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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134390, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the effect of ambient air pollution exposure on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is limited. No published studies have examined maternal weekly air pollution exposure and GDM, and the possible effect modification by folic acid supplementation has not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between air pollution exposure and GDM at trimester and weekly levels, and to explore the potential effect modification by folic acid supplementation. METHODS: A total of 5421 pregnant women were recruited during 2011-2014 in Guangzhou, China. Daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2 levels were collected from 10 monitoring stations. Individual's exposure during pregnancy was estimated using inverse-distance weighting approach. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the trimester-specific association between air pollution exposure and GDM. Distributed lag models (DLMs) were applied to estimate maternal weekly air pollution exposure and GDM. Stratified analyses by folic acid supplementation and interaction test were performed. RESULTS: The GDM incidence was 11.69%. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in first trimester SO2 was associated with increased GDM risk in the single pollutant model, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.22 (1.02-1.47). In DLMs, an IQR increase in SO2 during 4th to 10th gestational weeks was associated with increased GDM risk, with the strongest effect in the 7th gestational week. When stratified by maternal folic acid supplementation, first trimester exposure to SO2 was associated with increased GDM risk among women taking folic acid supplements (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.03-1.53) and P value for interaction was 0.13. No significant effects were observed for PM2.5, PM10 and NO2. CONCLUSION: First trimester exposure to SO2 was associated with increased GDM risk, especially during the 4th to 10th gestational weeks. The effect might be stronger among women taking folic acid supplements.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado , Gravidez
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134397, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677469

RESUMO

Children are vulnerable to air pollution-induced lung function deficits, and the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in children. To evaluate the joint effects of long-term PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) exposure and obesity on children's lung function, a cross-sectional sample of 6740 children (aged 7-14 years) was enrolled across seven northeastern Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013. Weight and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), were measured according to standardized protocols. Average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure levels were estimated using a spatiotemporal model, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) exposure were estimated using data from municipal air monitoring stations. Two-level logistic regression and general linear models were used to analyze the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and air pollutants. The results showed that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with lung function impairment and there were significant interactions with BMI. Associations were stronger among obese and overweight than normal weight participants (the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PM1 and lung function impairments in three increasing BMI categories were 1.50 (1.07-2.11) to 2.55 (1.59-4.07) for FVC < 85% predicted, 1.44 (1.03-2.01) to 2.51 (1.53-4.11) for FEV1 < 85% predicted, 1.34 (0.97-1.84) to 2.04 (1.24-3.35) for PEF < 75% predicted, and 1.34 (1.01-1.78) to 1.93 (1.26-2.95) for MMEF < 75% predicted). Consistent results were detected in linear regression models for PM1, PM2.5 and SO2 on FVC and FEV1 impairments (PInteraction < 0.05). These modification effects were stronger among females and older participants. These results can provide policy makers with more comprehensive information for to develop strategies for preventing air pollution induced children's lung function deficits among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre , Capacidade Vital
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134456, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734613

RESUMO

The state government of San Luis Potosí (SLP), Mexico implemented an improved cookstove (ICS) program in rural areas. As part of the comprehensive program evaluation, we compared fine particulate material (PM2.5) concentrations in kitchens and patios in treated (TH), and non-treated households (NTH), and analyzed pollutant levels according to patterns of fuels and devices use reported by the women. A panel study was conducted in 728 households (357 TH and 371 NTH) in three regions of SLP including two sampling rounds in 2015-16. Data on exposure determinants, ICS conditions and cooking practices were collected. Daily PM2.5 in kitchen and patio was measured in a subsample. The average treatment effect was estimated using the double difference method. We constructed a mixed linear model to estimate PM2.5 levels for the entire study sample and obtained personal exposure according to time-activity logs. NTH had lower socioeconomic status compared to TH. The average daily PM2.5 concentrations in NTH compared to TH were 155.2 and 92.6 µg/m3 for kitchen and 35.4 and 39.8 µg/m3 for patio, respectively. PM2.5 levels showed significant regional differences but no significant treatment effect. In many cases, the ICS was added to previous open fire and LPG use (stacking). The household size, kitchen ventilation, relative humidity, temperature and the ratio of indoor/outdoor PM2.5 concentration were significant predictors of kitchen PM2.5 levels. The daily PM2.5 personal exposure was significantly reduced using ICS in good conditions or LPG (57 µg/m3) compared to the traditional open fire (86 µg/m3). This study strengthens the evidence on the potential daily PM2.5 exposure reduction for women using an ICS in good conditions or LPG, displacing the polluting open fire. Comprehensive strategies tailored to the sociocultural context of the communities are needed to implement clean energy programs that achieve adoption and sustained use of ICS or LPG.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Culinária/instrumentação , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Culinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , México
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134315, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783453

RESUMO

Bioaerosol in the atmosphere plays a very important role in environment and public health. To forecast the bioaerosol concentration, the correlation between bioaerosol concentration and meteorological factors was discussed, and a Back Propagation (BP) neural network with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method was utilized in this study. The proposed method works in three steps. The first step is to compute the correlation between bioaerosol concentration and meteorological factors, which consists of analyzing correlation and selecting meteorological factors applied to the study of forecast model. The second step is to use PCA analysis to reduce the dimensions of meteorological dataset. The third step is to use BP neural network, setting up, training BP neural network and proving the feasibility of forecast model included. The results of our model in forecasting bioaerosol concentration show 10.55% of average relative error, 2.80 pieces/L (pcs/L) of average absolute error, and 84.01 grade of forecast accuracy, providing a promising model for the forecasting of bioaerosol concentration.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Atmosfera , Conceitos Meteorológicos
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 213-227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791494

RESUMO

Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and its surrounding areas are very important to air pollution control in China. To analyze the characteristics of BTH and its surrounding areas of China, we collected 5,641,440 air quality data from 161 air monitoring stations and 37,123,000 continuous monitoring data from air polluting enterprises in BTH and surrounding cities to establish an indicator system for urban air quality portraits. The results showed that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of <10 µm (PM10) and SO2 improved significantly in 31 cities from 2015 to 2018, but ozone deteriorated. Air quality in BTH and the surrounding areas showed obvious seasonal characteristics, among which PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 showed a "U" type distribution from January to December, while O3 had an "inverted U" distribution. The hourly changes in air quality revealed that peaks of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 appeared from 8:00 to 10:00, while those for O3 appeared at 15:00-16:00. The exposure characteristics of the 31 cities showed that six districts in Beijing had the highest air quality population exposure, and that exposure levels in Zhengzhou, Puyang, Anyang, Jincheng were higher than the average of the 31 investigated cities. Additionally, multiple linear regression revealed a negative correlation between meteorological factors (especially wind and precipitation) and air quality, while a positive correlation existed between industrial pollution emissions and air quality in most of BTH and its surrounding cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/análise
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 377-388, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791510

RESUMO

Up to 1980s, the most used preservative for herbaria specimens was HgCl2, sublimating at ambient air conditions; ionic Hg then reduces to Hg0 (gaseous elemental mercury, GEM) and diffuses throughout poor ventilated environments. High GEM levels may indeed persist for decades, representing a health hazard. In this study, we present new GEM data from the Central Italian Herbarium and Tropical Herbarium Studies Centre of the University of Florence (Italy). These herbaria host one of the largest collection of plants in the world. Here, HgCl2 was documented as plant preservative up to the 1920s. GEM surveys were conducted in July 2013 and July and December 2017, to account for temporal and seasonal variations. Herbaria show GEM concentrations well above those of external locations, with peak levels within specimen storage cabinets, exceeding 50,000 ng/m3. GEM concentrations up to ~7800 ng/m3 were observed where the most ancient collections are stored and no ventilation systems were active. On the contrary, lower GEM concentrations were observed at the first floor. Here, lower and more homogeneously distributed GEM concentrations were measured in 2017 than in 2013 since the air-conditioning system was updated in early 2017. GEM concentrations were similar to other herbaria worldwide and lower than Italian permissible exposure limit of 20,000 ng/m3 (8-hr working day). Our results indicate that after a century from the latest HgCl2 treatment GEM concentrations are still high, i.e., the treatment itself is almost irreversible. Air conditioning and renewing is probably the less expensive and more effective method for GEM lowering.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Itália
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 49-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791517

RESUMO

To clarify the aerosol hygroscopic growth and optical properties of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, integrated observations were conducted in Heshan City of Guangdong Province from October 19 to November 17, 2014. The concentrations and chemical compositions of PM2.5, aerosol optical properties and meteorological parameters were measured. The mean value of PM2.5 increased from less than 35 (excellent) to 35-75 µg/m3 (good) and then to greater than 75 µg/m3 (pollution), corresponding to mean PM2.5 values of 24.9, 51.2, and 93.3 µg/m3, respectively. The aerosol scattering hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH = 80%)) values were 2.0, 2.12, and 2.18 for the excellent, good, and pollution levels, respectively. The atmospheric extinction coefficient (σext) and the absorption coefficient of aerosols (σap) increased, and the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased from the excellent to the pollution levels. For different air mass sources, under excellent and good levels, the land air mass from northern Heshan had lower f(RH) and σsp values. In addition, the mixed aerosol from the sea and coastal cities had lower f(RH) and showed that the local sources of coastal cities have higher scattering characteristics in pollution periods.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Material Particulado/análise , Molhabilidade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134527, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629262

RESUMO

This study presents an overview of the air pollution levels in the Maltese Islands including trends in particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at four monitoring stations in Malta and one in Gozo between 2008 and 2017. In addition, the health impacts associated with long-term exposure to annual mean PM2.5 and NO2 are estimated at each site. Irrespective of the site, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations show statistically significant decreasing trends while statistically significant increasing trends are noted for the coarse fraction, PM2.5-10 and O3. Trends for the different pollutants vary for each site and differ from the overall trend both in magnitude and sign especially for NO2 concentrations. The attributable fraction (AF) associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 ranges from 0.67% (CI: 0.27%,1.07%) in Gharb to 11.79% (CI: 7.77,15.45) in Msida (2011). The corresponding attributable mortality is estimated to reach a maximum of 119 (CI: 78,156) attributable deaths associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 in Msida in 2011. This paper thus highlights the importance of continuous air quality monitoring in distinctively different conurbations especially for pollutants showing increasing trends and is the first to outline the potential long-term health effects of air pollutant concentrations in the Maltese Islands.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ilhas , Estudos Longitudinais , Malta , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134755, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704398

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to analyze the short-term effects of atmospheric pollutant concentrations (PM10, NO2 and O3) and heat and cold waves on the number of pre-term births and cases of low birth weight related to Saharan dust advection and biomass combustion. The dependent variables used in this analysis were the total number of births, births with low weight (>2.500 g) and pre-term births (<37 weeks), that occurred at the province level. Data provided by the NSI included: days with Saharan dust intrusion or biomass advection classified in terms of information provided by MITECO for each of the nine regions in Spain. A representative city was selected for reach region in which the registered average daily concentrations of PM10, NO2 and O3 (µg/m3) were used. These were also provided by MITECO. The daily maximum and daily minimum temperature (°C) used was those registered by the meteorological observatory station located in each province capital, provided by AEMET. Using Poisson log linear regression models, the associated relative risks (RR) were measured as well as the population attributable risk (PAR) corresponding to the variables that resulted statistically significant at p < 0.05 for days with and without intrusion of natural particulate matter. The results obtained show that the days with Saharan dust intrusion or advections due to biomass combustion- beyond the impact of PM10, primary pollutants such as NO2 (in Saharan intrusions), heat waves and O3 - are associated with the number of births, low birth weight and pre-term birth. The RR and percent PAR of the pollutants and the heat waves are greater than those obtained for PM10. The results of this study indicate that days with natural particulate matter due to biomass combustion or advection of Saharan dust put pregnant women at risk.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , África do Norte , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Espanha
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134463, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have discovered the adverse health impacts of ambient ozone. Most epidemiological studies explore the relationship between ambient ozone and health effects based on fixed site monitoring data. Fine modeling of ground-level ozone exposure conducted by statistical models has great advantages for improving exposure accuracy and reducing exposure bias. However, there is no review summarizing such studies. OBJECTIVES: A review is presented to summarize the basic process of model development and to provide some suggestions for researchers. METHODS: A search of PubMed, Web of Science and the Wanfang Database was performed for dates through July 1, 2019 to obtain relevant studies worldwide. We also examined the references of the articles of interest to ensure that as many articles as possible were included. RESULTS: The land use regression model (LUR model), random forest model and artificial neural network model have been used in this field. We summarized these studies in terms of model selection, data preparation, simulation scale selection, and model establishment and validation. Multiparameters are a major feature of models. Parameters that influence the formation of ground-level ozone concentrations and parameters that have been extremely important in previous articles should be considered first. The process of model establishment and validation is essentially a process of continuously optimizing the model performance, but there are certain differences in the specific models. CONCLUSION: This review summarized the basic process of the statistical model for ambient ozone exposure. We gave the applicable conditions and application scope of different models and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of various models in ozone modeling research. In the future, research is still needed to explore this area based on its own research purposes and capabilities.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ozônio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134721, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715478

RESUMO

Although epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations of ambient air pollution with depression, the results remained mixed. To clarify the nature of the association, we performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis with the Inverse Variance Heterogeneity (IVhet) model to estimate the effect of ambient air pollution on depression. Three English and four Chinese databases were searched for epidemiologic studies investigating associations of ambient particulate (diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10)) and gaseous (nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3)) air pollutants with depression. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. We identified 22 eligible studies from 10 countries of the world. Under the IVhet model, per 10 µg/m3 increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.97-1.29, I2: 51.6), PM10 (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.88-1.25, I2: 85.7), and NO2 (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.83-1.34, I2: 83.6), as well as short-term exposure to PM2.5 (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.99-1.04, I2: 51.6), PM10 (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.98-1.04, I2: 86.7), SO2 (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.07, I2: 71.2), and O3 (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.99-1.03, I2: 82.2) was not significantly associated with depression. However, we observed significant association between short-term NO2 exposure (per 10 µg/m3 increase) and depression (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04, I2: 65.4). However, the heterogeneity was high for all of the pooled estimates, which reduced credibility of the cumulative evidence. Additionally, publication bias was detected for six of eight meta-estimates. In conclusion, short-term exposure to NO2, but not other air pollutants, was significantly associated with depression. Given the limitations, a larger meta-analysis incorporating future well-designed longitudinal studies, and investigations into potential biologic mechanisms, will be necessary for a more definitive result.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134943, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731203

RESUMO

Biochar amendment has been recommended as a potential strategy to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions for wheat production, but its mechanism and effective duration are not well understood. The 1-octyne and 2-pheny l-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) in combination with potassium chlorate were used to evaluate the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) to potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) and N2O and NO production as affected by biochar. Acidic and alkaline soils were collected during wheat-growing season, and four treatments were installed in each soil type: CK, urea alone; BE, biochar-enriched soil for 2-6 years; FB, fresh biochar added to CK; and AB, aged biochar added to CK. The results showed that octyne and PTIO efficiently assessed AOB and AOA activities in soil incubation. The AOB-driven PAO in acidic soil was largely enhanced by increased soil pH in BE and FB treatments, whereas AOA-driven PAO was not. And the contribution of AOB to PAO exceeded 80% in alkaline soil. The N2O and NO production were positively correlated with PAO in both soils. BE treatment decreased the direct N2O and NO production in alkaline soil, while both BE and FB treatments decreased the N2O and NO yields in acidic soil, indicating that biochar mitigated soil N2O and NO emissions for wheat production. The lack of differences between AB and CK treatments indicated that aged biochar lost its initial effects on PAO, while the biochar-enriched soil amended with biochar years earlier still functioned similarly as fresh biochar.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carvão Vegetal/química , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Amônia , Archaea , Betaproteobacteria , Fertilizantes , Óxido Nitroso , Oxirredução , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo , Ureia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134945, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734483

RESUMO

The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers implicates a paradox: while fertilizers ensure the supply of a large amount of food, they cause negative environmental externalities, including reduced biodiversity, and eutrophic streams and lakes. Moreover, such fertilizers may also result in a major public health hazard: increased antibiotic resistance. This article discusses the critical implications of perturbations in N cycle caused by excessive use of fertilizers and resulting policy implications as they relate to ecosystem services. While there are solutions such as cover crops, these solutions are expensive and inconvenient for farmers. We advocate the use of biological fixation (BF) for staple crops-microbiome mediated natural supply of fixed N. This would involve engineering a microbiome that can be grown cheaply and at industrial scale. Fertilizers resulting from such innovation are termed as "biofertilizers" in this article. Following a qualitative cost-benefit analysis broken down by key stakeholders and a quick exploration of policy frameworks as they relate to the advancement of biofertilizers, we propose a practical pathway of where and how research investments should be directed to make such a solution feasible. We make five policy recommendations for decision-makers to facilitate a successful trajectory for this solution: (1) Future agricultural science should seek to understand how BF might be employed as a practical and efficient strategy. This effort would require that industry and the government partner to establish a pre-competitive research laboratory equipped with the latest state-of-the-art technologies that conduct metagenomic experiments to reveal signature microbiomes and form novel symbiotic connections. (2) To have a smooth ride in the market, ag-bio companies should: (i) create awareness among farmers; (ii) impart skills to farmers in testing and using biofertilizers, and (iii) conduct extensive field tests and more research in studying the scalability potential of such fertilizers. (3)The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and state governments should provide research and development (R&D) tax credits to biotech companies specifically geared towards R&D investments aimed at increasing the viability of BF and microbiome engineering. (4) To control agricultural pollution in the biosphere, federal governments should consider passing a Clean Agriculture Act (CAA), including a specific clause that regulate the use of chemical fertilizers. (5) Governments and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) should coordinate Biological Advanced Research in Agriculture (BARA)-a global agricultural innovation initiative for investments and research in biological fixation and ethical, legal, and social implications of such innovation. While biological fixation will be central in BARA, we envision it to conduct research around other agricultural innovations as well, such as increasing photosynthetic efficiency.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Produtos Agrícolas , Política Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Agricultura , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produção Agrícola , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Fertilizantes
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 4, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797164

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution is associated with a wide range of health effects, including increased respiratory symptoms, cancer, reproductive and birth defects, and premature death. Air quality measurements by standardized measuring equipment, although accurate, can only provide an estimate for part of the population, with decreasing accuracy further away from the monitoring sites. Estimating pollution levels over large geographical domains requires the use of air quality models which ideally incorporate air quality measurements. In order to estimate actual exposure of the population to air pollution (population-weighted concentrations of air pollutants), there is a need to combine data from air quality models with population density data. Here we present the results of exposure estimates for the entire population of Israel using a chemical transport model combined with measurements from the national monitoring network. We evaluated the individual exposure levels for the entire population to several air pollutants based on census tract units. Using this hybrid model, we found that the entire population of Israel is exposed to concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 that exceed the target values but are below the environmental values according to the Israeli Clean Air Law. In addition, we found and that over 1.5 million residents are exposed to NOx at concentrations higher than the target values. This data may help decision makers develop targeted interventions to reduce the concentrations of specific pollutants, based on population-weighted exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Israel , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 12(21): 785-789, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory disease, which is linked to air pollution. However, little is known about the effect of specific air pollution sources on asthma occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To assess individual asthma risk in three urban areas in Israel characterized by different primary sources of air pollution: predominantly traffic-related air pollution (Tel Aviv) or predominantly industrial air pollution (Haifa bay area and Hadera). METHODS: The medical records of 13,875, 16- 19-year-old males, who lived in the affected urban areas prior to their army recruitment and who underwent standard pre-military health examinations during 2012-2014, were examined. Nonparametric tests were applied to compare asthma prevalence, and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the asthma risk attributed to the residential locations of the subjects, controlling for confounders, such as socio-demographic status, body mass index, cognitive abilities, and education. RESULTS: The asthma rate among young males residing in Tel Aviv was 8.76%, compared to 6.96% in the Haifa bay area and 6.09% in Hadera. However, no statistically significant differences in asthma risk among the three urban areas was found in controlled logistic regressions (P > 0.20). This finding indicates that exposure to both industrial- and traffic-related air pollution is associated with asthma prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Both industrial- and traffic-related air pollution have a negative effect on asthma risk in young males. Studies evaluating the association between asthma risk and specific air pollutants (e.g., sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide) are needed to ascertain the effects of individual air pollutants on asthma occurrence.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Asma , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado , Emissões de Veículos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Urbana/normas , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 86: 154-163, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787180

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported associations of short-term exposure to different sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and increased mortality or hospitalizations for respiratory diseases. Few studies, however, have focused on the short-term effects of source-specific PM2.5 on emergency room visits (ERVs) of respiratory diseases. Source apportionment for PM2.5 was performed with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and generalized additive model was applied to estimate associations between source-specific PM2.5 and respiratory disease ERVs. The association of PM2.5 and total respiratory ERVs was found on lag4 (RR = 1.011, 95%CI: 1.002, 1.020) per interquartile range (76 µg/m3) increase. We found PM2.5 to be significantly associated with asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ERVs, with the strongest effects on lag5 (RR = 1.072, 95%CI: 1.024, 1.119), lag4 (RR = 1.104, 95%CI: 1.032, 1.176) and lag3 (RR = 1.091, 95%CI: 1.047, 1.135), respectively. The estimated effects of PM2.5 changed little after adjusting for different air pollutants. Six primary PM2.5 sources were identified using PMF analysis, including dust/soil (6.7%), industry emission (4.5%), secondary aerosols (30.3%), metal processing (3.2%), coal combustion (37.5%) and traffic-related source (17.8%). Some of the sources were identified to have effects on ERVs of total respiratory diseases (dust/soil, secondary aerosols, metal processing, coal combustion and traffic-related source), bronchitis ERVs (dust/soil) and COPD ERVs (traffic-related source, industry emission and secondary aerosols). Different sources of PM2.5 contribute to increased risk of respiratory ERVs to different extents, which may provide potential implications for the decision making of air quality related policies, rational emission control and public health welfare.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133744, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756798

RESUMO

Out-of-hospital sudden unexpected deaths are non-accidental deaths that occur without obvious underlying causes and may account for 10% of natural deaths before age 65. Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with all-cause (non-accidental) and cause-specific (e.g., cardiovascular) mortality, and with immediate exposures often yielding the highest magnitude risk estimates. Few studies have focused on short-term exposure to air pollution and sudden unexpected deaths. Using the University of North Carolina Sudden Unexpected Death in North Carolina population, we examine associations between short-term criteria air pollutant exposures with sudden unexpected deaths using a time-stratified case-crossover design, with data on criteria air pollutants from the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression with air pollutant exposures scaled to roughly inter-quartile ranges; models were adjusted for average temperature and relative humidity on event day and preceding 3 days. Potential for confounding by co-pollutants were examined in two pollutant models. ORs for PM2.5 at lag day 1 were elevated (adjusted OR for 5 µg/m3 increase: 1.17 (0.98, 1.40)), and were robust to co-pollutant adjustment. Elevated odds were observed for SO2 at lag day 0, and reduced odds for O3 at lag day 0; however, these associations were somewhat attenuated toward the null (SO2) or were not robust (O3) to co-pollutant adjustment. This analysis in a racially and socioeconomically diverse cohort, with a more inclusive definition of sudden unexpected death than is typically employed offers evidence that PM2.5 may be a clinically relevant trigger of sudden unexpected deaths in susceptible individuals.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Humanos , North Carolina
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133757, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coal-fired thermal power plants represent a significant source of air pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide (SO2) that has been associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity for respiratory and cardiovascular disease. A coal power plant in Vado Ligure (Italy) (CPPVL) started in 1970 was stopped in 2014 by the Prosecutor's Office on the grounds of environmental and health culpable disaster. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the exposure of residents to atmospheric pollutants emitted by CPPVL and the risk of mortality and hospitalization, considering both cancer and non-cancer causes in a population-based cohort study. METHODS: SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx), estimated using the ABLE-MOLOCH-ADMS-Urban dispersion model, were selected as representative surrogates of exposure to CPPVL emissions (SO2-CPPVL) and cumulative emissions from other sources of pollution (NOx-MS), respectively. The relationship between each health outcome and categories of exposure to SO2-CPPVL was estimated by the Hazard Ratio (HR) using multiple sex-specific Cox regression models, adjusted for age, exposure to NOx-MS, and socio-economic deprivation index using SO2-CPPVL first quartile as a reference. RESULTS: 144,019 individuals were recruited (follow-up 2001-2013). An excess of mortality was found for all natural causes (men: 1.49; 95% CI 1.38-1.60; women: 1.49; 95% CI 1.39-1.59), diseases of the circulatory system (men: 1.41; 95% CI 1.24-1.56; women: 1.59; 95% CI 1.44-1.77), of the respiratory system (men: 1.90; 95% CI 1.47-2.45; women: 1.62; 95% CI 1.25-2.09), and of the nervous system and sense organs (men: 1.34; 95% CI 0.97-1.86; women: 1.38; 95% CI 1.03-1.83), and in men for trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (1.59; 95% CI 1.26-2.00). Results of hospitalization analysis were consistent with those of mortality. CONCLUSION: Results obtained, also when considering multiple sources of exposure, indicate that exposure to CPP emissions represents a risk factor for selected health outcomes as well as the urgently adoption of primary prevention measures and of a specific surveillance programme.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Centrais Elétricas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 712, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676942

RESUMO

Particulate material 10 µm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are representative air pollutants in Northeast China and may contribute more to the morbidity of respiratory and cardiovascular disease than may other pollutants. Up to now, there have been few studies on the relation between health effect and air pollution by PM10 and SO2 in Northeast China, which may be due to the lack of a model for determination of air pollution exposure. For the first time, we used daily concentration data and influencing factors (different type of land use, road length and population density, and weather conditions as well) to develop land use regression models for spatial distribution of PM10 and SO2 in a central city in Northeast China in both heating and non-heating months. The final models of SO2 and PM10 estimation showed good performance (heating months: R2 = 0.88 for SO2, R2 = 0.88 for PM10; non-heating months: R2 = 0.79 for SO2; R2 = 0.87 for PM10). Estimated concentrations of air pollutants were more affected by population density in heating seasons and land use area in non-heating seasons. We used the land use regression (LUR) models developed to predict pollutant levels in nine districts in Shenyang and conducted a correlation analysis between air pollutant levels and hospital admission rates for childhood asthma. There were high associations between asthma hospital admission rates and air pollution levels of SO2 and PM10, which indicated the usability of the LUR models and the need for more concern about the health effects of SO2 and PM10 in Northeast China. This study may contribute to epidemiological research on the relation between air pollutant exposure and typical chronic disease in Northeast China as well as providing the government with more scientific recommendations for air pollution prevention.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Calefação , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 693, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667634

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollutants and heat stress from traditional cooking fires is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries globally and have an adverse effect on the environment. According to the World Health Organization, 3.8 million people die annually prematurely from illness related to household air pollution. Families living in poverty are at the highest risk, especially women and children. In this study, exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was measured among resource-poor women cassava processors. The test locations were chosen in the peri-urban settlements of Abeokuta in the Ogun State of Nigeria, where household women entrepreneurs roast garri (granulated cassava) for sale in the local market. The measurements were taken for two types of stoves which are generally existing in the study location. First, a rectangular stove (RS) with two operators and, second, a circular stove (CS) with one operator; both stoves used wood as fuel. The emissions were compared with a modern mechanical liquefied petroleum gas burner-based garri roaster (GS). Hours spent per day in front of garri stoves ranged from 6 to 12 h for both stoves, with a frequency of 1 to 3 days of operation per week. It was found that CS operators were spending significantly more time in producing garri, which is due to the low capacity of the CS. The average PM2.5 concentrations for RS and CS were 381 and 273 µg/m3, respectively, estimated to be 21 and 41 µg/m3 on an annual mean level basis. Similarly, for PM10, the mean concentration levels were 1580 and 594 µg/m3 for RS and CS, respectively. The annual mean levels for PM10 were about 89 µg/m3 for both types of stoves. CO exposure during garri processing was up to five times higher than the recommended concentrations with a 4-h mean of 48 and 50 mg/m3 for RS and CS, respectively. NO2 levels were very low, ~ 0 ppm. This investigative research concluded that wood-fired small-scale garri producers in Nigeria are exposed to very unhealthy levels of PM, CO and thermal stress. The concentration levels of both PM and CO were exceeding the global as well as Nigerian ambient air quality standard regulations. Along with air pollution, thermal stress was a significant issue, which is known to exacerbate the negative effect of air pollution on the human body.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Manihot , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Feminino , Fogo , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Nigéria , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Madeira/química
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