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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124904, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to ambient levels of air pollution has been reported to adversely affect birth outcomes, yet few studies have investigated refined susceptible windows for adverse birth outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at estimating associations between maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) and birth outcomes, including birth weight, low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB), and identify specific susceptible windows. METHODS: A total of 3692 singleton live births were enrolled between 2013 and 2016 in Shanghai Birth Cohort, China. Based on mothers' residential addresses, weekly mean concentrations of PM2.5 over gestation were estimated based on an incorporated evaluating approach combining satellite-based estimates and ground-level measurements. Distributed lag non-liner models (DLNMs) were fitted by incorporating with multiple liner models and Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate weekly-as well as trimester-exposure-lag-response associations between average PM2.5 level and birth weight, LBW and PTB, and to identify critical windows. RESULTS: In this study, gestational exposure to PM2.5 was associated with adverse birth outcomes in infants, and critical windows were identified as 31st-34th gestational weeks for reduced birth weight, 38th-42 nd weeks for LBW and 27th-30th weeks for PTB, respectively. Trimester-specific associations were found for all birth outcomes during the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient PM2.5 exposure exhibited adverse impacts on multiple outcomes including reduced birth weight, LBW and PTB in the late pregnancy. The study provides further evidence supporting harmful effects of maternal PM2.5 exposure on birth outcomes and identifying critical windows.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18349, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) acts as an environment pollutant and thus plays a vital role in the development of human lung cancer. Whether PM is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) morbidity and mortality, however, is not clear. Recently, several studies have reported inconsistent results for the association between PM and BC risk. This meta-analysis examines the indefinite relationship between exposure to PM and BC morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Based on a search of Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted and analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 and Stata14.0 to estimate the association between PM and BC morbidity and mortality. The heterogeneity for the included studies was evaluated using a Chi-square test and the I statistic. Forest plot was used to illustrate the pooled HR and mean difference. A Funnel plot, Begg test, and Egger test were performed to explore the publication bias between the included studies.All analyses were based on previous published studies, thus, no ethical approval and patient consent are required. RESULTS: A total of 14 of 284 publications with 1,004,128 BC cases were gathered. The analysis showed each 10 µg/m of PM2.5 (diameter ≤2.5 µm) was associated with 1.17 (95% CI: 1.05-1.30, P = .004) fold risk BC mortality, and each 10 µg/m of PM10 (diameter ≤10 µm) was associated with 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, P = .021) fold risk BC mortality. However, neither PM10 nor PM2.5 was found to be significantly associated with BC morbidity. Publication bias was detected in studies on PM2.5 and BC mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that PM exposure may raise the mortality but not the morbidity of BC. Still, further studies may be necessary to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17899, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702666

RESUMO

This survey was to investigate the short-term effect of particulate matters (PMs) exposure on clinical and microbiological variables, especially septic emboli, in infective endocarditis (IE). The study analyzed 138 IE patients in Far Eastern Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2015 and clinical variables were retrospectively requested. The data of air quality were recorded and collected by a network of 26 monitoring stations spreading in Northern part of Taiwan. We found that IE patients with septic emboli were found to be exposed to a significantly higher level of PM2.5 (32.01 ±â€Š15.89 vs. 21.70 ±â€Š13.05 µg/m, P < .001) and PM10 (54.57 ±â€Š24.43 vs 40.98 ±â€Š24.81 µg/m, P = .002) on lag 0 day when compared to those without. Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis revealed that that ambient exposure to PM2.5 (odds ratio: 3.87, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-8.31; P = .001) and PM10 (odds ratio: 4.58, 95% confidence interval: 2.03-10.32; P < .001) significantly increased risk of septic emboli in IE patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that short-term exposure to PMs was associated with septic emboli in IE.


Assuntos
Endocardite/microbiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/envenenamento , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1152-1157, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683404

RESUMO

Objective: Using Meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the short-term exposure to fine particular matter (PM(2.5)) and the morbidity of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: In this paper, "particulate matter" , "PM2.5" , "ischemic heart disease" , "coronary heart disease" , "coronary artery disease" , "atherosclerotic heart disease" , and "atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease" were used to systematically search for the literature on the association between the short-term exposure to PM(2.5) and the ischemic heart disease through China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Vip as well as Pubmed and Web of Science. The time was up to January 31(st) 2019. The quality of literature was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis method was performed by using R3.5.0 software and was used to perform heterogeneity test, calculate combined risk of IHD with short-term exposure to PM(2.5) and carry out publication bias test. Results: A total of 1 424 literatures were retrieved. Of the 23 literatures included studies (2 literatures in Chinese and 21 literatures in English) according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 used a time-series design and 9 used a case-crossover design. The heterogeneity existed across all identified studies (I(2)=81%, P<0.05). The Random effect model showed that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) was associated with estimated relative risk of IHD morbidity at 1.007 (95%CI: 1.005-1.009); Publication bias was noted in the analysis (t=2.76, P<0.05), and the combined effect values of IHD morbidity was reduced to 1.005(95%CI: 1.004-1.007) after adjusting for asymmetry. Conclusion: Short-term exposure to PM(2.5) may lead to the increase of ischemic heart disease morbidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Risco
5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 362-366, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631604

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the association between daily particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) mass and emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. Methods: Semi-parametric generalized additive model was established to determine the association between daily PM 2.5 and emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases in 2017 in Chengdu, after adjustments for time trend and variations in the days of the week and weather conditions. Results: In 2017, a total of 9 309 emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases were recorded in Chengdu: on average 26 calls a day. Over the year, Chengdu reported a mean PM 2.5 mass concentration of 53.6 µg/m 3, an average temperature of 16.6 ℃, and an average relative humidity of 81.2%. The single pollutant model with lag time effect showed that a 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 was associated with an increase of 1.26% (95% confidence interval ( CI) 0.56%-1.97%) emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. The exposure-response was almost in a direct line. The dual pollutant model found that O 3 8-hour sliding average (O 3-8 h) enhanced the effect of PM 2.5 on emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. Conclusion: Outdoor PM 2.5 is a significant predictor of emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases in Chengdu.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , China , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113054, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473392

RESUMO

Indoor air pollution is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Air purifiers are widely used to reduce indoor air pollutants. Ionization air purifiers are becoming increasingly popular for their low power consumption and noise, yet its health effects remain unclear. This randomized, double-blind crossover study is conducted to explore the cardiorespiratory effects of ionization air purification among 44 children in Beijing. Real or sham purification was performed in classrooms for 5 weekdays. Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and negative air ions (NAI) were monitored, and cardiorespiratory functions were measured. Mixed-effect models were used to establish associations between exposures and health parameters. Real purification significantly decreased PM and BC, e.g. PM0.5, PM2.5, PM10 and BC were decreased by 48%, 44%, 34% and 50%, respectively. O3 levels were unchanged, while NAI was increased from 12 cm-3 to 12,997 cm-3. Real purification was associated with a 4.4% increase in forced exhaled volume in 1 s (FEV1) and a 14.7% decrease in fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO). However, heart rate variability (HRV) was altered negatively. Interaction effects of NAI and PM were observed only on HRV, and alterations in HRV were greater with high NAI. Ionization air purifier could bring substantial respiratory benefits, however, the potential negative effects on HRV need further investigation.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Ionização do Ar , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fuligem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1079, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that providing generalized information about the health implications of air pollution from fossil fuels may be effective at promoting public support for a transition to cleaner sources of energy. We sought to extend that work by identifying the specific messages about the health implications of air pollution from fossil fuels that are most and least concerning to people, and whether rankings of concern vary among different audiences. We also hypothesized that reading the statements would influence people's attitudes and behavioral intentions in a manner supportive of a transition to cleaner sources of energy. METHODS: We conducted a survey with a diverse sample of U.S. adults (n = 1644) from a non-probability internet panel. Using maximum difference scaling, participants ranked a set of ten statements that revealed which statements were the most and least concerning to them. We also measured attitudes about air pollution and energy use before and after the ranking exercise to assess changes in opinion caused by cumulative exposure to the messages. RESULTS: Across all sub-groups examined, participants were most concerned by a message about the neurological impacts of air pollution on babies and children. After the ranking exercise, participants expressed increases in perceived health harm of air pollution and fossil fuels, a desire for more clean energy, and intention to engage in consumer advocacy to support clean energy. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess how people respond to information about the neurological health harms of air pollution from fossil fuels. While efforts to communicate the cardio-pulmonary health harms of air pollution are well established, our study suggests that efforts should now be organized to communicate the neurological effects of air pollution from fossil fuels, especially the neuro-developmental effects on babies and children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Combustíveis Fósseis/toxicidade , Comunicação em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Res ; 177: 108660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have estimated the association between meteorological factors and mumps outbreaks without assessing the influence of air pollution. In this research, we explored the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on the incidence of mumps. METHODS: Our time-series analysis was conducted using data collected in Wuhan, China from 2015 to 2017. Daily number of mumps cases was obtained from Disease Reporting System in Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data on air pollution was obtained from 10 national air quality monitoring stations, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). Daily meteorological data including temperature and relative humidity were obtained from Hubei Meteorological Bureau. We performed a Poisson regression in generalized additive models (GAM) to explore the association between the incidence of mumps and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: We observed that the effects of air pollutants were statistically significant mainly in two periods, lag 0 to lag 5 and lag 20 to lag 25, with the strongest effects appearing at lag 2 and lag 23. The cumulative effects were stronger than single-day lag effects. The stratified analysis showed the effect of pollutants during the hot season was stronger than that during the cold season, especially for NO2 and SO2. CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to NO2 and SO2 was significantly associated with higher risk of developing mumps. Our findings could help deepen the understanding of how air pollution exposure affects the incidence of mumps.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
10.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 705-715, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic evaluation of the results of time-series studies of air pollution is challenged by differences in model specification and publication bias. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of inhalable particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) and fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries or regions. Daily data on mortality and air pollution were collected from 652 cities in 24 countries or regions. We used overdispersed generalized additive models with random-effects meta-analysis to investigate the associations. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. Concentration-response curves from each city were pooled to allow global estimates to be derived. RESULTS: On average, an increase of 10 µg per cubic meter in the 2-day moving average of PM10 concentration, which represents the average over the current and previous day, was associated with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.50) in daily all-cause mortality, 0.36% (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.43) in daily cardiovascular mortality, and 0.47% (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58) in daily respiratory mortality. The corresponding increases in daily mortality for the same change in PM2.5 concentration were 0.68% (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77), 0.55% (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.66), and 0.74% (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95). These associations remained significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants. Associations were stronger in locations with lower annual mean PM concentrations and higher annual mean temperatures. The pooled concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily mortality with increasing PM concentration, with steeper slopes at lower PM concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show independent associations between short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in more than 600 cities across the globe. These data reinforce the evidence of a link between mortality and PM concentration established in regional and local studies. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Risco
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(8): 817-823, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378042

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the association between the exposure to major air pollutants in pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy (peri-conceptional period) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: From March 2015 to April 2018, 4 817 pregnancies were recruited at three prenatal check-ups hospital in Hefei (Hefei First People's Hospital, Hefei. Maternal and Child Care Hospital and the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University), China. Questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data, the health status and lifestyle of pregnant women. GDM was diagnosed according to the Chinese Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (2017 Edition). Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of exposure to major air pollutants (PM(2.5), PM(10), SO(2), CO and NO(2)) during different periods of pre-pregnancy (12 weeks before pregnancy) and first trimester (12 weeks after last menstruation) and duration of exposure to high levels of pollutants with GDM. Results: The mean±SD of the age of subjects was (29.14±4.19) years old and the prevalence of GDM was 21.4% (n=1 030). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for confounding factors, the risk of GDM increased gradually with the prolonged exposure time of high-concentration pollutants compared with pregnant women who were not exposed to high pollution during the pre-pregnancy (χ(2)=61.28, P(trend)<0.001) with the OR (95%CI) values for exposure time of 1, 2, and 3 months about 1.42 (1.10-1.84), 1.73 (1.29-2.33), and 2.51 (1.75-3.59), respectively. In the pre-pregnancy period, in every 10 µg/m(3) increase of PM(2.5) and PM(10), the OR (95%CI) values of GDM were 1.14 (1.08-1.20) and 1.13 (1.08-1.19), respectively; for each increase of 1 µg/m(3) and 0.10 mg/m(3) of SO(2) and CO, the OR (95% CI) values of GDM were 1.03 (1.01-1.05) and 1.07 (1.01-1.13), respectively. For every 1 µg/m(3) increase in the average concentration of SO(2) in the first trimester, the OR (95%CI) value of GDM was 1.02 (1.01-1.05). Conclusion: PM(2.5), PM(10), SO(2) and CO exposure during the pre-pregnancy and SO(2) exposure in first trimester were positively correlated with the risk of GDM.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
JAMA ; 322(6): 546-556, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408135

RESUMO

Importance: While air pollutants at historical levels have been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, it is not known whether exposure to contemporary air pollutant concentrations is associated with progression of emphysema. Objective: To assess the longitudinal association of ambient ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and black carbon exposure with change in percent emphysema assessed via computed tomographic (CT) imaging and lung function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Air and Lung Studies conducted in 6 metropolitan regions of the United States, which included 6814 adults aged 45 to 84 years recruited between July 2000 and August 2002, and an additional 257 participants recruited from February 2005 to May 2007, with follow-up through November 2018. Exposures: Residence-specific air pollutant concentrations (O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon) were estimated by validated spatiotemporal models incorporating cohort-specific monitoring, determined from 1999 through the end of follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percent emphysema, defined as the percent of lung pixels less than -950 Hounsfield units, was assessed up to 5 times per participant via cardiac CT scan (2000-2007) and equivalent regions on lung CT scans (2010-2018). Spirometry was performed up to 3 times per participant (2004-2018). Results: Among 7071 study participants (mean [range] age at recruitment, 60 [45-84] years; 3330 [47.1%] were men), 5780 were assigned outdoor residential air pollution concentrations in the year of their baseline examination and during the follow-up period and had at least 1 follow-up CT scan, and 2772 had at least 1 follow-up spirometric assessment, over a median of 10 years. Median percent emphysema was 3% at baseline and increased a mean of 0.58 percentage points per 10 years. Mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and NOx, but not O3, decreased substantially during follow-up. Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon at study baseline were significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema per 10 years (O3: 0.13 per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.03-0.24]; PM2.5: 0.11 per 2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.03-0.19]; NOx: 0.06 per 10 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.01-0.12]; black carbon: 0.10 per 0.2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.01-0.18]). Ambient O3 and NOx concentrations, but not PM2.5 concentrations, during follow-up were also significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema. Ambient O3 concentrations, but not other pollutants, at baseline and during follow-up were significantly associated with a greater decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second per 10 years (baseline: 13.41 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.7-26.1]; follow-up: 18.15 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 1.59-34.71]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study conducted between 2000 and 2018 in 6 US metropolitan regions, long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants was significantly associated with increasing emphysema assessed quantitatively using CT imaging and lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carbono/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 153(3): 100-105, ago. 2019. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183431

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Actualmente en España, la quema del carbón sigue siendo una de las fuentes principales de electricidad. Su combustión genera la emisión de múltiples sustancias nocivas, entre ellas, las partículas PM2,5 que se han relacionado con incrementos en morbimortalidad cardiovascular. Los objetivos del estudio son: 1) determinar la distribución geográfica nacional de dichas partículas y su posible asociación con la proximidad a las centrales térmicas de carbón y 2) estimar el impacto sobre la salud cardiovascular derivado de las emisiones de partículas PM2,5 de las centrales térmicas de carbón en España durante el año 2014. Métodos: Para realizar el estudio de dispersión de los contaminantes atmosféricos procedentes de las centrales térmicas se empleó el modelo matemático CALPUFF. Los datos demográficos y epidemiológicos se obtuvieron del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Se emplearon metodologías validadas en el ámbito internacional para valorar la asociación contaminante-respuesta. Resultados: El número total de defunciones atribuibles al carbón fue de 709 casos, de los cuales 586 (82,6%) se relacionaron con las partículas PM2,5. La mayor parte de ellas fueron debidas a infartos, ictus fatales y a insuficiencia cardiaca, que constituyeron un total de 170 de las muertes por PM2,5 (29%). Las tasas de incidencia más elevadas se observaron en Asturias y Castilla y León. Conclusiones: Este estudio describe un aumento de morbimortalidad cardiovascular en España relacionada con las emisiones procedentes de la quema de carbón. Refleja como aquellas comunidades con mayor presencia de centrales térmicas (Asturias y Castilla y León) fueron las más afectadas y extrapola que sus habitantes tienen un mayor riesgo de mortalidad por exposición a partículas PM2,5


Introduction and objectives: One of the main sources of energy in Spain is still coal combustion. It releases multiple pollutants into the atmosphere, such as PM2.5, that has been linked to an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to determine the national distribution of these particles and their proximity to coal plants, 2) to estimate the cardiovascular impact of PM2.5 particles in Spain in 2014. Methods: In order to complete the national pollutant dispersion study, we used the CALPUFF model. The epidemiologic and demographic data were obtained from the National Statistics Institute. The associations «pollutant-effect» were obtained by internationally validated methodologies. Results: The total number of deaths due to coal pollutants were 709, from which 586 (82.6%) were related to PM2.5 particles. Most of them were due to myocardial infarctions, fatal strokes and heart failure, adding up to 170 cases of mortality related to PM2.5 (29%). The greatest densities were found in the regions of Asturias and Castilla y León. Conclusions: This study describes an increase in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Spain, due to coal combustion pollutants. It finds a greater impact in the provinces of Asturias and Castilla León, where a higher presence of coal power plants can be found. This reflects that the people that live in those areas have a greater risk of cardiovascular death due to PM2.5 pollutant exposure from coal


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Centrais Termelétricas , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Centrais Elétricas , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27444-27456, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327144

RESUMO

Air pollution represents a major health problem in megacities, bringing about 8 million deaths every year. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo the ocular and respiratory mucosa biological response after chronic exposure to urban air particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA). BALB/c mice were exposed to UAP-BA or filtered air for 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. After exposure, histology, histomorphometry, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokine level were evaluated in the respiratory and ocular mucosa. Total cell number and differential cell count were determined in the brochoalveolar lavage fluid. In the lung, chronic exposure to UAP-BA induced reduction of the alveolar space, polymorhonuclear cell recruitment, and goblet cell hyperplasia. In the ocular surface, UAP-BA induced an initial mucin positive cells rise followed by a decline through time, while IL-6 level increased at the latest point-time assayed. Our results showed that the respiratory and the ocular mucosas respond differently to UAP-BA. Being that lung and ocular mucosa diseases may be triggered and/or exacerbated by chronic exposure to urban air PM, the inhabitants of Buenos Aires whom are chronically exposed to environmental urban air pollution may be considered a subpopulation at risk. Based on our results, we propose the ocular mucosa as a reliable and more accessible surrogate for pulmonary mucosa environmental toxicity that might also serve as an earlier biomarker for air pollution adverse impact on health.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Animais , Argentina , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Olho/patologia , Feminino , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Urbanização
16.
Pneumologie ; 73(7): 407-429, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291669

RESUMO

The third part of the DGP statement introduces the current body of knowledge on less studied health outcomes associated with exposure to ambient air pollution: the negative impact on metabolism leading to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes as well as contribution to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and delayed cognitive function in children. Furthermore, prenatal exposure and adverse effects on mother and child are addressed. Finally, the currently discussed biological mechanisms underlying various health effects associated with exposure to air pollution are described.Differing, but often complementary biological mechanisms create the basis for the diverse health outcomes caused by air pollution. Oxidative stress and a subclinical inflammatory response in the lungs and on a systemic level ("low-grade systemic inflammation") are considered to be key mechanisms. They promote secondary alterations in the body, such as vascular or metabolic processes, and may also result in the currently studied epigenetic phenomena or neuroinflammation. In this context, the health significance of soluble particulate matter and the role of ultrafine particles translocated across biological membranes into blood vessel and transported via the circulation to secondary target organs, such as liver, brain or the fetus, are intensively discussed.Diabetes is one of the leading chronic diseases worldwide, with a prevalence of almost 14 % in Germany. Although lifestyle factors are the main causes, current evidence suggests that long-term exposure to air pollution may additionally increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Supporting evidence for a causal role of air pollution is provided by studies addressing the regulation of the blood glucose levels in metabolically healthy participants, insulin sensitivity, or pregnancy-related diabetes. Experimental studies provide further support for plausible biological mechanisms. However, prospective studies are needed to gain more evidence, taking multiple lifestyle and environmental factors, such as green space and noise, and an improved individual exposure assessment into account.The aging population has an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases. First studies point towards a contribution of chronic exposure to air pollution, specifically by particulate matter. Several studies report its association with decreased neurocognitive capacity or an increased prevalence of dementia or Alzheimer's disease in adults. However, the studies are inhomogeneous regarding design, exposure and outcome, leading to inconsistent results. With respect to the influence on neurocognitive development of children, first studies suggest an association between the level of air pollution, e. g. at school, and delayed cognitive development.Even though the evidence for the different biological endpoints during pregnancy is still heterogeneous, the studies generally point towards an adverse impact of air pollution on the maternal and fetal organisms. The strongest evidence exists for low birth weight, with small effect sizes of only some grams, and for a higher incidence of reduced birth weight (< 2500 g). An increased risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia underscores the possible impact of exposure to air pollution on the maternal organism. However, the current body of evidence does not yet allow a final conclusion on the influence of intrauterine exposure to air pollution regarding early childhood lung function and development of allergies, particularly in light of the fact that it is hard to distinguish in epidemiological studies between the effects of pre- and postnatal exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(4): 553-567, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study explores the association between self-reported exposure to traffic-related air pollution and respiratory health symptoms, as well as lung functions and skin prick tests in adolescents living in the vicinity of main roads. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data in the study were acquired using a cross-sectional study conducted between 2004-2005 in Chorzów (Silesia, Poland) among adolescents (N = 936) aged 13-15 years, attending junior high schools. Adverse respiratory health symptoms and exposure to traffic-related air pollution were determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Moreover, all children underwent spirometry and skin prick tests. Multivariable logistic regression with multiple imputation for missing data was used to assess the prevalence of adverse respiratory symptoms in relation to self-reported exposure to traffic-related air pollution, adjusted for socioeconomic and environmental factors. RESULTS: Among respiratory tract diseases, asthma and allergic rhinitis associations were statistically significant (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.12-4.15 and OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08-2.64, respectively). Likewise, among respiratory disorders, statistically significant associations were found in the case of wheezes and dyspnea attack (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.10-2.26 and OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.56-3.66, respectively), with respect to the vicinity of the main road. Living in the area with high traffic intensity was statistically significantly associated with a higher prevalence of asthma and wheezes (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.22-4.39 and 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.01, respectively). The results obtained did not confirm the relationship between the adopted way of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung function indices or skin prick tests. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the study suggest that children living in the area with intense traffic are more likely to develop respiratory disorders. Moreover, the vicinity of a main road as well as traffic intensity could be suitable in assessing the relationship between road transport and potential health problems among exposed inhabitants. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(4):553-67.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Sons Respiratórios , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/etiologia , Testes Cutâneos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emissões de Veículos
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 2): 272, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254074

RESUMO

PM2.5 air pollution is a significant issue for human health all over the world, especially in East Asia. A large number of ground-based measurement sites have been established over the last decade to monitor real-time PM2.5 concentration. However, even this enhanced observational network leaves many gaps in characterizing the PM2.5 spatial distribution. Machine learning provides a variety of algorithms to help deal with these large spatial gaps-combining both remotely sensed and in situ observation data to estimate the global PM2.5 concentration. This study used a PM2.5 data product of six regions from the results of an unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM) with optimized ensemble learning approaches to highlight the most important meteorological and surface variables associated with PM2.5 concentration. These variables were then examined via multiple linear regression models to provide physical mechanistic insights into the morphology of the PM2.5 annual cycles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aprendizado de Máquina , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Algoritmos , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
19.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 384-390, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230552

RESUMO

Although ambient air pollution may increase hypertension risk through endothelial damage and oxidative stress, evidence is inconsistent regarding its effect on hypertension in pregnancy. Prior research has evaluated a limited scope of pollution species and often not differentiated preeclampsia, which may have a placental origin, from gestational hypertension. Among 49 607 women with at least 2 singleton deliveries in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Consecutive Pregnancies Study (2002-2010), we estimated criteria pollutant and volatile organic compound levels during pregnancy using Community Multiscale Air Quality models and abstracted gestational hypertension and preeclampsia diagnoses from medical records. Generalized estimating equations accounted for repeat pregnancies and adjusted for ambient temperature and maternal age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, parity, insurance, marital status, and asthma. Air pollution levels were low to moderate (eg, median 41.6 ppb [interquartile range, 38.9-43.7 ppb] for ozone and 35.1 ppb [28.9-40.3 ppb] for nitrogen oxides). Higher levels of most criteria pollutants during preconception and the first trimester were associated with lower preeclampsia risk, while higher second-trimester levels were associated with greater gestational hypertension risk. For example, an interquartile increase in first-trimester carbon monoxide was associated with a relative risk of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.81-0.95) for preeclampsia and second-trimester carbon monoxide a relative risk of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.07-1.22) for gestational hypertension. Volatile organic compounds, conversely, were not associated with gestational hypertension but consistently associated with higher preeclampsia risk. These findings further suggest air pollution may affect the development of hypertension in pregnancy, although differing causes of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension may alter these relationships.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/diagnóstico , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Incidência , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223389

RESUMO

Introduction: Air pollution is a global health problem. It's responsible for over 4 million deaths each year and constitutes a risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARI). The aims of this study was to assess knowledge about air pollution, and to determine environmental risk factors associated with ARIs occurence in the city of Bamenda, Cameroon. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study and performed a rectrospective analysis of ARI consultation within the period March 2016 to July 2016 in the Bamenda Health District. We interviewd 201 patients and recorded 1849 cases from hospital registers of patients diagnosed ARI from January 2013 to April 2016. Epi-info 7.2 was used for data entry and analysis. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the importance of the different environmental risk factors. Results: Over 70% of the participants used at least a form of solid fuel for cooking. The Odds of developing an ARI was 3.62 greater among those exposed to indoor cooking compared to the unexposed (OR 3.62, CI 1.45-4.90). Participants exposed to open fire burning were 1.91 times more like to develop ARI compared to unexposed (OR: 1.91, CI 1.03-3.55: p : 0.03). Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) levels was 13.2 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels. Dry and dusty weathers increased the risk of ARIs (OR 3.24; CI 1.47-7.13). The prevalence of ARIs in the Bamenda Health District was 6% of all consultations. Conclusion: Using solid fuels in poorly ventilated homes increase the total air particle suspension indoor. Inhalling this poor air irritates the repiratory tract, eyes while longterm exposure increases the odds of cancers. Ventilating homes with indoor cooking space reduces exposure while using clean fuels like electricity reduces the odds of ARI associated with pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Ventilação/métodos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Adulto Jovem
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