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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134945, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734483

RESUMO

The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers implicates a paradox: while fertilizers ensure the supply of a large amount of food, they cause negative environmental externalities, including reduced biodiversity, and eutrophic streams and lakes. Moreover, such fertilizers may also result in a major public health hazard: increased antibiotic resistance. This article discusses the critical implications of perturbations in N cycle caused by excessive use of fertilizers and resulting policy implications as they relate to ecosystem services. While there are solutions such as cover crops, these solutions are expensive and inconvenient for farmers. We advocate the use of biological fixation (BF) for staple crops-microbiome mediated natural supply of fixed N. This would involve engineering a microbiome that can be grown cheaply and at industrial scale. Fertilizers resulting from such innovation are termed as "biofertilizers" in this article. Following a qualitative cost-benefit analysis broken down by key stakeholders and a quick exploration of policy frameworks as they relate to the advancement of biofertilizers, we propose a practical pathway of where and how research investments should be directed to make such a solution feasible. We make five policy recommendations for decision-makers to facilitate a successful trajectory for this solution: (1) Future agricultural science should seek to understand how BF might be employed as a practical and efficient strategy. This effort would require that industry and the government partner to establish a pre-competitive research laboratory equipped with the latest state-of-the-art technologies that conduct metagenomic experiments to reveal signature microbiomes and form novel symbiotic connections. (2) To have a smooth ride in the market, ag-bio companies should: (i) create awareness among farmers; (ii) impart skills to farmers in testing and using biofertilizers, and (iii) conduct extensive field tests and more research in studying the scalability potential of such fertilizers. (3)The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and state governments should provide research and development (R&D) tax credits to biotech companies specifically geared towards R&D investments aimed at increasing the viability of BF and microbiome engineering. (4) To control agricultural pollution in the biosphere, federal governments should consider passing a Clean Agriculture Act (CAA), including a specific clause that regulate the use of chemical fertilizers. (5) Governments and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) should coordinate Biological Advanced Research in Agriculture (BARA)-a global agricultural innovation initiative for investments and research in biological fixation and ethical, legal, and social implications of such innovation. While biological fixation will be central in BARA, we envision it to conduct research around other agricultural innovations as well, such as increasing photosynthetic efficiency.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Produtos Agrícolas , Política Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Agricultura , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produção Agrícola , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Fertilizantes
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33216-33227, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520392

RESUMO

Great efforts have been made over the years to assess the effectiveness of air pollution controls in place in the metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil. In this work, the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model was used to evaluate the efficacy of emission control strategies in MASP, considering the spatial and temporal variability of fine particle concentration. Seven different emission scenarios were modeled to assess the relationship between the emission of precursors and ambient aerosol concentration, including a baseline emission inventory, and six sensitivity scenarios with emission reductions in relation to the baseline inventory: a 50% reduction in SO2 emissions; no SO2 emissions; a 50% reduction in SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions; no sulfate (PSO4) particle emissions; no PSO4 and nitrate (PNO3) particle emissions; and no PNO3 emissions. Results show that ambient PM2.5 behavior is not linearly dependent on the emission of precursors. Variation levels in PM2.5 concentrations did not correspond to the reduction ratios applied to precursor emissions, mainly due to the contribution of organic and elemental carbon, and other secondary organic aerosol species. Reductions in SO2 emissions are less likely to be effective at reducing PM2.5 concentrations at the expected rate in many locations of the MASP. The largest reduction in ambient PM2.5 was obtained with the scenario that considered a reduction in 50% of SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions (1 to 2 µg/m3 on average). It highlights the importance of considering the role of secondary organic aerosols and black carbon in the design of effective policies for ambient PM2.5 concentration control.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Política Ambiental , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem/análise
7.
Environ Res ; 175: 178-185, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129527

RESUMO

Rapid and wide-ranging reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the climate targets agreed upon at the 2015 Paris climate conference. There will be significant transition risks for health, livelihoods, and ecosystems associated with large-scale mitigation, but also opportunities. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts, positive and negative, of climate policies on population health in China. We review the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) that China took to the Paris meeting, link commitments in the INDC to national planning documents relevant to environment and health, and search the literature for Chinese publications on health trade-offs and synergies. Synergies are evident in the measures taken to reduce local air pollution in China: controls on coal burning have materially improved local air quality and benefited health. But there may be risks to health also, depending on how policies are implemented and what safeguards are provided. To date most assessments of the health impacts of climate policies in China have been modelling studies. We recommend work of this kind is complemented by observational research to identify unexpected impacts and vulnerabilities. It will become even more important to undertake this work as emission reductions accelerate to meet the Paris climate targets.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Política Ambiental , Saúde da População , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Ecossistema , Humanos , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 415-424, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103001

RESUMO

Emission inventories are critical to understanding the sources of air pollutants, but have high uncertainties in China due in part to insufficient on-site measurements. In this study, we developed a method of examining, screening and applying online data from the country's improving continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) to reevaluate a "bottom-up" emission inventory of China's coal-fired power sector. The benefits of China's current national emission standards and ultra-low emission policy for the sector were quantified assuming their full implementation. The derived national average emission factors of SO2, NOx and particulate matter (PM) were 1.00, 1.00 and 0.25 kg/t-coal respectively for 2015 based on CEMS data, smaller than those of previous studies that may not fully recognize improved emission controls in recent years. The annual emissions of SO2, NOx and PM from the sector were recalculated at 1321, 1430 and 334 Gg respectively, 75%, 63% and 76% smaller than our estimates based on a previous approach without the benefit of CEMS data. The results imply that online measurement with proper data screening can better track the recent progress of emission controls. The emission intensity (the ratio of emissions to economic output) of Northwest China was larger than that of other regions, attributed mainly to its less intensive economy and industry. Transmission of electricity to more-developed eastern provinces raised the energy consumption and emissions of less-developed regions. Judged by 95 percentiles of flue-gas concentrations measured by CEMS, most power plants met the current national emission standards in 2015 except for those in Northwest and Northeast China, while plants that met the ultra-low emission policy were much scarcer. National SO2, NOx and PM emissions would further decline by 68%, 55% and 81% respectively if the ultra-low emission policy can be strictly implemented, implying the great potential of the policy for emission abatement.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Centrais Elétricas/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Indústrias , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Centrais Elétricas/normas , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 226: 616-624, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On July 1st, 2015, Hong Kong became the first city in Asia to implement a policy regulating sulfur dioxide (SO2) in shipping emissions. We conducted an accountability study assessing the improvement in ambient air quality and estimating the effect on health outcomes of the policy. METHOD: We used interrupted time series (ITS) with segmented regression to identify any change in ambient concentrations of SO2 in contrast to other ambient pollutants (particulate matter <10 µm in diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3)) at 10 monitoring stations in Hong Kong from 2010 to 2017. We validated these findings using cumulative sum control (CUSUM) charts. We used a validated risk assessment model to estimate effects of changes in air quality on death for natural causes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. RESULTS: Mean monthly concentrations of SO2 fell abruptly at the monitoring station closest to the main shipping port (Kwai Chung (KC)) by -10.0 µgm3 p-value = 0.0004, but not elsewhere. No such changes were evident for the other pollutants (PM10, NO2, O3). CUSUM charts confirmed a change in July 2015. Estimated deaths avoided per year as a result of the policy were 379, 72, 30 for all natural causes, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases respectively. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the shipping emission policy in Hong Kong successfully reduced ambient SO2, with the potential to reduce mortality. However, to gain full benefits, restrictions on shipping emissions need to be implemented throughout the region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Responsabilidade Social
10.
Public Health Rep ; 134(3): 307-312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897034

RESUMO

This article analyzes the early years of 20th-century air pollution control in Los Angeles. In both scholarship and public memory, mid-century efforts at the regional level were overshadowed by major federal developments, namely the Clean Air Act and creation of the US Environmental Protection Agency in 1970. Yet the mid-century local experience was highly consequential and presaged many subsequent challenges that persist today. The article begins with an exploration of the existential, on-the-ground misery of smog in Los Angeles during the 1940s and 1950s. The article examines the role that scientific evidence on smog did and did not play in regulation, the reasons smog control galvanized support across various constituencies in the region, and, finally, some of mid-century air pollution's limits.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/história , Ciência , Smog/prevenção & controle , United States Environmental Protection Agency/história , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , História do Século XX , Humanos , Los Angeles , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency/legislação & jurisprudência
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(12): 12136-12149, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827026

RESUMO

To clarify the current situation of haze emission and governance in China, the study analyzed the characteristics of spatial correlation structure and synergistic governance development of the haze emission of 31 provinces in China, based on social network analysis and distance synergistic model. The results indicated that the spatial correlation of inter-provincial haze emission in China presented a typical "central-marginal" network structure. The provinces in the network center were mostly located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta region. The synergistic governance development of haze in China showed a lower level and fluctuating upward trend. In addition, the increase of network density, the decline of network grade, and the decrease of network efficiency would all improve the level of synergistic governance development. Therefore, focusing on the haze of the central provinces, improving the network structure, and improving regional synergy are important measures for effective governance. This paper improves the previous research model, considers the impact of economic and demographic factors on haze pollution, establishes a new model for analyzing spatial correlation structure of haze and calculating the synergistic governance level of haze, and designs feasible ways to raise the synergistic governance level of haze in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Governo , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/análise , Rios
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(12): 11875-11887, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820915

RESUMO

Beijing and its surrounding areas implemented a series of stringent measures to ensure good air quality during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. These measures included restrictions on traffic, constructions, and industrial activities. The diurnal variations of carbonyls, 24-h PM2.5, and its chemical species were investigated before, during, after APEC, and the 2015 summer. The average concentrations of carbonyls, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were decreased by 65.2%, 78.6%, 41.5%, and 55.6% during APEC, respectively. The concentrations of propene equivalent, the ozone formation potential, and the contribution to OH· removal by carbonyls during APEC were approximately 27-33% of those during the preceding interval. The temporal variation of carbonyls during APEC was similar to that of other air pollutants, except for O3; however, the diurnal variation of carbonyls was consistent with that of O3, with the highest values at noon and the lowest ones at night during APEC. Large variations in C1/C2 (0.95-9.41) and C2/C3 (5.70-15.71) were observed during the sampling period. The correlations analysis, diagnostical ratios, and diurnal variations of carbonyls indicated that primary sources were not an important source and secondary formation was the dominant source of atmospheric carbonyls during the entire period. The control measures not only reduced primary carbonyl emissions but also dramatically reduced secondary carbonyl precursors, such as NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), resulting in the low level of carbonyls during APEC. In addition, the potential health effects of carbonyls were evaluated and the cancer risk from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was significantly higher before APEC than during the other intervals.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Política Ambiental , Acetaldeído/análise , Acetona/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Formaldeído/análise , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
13.
Environ Int ; 126: 627-634, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution control policies resulting from the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were aimed at reducing pollutant emissions, ambient concentrations, and ultimately adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: As part of a comprehensive air pollution accountability study, we used a counterfactual study design to estimate the impact of mobile source and electricity generation control policies on health outcomes in the Atlanta, GA, metropolitan area from 1999 to 2013. METHODS: We identified nine sets of pollution control policies, estimated changes in emissions in the absence of these policies, and employed those changes to estimate counterfactual daily ambient pollutant concentrations at a central monitoring location. Using a multipollutant Poisson time-series model, we estimated associations between observed pollutant levels and daily counts of cardiorespiratory emergency department (ED) visits at Atlanta hospitals. These associations were then used to estimate the number of ED visits prevented due to control policies, comparing observed to counterfactual daily concentrations. RESULTS: Pollution control policies were estimated to substantially reduce ambient concentrations of the nine pollutants examined for the period 1999-2013. We estimated that pollutant concentration reductions resulting from the control policies led to the avoidance of over 55,000 cardiorespiratory disease ED visits in the five-county metropolitan Atlanta area, with greater proportions of visits prevented in later years as effects of policies became more fully realized. During the final two years of the study period, 2012-2013, the policies were estimated to prevent 16.5% of ED visits due to asthma (95% interval estimate: 7.5%, 25.1%), 5.9% (95% interval estimate: -0.4%, 12.3%) of respiratory ED visits, and 2.3% (95% interval estimate: -1.8%, 6.2%) of cardiovascular disease ED visits. DISCUSSION: Pollution control policies resulting from the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments led to substantial estimated reductions in ambient pollutant concentrations and cardiorespiratory ED visits in the Atlanta area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cidades/epidemiologia , Governo Federal , Georgia/epidemiologia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Política Pública
14.
Am J Public Health ; 109(4): 550-554, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789769

RESUMO

Evidence is growing on the adverse neurodevelopmental effects of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. Project TENDR (Targeting Environmental Neurodevelopmental Risks), a unique collaboration of leading scientists, health professionals, and children's and environmental health advocates, has identified combustion-related air pollutants as critical targets for action to protect healthy brain development. We present policy recommendations for maintaining and strengthening federal environmental health protections, advancing state and local actions, and supporting scientific research to inform effective strategies for reducing children's exposures to combustion-related air pollution. Such actions not only would improve children's neurological development but also would have the important co-benefit of climate change mitigation and further improvements in other health conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos
15.
Environ Int ; 124: 420-430, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682597

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) caused an estimated 4.2 million deaths worldwide in 2015. However, PM emission standards for power plants vary widely. To explore if the current levels of these standards are sufficiently stringent in a simple cost-benefit framework, we compared the health benefits (avoided monetized health costs) with the control costs of tightening PM emission standards for coal-fired power plants in Northeast (NE) Brazil, where ambient PM concentrations are below World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We considered three Brazilian PM10 (PMx refers to PM with a diameter under x micrometers) emission standards and a stricter U.S. EPA standard for recent power plants. Our integrated methodology simulates hourly electricity grid dispatch from utility-scale power plants, disperses the resulting PM2.5, and estimates selected human health impacts from PM2.5 exposure using the latest integrated exposure-response model. Since the emissions inventories required to model secondary PM are not available in our study area, we modeled only primary PM so our benefit estimates are conservative. We found that tightening existing PM10 emission standards yields health benefits that are over 60 times greater than emissions control costs in all the scenarios we considered. The monetary value of avoided hospital admissions alone is at least four times as large as the corresponding control costs. These results provide strong arguments for considering tightening PM emission standards for coal-fired power plants worldwide, including in regions that meet WHO guidelines and in developing countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carvão Mineral , Material Particulado/química , Centrais Elétricas/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Brasil , Humanos , Material Particulado/economia , Centrais Elétricas/economia
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(8): 7896-7912, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684181

RESUMO

Fossil fuels used in energy mix continues to dictate world heat usage. Demand for heat is considered as substantial contributor to carbon emissions and energy-related emissions equivalent to 12.5 Gt of carbon emissions. Data on heat is limited and therefore, a study on the causal correlation between energy use and emissions would provide policy guidance on how to decarbonize the heat sector to achieve Paris's Greenhouse Effect Treaty. Most empirical works aggregated energy consumption and ignore spatial dependence and heterogeneity in a panel dataset. Our study, however, disaggregated energy into renewable and non-renewable to find their distinct influence on emissions, which were tested for spatial dependence and heterogeneity and applied potential emissions as environmental impact. Using FGLS and PCSE estimators for the period 1971-2013, our findings revealed that the increase in renewable energy use and industrialization improves the ecological structure of emerging economies while the increase in population, economic expansion, and non-renewable energy use increases the carbon stock. We accordingly, investigated causation direction with pooled mean group estimator. Rising economic power states therefore encourage to ensure energy efficiency and replace fuel use with renewable source for heating to reduce carbon stock.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono , Países em Desenvolvimento , Combustíveis Fósseis , Cooperação Internacional , Modelos Econômicos , Energia Renovável
18.
Environ Int ; 123: 522-534, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622077

RESUMO

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments codified major institutional changes relating to the management of air pollutants in the United States. Recent research years has attributed reduced emissions over the past two decades to regulations enacted under these Amendments, but none have separated long-term daily impacts of individual regulatory programs on multiple source categories under a consistent framework. Using daily emissions and air quality measurements along with a detailed review of national and local regulations promulgated after the Amendments, we quantify daily changes in emissions and air quality attributable to regulations on electricity generating units and on-road mobile sources. To quantify daily changes, we develop nine sets of counterfactual emissions and ambient air pollution concentration time series for 10 pollutants that assume individual regulatory programs and combinations thereof were not implemented. In addition to daily impacts, we estimate uncertainties in these results. These counterfactual daily ambient concentrations reveal high seasonality and increasing effectiveness of most regulations between 1999 and 2013. Monthly average counterfactual concentrations in scenarios that assume no new regulations on electricity generating units and mobile sources are greater than observed concentrations for all pollutants except ozone, which has seen increased wintertime concentrations accompany summertime decreases. By the end of the period, electricity generating unit emissions reductions under the Acid Rain Program and Clean Air Interstate Rule and their respective related local programs led to similar PM2.5 concentration decreases. Of the mobile source regulations, rules on gasoline and diesel vehicles led to similar reductions in annual PM2.5, and gasoline programs led to double the summertime ozone reductions as diesel programs. The nine sets of daily time series and their uncertainties were designed for use in air pollution accountability health studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Gasolina , Georgia , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Centrais Elétricas/estatística & dados numéricos , Responsabilidade Social , Incerteza , Estados Unidos , Emissões de Veículos/análise
20.
Science ; 363(6427)2019 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545843

RESUMO

We assess scientific evidence that has emerged since the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2009 Endangerment Finding for six well-mixed greenhouse gases and find that this new evidence lends increased support to the conclusion that these gases pose a danger to public health and welfare. Newly available evidence about a wide range of observed and projected impacts strengthens the association between the risk of some of these impacts and anthropogenic climate change, indicates that some impacts or combinations of impacts have the potential to be more severe than previously understood, and identifies substantial risk of additional impacts through processes and pathways not considered in the Endangerment Finding.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Mudança Climática , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Saúde Pública , Agricultura , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Desastres , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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