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2.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134943, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731203

RESUMO

Biochar amendment has been recommended as a potential strategy to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions for wheat production, but its mechanism and effective duration are not well understood. The 1-octyne and 2-pheny l-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) in combination with potassium chlorate were used to evaluate the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) to potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) and N2O and NO production as affected by biochar. Acidic and alkaline soils were collected during wheat-growing season, and four treatments were installed in each soil type: CK, urea alone; BE, biochar-enriched soil for 2-6 years; FB, fresh biochar added to CK; and AB, aged biochar added to CK. The results showed that octyne and PTIO efficiently assessed AOB and AOA activities in soil incubation. The AOB-driven PAO in acidic soil was largely enhanced by increased soil pH in BE and FB treatments, whereas AOA-driven PAO was not. And the contribution of AOB to PAO exceeded 80% in alkaline soil. The N2O and NO production were positively correlated with PAO in both soils. BE treatment decreased the direct N2O and NO production in alkaline soil, while both BE and FB treatments decreased the N2O and NO yields in acidic soil, indicating that biochar mitigated soil N2O and NO emissions for wheat production. The lack of differences between AB and CK treatments indicated that aged biochar lost its initial effects on PAO, while the biochar-enriched soil amended with biochar years earlier still functioned similarly as fresh biochar.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carvão Vegetal/química , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Amônia , Archaea , Betaproteobacteria , Fertilizantes , Óxido Nitroso , Oxirredução , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo , Ureia
4.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 12(21): 785-789, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory disease, which is linked to air pollution. However, little is known about the effect of specific air pollution sources on asthma occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To assess individual asthma risk in three urban areas in Israel characterized by different primary sources of air pollution: predominantly traffic-related air pollution (Tel Aviv) or predominantly industrial air pollution (Haifa bay area and Hadera). METHODS: The medical records of 13,875, 16- 19-year-old males, who lived in the affected urban areas prior to their army recruitment and who underwent standard pre-military health examinations during 2012-2014, were examined. Nonparametric tests were applied to compare asthma prevalence, and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the asthma risk attributed to the residential locations of the subjects, controlling for confounders, such as socio-demographic status, body mass index, cognitive abilities, and education. RESULTS: The asthma rate among young males residing in Tel Aviv was 8.76%, compared to 6.96% in the Haifa bay area and 6.09% in Hadera. However, no statistically significant differences in asthma risk among the three urban areas was found in controlled logistic regressions (P > 0.20). This finding indicates that exposure to both industrial- and traffic-related air pollution is associated with asthma prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Both industrial- and traffic-related air pollution have a negative effect on asthma risk in young males. Studies evaluating the association between asthma risk and specific air pollutants (e.g., sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide) are needed to ascertain the effects of individual air pollutants on asthma occurrence.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Asma , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado , Emissões de Veículos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Urbana/normas , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2565-2571, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854647

RESUMO

Based on the annual average concentration values, the health effects and health benefits as well as 95% confidence intervals of PM10 and PM2.5 pollution control from 2014 to 2016 in Zhengzhou were evaluated by applying the Poisson regression relative risk model. Results showed that the health benefits of PM10 pollution control were 18.18 billion RMB (15.04, 21.12), 24.25 billion RMB (20.25, 27.94), and 20.62 billion RMB (17.33, 23.92), which accounted for 2.7%, 3.3%, and 2.5% of the GDP of Zhengzhou, respectively, in 2014-2016. The health benefits of PM2.5 pollution control were 17.88 billion RMB (14.37, 21.16), 21.65 billion RMB (17.46, 25.53), and 17.25 billion RMB (13.78, 20.55), which accounted for 2.6%, 3.0%, and 2.1% of the GDP of Zhengzhou, respectively, in 2014-2016. After the PM10 and PM2.5 pollution was controlled, the number of urban beneficiaries was higher than that of rural areas, and acute bronchitis beneficiaries were higher than the beneficiaries of other health end-points. For chronic bronchitis, adults benefited more than children, while the opposite occurred for asthma. In this study, chronic bronchitis had the highest health benefit, followed by asthma, and outpatient and inpatient setting had the lower health benefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asma/prevenção & controle , Bronquite Crônica/prevenção & controle , Criança , China , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 2961-2966, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854692

RESUMO

To quantitatively assess the health benefits brought by the implementation of the Action Plan of Air Pollution Prevention and Control, we firstly analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of PM2.5 population-weighted concentrations over China from 2013 to 2017. The BenMAP model was used to analyze the differences in premature death between the PM2.5 baseline scenario in 2013 and the control scenario in 2017 in 338 prefecture-level cities nationwide, so as to quantitatively analyze the number of premature deaths in 31 provinces. The results show that compared with other provinces, the largest reduction in premature deaths due to the significant decrease of PM2.5 concentration occurred in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its surrounding regions, and the environmental health benefits from air quality have been greatly improved. The results show that from 2013 to 2017 the population weighted PM2.5 concentration was decreasing year by year due to the significant decrease in PM2.5 concentration; Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, and the surrounding areas witnessed the largest reduction in premature deaths. In 2017, the number of avoided premature deaths in 280 prefecture-level cities nationwide increased, but declined in 58 cities. Taking the target value of the first phase of the WHO transition period (an annual average PM2.5 concentration of 35 µg·m-3) as the control scenario, it is estimated that the number of premature deaths in 2013 was approximately 101293, and in 2017 was approximately 41080. The implementation of the Action Plan helped to avoid approximately 60213 premature deaths. According to the method of 'willingness to pay', the monetary benefits are estimated to be approximately 54.97 billion yuan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 499-506, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596261

RESUMO

We investigated how UV treatment of indoor pool water affects the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines (NCl3) in the air above one therapy pool. One-hundred and sixty-two samples of tTHMs (sum of the four most common THMs in swimming facilities) and thirty-six samples of NCl3 were collected simultaneously at poolside and in the extract channel in a room with one therapy pool for 2 days a week over a period of 5 weeks. When the UV lamp was on, the concentration of combined chlorine in the water decreased 58%, the concentration of tTHMs in the air increased 37%, and the concentration of NCl3 in the air decreased 15%. Between 42% and 56% of the gases in the air are recirculated back into the poolroom along with the recycled air. The correlation between NCl3 and THMs in the air was stronger when the UV treatment was on (r2 = 0.963) compared to when the UV treatment was off (r2 = 0.472). Using a linear mixed model, 30% of the variability in THMs was attributed to UV treatment. For NCl3, the number of bathers was the most important predictor variable. UV treatment has a limited effect on airborne NCl3 but increases the air concentration of tTHMs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Piscinas , Purificação da Água/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cloretos , Cloro , Trialometanos/análise , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33216-33227, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520392

RESUMO

Great efforts have been made over the years to assess the effectiveness of air pollution controls in place in the metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil. In this work, the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model was used to evaluate the efficacy of emission control strategies in MASP, considering the spatial and temporal variability of fine particle concentration. Seven different emission scenarios were modeled to assess the relationship between the emission of precursors and ambient aerosol concentration, including a baseline emission inventory, and six sensitivity scenarios with emission reductions in relation to the baseline inventory: a 50% reduction in SO2 emissions; no SO2 emissions; a 50% reduction in SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions; no sulfate (PSO4) particle emissions; no PSO4 and nitrate (PNO3) particle emissions; and no PNO3 emissions. Results show that ambient PM2.5 behavior is not linearly dependent on the emission of precursors. Variation levels in PM2.5 concentrations did not correspond to the reduction ratios applied to precursor emissions, mainly due to the contribution of organic and elemental carbon, and other secondary organic aerosol species. Reductions in SO2 emissions are less likely to be effective at reducing PM2.5 concentrations at the expected rate in many locations of the MASP. The largest reduction in ambient PM2.5 was obtained with the scenario that considered a reduction in 50% of SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions (1 to 2 µg/m3 on average). It highlights the importance of considering the role of secondary organic aerosols and black carbon in the design of effective policies for ambient PM2.5 concentration control.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Política Ambiental , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem/análise
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110561, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542600

RESUMO

This study investigates conditions under which differentiating port fees based on vessels' environmental performance could be an additional driver for cruise-ship owners to invest in green technologies. Our case study on liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel for a cruise ship shows that port-based incentives could help reduce emissions to air and drive uptake of green technologies. Assuming an average rebate of EUR 1500 per port visit, the accumulated rebates globally for our case study ship exceed EUR 400,000 per year. Applying a rebate of nearly EUR 4800 per visit as currently offered in Norwegian ports, and assuming 50% of ports globally adopt the scheme, gives a cost benefit of EUR 700,000 per year, reducing the LNG technology payback time up to one year. Our case study also shows that significantly reducing ship emissions in ports will bring social benefits through reduced risks of loss of life, health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Honorários e Preços/classificação , Navios/economia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Gás Natural/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle
12.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113096, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521997

RESUMO

The Chinese Government has established stringent policies since 2005 to control SO2, particulate matter, and NOx emissions from sintering plants with the aim of tackling severe air pollution in China. Notably, sintering is also important sources of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), but it is not clear whether the air pollution control policies have led to decreased PCN emissions. In this study, the PCN concentrations in 144 stack gas, 87 discarded fly ash, and 24 desulfurization by-product samples from 24 Chinese sintering plants were determined. This study revealed that desulfurization processes decreased PCN emissions by 47.2%-72.2%. However, these PCNs were not completely eliminated, and transformed to desulfurization by-product. PCN emission in such previously ignored solid residues, including of desulfurization by-product and fine particles, produced in the process of cutting down air pollutants emissions from Chinese sintering plants between 2005 and 2015 was found contained 324 kg, and these residues therefore need to be managed better than currently. Furthermore, PCN concentrations were higher from produced in old plants than produced in new plants, so it is necessary to increase the rate at which out-of-date sintering plants are eliminated. Phasing out old sintering processes decreased total PCN emissions in China by 1549 kg between 2005 and 2015.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Indústrias , Naftalenos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1165-1174, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539948

RESUMO

The management system of soils and nitrogen application can cause impacts on the N2O emissions produced by the agricultural sector. In the establishment of practices of greenhouse gas mitigation for this sector, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil tillage, with and without N fertilization, on N2O emissions from Oxisols under rainfed maize in the Brazilian Cerrado region. The managements were of monoculture maize under conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT), with (1) and without (0) application of N fertilizer (0 and 257 kg N ha-1). From November 2014 to October 2015, gas emissions were measured. The soil and climate variables were measured and related to the N2O fluxes. In the N-fertilized treatments, N2O fluxes were higher (P < 0.01), ranging from -21 µg m-2 h-1 to 548 µg m-2 h-1 N2O under conventional tillage and from -21 µg m-2 h-1 to 380 µg m-2 h-1 N2O under no-tillage, compared with -6 to 93 µg m-2 h-1 N2O from systems without N application. There was a combined effect of mineral N and water-filled pore space for most N2O fluxes. The emission factors of N2O during maize cultivation were lower than the standard factor (1%) established by the International Panel of Climate Change. During the plant crop cycle, 30% less N2O was emitted from the N-fertilized no-tillage than from the conventional tillage. For the total cumulative N2O (crop cycle + fallow), the N2O emissions from NT1 and CT1 were not different, but 10× higher than those from the respective crops without N fertilization. To the emissions per unit of grain yield, CT1 and NT1 emitted 769 and 391 mg N2O kg-1 grain produced, respectively, and NT1 was most efficient in fertilizer-into-product conversion. Under maize cultivation, the soil acted as N2O source, regardless of the management.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Fertilizantes , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Solo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480310

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM), a widespread air pollutant, consists of a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in air. Many diseases have been linked to PM exposure, which induces an imbalance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in cells, and might result in skin diseases (such as aging and atopic dermatitis). New techniques involving nanomedicine and nano-delivery systems are being rapidly developed in the medicinal field. Fullerene, a kind of nanomaterial, acts as a super radical scavenger. Lower water solubility levels limit the bio-applications of fullerene. Hence, to improve the water solubility of fullerene, while retaining its radical scavenger functions, a fullerene derivative, fullerenol C60(OH)36, was synthesized, to examine its biofunctions in PM-exposed human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. The PM-induced increase in ROS levels and expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt could be inhibited via fullerenol pre-treatment. Furthermore, the expression of inflammation-related proteins, cyclooxygenase-2, heme oxygenase-1, and prostaglandin E2 was also suppressed. Fullerenol could preserve the impaired state of skin barrier proteins (filaggrin, involucrin, repetin, and loricrin), which was attributable to PM exposure. These results suggest that fullerenol could act against PM-induced cytotoxicity via ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and the maintenance of expression of barrier proteins, and is a potential candidate compound for the treatment of skin diseases.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Fulerenos/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Água/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Cidades , Fulerenos/química , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Solubilidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480345

RESUMO

By defining the connotation of land use eco-efficiency, land use eco-efficiency from 2003 to 2015 was calculated on the basis of the mixed directional distance function, and its spatial convergence analyzed using a spatial econometric model. Results showed that (1) the land use eco-efficiency in most regions of China was relatively ineffective-only Guangdong and Guangxi were relatively effective-and the spatial distribution of efficiency levels in each region was polarized. (2) Sigma and beta convergences were observed in land use eco-efficiency in China, and land use eco-efficiency in each province had an influence on the other. (3) The convergence rate of the eastern region was the same as that of the national region (0.164). The convergence rates of the central, western, and northeast regions were 0.181, 0.183, and 0.189, respectively, which were all higher than the national convergence rate. (4) Scientific and technological strength and industrial structure significantly promoted the improvement of land use eco-efficiency and steady development of land use in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Eficiência
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29822-29833, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410828

RESUMO

Thermal power plants are the main source of carbon dioxide emissions in China. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and their neighborhood provinces are the most polluted regions in China. Environmental efficiencies of 528 thermal power plants were evaluated through metafrontier epsilon-based measure, which aimed to overcome the invalid inferences of radial or non-radial model. We also analyzed the heterogeneity of environmental efficiency across different regions by considering environmental technology differences. Bootstrap regression was used in order to testify three different hypotheses to address the disadvantages of conventional regression. We found that environmental efficiency in Beijing and Tianjin is higher than the other regions and is becoming divergent. In addition, coal consumption intensity negatively affects environmental efficiency. Large-scale power stations are more environmental efficient than smaller ones. Longer equipment utilization hour can enhance energy performance of power stations, which can decrease carbon emissions and increase environmental efficiency. It is better to promote technology transfer from regions with higher environmental efficiency to regions with lower environmental efficiency. Low-carbon technologies should be promoted to decrease carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Centrais Elétricas/normas , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Eficiência , Tecnologia
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29799-29809, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407261

RESUMO

The economics of death and dying highlighted that environmental factors negatively influence healthcare sustainability. Therefore, this study conducted a system-based literature review to identify the negative externality of environmental damages on global healthcare reforms. Based on 42 peer-reviewed papers in the field of healthcare reforms and 12 papers in the field of environmental hazards, we identified 25 factors associated with death and dying and 15 factors associated with health-related damages across the world respectively. We noted that environmental factors are largely responsible to affect healthcare sustainability reforms by associating with the number of healthcare diseases pertaining to air pollutants. The study suggests healthcare practitioners and environmentalists to devise long-term sustainable healthcare policies by limiting highly toxic air pollutants through technology-embodied green healthcare infrastructure to attained efficient global healthcare recovery.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Atitude Frente a Morte , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31062-31076, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456153

RESUMO

Alternative energy policies targeting the adoption of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) could have significant positive impacts on Malaysia's ability to meet both its carbon reduction goal and its energy security needs. The transport sector generally contributes heavily to carbon emissions, and is also difficult to decarbonize because of the costs associated with many greener options. This study explores the possibility of decarbonizing the Malaysian transport sector by promoting the use of hydrogen vehicles, and analyzes the adoption challenges and economic obstacles (especially public acceptance) associated with introducing HFCVs. This study contends that the adoption challenges of this new technology can be overcome through the use of development strategies outlined. This study also addresses the regulatory framework that Malaysia (and other countries) might use to overcome common policy adoption challenges of HFCVs.


Assuntos
Carbono , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Hidrogênio , Veículos Automotores , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malásia , Opinião Pública , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
19.
Biol Direct ; 14(1): 14, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429783

RESUMO

There is growing agreement that the aim of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, is not likely to be met without inclusion of methods to physically remove atmospheric carbon. A number of approaches have been suggested, but the community appears to be silent on the potential of one of the most revolutionary technologies of the current century, systems and synthetic biology (SSB). The potential of SSB to modulate the fast carbon cycle, and thereby mitigate climate change is in itself enormous, but if the history of genomics is any measure, it is also reasonable to expect sizeable economic returns on any investment. More generally, the approach to climate control has been badly unbalanced. The last three decades have seen intense international attention to emission control, with no parallel plan to test, scale and implement carbon removal technologies, including attention to their economic, legal and ethical implications. REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by Richard Roberts, Aristides Patrinos, and Eugene Koonin, all of whom were nominated by Itai Yanai. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Mudança Climática , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Carbono/análise , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430997

RESUMO

In order to solve the optimization problem of emergency logistics system, this paper provides an environmental protection point of view and combines with the overall optimization idea of emergency logistics system, where a fuzzy low-carbon open location-routing problem (FLCOLRP) model in emergency logistics is constructed with the multi-objective function, which includes the minimum delivery time, total costs and carbon emissions. Taking into account the uncertainty of the needs of the disaster area, this article illustrates a triangular fuzzy function to gain fuzzy requirements. This model is tackled by a hybrid two-stage algorithm: Particle swarm optimization is adopted to obtain the initial optimal solution, which is further optimized by tabu search, due to its global optimization capability. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by the classic database in LRP. What's more, an example of a post-earthquake rescue is used in the model for acquiring reliable conclusions, and the application of the model is tested by setting different target weight values. According to these results, some constructive proposals are propounded for the government to manage emergency logistics and for the public to aware and measure environmental emergency after disasters.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Algoritmos , Carbono/economia , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Planejamento em Desastres/economia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Emergências
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