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2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(2): 1656-1674, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845465

RESUMO

The impact of renewable energy consumption on reducing the outdoor air pollution death rate, in nineteen Latin America & the Caribbean countries, from 1990 to 2016, using the econometric technique of quantile regression for panel data, was researched. Results show that economic growth and fossil fuel consumption are positively related to CO2 emissions, while renewable energy consumption bears a negative relationship with it. Furthermore, fossil fuel consumption has a positive impact on the mortality rate and economic growth a negative one. The negative effect of renewable energy consumption on the mortality rate is only observable on the right tail of its distribution. The modelisation reveals two ways in which the consumption of renewable energy can reduce the outdoor air pollution death rates: (i) directly, by increasing renewable energies, and (i) indirectly because the increase in the consumption of renewable energies implies a decrease in the consumption of energy from fossil fuels. The phenomenon of increasing urbanisation is a point where the action of public policymakers is decisive for the reduction of outdoor air pollution death rates. Here, the question is not to reduce the level of urbanisation but to act on the "quality" of urbanisation, to make cities healthier. The research concludes that public policymakers must focus on intensifying the transition from fossil to renewable energies and improving the quality of cities.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Dióxido de Carbono , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Região do Caribe , Desenvolvimento Econômico , América Latina , Energia Renovável
3.
Environ Res ; 192: 110403, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152273

RESUMO

The lockdown response to COVID-19 has resulted in an unprecedented reduction in global economic activity and associated air pollutant levels, especially from a decline in land transportation. We utilized a network of >10,000 air quality stations distributed over 34 countries during lockdown dates up until 15 May 2020 to obtain lockdown related anomalies for nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5). Pollutant anomalies were related to short-term health outcomes using empirical exposure-response functions. We estimate that there were a net total of 49,900 (11,000 to 90,000; 95% confidence interval) excess deaths and 89,000 (64,700 to 107,000) pediatric asthma emergency room visits avoided during lockdowns. In China and India alone, the PM2.5-related avoided excess mortality was 19,600 (15,300 to 24,000) and 30,500 (5700 to 68,000), respectively. While the state of COVID-19 imposed lockdown is not sustainable, these findings illustrate the potential health benefits gained by reducing "business as usual" air pollutant emissions from economic activities primarily through finding alternative transportation solutions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116187, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316495

RESUMO

Vehicular emissions contribute significantly to air pollution, and the number of vehicles in use is continuing to rise. Policymakers thus need to formulate vehicular emission reduction policies to improve urban air-quality. This study used different vehicle control scenarios to predict the associated potential of mitigating carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) in Xi'an China, in 2020 and 2025. One business-as-usual scenario and six control scenarios were established, and vehicular emission inventory was developed according to each scenario. The results revealed that eliminating high-emission vehicles and optimizing after-treatment devices would effectively reduce vehicular emissions. In addition, increasing the number of alternative fuel vehicles, restraining vehicle use, and restraining the growth of the vehicle population would all have certain effects on CO and VOCs emissions, but the effects would not be significant for NOx, PM2.5, and PM10. The results also indicated that if all control measures were stringently applied together, emissions of CO, VOCs, NOx, PM2.5, and PM10 would be reduced by 51.66%, 51.58%, 30.19%,71.12%, and 71.81% in 2020, and 53.55%, 51.44%, 19.09%, 54.88%, and 55.51%, in 2025, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 3106-3120, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909135

RESUMO

With rapid economic development, air pollution became a serious problem in China. Vehicle's exhaust emissions are among the main sources of air pollution. With samples of 173 prefecture-level cities in China from 2006 to 2016, this paper takes the implementation of driving restrictions as a quasi-natural experiment to examine the relationship between driving restrictions and air quality through the difference-in-differences method based on the propensity score matching. Results indicate that driving restrictions have not improved the air quality in terms of average treatment effect as there is no clear evidence that people turn from private cars to busses or subways. Furthermore, heterogeneous effects of driving restrictions exist across different regions and cities of China. The implementation of driving restrictions has significantly positive impacts on air pollution in the Eastern and Central cities of China, while it has significantly negative effects in non-capital cities. This study implies that the development of local public transportation needs to be taken into account when formulating the policy of driving restrictions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 775-788, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822010

RESUMO

The trade-off between economic development and environmental protection has always been a significant and tough issue for local governments. Studies found that some local governments took temporary measures to control air pollution and created "political blue sky" in certain periods. We collected daily air quality index (AQI) data and individual pollutant concentration data of four cities in China which have hosted major international events in 2019. The air quality of the cities taken temporary measures to control air pollution had an obvious improvement during the events. Furthermore, the improvement mainly occurred in pollution indicators, such as PM2.5 and PM10, which are more valued and sensitive to the public. The sustainability analysis demonstrates that the air quality deteriorated again after the event, indicating that "political blue sky" comes at the cost of retaliatory pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142249, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207469

RESUMO

Biochars are low-cost and renewable biomaterials with several applications, including soil amendment, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and removal of both inorganic and organic contaminants in aqueous systems. An increasing body of recent evidence indicates that biochars can also remove gaseous chemical contaminants, such as those occurring in industrial flue gases. However, unlike other applications such as in agroecosystems, soil amendments, and aquatic systems, comprehensive reviews on biochar applications in the field of air pollution control are still lacking. The current paper examined existing evidence to understand the nature of contaminants, particularly the gaseous ones, potential applications, constraints, and future research needs pertaining to biochar applications in air pollution control. The preparation of biochars and their functionalized derivatives, and the properties influencing their capacity to remove gaseous contaminants are summarized. The removal capacity and mechanisms of various organic and inorganic gaseous contaminants by biochars are discussed. Evidence shows that biochars effectively remove metal vapours, particularly elemental mercury (Hg0), acidic gases (H2S, SO2, CO2), ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and organic contaminants including aromatic compounds, volatile organic compounds, and odorous substances. The mechanisms for the removal of gaseous contaminants, including; adsorption, precipitation, and size exclusion were presented. Potential industrial application domains include remediation of gaseous emissions from incinerators, waste-to-energy systems, kilns, biomass and coal-fired boilers/cookers, cremation, smelters, wastewater treatment, and agricultural production systems including livestock husbandry. These industrial applications, coupled with the renewable, low-cost and sustainable nature of biochars, point to opportunities to further develop and scale up the biochar technology in the air pollution control industry. However, the biochar-based air filter technology still faces several challenges, largely stemming from constraints and several knowledge gaps, which were highlighted. Hence, further research is required to address these constraints and knowledge gaps before the benefits of the biochar-based air filters are realized.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Carvão Vegetal , Adsorção , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Solo
9.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111470, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069146

RESUMO

Improving air quality is an era task for China to transform its economic development model and enhance its environmental governance capabilities. This article take the Chinese government's Three-year Action Plan to Win the Blue Sky Defense War (abbreviated as the Blue Sky Defense War) as a quasi-natural experiment and use regression discontinuity design (RDD) to evaluate the governance effect of this policy. The study found that the Blue Sky Defense War reduced the monthly average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in cities by 14.49 and 23.43, respectively. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the Blue Sky Defence War has a more prominent effect on urban air quality management based on PM10 assessment; Jing-Jin-Ji region and surrounding areas are the key points to ensure the achievement of air management. Consistent and effective environmental governance policies, transparent and timely information disclosure and structural adjustment are all powerful guarantees for the effectiveness of the Blue Sky Defense War. These research conclusions provide new ideas for developing countries to formulate practical environmental pollution control policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Governo , Material Particulado/análise
10.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111429, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069148

RESUMO

Understanding the roles and regional differences associated with cleaner production (CP) and end-of-pipe treatment (ET) can provide valuable information for the reduction of pollutant emissions. Considering the differences of these impact pathways, this paper proposes a two-stage decomposition method for investigating the contributions of CP and ET to the reduction of pollutant emissions. This two-stage method enhances the accuracy and obtainable detail of the decomposition results. Then, empirical research was conducted by decomposing the changes of China's industrial sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions during 2005-2015. At the national level, CP and ET both decreased Chinese SO2 emissions, and CP has become the dominant approach for SO2 emission reduction in 2010-2015. Moreover, coal pollution intensity and treatment strength are key factors that need to be improved in CP and ET, respectively. At the provincial level, CP exerts a stronger impact on SO2 emission differences among different regions, while ET exerts less impact on SO2 emission differences among different regions. Based on the decomposition results, this paper presents targeted policy implications.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Poluição Ambiental , Indústrias , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 11, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325002

RESUMO

Parallel reductions in atmospheric aerosols (particulate matter (PM)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) accompanied the drastic measures that were adopted to limit the spread of COVID-19. The results of this preliminary study conducted in northern Egypt revealed that ambient PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 levels decreased by 22.8%, 29.3%, and 25.9%, respectively, after the lockdown started on March 13, 2020. These reductions in concentrations significantly (p ˂ 0.01) correlated with the decrease in transportation and industrial and other economic activities. Furthermore, PM and NO2 concentrations radically reduced during the full lockdown on Easter, Ramadan, and Eid Al-Fitr. The findings of this study will help the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health regulators to combat COVID-19 in the world. This study is part of an ongoing research related to the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(11): 3786-3794, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300729

RESUMO

The concentration of pollutants and pathogens in the air directly affects human health. When the pollution source remains unchanged, effective ventilation determines air quality. It is therefore critically needed to establish a quantitative determination index for effective ventilation, which can be used for real-time evaluation of air quality in specific areas, so as to guide residents to choose healthy outdoor activity places. In this study, Reynolds average Navier-Stokes (RANS) method was used to establish urban air pollution simulation system by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. The correlations among wind speed, pollutant concentration, and pollutant diffusion efficiency were analyzed. With real-time meteorological data, wind field simulation and air quality evaluation were carried out for different periods of urban square space. The results showed that the critical wind speed value at pedestrian height (1.5 m) for the effective diffusion of pollutants was 1.0 m·s-1, which could be used as an air quality evaluation standard. With reference to this judgment index and the real-time weather system link, the pedestrian height wind speed distribution could be obtained through simulation. Therefore, the spatial variation of air quality could be visually displayed in real time, which help realize fair, efficient and reasonable use of urban space resources. This work could provide guidelines for choosing healthy outdoor venues, and provide technologies and means for public disease prevention and health promotion.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Vento
13.
Actas urol. esp ; 44(10): 644-652, dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195507

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La telemedicina ofrece un soporte clínico remoto utilizando herramientas tecnológicas. Puede facilitar la atención médica al tiempo que reduce las visitas innecesarias a la consulta. La pandemia COVID-19 ha provocado un cambio brusco en nuestra práctica urológica diaria convirtiéndose en algo muy necesario el acto de la teleconsulta. OBJETIVO: Proporcionar recomendaciones prácticas para el uso efectivo de herramientas tecnológicas en telemedicina. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda en la literatura en la plataforma Medline hasta abril de 2020; seleccionamos los artículos más relevantes relacionados con «telemedicina» y «trabajo inteligente» que podrían proporcionar información útil. RESULTADOS: La telemedicina se refiere al uso de la información electrónica y a las herramientas de telecomunicaciones para proporcionar apoyo clínico remoto a la atención médica. El trabajo inteligente es un modelo de trabajo que utiliza tecnologías nuevas o existentes para mejorar el rendimiento. La telemedicina se está convirtiendo en una herramienta útil y necesaria durante la pandemia COVID-19 e incluso más allá de la misma. Es hora de que formalicemos y demos el lugar que se merece a la telemedicina en nuestra práctica clínica y es nuestra responsabilidad adaptar y conocer todas las herramientas y posibles estrategias para su implementación de una manera óptima, garantizar una atención de calidad a los pacientes y que dicha atención sea percibida por pacientes y familiares como de alto nivel. CONCLUSIONES: La telemedicina facilita la atención clínica urológica especializada a distancia y resuelve problemas como las limitaciones en la movilidad o el traslado de los pacientes, reduce las visitas innecesarias a las clínicas y es útil para reducir el riesgo de transmisión viral de la COVID-19


INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine provides remote clinical support through technology tools. It can facilitate medical care delivery while reducing unnecessary office visits. The COVID-19 outbreak has caused an abrupt change in our daily urological practice, where teleconsultations play a crucial role. OBJECTIVE: To provide practical recommendations for the effective use of technological tools in telemedicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted on Medline until April 2020. We selected the most relevant articles related to «telemedicine» and «smart working» that could provide valuable information. RESULTS: Telemedicine refers to the use of electronic information and telecommunication tools to provide remote clinical health care support. Smart working is a working approach that uses new or existing technologies to improve performance. Telemedicine is becoming a useful and fundamental tool during the COVID-19 pandemic and will be even more in the future. It is time for us to officially give telemedicine the place it deserves in clinical practice, and it is our responsibility to adapt and familiarize with all the tools and possible strategies for its optimal implementation. We must guarantee that the quality of care received by patients and perceived by them and their families is of the highest standard. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine facilitates remote specialized urological clinical support and solves problems caused by limited patient mobility or transfer, reduces unnecessary visits to clinics and is useful to reduce the risk of COVID-19 viral transmission


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/normas , Urologia/métodos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Agendamento de Consultas , Confidencialidade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Urologia/organização & administração , Urologia/normas , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Triagem/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
14.
Chem Asian J ; 15(24): 4241-4255, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169915

RESUMO

Particulate matters (PMs), e. g. dusts, fibres, smokes, fumes, mists, liquid droplets and airborne respirable solid or liquid particles, are the major sources of air pollution concerning outdoor and indoor air quality. Among various PMs, bioaerosols are airborne particles that are either living organisms (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) or originate from living organisms (endotoxin, allergen, etc). PMs and/or bioaerosols have adverse health effects of infection, allergy, and irritation. Proper management and source identification of PMs and bioaerosols will reduce their negative health impact. In this review, we will discuss the analytical technologies and sensors for PMs and bioaerosols. We will first introduce four types of PM analysers, namely, filter-based gravimetric method (GMM), optical method, ß-ray absorption method (BAM), and tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). We will provide examples of how commercial PM analyzers of different principles have been compared and calibrated for specific applications under different climate conditions of specific geographic locations. For bioaerosols, having more complex biological and biochemical identity, we will start from air sampling techniques, followed by a discussion of various detection methods (plate culture, molecular methods, immunoassays and biosensors) in association with compatible sampling technologies. Using Influenza A (H1 N1) virus and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus as examples, we have highlighted air sampling and detection challenges for viral aerosols relative to bacterial and fungal aerosols. Finally, we provide a perspective for future trends according to the limitation of current commercial products and the key challenges in this field.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/análise , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Actas Urol Esp ; 44(10): 644-652, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012592

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine provides remote clinical support through technology tools. It can facilitate medical care delivery while reducing unnecessary office visits. The COVID-19 outbreak has caused an abrupt change in our daily urological practice, where teleconsultations play a crucial role. OBJECTIVE: To provide practical recommendations for the effective use of technological tools in telemedicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted on Medline until April 2020. We selected the most relevant articles related to «telemedicine¼ and «smart working¼ that could provide valuable information. RESULTS: Telemedicine refers to the use of electronic information and telecommunication tools to provide remote clinical health care support. Smart working is a working approach that uses new or existing technologies to improve performance. Telemedicine is becoming a useful and fundamental tool during the COVID-19 pandemic and will be even more in the future. It is time for us to officially give telemedicine the place it deserves in clinical practice, and it is our responsibility to adapt and familiarize with all the tools and possible strategies for its optimal implementation. We must guarantee that the quality of care received by patients and perceived by them and their families is of the highest standard. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine facilitates remote specialized urological clinical support and solves problems caused by limited patient mobility or transfer, reduces unnecessary visits to clinics and is useful to reduce the risk of COVID-19 viral transmission.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Telemedicina , Urologia/métodos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Agendamento de Consultas , Confidencialidade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/normas , Triagem/métodos , Urologia/organização & administração , Urologia/normas
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027306

RESUMO

Pollen is an important component of bioaerosol and the distribution of pollen and its relationship with meteorological parameters can be analyzed to better prevent hay fever. Pollen assemblages can also provide basic data for analyzing the relationship between bioaerosol and PM. We collected 82 samples of airborne pollen using a TSP large flow pollen collector from June 1, 2015 to June 1, 2016, from central Zhanjiang city in South China. We also conducted a survey of the nearby vegetation at the same time, in order to characterize the major plant types and their flowering times. We then used data on daily temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, vapor pressure and wind speed from a meteorological station in the center of Zhanjiang City to assess the relationship between the distribution of airborne pollen and meteorological parameters. Our main findings and conclusions are as follows: (1) We identified 15 major pollen types, including Pinus, Castanopsis, Myrica, Euphorbiaceae, Compositae, Gramineae, Microlepia and Polypodiaceae. From the vegetation survey, we found that the pollen from these taxa represented more than 75% of local pollen, while the pollen of Podocarpus, Dacrydium and other regional pollen types represented less than 25%. (2) The pollen concentrations varied significantly in different seasons. The pollen concentrations were at a maximum in spring, consisting mainly of tree pollen; the pollen concentrations were at an intermediate level in autumn and winter, consisting mainly of herb pollen and fern spores; and the pollen concentrations in summer were the lowest, consisting mainly of fern spores. (3) Analysis of the relationship between airborne pollen concentrations and meteorological parameters showed that variations in the pollen concentrations were mainly affected by temperature and relative humidity. In addition, there were substantial differences in these relationships in different seasons. In spring, pollen concentrations were mainly affected by temperature; in summer, they were mainly affected by the direction of the maximum wind speed; in autumn, they were mainly affected by relative humidity and temperature; and in winter, they were mainly affected by relative humidity and wind speed. Temperature and relative humidity promote plant growth and flowering. Notably, the variable wind direction in summer and the increased wind speed in winter and spring are conductive to pollen transmission. (4) Of the 15 major pollen types, Moraceae, Artemisia and Gramineae are the main allergenic pollen types, with peaks in concentration during April-May, August-September, and October-December, respectively. (5) Atypical weather conditions have substantial effects on pollen dispersal. In South China, the pollen concentrations in the sunny day were usually significantly higher than that of the rainy day. The pollen concentrations increased in short rainy days, which usually came from the Herb and Fern pollen. The pollen concentrations decreased in continuous rainy days especially for the Tree and Shrub pollen. the pollen concentrations in the sunny days were usually significantly higher than that in the rainy days. The pollen concentrations increased in short and strong rainfall.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pólen/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Chuva , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/etiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar , Vento
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3449-3457, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124316

RESUMO

Taking the "9.3" military parade in 2015 and two red alerts of heavy air pollution in December of the same year as examples, the characteristics of meteorological factors and pollutant concentration variation were compared. Based on the estimation of pollutant emission reduction under different periods, the WRF-CAMx model was used to evaluate the effect of PM2.5 pollution improvement. The results showed that the daily average PM2.5 concentration (19.0 µg·m-3) during the parade (from August 20 to September 4) decreased by 60.0% and 48.0%, respectively, in comparison to that before (August 15-19) and after (September 5-15) the parade. The daily average PM2.5 concentration (232.3 µg·m-3) during the first red alert period was higher than that of the second red alert (216.6 µg·m-3). The air quality before the second red alert was better than that before the first red alert. The proportion of emission reduction during the parade was generally larger than that during the red alert periods, which provided a controllable and favorable condition for the realization of the "Parade Blue". The PM2.5 concentration in Beijing decreased by 32.4%, 17.1%, and 22.0% under the control measures during the periods of the "9.3" parade, the first red alert, and second red alert, respectively. The higher proportion of PM2.5 concentration reduction could be attributed to the more intensive regional emission reduction and the favorable meteorological conditions. The intensity of the pollution reduction, the timing of the implementation of emergency control measures, and meteorological conditions were the most important factors that may have influenced the improvement of pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Environ Res ; 191: 110193, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919964

RESUMO

Studying weekend-weekday variation in ground-level ozone (O3) allows one to better understand O3 formation conditions, with a potential for developing effective strategies for O3 control. Reducing inappropriately the O3 precursors emissions can either produce no reduction or increase surface O3 concentrations. This paper analyzes the weekend-weekday differences of O3 at 300 rural and 808 urban background stations worldwide from 2005 to 2014, in order to investigate the O3 weekend effect over time and assess the effectiveness of the precursors emissions control policies for reducing O3 levels. Data were analyzed with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen estimator. Rural sites typically did not experience a weekend-weekday effect. In all urban stations, the mean O3 concentration on the weekend was 12% higher than on weekdays. Between 2005 and 2014, the annual mean of daily O3 concentrations increased at 74% of urban sites worldwide (+ 0.41 ppb year-1) and decreased in the United Kingdom (- 0.18 ppb year-1). Over this time period, emissions of O3 precursors declined significantly. However, a greater decline in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions caused an increase in Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to NOx ratios leading to O3 formation. In France, South Korea and the United Kingdom, most urban stations showed a significant upward trend (+ 1.15% per year) for O3 weekend effect. Conversely, in Canada, Germany, Japan, Italy and the United States, the O3 weekend effect showed a significant downward trend (- 0.26% per year). Further or inappropriate control of anthropogenic emissions in Canada, Southern Europe, Japan, South Korea and the United States might result in increased daily O3 levels in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , França , Alemanha , Itália , Japão , Ozônio/análise , República da Coreia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
20.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(10): e474-e482, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to poor air quality leads to increased premature mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Among the far-reaching implications of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial improvement in air quality was observed worldwide after the lockdowns imposed by many countries. We aimed to assess the implications of different lockdown measures on air pollution levels in Europe and China, as well as the short-term and long-term health impact. METHODS: For this modelling study, observations of fine particulate matter (PM2·5) concentrations from more than 2500 stations in Europe and China during 2016-20 were integrated with chemical transport model simulations to reconstruct PM2·5 fields at high spatiotemporal resolution. The health benefits, expressed as short-term and long-term avoided mortality from PM2·5 exposure associated with the interventions imposed to control the COVID-19 pandemic, were quantified on the basis of the latest epidemiological studies. To explore the long-term variability in air quality and associated premature mortality, we built different scenarios of economic recovery (immediate or gradual resumption of activities, a second outbreak in autumn, and permanent lockdown for the whole of 2020). FINDINGS: The lockdown interventions led to a reduction in population-weighted PM2·5 of 14·5 µg m-3 across China (-29·7%) and 2·2 µg m-3 across Europe (-17·1%), with unprecedented reductions of 40 µg m-3 in bimonthly mean PM2·5 in the areas most affected by COVID-19 in China. In the short term, an estimated 24 200 (95% CI 22 380-26 010) premature deaths were averted throughout China between Feb 1 and March 31, and an estimated 2190 (1960-2420) deaths were averted in Europe between Feb 21 and May 17. We also estimated a positive number of long-term avoided premature fatalities due to reduced PM2·5 concentrations, ranging from 76 400 (95% CI 62 600-86 900) to 287 000 (233 700-328 300) for China, and from 13 600 (11 900-15 300) to 29 500 (25 800-33 300) for Europe, depending on the future scenarios of economic recovery adopted. INTERPRETATION: These results indicate that lockdown interventions led to substantial reductions in PM2·5 concentrations in China and Europe. We estimated that tens of thousands of premature deaths from air pollution were avoided, although with significant differences observed in Europe and China. Our findings suggest that considerable improvements in air quality are achievable in both China and Europe when stringent emission control policies are adopted. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Pandemias/economia , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
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