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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1524, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmia is a common cardiovascular event that is associated with increased cardiovascular health risks. Previous studies that have explored the association between air pollution and arrhythmia have obtained inconsistent results, and the association between the two in China is unclear. METHODS: We collected daily data on air pollutants and meteorological factors from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2016, along with daily outpatient visits for arrhythmia in Hangzhou, China. We used a quasi-Poisson regression along with a distributed lag nonlinear model to study the association between air pollution and arrhythmia morbidity. RESULTS: The results of the single-pollutant model showed that each increase of 10 µg/m3 of Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), Coarse particulate matter (PM10), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and Ozone (O3) resulted in increases of 0.6% (- 0.9, 2.2%), 0.7% (- 0.4, 1.7%), 11.9% (4.5, 19.9%), 6.7% (3.6, 9.9%), and - 0.9% (- 2.9, 1.2%), respectively, in outpatient visits for arrhythmia; each increase of 1 mg/m3 increase of carbon monoxide (CO) resulted in increase of 11.3% (- 5.9, 31.6%) in arrhythmia. The short-term effects of air pollution on arrhythmia lasted 3 days, and the most harmful effects were observed on the same day that the pollution occurred. Results of the subgroup analyses showed that SO2 and NO2 affected both men and women, but differences between the sexes were not statistically significant. The effect of SO2 on the middle-aged population was statistically significant. The effect of NO2 was significant in both the young and middle-aged population, and no significant difference was found between them. Significant effects of air pollution on arrhythmia were only detected in the cold season. The results of the two-pollutants model and the single-pollutant model were similar. CONCLUSIONS: SO2 and NO2 may induce arrhythmia, and the harmful effects are primarily observed in the cold season. There is no evidence of PM2.5, PM10, CO and O3 increasing arrhythmia risk. Special attention should be given to sensitive populations during the high-risk period.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5378-5381, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019197

RESUMO

This paper investigates the association between consecutive ambient air pollution and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) hospitalization in Chengdu China. The three-year (2015-2017) time series data for both ambient air pollutant concentrations and COPD hospitalizations in Chengdu are approved for the study. The big data statistic analysis shows that Air Quality Index (AQI) exceeded the lighted air polluted level in Chengdu region are mainly attributed to particulate matters (i.e., PM2.5 and PM10). The time series study for consecutive ambient air pollutant concentrations reveal that AQI, PM2.5, and PM10 are significantly positive correlated, especially when the number of consecutive polluted days is greater than nine days. The daily COPD hospitalizations for every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 indicate that consecutive ambient air pollution can lead to an appearance of an elevation of COPD admissions, and also present that dynamic responses before and after the peak admission are different. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is then used to describe the dynamics of COPD hospitalizations to consecutive ambient air pollution. These findings will be further developed for region specific, hospital early notifications of COPD in responses to consecutive ambient air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(9): 994-1000, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031087

RESUMO

Mozambique is located on the East Coast of Africa and was one of the last countries affected by COVID-19. The first case was reported on 22 March 2020 and since then the cases have increased gradually as they have in other countries worldwide. Environmental and population characteristics have been analyzed worldwide to understand their possible association with COVID-19. This article seeks to highlight the evolution and the possible contribution of risk factors for COVID-19 severity according to the available data in Mozambique. The available data highlight that COVID-19 severity can be magnified mainly by hypertension, obesity, cancer, asthma, HIV/SIDA and malnutrition conditions, and buffered by age (youthful population). Due to COVID-19 epidemic evolution, particularly in Cabo Delgado, there is the need to increase laboratory diagnosis capacity and monitor compliance of preventive measures. Particular attention should be given to Cabo Delgado, including its isolation from other provinces, to overcome local transmission and the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
4.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(5): 496-499, sept.-oct. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191742

RESUMO

In late 2019, a new infectious disease (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China, which has now turned into a global pandemic. Countries around the world have implemented some type of blockade to lessen their infection and mitigate it. The blockade due to COVID-19 has drastic effects on the social and economic fronts. However, recent data released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Copernicus Sentinel-5P Tropomi Instrument and Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) indicate that the pollution in some of the epicenters of COVID-19, such as Wuhan, Italy, Spain, USA, and Brazil, reduced by up to 30%. This study compiled the environmental data released by these centers and discussed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on environmental pollution


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias
5.
Environ Res ; 189: 109949, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980021

RESUMO

Sustainable development calls for a blue sky with quality air. Encouragingly, the current mass reduction-oriented pollution control is making substantial achievements, as the data from Chinese Environmental Monitoring Stations show a significant drop in the annual average concentrations of particulate matters (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5) and SO2. But many challenges and knowledge gaps are still confronted nowadays. On one hand, long-term health impacts of fine air particles have to be closely probed through both epidemiological and laboratory studies, and the toxic effects owing to the interactions between particles and associated chemical pollutants should be differentially teased out. On the other hand, due to sole mass control, there are significant changes of overall pollutant fingerprint, such as the increase of ground-level ozone concentration, which should be taken into account for altered health effects relative to the past. Moreover, the interplays with air pollutants and air-borne pathogens should be scrutinized in more details. In other words, it is worth investigating likely spread of pathogens (even for SARS-CoV-2) with aid of aerosols. Here, we recapitulate the current knowledge gaps between air pollution controls and health impacts including pathogen epidemic, and we also propose future research directions to support policy making in balance mass control and health impacts.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22245, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CMS recently decided to produce private "healthcare disparities reports" that include dual eligibility (DE) as the sole stratifying variable used to assess pneumonia readmission disparities. RESEARCH DESIGN: We measure the relationship between DE status and readmissions, both with and without conceptually relevant social risk factors, including air pollution, severe housing problems, and food insecurity, using data from county- and hospital-level readmission rates, DE status, and social risk factors. RESULTS: At the county level, the relationship between DE status and readmissions is partially confounded by at least three social risk factors. DE populations vary widely across hospitals, creating unequal between-hospital comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Because of differences in the DE population, between-hospital comparisons could be misleading using a methodology that stratifies by DE only. We suggest viable alternatives to sole-factor stratification to properly account for social risk factors and better isolate quality differences that might yield readmission rate inequities. IMPLICATIONS: CMS's healthcare disparities reports provided to hospitals are limited by relying exclusively on DE proportion as the measure of social risk, undercutting the power of quality measurement and its related incentives to close or minimize healthcare inequities.


Assuntos
Definição da Elegibilidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Medicaid/organização & administração , Medicare/organização & administração , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Habitação , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente , Pneumonia/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
8.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 117-121, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965261

RESUMO

The state of environmental hygiene of the urban dwelling environment plays a great role in the population health formation. The atmospheric air pollutants are among the principal factors affecting the immune system and provoking the development of a whole series of diseases. A wide distribution in a risk assessment system has gained a bio-monitoring methodology-based analysis for detecting toxic substances in human bio-substrates. For this purpose, a hair microelement analysis was conducted by an X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry technique to detect the content of lead in the bodies of children living in Tbilisi City under different conditions of environmental hygiene (according to the atmospheric air pollution degree). The average content of lead in the body of the children under study (according to hair analysis results) was found to be less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC). At that, the content of lead in the children of the experimental group is 2,6-times more as compared with the control group, which is statistically reliable (Р<0,005). A strong dependence of the body lead content dynamics on the state of air pollution with toxic substances in the dwelling areas of the children under study was found. The obtained results should be considered as one of the grounds for developing complex measures aimed at improving the large city environment, in particular the state of its atmospheric air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 95001, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of developing or dying from coronavirus-2 (COVID-19). Methodological approaches to investigate the health impacts of air pollution on epidemics should differ from those used for chronic diseases, but the methods used in these studies have not been appraised critically. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to identify and critique the methodological approaches of studies of air pollution on infections and mortality due to COVID-19 and to identify and critique the methodological approaches of similar studies concerning severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Published and unpublished papers of associations between air pollution and developing or dying from COVID-19 or SARS that were reported as of 10 May 2020 were identified through electronic databases, internet searches, and other sources. RESULTS: All six COVID-19 studies and two of three SARS studies reported positive associations. Two were time series studies that estimated associations between daily changes in air pollution, one was a cohort that assessed associations between air pollution and the secondary spread of SARS, and six were ecological studies that used area-wide exposures and outcomes. Common shortcomings included possible cross-level bias in ecological studies, underreporting of health outcomes, using grouped data, the lack of highly spatially resolved air pollution measures, inadequate control for confounding and evaluation of effect modification, not accounting for regional variations in the timing of outbreaks' temporal changes in at-risk populations, and not accounting for nonindependence of outcomes. DISCUSSION: Studies of air pollution and novel coronaviruses have relied mainly on ecological measures of exposures and outcomes and are susceptible to important sources of bias. Although longitudinal studies with individual-level data may be imperfect, they are needed to adequately address this topic. The complexities involved in these types of studies underscore the need for careful design and for peer review. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7411.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Viés , Surtos de Doenças , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4229, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843631

RESUMO

Scarlet fever has resurged in China starting in 2011, and the environment is one of the potential reasons. Nationwide data on 655,039 scarlet fever cases and six air pollutants were retrieved. Exposure risks were evaluated by multivariate distributed lag nonlinear models and a meta-regression model. We show that the average incidence in 2011-2018 was twice that in 2004-2010 [RR = 2.30 (4.40 vs. 1.91), 95% CI: 2.29-2.31; p < 0.001] and generally lower in the summer and winter holiday (p = 0.005). A low to moderate correlation was seen between scarlet fever and monthly NO2 (r = 0.21) and O3 (r = 0.11). A 10 µg/m3 increase of NO2 and O3 was significantly associated with scarlet fever, with a cumulative RR of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01-1.07), respectively, at a lag of 0 to 15 months. In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient NO2 and O3 may be associated with an increased risk of scarlet fever incidence, but direct causality is not established.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Escarlatina/diagnóstico , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dinâmica não Linear , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Escarlatina/etiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748812

RESUMO

The COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 pandemic struck health, social and economic systems worldwide, and represents an open challenge for scientists -coping with the high inter-individual variability of COVID-19, and for policy makers -coping with the responsibility to understand environmental factors affecting its severity across different geographical areas. Air pollution has been warned of as a modifiable factor contributing to differential SARS-CoV-2 spread but the biological mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are still unknown. Air quality and COVID-19 epidemiological data from 110 Italian provinces were studied by correlation analysis, to evaluate the association between particulate matter (PM)2.5 concentrations and incidence, mortality rate and case fatality risk of COVID-19 in the period 20 February-31 March 2020. Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence encoding the SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) was performed to identify consensus motifs for transcription factors mediating cellular response to pollutant insult. Positive correlations between PM2.5 levels and the incidence (r = 0.67, p < 0.0001), the mortality rate (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) and the case fatality rate (r = 0.7, p < 0.0001) of COVID-19 were found. The bioinformatic analysis of the ACE-2 gene identified nine putative consensus motifs for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Our results confirm the supposed link between air pollution and the rate and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and support the hypothesis that pollution-induced over-expression of ACE-2 on human airways may favor SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores Virais/genética , Regulação para Cima
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110923, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800210

RESUMO

Many studies have reported that exposure to ambient air pollution has adverse effects on health. However, there are little researches to explore the relationship between ambient air pollution and chronic sinusitis (CS). From January 1 2015 to December 31 2018, a time-series study were carried out to investigate the acute adverse roles of six criteria ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], inhalable particulate matter [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide [SO2], ozone [O3], and carbon monoxide [CO]) in hospital outpatients with CS in Xinxiang, China. Then, an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was utilized to analyzed the relationships. In total, 183,943 hospital outpatient cases of CS were identified during the study period. We found that a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO corresponded to 0.48% (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.74%), 0.33% (0.16-0.50%), 0.88% (0.13-1.62%), 1.98% (1.31-2.64%), and 0.05% (0.03-0.07%) increments, respectively, in CS outpatients on the current day. The young group (<15 years of age) was more susceptible than the adult or elderly groups. These results suggested that outdoor air pollutants might increase CS outpatient, especially among youth in Xinxiang. Precautions and protective measures should be strengthened to reduce the air pollution level in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Sinusite/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(7): 774-778, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842301

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of exposure of fine particle matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) in Beijing as the main pollutants on olfaction of SD rats. Methods: In October 16, 2018, twenty 8-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into two groups, 10 rats in the exposure group and 10 rats in the control group. They were fed in air pollutant exposure system and clean experimental environment respectively, and the concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 in each system were measured. The degree of olfaction damage of SD rats at different feeding time was assessed by using the buried food test (BFT). The difference of BFT time between the two groups was analyzed by performing the repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 in the exposure group were (22.65±11.47) µg/m3 and (12.36±5.87) µg/m3, respectively, while those in the control group were both 0 µg/m3. The repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the time of BFT in the exposure group was longer than that in the control group (F=6.49, P=0.031). With the increase of feeding time, the time of BFT was prolonged (F=61.69, P<0.001). Conclusion: Exposure to PM2.5 and O3 in the atmosphere might lead to olfaction damage in rats.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Animais , Pequim , Material Particulado/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Olfato
16.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(8): 608-614, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847336

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the short-term effects of ambient PM2.5 on the outpatient visits of allergic conjunctivitis among children in Shenzhen. Methods: It was a ecological study. Data on daily visits including date of visit, sex and age from children with allergic conjunctivitis were collected from Shenzhen Eye Hospital and Shenzhen Children's Hospital in 2018. Related data on air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) and meteorology (atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity) were also collected. Pearson correlation analysis was used for normal distribution data and Spearman rank correlation analysis was used for non-normal distribution data. Generalized additive model was used to estimate the impact of PM2.5 pollution on allergic conjunctivitis outpatients and the lagging effects. Results: In 2018, there were 16 133 allergic conjunctivitis outpatients in the two hospitals. The maximum age was 18 years and the minimum age was 2 months. Males accounted for 49.3%. The daily average concentration of PM2.5 was 22 (15, 31) µg/m3. Changes of the concentration of PM2.5 had a positive correlation with the amount of allergic conjunctivitis visits, and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.150 (P=0.004). The single pollutant model showed that the strongest effect appeared at 3 days (RR=1.111, 95%CI:1.071-1.152). A 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 would result in an excessive number of allergic conjunctivitis outpatients as much as 11.112% (95%CI:7.011%-15.212%). In the multiple air pollutants models, after the introduction of NO2, O3 and CO, the concentration of PM2.5 showed an enhanced effect on the number of hospital visits due to allergic conjunctivitis on the same day, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of the concentration of PM2.5 had a positive correlation with daily outpatient visits of allergic conjunctivitis among children in Shenzhen. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 608-614).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Conjuntivite Alérgica , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38491-38500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767014

RESUMO

There are inconsistent reports on the association between air pollution and cancers. This systematic review was, therefore, conducted to ascertain the relationship between air pollution and some cancers. This is a systematic review study, which all articles published in this area were extracted from January 1, 1950 to December 31, 2018 from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Google scholar. Searching was performed independently by two search-method experts. The required data were extracted from the articles by an author-made questionnaire. Forty-eight articles were investigated. Evidence linking air pollution to some cancers is limited. Leukemia had the highest association with exposure to various air pollutants and bladder cancer had the lowest association. It is noteworthy that the specific type of pollutants in all studies was not specified. Based on the findings, the results are contradictory, and the role of air pollution in some cancers cannot be supported. Accordingly, studies are recommended to be performed at the individual level or multifactorial studies to specifically investigate the relationship between air pollution and these types of cancers. In this way, the role of air pollution in the incidence of these cancers can be determined more accurately.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 140915, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745847

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests air pollutants may harm the central nervous system, potentially impacting mental health. However, such impacts of air pollutants on mental health and the sub-populations most affected remain poorly understood, especially in California. We examined the relationship between short-term ambient carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and mental health-related emergency department (ED) visits in California from 2005 to 2013. Daily mean concentrations of the pollutants were acquired from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System Data Mart ground monitoring data. Moving averages of pollutant concentrations were linked to counts of ED visits obtained from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. Seven mental health outcomes, defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, were studied: all mental disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, homicide/inflicted injury, and suicide/self-harm. Monitor-level associations were estimated with quasi-Poisson regression models and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. CO and NO2 were found to be positively associated with ED visits due to homicide/inflicted injury, with the warm season (May-October) driving the CO association. An interquartile range (IQR) (0.28 ppm) increase in two-day average CO during the warm season was associated with a 3.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 4.84) elevation in risk of an ED visit due to homicide/inflicted injury (n = 122,749 ED visits). An IQR (10.79 ppb) increase in two-day average NO2 was associated with a 2.60% (95% CI: 1.17, 4.05) elevation in risk of an ED visit due to homicide/inflicted injury (n = 206,919 ED visits). Subgroup analyses indicated children, Hispanics, and males were particularly vulnerable. Except for an inverse relationship between NO2 and substance abuse, neither pollutant was robustly associated with visits due to other mental health morbidities. Our results suggest short-term elevations in CO and NO2 may promote violent behavior. Further investigation in other populations and ranges of air pollution exposure is warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Óxido Nítrico , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estados Unidos
20.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(11): 1923-1931, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780156

RESUMO

We present results on a time-series study that analyzed the acute effects of six criteria air pollutants on hospital outpatient with chronic pharyngitis (CP) in Xinxiang, China. Data on the concentration of air pollutants and CP outpatient records were collected daily in Xinxiang, China, from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018. This study identified 62,823 outpatients with CP. The annual average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 are 75.7, 132.1, 33.2, 48.4, 1377, and 59.4 µg/m3, respectively. Further, a 10 µg/m3 increment in the concentration of PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO corresponds to an increase of 0.28% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.53%), 1.10% (95% CI: 0.09-2.11%), 1.82% (95% CI: 0.84-2.80%), and 0.03% (95% CI: 0.01-0.06%) in daily CP hospital outpatients, respectively. Furthermore, results indicated that outpatients under the age of 15 are more susceptible to the air pollutants, excluding O3. Meanwhile, males might be more susceptible, and effect estimates appear slightly stronger in the cool season. Therefore, we should implement effective measures to manage air pollutants and reinforce protection of the high-risk population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Faringite , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/análise , Faringite/epidemiologia
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