including secondary organic aerosol, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, contributed 89% to non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1), indicating the remarkable role of secondary aerosol formation in air pollution in Sanmenxia. Positive matrix factorization analysis further showed considerably enhanced low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and hydrocarbon-like OA during severe haze episodes, while significant contributions in semi-volatile oxygenated OA and coal combustion OA during clean periods. Severe pollution events in the city were generally associated with air masses from the southwest, and we also found that aerosol species, especially secondary aerosol species, showed distinct forenoon increases that were caused by the subsidence of air pollutants aloft. Our results highlight that future air quality improvement would benefit substantially from a more efficient control of gaseous precursors, particularly the NOx emissions from industry and vehicle emissions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 646, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939661

RESUMO

We investigated the associations between the daily variations of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hospital admissions for asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diseases in Kirsehir, Center of Anatolia of Turkey. We analyzed the poison generalized linear model (GLM) to analyze the association between ambient air pollutants such as PM10 and SO2 and asthma and/or COPD admissions. We investigated single-lag days and multi-lag days for the risk increase in asthma, COPD, asthma, and/or COPD hospital admissions PM10, SO2, and PM10 with SO2 per 10 µg/m3. In single-lag day model a 10 µg/m3 increase in the current day (lag 0) concentrations of PM10 and SO2 corresponded to increase of 1.027 (95% CI:1.022-1.033) and 1.069 (95% CI:1.062, 1.077) for asthma. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the current day (lag 0) concentrations of PM10 and SO2 corresponded to increase of 1.029 (95% CI:1.022-1.035) and 1.065 (95% CI:1.056, 1.075) for COPD. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the current day (lag 0) concentrations of PM10 and SO2 corresponded to increase of 1.028 (95% CI:1.024-1.032) and 1.068 (95% CI:1.062, 1.074) for asthma and/or COPD. It was found that some lag structures were related with PM10 and SO2. Significant lags were detected in some lag structures from the previous first day until the previous eighth day (lag 1 to lag 7) in the asthma, COPD, and asthma and/or COPD hospital admissions in the model created with PM10 with SO2 both in the single-lag day model and in the multi-lag day model. Our study that used GLM in time series analysis showed that PM10 and/or SO2 short-term exposure in single-lag day and multi-lag day models was related with increased asthma, COPD, and asthma and/or COPD hospital admissions in the city between 2016 and 2019 until the previous-eighth day.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Turquia
14.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111017, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778300

RESUMO

Facing severe PM2.5 pollution, China has adopted a series of clean air policies since 2013, but PM2.5 concentrations in China remain serious. Weighing both sustainable development and environmental protection, the Environmental Protection Tax Law was implemented in 2018 in China. This research employed a Bayesian space-time model to identify the impacts of the environmental protection tax on PM2.5 pollution (IEPTPM2.5P) at the provincial level in 2018 in China, combining remotely sensed and in-situ monitoring data. Then the influence factors of the IEPTPM2.5P was investigated using a Bayesian LASSO regression model. Results indicate that the IEPTPM2.5P resulted in a decreasing trend of annual PM2.5 concentrations in 31 provinces. The spatial pattern of the IEPTPM2.5P presented a distinct geographical feature. The highest five IEPTPM2.5P occurred in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Shandong, and Hebei, and the corresponding values were -1.81, -1.79, -1.52, -1.51, and -1.47 µg/m3 per year, respectively. Tourism output value associated negatively with the IEPTPM2.5P, and the other five variables associated positively with the IEPTPM2.5P. The urbanisation rate and relief amplitude were the top two influencing factors, with contributions of 36.3% and 19.3%, respectively. The IEPTPM2.5P increased 0.0141 µg/m3 per year (95% credibility interval (CI): 0.0013, 0.0259) if the urbanisation rate increased one percentage point. The influencing contributions and magnitudes of the tax rate for air pollutants and the environmental tax revenue are 9.6% and 12.1%, 0.0016 (95% CI:-0.0038, 0.0076) and 0.0108 (95% CI:-0.0188, 0.0412) µg/m3 per year, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Pequim , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115058, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806396

RESUMO

Due to the increase of the human population and the rapid industrial growth in the past few decades, air quality monitoring is essential to assess the pollutant levels of an area. However, monitoring air quality in a high-density area like Sunway City, Selangor, Malaysia is challenging due to the limitation of the local monitoring network. To establish a comprehensive data for air pollution in Sunway City, a mobile monitoring campaign was employed around the city area with a duration of approximately 6 months, from September 2018 to March 2019. Measurements of air pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were performed by using mobile air pollution sensors facilitated with a GPS device. In order to acquire a more in-depth understanding on traffic-related air pollution, the measurement period was divided into two different time blocks, which were morning hours (8 a.m.-12 p.m.) and afternoon hours (3 p.m.-7 p.m.). The data set was analysed by splitting Sunway City into different zones and routes to differentiate the conditions of each region. Meteorological variables such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were studied in line with the pollutant concentrations. The air quality in Sunway City was then compared with various air quality standards such as Malaysian Air Quality Standards and World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines to understand the risk of exposure to air pollution by the residence in Sunway City.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Malásia
16.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114999, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806418

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic and concern, and contributed to at least 4.0 million deaths each year worldwide. However, current evidence regarding the impact of air pollution on body weight status remains inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants on body weight status in adults. Three databases were searched up to Dec 31, 2019 for articles investigating the association of gaseous (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone) and particulate (diameter ≤ 10 µm or ≤ 2.5 µm) air pollutants with body weight status. Random effect models were used to estimate the pooled odds ratios (ORs), regression coefficients (ß) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with air pollution. Among twelve studies that were eligible in the systematic review, ten were used to estimate the pooled effect size, and most of them were cross-sectional studies. We identified that ambient air pollution had adverse effects on body weight status. For example, elevated PM2.5 and O3 were associated with higher level of body mass index, with the pooled ß (95% CIs) of 0.34 (0.30-0.38) and 0.21 (0.17-0.24) per 10 µg/m3 increment, respectively. In addition, increased NO2, SO2 and O3 were associated with higher risk of having overweight/obesity, with the corresponding pooled OR (95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01-1.26), 1.04 (1.01-1.06) and 1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 10 µg/m3 increment. Overall, air pollution is a potential risk factor for body weight status in adults, and more high-quality studies, especially prospective studies from severely polluted regions, are warranted for comprehensive understanding of its health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114878, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806442

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations exhibit distinct spatiotemporal heterogeneity, mainly due to the natural environment and human activities. Yunnan Province of China was selected as the research area, and a real-time measured PM2.5 concentration dataset was acquired from 41 monitoring stations in 16 major cities from February 2013 to December 2018. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and data on four meteorological variables from 2000 to 2018 were employed. A novel hybrid model was constructed to estimate the historical missing PM2.5 values from 2000 to 2012, calculate the missing PM2.5 concentrations from 2012 to 2014 in some major cities, and analyze the driving factors of the PM2.5 concentration changes and causes of key pollution events in Yunnan Province over the past 19 years. The temporal analysis results indicate that the annual mean PM2.5 concentration in Yunnan Province exhibited three stages: continuous stability, a rapid increase and a rapid decrease. The year 2013 was an important breakpoint in the trend of the concentration change. The spatial analysis results reveal that the annual mean PM2.5 concentration in the north was lower than that in the south, and there was a significant difference between the east and the west. In addition, springtime biomass burning in Southeast Asia was found to be the main cause of PM2.5 pollution in Yunnan Province in spring.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Atividades Humanas , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140391, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783875

RESUMO

Two weeks after the world health organization described the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak as pandemic, the Indian government implemented lockdown of industrial activities and traffic flows across the entire nation between March 24 and May 31, 2020. In this paper, we estimated the improvements achieved in air quality during the lockdown period (March 24, 2020 and April 20, 2020) compared to the pre-lockdown (January 1, 2020 and March 23, 2020) by analyzing PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3 data from nine different air quality monitoring stations distributed across four different zones of the industrialized Gujarat state of western Indian. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)-Air Quality Index (AQI) illustrated better air qualities during the lockdown with higher improvements in the zones 2 (Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar) and 3 (Jamnagar and Rajkot), and moderate improvements in the zones 1 (Surat, Ankleshwar and Vadodra) and 4 (Bhuj and Palanpur). The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were reduced by 38-78%, 32-80% and 30-84%, respectively. Functioning of the power plants possibly led to less reduction in CO (3-55%) and the declined emission of NO helped to improve O3 (16-48%) contents. We observed an overall improvement of 58% in AQI for the first four months of 2020 compared to the same interval of previous year. This positive outcome resulted from the lockdown restrictions might help to modify the existing environmental policies of the region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140100, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution has been associated with increased risks of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but it remains unknown about the potentially differentiated effects of size-fractionated particulate matter on AMI risk. OBJECTIVE: To identify the specific size ranges that dominate the effects of particulate matter on AMI onset. METHODS: We conducted a time-series study in Shanghai, China from January 2014 to December 2018. We evaluated particle size distribution of 0.01 µm to 2.5 µm from an environmental supersite and AMI emergency hospitalizations from the largest cardiovascular hospital in Shanghai. We used over-dispersed generalized additive models to estimate the associations of size-fractionated particle number concentrations (PNC) with AMI and its types. RESULTS: We identified a total of 4720 AMI emergency hospitalizations. PM2.5 was significantly associated with increased AMI risk on the concurrent day. The associations were significant only for PNC < 0.3 µm. For an IQR increase of PNCs for size ranges 0.01-0.03 µm, 0.03-0.05 µm, 0.05-0.10 µm and 0.10-0.30 µm, AMI hospitalizations increased by 6.68% (95% CI: 2.77%, 10.74%), 6.53% (95% CI: 2.08%, 11.17%), 5.78% (95% CI: 0.92%, 10.88%) and 5.92% (95% CI: 1.31%, 10.74%), respectively. The associations of PNC < 0.05 µm remained significant when adjusting for other air pollutants. There were consistently much stronger associations of particles with ST-segment elevation AMI than those with non-ST-segment elevation AMI. CONCLUSIONS: This epidemiological investigation suggested that ultrafine particles, especially those <0.05 µm, may be mainly responsible for the acute AMI risk induced by PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio , China , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140180, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major threat to cardiovascular health. Endothelial dysfunction is the initiating event associated with the PM2.5-induced cardiovascular disease (CVD). A sensitive marker of endothelial function-circulating von Willebrand factor (vWF), is an independent predictor of adverse clinical outcome in CVD patients. PM2.5 exposure may cause CVD, but the reports of relationship between short-term PM2.5 exposure and circulating vWF are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of short-term PM2.5 exposure on circulating vWF. METHODS: By using a combination of computer and manual retrieval, a systematic literature retrieval was conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus databases up to October 2019. The heterogeneity among studies was tested by Stata 12.0, and the pooled %-change (percentage change per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated by using random effect model. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias detection were also carried out. RESULTS: 12 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Short-term PM2.5 exposure (per 10 µg/m3 increase) was associated with the increased vWF (%-change = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.11-0.71). The pooled effect estimates of subgroup with PM2.5 exposure level < 25 µg/m3 was higher (%-change = 8.26; 95%CI: 1.99-14.53) than that with PM2.5 exposure level ≥ 25 µg/m3 (%-change = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.09-0.63). CONCLUSION: Short-term PM2.5 exposure is associated with the increased circulating vWF. It suggests that short-term PM2.5 exposure causes endothelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Biomarcadores , Bases de Dados Factuais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Fator de von Willebrand
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