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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046040, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. SETTING: Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden. DESIGN: High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. CONCLUSION: The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125851, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492802

RESUMO

This study examines point and non-point sources of air pollution and particulate matter and their associated socioeconomic and health impacts in South Asian countries, primarily India, China, and Pakistan. The legislative frameworks, policy gaps, and targeted solutions are also scrutinized. The major cities in these countries have surpassed the permissible limits defined by WHO for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. As a result, they are facing widespread health problems, disabilities, and causalities at extreme events. Populations in these countries are comparatively more prone to air pollution effects because they spend more time in the open air, increasing their likelihood of exposure to air pollutants. The elevated level of air pollutants and their long-term exposure increases the susceptibility to several chronic/acute diseases, i.e., obstructive pulmonary diseases, acute respiratory distress, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. More in-depth spatial-temporal air pollution monitoring studies in China, India, and Pakistan are recommended. The study findings suggest that policymakers at the local, national, and regional levels should devise targeted policies by considering all the relevant parameters, including the country's economic status, local meteorological conditions, industrial interests, public lifestyle, and national literacy rate. This approach will also help design and implement more efficient policies which are less likely to fail when brought into practice.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Índia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Paquistão , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
4.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00518, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing how population density (PD), aging index (AI), use of public transport (URPT), and PM10 concentration (PI) modulated the trajectory of the main COVID-19 pandemic outcomes in Italy, also in the recrudescence phase of the epidemic. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study. METHODS: For each region, we recovered data about cases, deaths, and case fatality rate (CFR) recorded since both the beginning of the epidemic and September 1, 2020. Data about total hospitalizations were included as well. RESULTS: PD correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. Moreover, URPT correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total CFR. Besides, PI correlated significantly with total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: PD explains COVID-19 morbidity, mortality, and severity while URPT is the best predictor of disease lethality. These findings should be interpreted with caution due to the ecological fallacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Pandemias , Densidade Demográfica , Transportes , Fatores Etários , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Itália , Tamanho da Partícula , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483811

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the associations between air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits for dry eye disease (DED) in Shenzhen, China. Methods: Generalized additive models were utilized to explore the acute effects of air pollution exposure on pediatric outpatient visits for DED. Results: Single-day lag exposures to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 were associated with DED outpatient visits at lag days 0, 6, 4 and 2. Relative risks (RRs) for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations were 1.062[95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003, 1.123], 1.015(95% CI 1.001, 1.031), 1.052(95% CI 1.001, 1.115), and 1.038 (95% CI 1.002, 1.076), respectively. RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 over cumulative lag days 0-1 was 1.075 (95% CI 1.009, 1.147), and RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 over cumulative lag days 0-4 was 1.051 (95% CI 1.003, 1.102). Conclusion: The observed associations between air pollution and outpatient visits for DED may provide evidence for policy makers to consider implementing measures to reduce the risk of DED owing to air pollution in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Assistência Ambulatorial , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
6.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 521-530, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494521

RESUMO

Objective To quantitatively evaluate the associations of PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2 concentrations with the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis in Lanzhou. Methods The data of outpatient visits,together with meteorological data and air pollutant data,from January 2013 to December 2017 were collected.The generalized additive model based on Poisson distribution was employed to study the lag effects of PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2 concentrations on the visits of outpatients,with the seasonal and long-term trends and day-of-the-week effect controlled. Results The results of the single pollutant model showed that PM2.5 and PM10 had the most obvious while still insignificant impact on the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis on the current day(lag0).NO2 also had the most obvious impact in the case of lag0 and showed a lag effect.For each 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration,the excess risk(ER)of outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis was 1.95%(95% CI=1.09%-2.82%,P=0.01).SO2 had the most significant effect on lag6,and the outpatient visits increased by 1.55%(95% CI=0.48%-2.54%)for every 10 µg/m3 rise in SO2 concentration(P=0.02).Females were more sensitive to PM10 and SO2 than males.For every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 and SO2,the female outpatient visits increased by 0.02% and 2.47%,respectively.Males were sensitive to PM2.5 and NO2,and the every 10 µg/m3 rise in PM2.5 and NO2 increased male outpatient visits by 0.47% and 1.78%,respectively.Gaseous pollutants(NO2 and SO2)had more significant effect on people ≤2 years old than on those of other ages.Every 10 µg/m3 rise in NO2 and SO2 would increase the ≤2-year-old outpatient visits by 2.35% and 1.57%,respectively(P=0.02).People of 13-59 years old were sensitive to NO2 concentration,and every 10 µg/m3 rise in NO2 concentration increased their visits by 1.39%.NO2 affected the outpatient visits during the cold and warm seasons,with the ER values of 2.35% and 1.89%,respectively(P=0.01).Particulate matter(PM2.5 and PM10)had the most obvious yet insignificant association with the outpatient visits in winter.The interactions between PM2.5 and NO2,between PM10 and NO2,and between SO2 and NO2 affected the total outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis.The results of double pollutant model showed that in the presence of PM2.5,PM10,or SO2,the effect of NO2 on the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis enhanced compared with that predicted by single pollutant model(P=0.01). Conclusion The air pollutants(PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2)in Lanzhou were closely related to the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis,and the increased concentrations of NO2 and SO2 was more likely to increase the risk of atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Dermatite Atópica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , China , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444225

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the mortality risk associated with air pollution in a Swedish cohort with relatively low exposure. Air pollution models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), primary emitted carbonaceous particles (BC/pOC), sea salt, chemically formed particles grouped as secondary inorganic and organic aerosols (SIA and SOA) as well as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The exposure, as a moving average was calculated based on home address for the time windows 1 year (lag 1), 1-5 years (lag 1-5) and 1-10 years (lag 1-10) preceding the death. During the study period, 1151 cases of natural mortality, 253 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 113 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed during 369,394 person-years of follow-up. Increased natural mortality was observed in association with NO2 (3% [95% CI -8-14%] per IQR) and PM2.5 (2% [95% CI -5-9%] for an IQR increase) and its components, except for SOA where a decreased risk was observed. Higher risk increases were observed for CVD mortality (e.g., 18% [95% CI 1-39%] per IQR for NO2). These findings at low exposure levels are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444236

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) flare is related to increased joint damage, disability, and healthcare use. The impact of short-term air pollution exposure on RA disease activity is still a matter of debate. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM)10, PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) affected RA disease activity (DAS28 and SDAI) in 422 consecutive RA residents in Lombardy, North of Italy. Air pollutant concentrations, estimated by Regional Environmental Protection Agency (Lombardy-Italy) at the municipality level, were used to assign short-term exposure from the day of enrolment, back to seven days. Some significant negative associations emerged between RA disease activity, PM10, and NO2, whereas some positive associations were observed for O3. Patients were also stratified according to their ongoing Disease-Modifying anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) treatment: no DMARDs (n = 25), conventional synthetic DMARDs (n = 108), and biological or targeted synthetic DMARDs (n = 289). Therapy interaction seemed partially able to influence the relationship between short-term air pollution exposure and RA disease activity (PM2.5 levels and DAS28 at the day of the visit-O3 levels and disease activity scores for the seven days before the evaluation). According to our results, the impact of short-term air pollution exposure (seven days) minimally impacts disease activity. Moreover, our study suggests therapy could alter the response to environmental factors. Further evidence is needed to elucidate determinants of RA flare and its management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Artrite Reumatoide , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360939

RESUMO

Air pollution-related particulate matter (PM) exposure reportedly enhances allergic airway inflammation. Some studies have shown an association between PM exposure and a risk for allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the effect of PM for AR is not fully understood. An AR mouse model was developed by intranasal administration of 100 µg/mouse PM with a less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) solution, and then by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) with alum and intranasal challenging with 10 mg/mL OVA. The effects of PM2.5 on oxidative stress and inflammatory response via the Nrf2/NF-κB signaling pathway in mice with or without AR indicating by histological, serum, and protein analyses were examined. PM2.5 administration enhanced allergic inflammatory cell expression in the nasal mucosa through increasing the expression of inflammatory cytokine and reducing the release of Treg cytokine in OVA-induced AR mice, although PM2.5 exposure itself induced neither allergic responses nor damage to nasal and lung tissues. Notably, repeated OVA-immunization markedly impaired the nasal mucosa in the septum region. Moreover, AR with PM2.5 exposure reinforced this impairment in OVA-induced AR mice. Long-term PM2.5 exposure strengthened allergic reactions by inducing the oxidative through malondialdehyde production. The present study also provided evidence, for the first time, that activity of the Nrf2 signaling pathway is inhibited in PM2.5 exposed AR mice. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure increased the histopathological changes of nasal and lung tissues and related the inflammatory cytokine, and clearly enhanced PM2.5 phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages via activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. These obtained results suggest that AR patients may experience exacerbation of allergic responses in areas with prolonged PM2.5 exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Ovalbumina/imunologia
10.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 181-185, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365447

RESUMO

The study aim was to observe the working conditions of individuals working on municipal transport, check the levels of dust and toxicity, and review from the hygienic point of view. The levels of dust and chemical pollutants in the working environment of Tbilisi municipal transport workers were examined. Methods used in hygienic practice were applied to analyze air samples. test in total was conducted to measure the concentration of dust in the air and samples were collected with air analyzers. The toxicity levels in the surrounding environment of the municipal motor vehicle drivers, as well as technicians (welders, electricians, turners, tinsmiths, electric arc welding). It was established that the toxicity of the air in the municipal transports and technical service establishments fluctuates between certain levels. The highest dust levels were found in the working zone of the driver, with dust levels twice accepted levels. Working conditions at this specific zone were identified as 3.1 class. Workplaces in different service stations were also classified in the same group, with dust levels 1.6 times higher than normal. In total 5 workplaces were given level 3.1 classification. Only the workplace of a tinsmith was classified as a level 2 acceptable hazard. The concentration of dust and toxic chemicals in the environment of municipal transport employees is lower than acceptable levels, but long-time exposure to these agents affects the health of individuals and may cause subclinical health effects, even if the disease does not fully manifest. These effects should be taken into consideration when planning regular medical examinations and rejuvenating procedures for the employees.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(33)2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380740

RESUMO

The real-time monitoring of reductions of economic activity by containment measures and its effect on the transmission of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is a critical unanswered question. We inferred 5,642 weekly activity anomalies from the meteorology-adjusted differences in spaceborne tropospheric NO2 column concentrations after the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak relative to the baseline from 2016 to 2019. Two satellite observations reveal reincreasing economic activity associated with lifting control measures that comes together with accelerating COVID-19 cases before the winter of 2020/2021. Application of the near-real-time satellite NO2 observations produces a much better prediction of the deceleration of COVID-19 cases than applying the Oxford Government Response Tracker, the Public Health and Social Measures, or human mobility data as alternative predictors. A convergent cross-mapping suggests that economic activity reduction inferred from NO2 is a driver of case deceleration in most of the territories. This effect, however, is not linear, while further activity reductions were associated with weaker deceleration. Over the winter of 2020/2021, nearly 1 million daily COVID-19 cases could have been avoided by optimizing the timing and strength of activity reduction relative to a scenario based on the real distribution. Our study shows how satellite observations can provide surrogate data for activity reduction during the COVID-19 pandemic and monitor the effectiveness of containment to the pandemic before vaccines become widely available.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , COVID-19/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366765

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the long- and short-term effects of air pollution on COVID-19 transmission simultaneously, especially in high air pollution level countries. Methods: Quasi-Poisson regression was applied to estimate the association between exposure to air pollution and daily new confirmed cases of COVID-19, with mutual adjustment for long- and short-term air quality index (AQI). The independent effects were also estimated and compared. We further assessed the modification effect of within-city migration (WM) index to the associations. Results: We found a significant 1.61% (95%CI: 0.51%, 2.72%) and 0.35% (95%CI: 0.24%, 0.46%) increase in daily confirmed cases per 1 unit increase in long- and short-term AQI. Higher estimates were observed for long-term impact. The stratifying result showed that the association was significant when the within-city migration index was low. A 1.25% (95%CI: 0.0.04%, 2.47%) and 0.41% (95%CI: 0.30%, 0.52%) increase for long- and short-term effect respectively in low within-city migration index was observed. Conclusions: There existed positive associations between long- and short-term AQI and COVID-19 transmission, and within-city migration index modified the association. Our findings will be of strategic significance for long-run COVID-19 control.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1593, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global asthma-related mortality tallies at around 2.5 million annually. Although asthma may be triggered or exacerbated by particulate matter (PM) exposure, studies investigating the relationship of PM and its components with emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric asthma are limited. This study aimed to estimate the impact of short-term exposure to PM constituents on ED visits for pediatric asthma. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated non-trauma patients aged younger than 17 years who visited the ED with a primary diagnosis of asthma. Further, measurements of PM with aerodynamic diameter of < 10 µm (PM10), PM with aerodynamic diameter of < 10 µm (PM2.5), and four PM2.5 components (i.e., nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC)) were collected between 2007 and 2010 from southern particulate matter supersites. These included one core station and two satellite stations in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A time-stratified case-crossover study was conducted to analyze the hazard effect of PM. RESULTS: Overall, 1597 patients were enrolled in our study. In the single-pollutant model, the estimated risk increase for pediatric asthma incidence on lag 3 were 14.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2-27.4%], 13.5% (95% CI, 3.3-24.6%), 14.8% (95% CI, 2.5-28.6%), and 19.8% (95% CI, 7.6-33.3%) per interquartile range increments in PM2.5, PM10, nitrate, and OC, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, OC remained significant after adjusting for PM2.5, PM10, and nitrate. During subgroup analysis, children were more vulnerable to PM2.5 and OC during cold days (< 26 °C, interaction p = 0.008 and 0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Both PM2.5 concentrations and its chemical constituents OC and nitrate are associated with ED visits for pediatric asthma. Among PM2.5 constituents, OC was most closely related to ED visits for pediatric asthma, and children are more vulnerable to PM2.5 and OC during cold days.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(8): e542-e552, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390672

RESUMO

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and the second most common cause of death worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution is an emerging risk factor for stroke. Over the past decades, air pollution levels have continuously increased and are now estimated to be responsible for 14% of all stroke-associated deaths. Interpretation of previous literature is difficult because stroke was usually not distinguished as ischaemic or haemorrhagic, nor by cause. This Review summarises the evidence on the association between air pollution and the different causes of ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke, to clarify which people are most at risk. The risk for ischaemic stroke is increased after short-term or long-term exposure to air pollution. This effect is most pronounced in people with cardiovascular burden and stroke due to large artery disease or small vessel disease. Short-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage, a subtype of haemorrhagic stroke, whereas the effects of long-term exposure are less clear. Limitations of the current evidence are that studies are prone to misclassification of exposure, often rely on administrative data, and have insufficient clinical detail. In this Review, we provide an outlook on new research opportunities, such as those provided by the decreased levels of air pollution due to the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , AVC Hemorrágico , AVC Isquêmico , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19 , AVC Hemorrágico/epidemiologia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Risco
16.
Neurol Sci ; 42(10): 4063-4072, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341860

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), leading to progressive functional impairments, and many intrinsic and acquired factors are believed to be associated with its development and relapse. In terms of environmental factors, air pollution has gained much attention during recent decades, as chronic exposure to ambient air pollution seems to increase the level of some pro-inflammatory markers in the human brain, which can lead to neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. These events may also be associated with the risk of MS development and relapse. In this review, we aimed to summarize recent findings around the impact of air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and ultra-fine particles), gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen oxides [NOx], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and ozone [O3]), and heavy metals, on MS development and relapse.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Esclerose Múltipla , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4071-4082, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414706

RESUMO

In China, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have become major air pollutants that threaten human health. Since 2013, the government has strengthened air pollution controls in Beijing and achieved significant effects. A spatial-temporal analysis was conducted of the distribution and health impacts of PM2.5 and O3 in Beijing, using data collected from 34 air quality monitoring sites between 2014 and 2020. In 2014, the annual average PM2.5 and seasonal (April to September) average of daily one-hourly maximum O3 concentrations (O3_max) were 92.0 µg·m-3 and 81.9 nmol·mol-1, respectively. From 2014 to 2020, annual average PM2.5 decreased at a rate of 7.5 µg·m-3. However, there was no significant difference in O3_max over the years. The concentrations of PM2.5 were highest in December and January (in winter) and lowest in August (in summer). On the contrary, O3_max was highest in June. The diurnal variations of PM2.5 were affected by meteorological conditions and emission sources, and maximum concentrations occurred between 22:00 to 00:00, while minimum concentrations occurred between 14:00 to 16:00. The concentration of O3_max showed an opposite pattern, with minimum vales occurring at 07:00 and maximum values occurring in the afternoon. The spatial distribution of PM2.5 showed similar patterns in 2014 and 2019, with the south of Beijing exhibiting the highest concentrations, and the north the lowest. The concentration of O3_max was higher in suburban areas than in traffic areas. In terms of health impacts, 1580 cases of cardiovascular disease and 821 of respiratory disease were attributed to PM2.5 in 2014, while 2180 cases of respiratory disease were attributable to O3 in 2014. In 2019, mortalities attributable to PM2.5 had decreased by 50% compared to 2014. While the number of disease cases attributable to O3 were similar in 2014 and 2019. the results indicate that PM2.5 pollution in Beijing has been successfully controlled, while O3 pollution has become more severe, and was the primary air pollutant threatening human health in 2019. Therefore, the synchronous control of PM2.5 and O3 should be implemented in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(16): 10911-10922, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355568

RESUMO

Air pollution composed of the complex interactions among particular matter, chemicals, and pathogens is an emerging and global environmental issue that closely correlates with a variety of diseases and adverse health effects, especially increasing incidences of neurodegenerative diseases. However, as one of the prevalent health outcomes of air pollution, chemosensory dysfunction has not attracted enough concern until recently. During the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple scientific studies emphasized the plausibly essential roles of the chemosensory system in the airborne transmission airway of viruses into the human body, which can also be utilized by pollutants. In this Review, in addition to summarizing current progress regarding the contributions of traditional air pollutants to chemosensory dysfunction, we highlight the roles of emerging contaminants. We not only sum up clarified mechanisms, such as inflammation and apoptosis but also discuss some not yet completely identified mechanisms, e.g., disruption of olfactory signal transduction. Although the existing evidence is not overwhelming, the chemosensory system is expected to be a useful indicator in neurotoxicology and neural diseases based on accumulating studies that continually excavate the deep link between chemosensory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we argue the importance of studies concerning chemosensory dysfunction in understanding the health effects of air pollution and provide comments for some future directions of relevant research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444503

RESUMO

This study proposes the concept of duration (D) and severity (S) measures, which were derived from unhealthy air pollution events. In parallel with that, the application of a copula model is proposed to evaluate unhealthy air pollution events with respect to their duration and severity characteristics. The bivariate criteria represented by duration and severity indicate their structural dependency, long-tail, and non-identically marginal distributions. A copula approach can provide a good statistical tool to deal with these issues and enable the extraction of valuable information from air pollution data. Based on the copula model, several statistical measurements are proposed for describing the characteristics of unhealthy air pollution events, including the Kendall's τ correlation of the copula, the conditional probability of air pollution severity based on a given duration, the joint OR/AND return period, and the conditional D|S and conditional S|D return periods. A case study based on air pollution data indices was conducted in Klang, Malaysia. The results indicate that a copula approach is beneficial for deriving valuable information for planning and mitigating the risks of unhealthy air pollution events.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451012

RESUMO

This study aims to quantitatively model rather than to presuppose whether or not air pollution in Beijing (China) affects people's activities of daily living (ADLs) based on an Internet of Behaviours (IoB), in which IoT sensor data can signal environmental events that can change human behaviour on mass. Peoples' density distribution computed by call detail records (CDRs) and air quality data are used to build a fixed effect model (FEM) to analyse the influence of air pollution on four types of ADLs. The following four effects are discovered: Air pollution negatively impacts people going sightseeing in the afternoon; has a positive impact on people staying-in, in the morning and the middle of the day. Air pollution lowers people's desire to go to restaurants for lunch, but far less so in the evening. As air quality worsens, people tend to decrease their walking and cycling and tend to travel more by bus or subway. We also find a monotonically decreasing nonlinear relationship between air quality index and the average CDR-based distance for each person of two citizen groups that go walking or cycling. Our key and novel contributions are that we first define IoB as a ubiquitous concept. Based on this, we propose a methodology to better understand the link between bad air pollution events and citizens' activities of daily life. We applied this methodology in the first comprehensive study that provides quantitative evidence of the actual effect, not the presumed effect, that air pollution can significantly affect a wide range of citizens' activities of daily living.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Atividades Cotidianas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Internet , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
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