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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127595, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784061

RESUMO

Recent studies have focused on the chemistry of tropospheric halogen species which are able to deplete tropospheric ozone (O3). In this study, the effect of bromine and iodine chemistry on tropospheric O3 within the annual cycle in Asia-Pacific is investigated using the CMAQ model with the newly embedded bromine and iodine chemistry and a blended and customized emission inventory considering marine halogen emission. Results indicate that the vertical profiles of bromine and iodine species show distinct features over land/ocean and daytime/nighttime, related to natural and anthropogenic emission distributions and photochemical reactions. The halogen-mediated O3 loss has a strong seasonal cycle, and reaches a maximum of -15.9 ppbv (-44.3%) over the ocean and -13.4 ppbv (-38.9%) over continental Asia among the four seasons. Changes in solar radiation, dominant wind direction, and nearshore chlorophyll-a accumulation all contribute to these seasonal differences. Based on the distances to the nearest coastline, the onshore and offshore features of tropospheric O3 loss caused by bromine and iodine chemistry are studied. Across a coastline-centric 400-km-wide belt from onshore to offshore, averaged maximum gradient of O3 loss reaches 1.1 ppbv/100 km at surface level, while planetary boundary layer (PBL) column mean of O3 loss is more moderate, being approximately 0.7 ppbv/100 km. Relative high halogen can be found over Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the largest O3 loss (approximately 4-5 ppbv) in the PBL can be found between the western boundary of the domain and the TP. Halogens originating from marine sources can potentially affect O3 concentration transported from the stratosphere over the TP region. As part of efforts to improve our understanding of the effect of bromine and iodine chemistry on tropospheric O3, we call for more models and monitoring studies on halogen chemistry and be considered further in air pollution prevention and control policy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Iodo/análise , Ozônio/análise , Ásia , Bromo , Halogênios/química , Iodetos , Estações do Ano
2.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127835, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763581

RESUMO

This study evaluates the bioaccessibility and health risks related to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and metalloid As) in airborne dust samples (TSP and PM2.5) in Zabol, Iran during the summer dust period, when peak concentration levels of PM are typically observed. High bioaccessibilities of carcinogenic metals in PM2.5 (i.e. 53.3%, 48.6% and 47.6% for Ni, Cr and As, respectively) were calculated. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were assessed for three exposure pathways (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact), separately for children and adults. Non-carcinogenic inhalation risks were very high (Hazard Index: HI > 1) both for children and adults, while the carcinogenic risks were above the upper acceptable threshold of 10-4 for adults and marginally close (5.0-8.4 × 10-5) for children. High carcinogenic risks (>10-4) were found for the ingestion pathway both for children and adults, while HI values > 1 (8.2) were estimated for children. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk estimates for dermal contact were also above the limits considered acceptable, except for the carcinogenic risk for children (7.6 × 10-5). Higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks (integrated for all elements) were associated with the inhalation pathway in adults and children with the exception of carcinogenic risk for children, where the ingestion route remains the most important, while As was linked with the highest risks for nearly all exposure pathways. A comparative evaluation shows that health risks related with toxic elements in airborne particles in Sistan are among the highest reported in the world.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127884, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182102

RESUMO

Air pollution increases the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and respiratory mortality across China. However, the urban-rural differences in the associations between air pollution and mortality have not been clearly identified. In this study, a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to examine whether the air pollutants-mortality associations vary between urban and rural areas. Then, we used logistic regression analyses to evaluate the air pollutants-mortality relations. Also, generalized additive models were simulated to evaluate the nonlinear curves. Our results showed that the relative risks of air pollution-related mortality were generally higher in rural areas, where PM2.5 pollution was the dominant factor (p-value < 0.05). Mortality risks for all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory will increase when average annual PM2.5 concentrations exceed approximately 38 µg/m3, 41 µg/m3 and 41 µg/m3, respectively, all of which exceed the annual Grade II standards. In urban areas, PM10-2.5 and NO2 were associated with mortality (p-value < 0.05). We proposed some area-specific strategies for controlling the NO2 pollution and PM10-2.5 pollution in urban areas and the PM2.5 pollution in rural areas to eliminate the gaps. Our findings identify that rural residents are more sensitive to air pollution than urban residents in China, and this result challenges previous assumptions about the more adverse effects of urbanization on residents' health in developing countries.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Urbanização
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050278

RESUMO

At the end of 2019, the first cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were reported in Wuhan, China. Thereafter, the number of infected people increased rapidly, and the outbreak turned into a national crisis, with infected individuals all over the country. The COVID-19 global pandemic produced extreme changes in human behavior that affected air quality. Human mobility and production activities decreased significantly, and many regions recorded significant reductions in air pollution. The goal of our investigation was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the concentrations of the main air pollutants in the urban area of Palermo (Italy). In this study, the trends in the average concentrations of CO, NO2, O3, and PM10 in the air from 1 January 2020 to 31 July 2020 were compared with the corresponding average values detected at the same monitoring stations in Palermo during the previous five years (2015-2019). During the lockdown period (10 March-30 April), we observed a decrease in the concentrations of CO, NO2, and particulate matter (PM)10, calculated to be about 51%, 50%, and 45%, respectively. This confirms that air pollution in an urban area is predominantly linked to vehicular traffic.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , População Urbana , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16213, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004925

RESUMO

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the COVID-19 transmission in two large metropolitan areas in Northern Italy as Milan and Florence and in the autonomous province of Trento. Milan, capital of Lombardy region, it is considered the epicenter of the virus outbreak in Italy. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation (at lesser degree). In other words, COVID-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For those reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned indoor environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127310, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947673

RESUMO

We characterized the aerosol composition and sources of particulate matter (PM) in Sanmenxia, a polluted city located in the Fen-Wei Plain region of Central China. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by 18% from 72 µg m-3 in 2014 to 59 µg m-3 in 2019. All chemical species presented pronounced seasonal variations, with their highest concentrations in winter due to enhanced emissions and the frequent stagnant meteorological conditions. Nitrate was the major fraction of PM2.5 during all seasons (35-41%) except summer (25%), while sulfate was a dominant species in summer (29%) compared to other seasons (16-18%) from July 2018 to June 2019. The detailed analysis of a wintertime severe haze episode that lasted for approximately half a month demonstrated that secondary aerosols, including secondary organic aerosol, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, contributed 89% to non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1), indicating the remarkable role of secondary aerosol formation in air pollution in Sanmenxia. Positive matrix factorization analysis further showed considerably enhanced low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and hydrocarbon-like OA during severe haze episodes, while significant contributions in semi-volatile oxygenated OA and coal combustion OA during clean periods. Severe pollution events in the city were generally associated with air masses from the southwest, and we also found that aerosol species, especially secondary aerosol species, showed distinct forenoon increases that were caused by the subsidence of air pollutants aloft. Our results highlight that future air quality improvement would benefit substantially from a more efficient control of gaseous precursors, particularly the NOx emissions from industry and vehicle emissions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 378(2183): 20200188, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981442

RESUMO

We suggest that the unprecedented and unintended decrease of emissions of air pollutants during the COVID-19 lock-down in 2020 could lead to declining seasonal ozone concentrations and positive impacts on crop yields. An initial assessment of the potential effects of COVID-19 emission reductions was made using a set of six scenarios that variously assumed annual European and global emission reductions of 30% and 50% for the energy, industry, road transport and international shipping sectors, and 80% for the aviation sector. The greatest ozone reductions during the growing season reached up to 12 ppb over crop growing regions in Asia and up to 6 ppb in North America and Europe for the 50% global reduction scenario. In Europe, ozone responses are more sensitive to emission declines in other continents, international shipping and aviation than to emissions changes within Europe. We demonstrate that for wheat the overall magnitude of ozone precursor emission changes could lead to yield improvements between 2% and 8%. The expected magnitude of ozone precursor emission reductions during the Northern Hemisphere growing season in 2020 presents an opportunity to test and improve crop models and experimentally based exposure response relationships of ozone impacts on crops, under real-world conditions. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Air quality, past present and future'.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ozônio/análise , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039338, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A number of studies have shown that the airborne transmission route could spread some viruses over a distance of 2 meters from an infected person. An epidemic model based only on respiratory droplets and close contact could not fully explain the regional differences in the spread of COVID-19 in Italy. On March 16th 2020, we presented a position paper proposing a research hypothesis concerning the association between higher mortality rates due to COVID-19 observed in Northern Italy and average concentrations of PM10 exceeding a daily limit of 50 µg/m3. METHODS: To monitor the spreading of COVID-19 in Italy from February 24th to March 13th (the date of the Italian lockdown), official daily data for PM10 levels were collected from all Italian provinces between February 9th and February 29th, taking into account the maximum lag period (14 days) between the infection and diagnosis. In addition to the number of exceedances of the daily limit value of PM10, we also considered population data and daily travelling information for each province. RESULTS: Exceedance of the daily limit value of PM10 appears to be a significant predictor of infection in univariate analyses (p<0.001). Less polluted provinces had a median of 0.03 infections over 1000 residents, while the most polluted provinces showed a median of 0.26 cases. Thirty-nine out of 41 Northern Italian provinces resulted in the category with the highest PM10 levels, while 62 out of 66 Southern provinces presented low PM10 concentrations (p<0.001). In Milan, the average growth rate before the lockdown was significantly higher than in Rome (0.34 vs 0.27 per day, with a doubling time of 2.0 days vs 2.6, respectively), thus suggesting a basic reproductive number R0>6.0, comparable with the highest values estimated for China. CONCLUSION: A significant association has been found between the geographical distribution of daily PM10 exceedances and the initial spreading of COVID-19 in the 110 Italian provinces.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Correlação de Dados , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111035, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768746

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, with 11,669,259 positive cases and 539,906 deaths globally as of July 8, 2020. The objective of the present study was to determine whether meteorological parameters and air quality affect the transmission of COVID-19, analogous to SARS. We captured data from 29 provinces, including numbers of COVID-19 cases, meteorological parameters, air quality and population flow data, between Jan 21, 2020 and Apr 3, 2020. To evaluate the transmissibility of COVID-19, the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was calculated with the maximum likelihood "removal" method, which is based on chain-binomial model, and the association between COVID-19 and air pollutants or meteorological parameters was estimated by correlation analyses. The mean estimated value of R0 was 1.79 ± 0.31 in 29 provinces, ranging from 1.08 to 2.45. The correlation between R0 and the mean relative humidity was positive, with coefficient of 0.370. In provinces with high flow, indicators such as carbon monoxide (CO) and 24-h average concentration of carbon monoxide (CO_24 h) were positively correlated with R0, while nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 24-h average concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2_24 h) and daily maximum temperature were inversely correlated to R0, with coefficients of 0.644, 0.661, -0.636, -0.657, -0.645, respectively. In provinces with medium flow, only the weather factors were correlated with R0, including mean/maximum/minimum air pressure and mean wind speed, with coefficients of -0.697, -0.697, -0.697 and -0.841, respectively. There was no correlation with R0 and meteorological parameters or air pollutants in provinces with low flow. Our findings suggest that higher ambient CO concentration is a risk factor for increased transmissibility of the novel coronavirus, while higher temperature and air pressure, and efficient ventilation reduce its transmissibility. The effect of meteorological parameters and air pollutants varies in different regions, and requires that these issues be considered in future modeling disease transmissibility.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia)
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110923, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800210

RESUMO

Many studies have reported that exposure to ambient air pollution has adverse effects on health. However, there are little researches to explore the relationship between ambient air pollution and chronic sinusitis (CS). From January 1 2015 to December 31 2018, a time-series study were carried out to investigate the acute adverse roles of six criteria ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], inhalable particulate matter [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide [SO2], ozone [O3], and carbon monoxide [CO]) in hospital outpatients with CS in Xinxiang, China. Then, an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was utilized to analyzed the relationships. In total, 183,943 hospital outpatient cases of CS were identified during the study period. We found that a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO corresponded to 0.48% (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.74%), 0.33% (0.16-0.50%), 0.88% (0.13-1.62%), 1.98% (1.31-2.64%), and 0.05% (0.03-0.07%) increments, respectively, in CS outpatients on the current day. The young group (<15 years of age) was more susceptible than the adult or elderly groups. These results suggested that outdoor air pollutants might increase CS outpatient, especially among youth in Xinxiang. Precautions and protective measures should be strengthened to reduce the air pollution level in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Sinusite/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822345

RESUMO

China's rapid industrialization and urbanization have led to poor air quality, and air pollution has caused great concern among the Chinese public. Most analyses of air pollution trends in China are based on model simulations or satellite data. Studies using field observation data and focusing on the latest data from environmental monitoring stations covering the whole country to assess the latest trends of different pollutants in different regions are relatively rare. The State Council of China promulgated the toughest-ever Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (Action Plan) in 2013. This led to a major improvement in air quality. We use the hourly Air Quality Index (AQI) and mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, O3, and SO2 in 362 cities from 2015 to 2019, obtained from the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, to study their temporal and spatial changes and assess the effectiveness of the policy on the atmospheric environment since its promulgation and implementation. We found that the national and regional air quality in China continues to improve, with PM2.5, PM10, AQI, CO, and SO2 exhibiting negative trends. However, O3 and NO2 pollution is an urgent problem that needs to be solved and the current control strategy for PM2.5 will only partially reduce the PM2.5 pollution in the western region. Although the implementation of "Action Plan" measures has effectively improved air quality, China's air pollution is still serious and far from the WHO standard. Implementing measures for continuous and effective emissions control is still a top priority.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , China
15.
Public Health ; 185: 261-263, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence about characteristics that may increase the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, but they are highly correlated. METHODS: An ecological analysis was used to estimate associations between these variables and age-standardised COVID-19 mortality rates at the local authority level. RESULTS: Ethnicity, population density and overweight/obesity were all found to have strong independent associations with COVID-19 mortality, at the local authority level. DISCUSSION: This analysis provides some preliminary evidence about which variables are independently associated with COVID-19 mortality and suggests that others (deprivation and pollution) are not directly linked. It highlights the importance of multivariate analyses to understand the factors that increase vulnerability to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 177-183, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671431

RESUMO

Chengdu, a megacity in southwestern China, experiences severe air pollution; however, knowledge of the seasonal variation in mass concentration, extent of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) contamination, and sources caused by heavy metals remains lacking. This study adopted a weighting method to calculate the daily mass concentration of PM1 and used ICP-MS to determine PHE concentrations. Results indicated that PM1 mass concentration was in the range 5.44-105.91 µg/m3. Seasonal PM1 mass concentration could be arranged in the following order: winter > fall > spring > summer. The concentrations of PHEs in the PM1 sample mostly showed the same seasonal variation characteristics as mass concentration. The average concentration of each PHE decreased as follows: Cu (107.44) > Zn (81.52) > Pb (22.04) > As (8.17) > Sb (1.91) > Ni (1.87) > Cr(VI) (0.84) > Cd (0.40) > Tl (0.33) (ng/m3). Enrichment factor values varied markedly from mild to anomalous enrichment. Principal component analysis revealed mainly derived from the fossil fuel combustion (55.215%).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
17.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127482, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640380

RESUMO

Speciation of respirable particles is becoming increasingly important from an epidemiological and analytical point of view to determine the potential effects of air pollution on human health. For this reason, current laws and analytical sampling methods focus on particle size, as it turns out to be the main factor for the greater or lesser penetration into the airways. In this sense, particles of less than 10 µm in diameter (<10 µm), referred to as PM10, are the particles that have a higher capacity for access to the respiratory tract and, therefore, more significant effect on them. In this sense, one of the most important factors that have a key role in the PM10 atmospheric pollution effect is the dispersion effect with the direct influence of natural effects such as wind, rain, topography apart from others. In this work, PM10 data extracted from the Basque Government environmental stations (19 sampling points) in the Biscay province (Basque Country, north of Spain) were combined with the results obtained from the use of self-made passive samplers (SMPS) in the same sampling points areas and subsequently, the sample analysis with a non-invasive elemental technique (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry) was carried out. Thanks to this methodology, it was possible to determine a wide variety of metals in PM10 such as Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ti, etc. Most of them present as oxides and others as part of natural aggregations such as quartz, aluminosilicates, phosphates etc.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Metais/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Chuva , Espanha , Espectrometria por Raios X , Vento
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 18984-18990, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723816

RESUMO

The lockdown response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented reduction in global economic and transport activity. We test the hypothesis that this has reduced tropospheric and ground-level air pollution concentrations, using satellite data and a network of >10,000 air quality stations. After accounting for the effects of meteorological variability, we find declines in the population-weighted concentration of ground-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2: 60% with 95% CI 48 to 72%), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5: 31%; 95% CI: 17 to 45%), with marginal increases in ozone (O3: 4%; 95% CI: -2 to 10%) in 34 countries during lockdown dates up until 15 May. Except for ozone, satellite measurements of the troposphere indicate much smaller reductions, highlighting the spatial variability of pollutant anomalies attributable to complex NOx chemistry and long-distance transport of fine particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). By leveraging Google and Apple mobility data, we find empirical evidence for a link between global vehicle transportation declines and the reduction of ambient NO2 exposure. While the state of global lockdown is not sustainable, these findings allude to the potential for mitigating public health risk by reducing "business as usual" air pollutant emissions from economic activities. Explore trends here: https://nina.earthengine.app/view/lockdown-pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/economia , Emissões de Veículos/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127571, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721685

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to establish a method for predicting heavy metal concentrations in PM1 (aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) based on back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods. The annual average PM1 concentration was 26.31 µg/m3 (range: 7.00-73.40 µg/m3). The concentrations of most metals were higher in winter and lower in autumn and summer. Mn and Ni had the highest noncarcinogenic risk, and Cr the highest carcinogenic risk. The hazard index was below safe limit, and the integrated carcinogenic risk was less than precautionary value. There were no obvious differences in the simulation performances of BP-ANN and SVM models. However, in both models many elements had better simulation effects when input variables were atmospheric pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM2.5) rather than PM1 and meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and wind speed). Models performed better for Pb, Tl and Zn, as evidenced by training R and test R values consistently >0.85, whereas their performances for Ti and V were relatively poor. Predicted results by the fully trained models showed atmospheric heavy metal pollution was heavier in December and January and lighter in August and July of 2019. For the period covering the COVID-19 outbreak in China, from January to March 2020, most of the predicted element concentrations were lower than in 2018 and 2019, and the concentrations of nearly all metals were lowest during the nationwide implementation of countermeasures taken against the pandemic.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pandemias , Estações do Ano , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Vento
20.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 48(5): 496-499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636082

RESUMO

In late 2019, a new infectious disease (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China, which has now turned into a global pandemic. Countries around the world have implemented some type of blockade to lessen their infection and mitigate it. The blockade due to COVID-19 has drastic effects on the social and economic fronts. However, recent data released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Copernicus Sentinel-5P Tropomi Instrument and Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) indicate that the pollution in some of the epicenters of COVID-19, such as Wuhan, Italy, Spain, USA, and Brazil, reduced by up to 30%. This study compiled the environmental data released by these centers and discussed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Saúde Global , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores de Risco
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