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1.
Life Sci ; 251: 117644, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259604

RESUMO

AIMS: Electronic cigarette (ECIG) has been used as an alternative to tobacco smoking as it lacks the majority of toxicants found in tobacco smoke. However, the effect of ECIG aerosol inhalation on cardiac health are not well studied. The present study aimed to compare the effects of ECIGs with that of combustible tobacco cigarette (T-Cigs) and waterpipe (WP) smoke on cardiac biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. MAIN METHODS: Rats were randomized into control (fresh air, n = 12), ECIG aerosol (n = 12), T-Cig smoke (n = 15), or WP (n = 13) smoke conditions in which they were exposed 1 h/daily, 6 day/week for 4 weeks. Cardiac biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and remodeling were assessed. KEY FINDINGS: Relative to control, significant increase in heart to body weight ratio was observed in all exposed groups. Cardiac endothelin-1 and myeloperoxidase were increased for ECIG and T-Cig. Cardiac nitrite and TBARS were increased in all exposed groups, but activity of superoxide dismutase was increased for ECIG and T-Cig only while glutathione levels increased for ECIG only. No changes were observed for cardiac C-reactive protein and catalase activity. Cardiac fibrosis was observed in all exposed groups coupled with an increase in the transforming growth factor beta protein that was significant for ECIG only. SIGNIFICANCE: ECIG aerosol may promote cardiac alterations in similar manner to tobacco smoke by promoting myocardial oxidative stress and inflammation leading to fibrosis. With regard to cardiac health, exposure to ECIG aerosol and combustible T-Cig smoke may lead to similar adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Inflamação/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Aerossóis , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fibrose/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos
2.
Pneumologie ; 74(5): 294-299, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since September 2007, the Federal Nonsmoker Protection Act regulates a general legal ban on smoking in federal facilities, public transport vehicles and passenger stations. Other smoking bans are not uniformly regulated and vary from state to state. In addition to places of public interest, sports venues and the workplace, particular attention in political debates has always been paid to bars and restaurants, where smoking has always been part of the picture. The situation of the Südstadt pubs in Cologne considered in this paper is governed by the expanded law for the protection of non-smokers in North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) of December 20, 2007. METHODS: A survey using a specifically created questionnaire comprising 24 items was carried out. Persons over 26 years of age visiting selected bars were interviewed in order to ensure that at the time the Nonsmoker Protection Act was introduced, participants had reached the legal age for smoking. Data acquisition was carried out both by direct surveys of participants in selected pubs in Cologne's Südstadt and by means of online surveys, attention to which had been drawn in the press, television and through social media. RESULTS: A total of 1318 completed questionnaires were evaluated. Participants were on average 49 years old (±â€Š12.1). Of the 1318 respondents, 726 were active smokers in 2007 (55.1 %). In 2018, 518 (39.3 %) (p: < 0.001) respondents stated that they were still active smokers. Of the 726 active smokers, 289 (39.8 %) had been consuming more than 20 cigarettes a day in 2007. In 2018, 179 of 518 (34.6 %) (p: < 0.001) were heavy smokers. In 2007, 303 persons (41.7 % of smokers) fell into the group of medium smokers with 10 - 19 cigarettes per day, in 2018 there were 227 (43.8 %) (p: < 0.001). The group of people who smoked less and consumed 1 - 9 cigarettes per day included a total of 134 persons (18.5 %) in 2007 and 112 (21.6 %) in 2018 (p: < 0.001). Among active smokers, the smoking ban was the most relevant cause for a change in smoking behaviour in this survey. Among non-smokers or former smokers, health aspects as well as family and friends were the decisive factors in rejecting tobacco products. SUMMARY: Based on a sample of 1318 participants among pub visitors, the study showed that the number of active smokers had significantly and distinctly decreased since the introduction of the Nonsmoker Protection Act in 2007. Furthermore, the number of people with rather low cigarette consumption showed a significant increase.


Assuntos
não Fumantes , Política Pública , Política Antifumo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. METHOD: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Atenolol/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Felipressina/farmacologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of respiratory tract infections in children treated with OM-85 BV and placebo during the 3-month therapy period, and observation for a further 3 months after treatment. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 54 children (6 months to 5 years old) with no past history of recurrent respiratory infections attending daycare center. Family members were instructed to administer one capsule per day for 10 consecutive days, for 3 months of OM-85 BV or placebo. Telephone interviews were conducted every 30 days. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the number of respiratory infections between the groups. The mean number of respiratory tract infection in the OM-85 BV Group in the first 3 months was 0.92±0.87, and in the Placebo Group was 0.74±1.02, and at 6 months it was 1.62±1.47 and 1.03±1.34, respectively. CONCLUSION: OM-85 BV was not effective in the primary prevention of respiratory tract infections. Although most authors recommend the use of this immunostimulant in children with a history of recurrent respiratory infections, more studies are needed to define its usefulness in the primary prevention of respiratory infections in healthy children exposed to few risk factors.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Celulares/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Aleitamento Materno , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 326: 61-69, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169443

RESUMO

Notch-1 intervenes in the reparative processes of mucosa by controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and stem cell maintenance. Cigarette smoke alters airway epithelial homeostasis. The present study explored whether: Smokers showed altered Notch-1 expression; and whether in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE): a) cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) altered the expression of Notch-1, of its ligand Jagged-1 (Jag-1) and the nuclear translocation of Notch-1; b) Notch-1 signaling activation as well as CSE modified Ki67, PCNA, p21, IL-33 expression, cell proliferation and repair processes. Notch-1 expression was assessed in the epithelium from large airway surgical samples from non-smoker and smoker subjects by immunohistochemistry.16HBE were cultured with/without CSE and Jag-1. A Notch-1 inhibitor (DAPT) was used as control. The expression of Notch-1, Jag-1, Ki67, PCNA, p21, IL-33 and cell proliferation (by CFSE) were all assessed by flow cytometry. Notch-1 nuclear expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Repair processes were assessed by wound assay. Smokers had cytoplasmic but not nuclear Notch-1 expression. Although CSE increased Notch-1 expression, it counteracted Notch-1 signaling activation since it reduced Jag-1 expression and Notch-1 nuclear translocation. Notch-1 signaling activation by Jag-1 increased Ki67, PCNA and repair processes but reduced intracellular IL-33 and p21 expression without affecting cell proliferation. DAPT counteracted the effects of Notch-1 activation on PCNA and IL-33. CSE increased Ki67, PCNA, p21 and IL-33 expression but reduced cell proliferation and repair processes. In conclusion, cigarette smoke exposure, limiting Notch-1 signaling activation and hindering repair processes, amplifies injury processes in bronchial epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Notch/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Humanos
8.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(1): 42-47, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186590

RESUMO

Background: Wheezing constitutes a common respiratory symptom in children, and several risk factors have been associated with the prevalence of recurrent wheezing (RW) and its severity, especially viral respiratory infections and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Objective: To analyze the relationship between smoking patterns in the home and wheezing, in infants from the city of Córdoba, Argentina, during their first year of life. Methods: Parents of infants were invited to complete a standardized questionnaire voluntarily and anonymously (WQ-P1-EISL). Wheezing in the first 12 months of life was classified as occasional wheezing (OW) when having one or two episodes during the first 12 months of life; recurrent wheezing (RW) if having three or more, and more frequent wheezing (MFW) ≥ 6 episodes. Results: 409 infants (39.0%) had one or more episodes of wheezing in the first 12 months. Of these, 214 infants (52.3%) presented occasional wheezing (OW), 135 (33%) had recurrent wheezing (RW), and 60 (14.7%) more frequent wheezing (MFW). SHS was significantly related to MFW, especially if the mother smoked (OR = 2.7; IC 95%: 1.4-5.18; p = 0.0009) or if she smoked during pregnancy (OR = 4; IC 95%: 1.8-8.5; p = 0.0001). This group of MFW was also associated with SHS as well as having been to the emergency room for wheezing (40.87%, p = 0.0056). Conclusion: The results indicate that second-hand tobacco smoke is a significant risk factor for the presence of wheezing in infants, and for its severity. Our findings have significant implications for public health, as smoking is a modifiable behavior


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Sons Respiratórios , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Argentina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde Pública , Análise Multivariada
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 144-148, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074700

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the interaction of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students. Methods: From November 2015 to January 2016, 22 628 middle school students from Shenyang of Liaoning Province, Bengbu of Anhui Province, Xinxiang of Henan Province, Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Chongqing Municipality, and Yangjiang of Guangdong Province were enrolled by using the multi-stage cluster convenience sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect the data including demographic information, health literacy, second-hand smoke exposure, and psychopathological symptoms. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the interaction of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students. Results: The age of students was (15.36±1.79) years old, of which 10 990 were boys, accounting for 48.6% of total students. The detection rate of psychopathological symptoms was 29.1% (6 581/22 628). The detection rate of psychopathological symptoms in those who were exposed to second-hand smoke was 38.1% (2 401/6 304), which was higher than that in the non-second-hand smoke exposure group [25.6% (4 180/16 324)] (P<0.001). The OR (95%CI) of the interaction between medium and low levels of overall health literacy, low level of interpersonal dimension of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure was 1.19 (1.15-1.24), 2.00 (1.92-2.10) and 1.59 (1.52-1.66), respectively. Conclusion: There was a positive interaction between middle and low levels of overall health literacy, low level of interpersonal dimension of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027677

RESUMO

Smoke exposure is known to decrease total pulmonary surfactant and alter its composition, but the role of surfactant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unknown. We aimed to analyze the compositional changes in the surfactant lipidome in COPD and identify specific lipids associated with pulmonary function decline. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was obtained from 12 former smokers with COPD and 5 non-smoking, non-asthmatic healthy control volunteers. Lipids were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pulmonary function data were obtained by spirometry, and correlations of lung function with lipid species were determined. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 6 months of second-hand smoke in a full-body chamber. Surfactant lipids were decreased by 60% in subjects with COPD. All phospholipid classes were dramatically decreased, including ether phospholipids, which have not been studied in pulmonary surfactant. Availability of phospholipid, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin in BAL strongly correlated with pulmonary function and this was attributable to specific lipid species of phosphatidylcholine with surface tension reducing properties, and of phosphatidylglycerol with antimicrobial roles, as well as to other less studied lipid species. Mice exposed to smoke for six months recapitulated surfactant lipidomic changes observed in human subjects with COPD. In summary, we show that the surfactant lipidome is substantially altered in subjects with COPD, and decreased availability of phospholipids correlated with decreased pulmonary function. Further investigation of surfactant alterations in COPD would improve our understanding of its physiopathology and reveal new potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Pulmão/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco
12.
Pediatrics ; 145(3)2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047098

RESUMO

Recently, there has been a significant increase in the use of noncombustible nicotine-containing products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Of increasing popularity are e-cigarettes that can deliver high doses of nicotine over short periods of time. These devices have led to a rise in nicotine addiction in adolescent users who were nonsmokers. Use of noncombustible nicotine products by pregnant mothers is also increasing and can expose the developing fetus to nicotine, a known teratogen. In addition, young children are frequently exposed to secondhand and thirdhand nicotine aerosols generated by e-cigarettes, with little understanding of the effects these exposures can have on health. With the advent of these new nicotine-delivery systems, many concerns have arisen regarding the short- and long-term health effects of nicotine on childhood health during all stages of development. Although health studies on nicotine exposure alone are limited, educating policy makers and health care providers on the potential health effects of noncombustible nicotine is needed because public acceptance of these products has become so widespread. Most studies evaluating the effects of nicotine on health have been undertaken in the context of smoke exposure. Nevertheless, in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies strongly indicate that nicotine exposure alone can adversely affect the nervous, respiratory, immune, and cardiovascular systems, particularly when exposure occurs during critical developmental periods. In this review, we have included both preclinical and clinical studies to identify age-related health effects of nicotine exposure alone, examining the mechanisms underlying these effects.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nicotina/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1225: 53-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030647

RESUMO

Tobacco smoke is a multicomponent mixture of chemical, organic, and inorganic compounds, as well as additive substances and radioactive materials. Many studies have proved the carcinogenicity of various of these compounds through the induction of DNA adducts, mutational potential, epigenetic changes, gene fusions, and chromosomal events. The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in malignant tumor formation and progression through the regulation of expression of key molecules which mediate the recruitment of immune cells to the tumor site and subsequently regulate tumor growth and metastasis. In this chapter, we discuss the effects of inhaled tobacco smoke in the tumor microenvironment of the respiratory tract. The mechanisms underlying these effects as well as their link with tumor progression are analyzed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135028, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000334

RESUMO

Telomere length and mitochondrial DNA content are considered biomarkers of cellular aging, oxidative stress, and inflammation, but there is almost no information on their association with tobacco smoke exposure in fetal and early life. The aim of this study was to assess whether prenatal and childhood tobacco exposure were associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in children. As part of a multi-centre European birth cohort study HELIX (Human Early-Life Exposome) (n = 1396) we assessed maternal smoking status during pregnancy through questionnaires, and through urinary cotinine levels that were then used to classify women as not exposed to smoking (<10 µg/L), exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) (10-50 µg/L) and active smokers (>50 µg/L). When the children were around 8 years of age (range: 5.4-12.0 years), childhood SHS tobacco smoke exposure was assessed through an extensive questionnaire and through measurements of urinary cotinine (<3.03 µg/L non-detected, >3.03 µg/L detected). Leukocyte mtDNA content and LTL were measured in the children at 8 years employing real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effect estimates were calculated using multivariate linear regression models for prenatal and childhood exposures adjusted for potential confounders. Maternal cotinine levels indicative of SHS exposure during pregnancy were associated with a decrease of 3.90% in LTL in children (95% CI: -6.68, -0.91), compared with non-smoking, whereas the association for maternal cotinine levels indicative of active smoking did not reach statistical significance (-3.24%; 95% CI: -6.59, 0.21). Childhood SHS tobacco exposure was not associated with LTL in children. Global SHS exposure during childhood was associated with an increase of 3.51% (95% CI: 0.78, 6.27) in mtDNA content. Our findings suggest that tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy, even at SHS levels, may accelerate telomere shortening in children and thus induce biological aging from an early age.


Assuntos
Tabaco , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Telômero , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco
15.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 148: 102895, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062313

RESUMO

Lung cancer (LC), the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, is a complex and highly heterogeneous disease. Additional to its biological complexity, LC patients are often confronted with a high degree of stigma, mostly from the association of the disease with tobacco. Nonetheless, a proportion of LC patients are never-smokers, a population which we are beginning to comprehensively explore. Several risk factors have been linked to LC in never-smokers. Studies have consistently shown that radon exposure and domestic fuel smoke increase LC risk. Additionally, infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Human Papilloma Virus are also risk factors. Other less conclusive associations include inflammatory diseases such as asthma and sarcoidosis. Moreover, we are now aware that molecular characteristics of LC vary widely according to smoking history, with important therapeutic implications. This review comprehensively assesses the current knowledge in terms of risk factors and disease characteristics in the never-smoker lung cancer population.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Radônio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136859, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether exposure to pets influences the association between hypertension and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The current study aims to examine the interaction of pet ownership on ETS exposure and the development of hypertension in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 9354 children, 5 to 17 years of age, were recruited from 62 schools in seven northeastern cities. BP in children was measured and hypertension was defined as an average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or systolic blood pressure (SBP) at or above the 95th percentile for that child's age, sex, and height. Pet ownership in three different time periods (in utero, past 2 years, and currently) and ETS exposure data were collected from parents via a questionnaire. Two-level regressions were used for the data analyses. RESULTS: The data show consistent, significant interactions between exposure to pets and effects from ETS. Children who were not exposed to pets experienced stronger effects from ETS on hypertension when compared to those exposed to pets, and the protective effect of pet ownership became stronger with a greater number of pets in the home. Exposure to in utero ETS was associated with hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.54] only for those children without pet exposure in utero but not for those with pets (aOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.49-1.15) (pinteraction < 0.05). Moreover, household dog ownership was related to significantly lower effects of current ETS on hypertension (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61-1.05) compared with children without dogs (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44) (pinteraction = 0.001). Interaction associations between ETS and pet ownership were more robust for girls than for boys and for younger than older children. CONCLUSION: This study indicates an inverse relationship between pet ownership and ETS, potentially pointing to pet ownership as protecting against the development of hypertension in children.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Animais , Criança , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has shown that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) However, few studies have assessed both exposure to ETS and high-perceived work stress on hyperlipidemia. The aim of the present study is to assess the interaction effect of ETS exposure and high-perceived work stress on the risk of hyperlipidemia. METHODS: A total of 11,875 middle-aged civil servants from 647 registered institutions employed by the Taiwan government were randomly selected using multistage stratified cluster sampling based on proportional probabilistic sampling. Each participant anonymously and independently filled out a web-based questionnaire and informed consent. RESULTS: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia in middle-aged civil servants diagnosed by physicians was 11.5% for men and 6.1% for women. Hyperlipidemia was significantly associated with smoking, alcohol consumption, betel nut chewing, weight gain and perceived work stress. In both the obesity and smoking groups, there were consistent interaction effects of ETS exposure and perceived work stress on hyperlipidemia for middle-aged civil servants. Non-obese and non-smoking groups were more at risk for hyperlipidemia from exposure to both ETS and high-perceived work stress. CONCLUSION: There is an interaction effect of ETS exposure and high-perceived work stress on hyperlipidemia, regardless of obesity and smoking. It is crucial to immediately reduce ETS exposure and stressful work by enforcing smoke-free policies and reducing pressure for civil servants.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Estresse Ocupacional , Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
18.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of secondhand smoke exposure among patients with asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of asthma patients and non-asthmatic controls using questionnaires to identify secondhand smoke exposure at home, school, work, and public places. RESULTS: We studied 544 severe asthma patients, 452 mild/moderate asthma patients, and 454 non-asthmatic patients. Among severe patients, the mean age was 51.9 years, 444 (81.6%) were female, 74 (13.6%) were living with a smoker, 383 (71.9%) reported exposure in public spaces and, of the 242 (44.5%) who worked/ studied, 46 (19.1%) reported occupational exposure. Among those with mild/moderate asthma, the mean age was 36.8 years, 351 (77.7%) were female, 50 (11.1%) reported living with a smoker, 381 (84.9%) reported exposure in public settings and, of the 330 (73.0%) who worked/ studied, 58 (17.7%) reported occupational exposure. An association between secondhand smoke exposure and disease control was found among patients with mild/moderate asthma. Among those interviewed, 71% of severe asthma patients and 63% of mild/moderate asthma patients avoided certain places due to fear of secondhand smoke exposure. CONCLUSION: Secondhand smoke exposure is a situation frequently reported by a significant proportion of asthma patients. Individuals with asthma are exposed to this agent, which can hamper disease control, exacerbate symptoms and pose unacceptable limitations to their right to come and go in public settings.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8580-8585, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904095

RESUMO

The study aims to understand the influence of environmental and lifestyle factors and more specifically the role of tobacco smoke-infused water (tuibur) on Helicobacter pylori infection. It was a cross-sectional study to measure the epidemiological risk factors associated with H. pylori infection among the tribal population in Northeast India. Endoscopic samples were collected from the antrum region of the stomach from 863 participants with gastritis. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 475 samples by the rapid urease test and PCR-based methods. Information on demographic and lifestyle factors was collected using a validated and standardized questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between the various factors and H. pylori. The use of tuibur was associated with an increased OR of H. pylori infection (OR = 3.32, 95% Cl = 1.95-5.83). Tobacco chewers (OR = 1.49, 95% Cl = 1.06-2.09), smokers (OR = 1.81, 95% Cl = 1.26-2.61), and alcohol consumers (OR = 1.81, 95% Cl = 1.19-2.76) were also infected with H. pylori. The results were not attenuated after adjusting for major well-known risk factors of H. pylori infection. The habit of tuibur consumption may be a contributing factor to the high prevalence of H. pylori infection and in turn, may contribute to the high prevalence of gastritis among the Mizo population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco , Água
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure attributable respiratory illness burden is huge in paediatric population. Understanding the epidemiology of ETS exposure is important to guide health promotion planning. Therefore, we designed this study to determine the prevalence of household ETS exposure in healthy young children under 2 years of age in Hong Kong, and to explore risk factors associated with the exposure. Our secondary goal was to characterise children's exposure profile to maternal smoking. METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed based on the data collected from our 2013-2014 territory-wide cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveillance study, with a sample size of 1541. We conducted descriptive analysis for exposure prevalence, univariate and multivariate analysis for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: 1541 children (mean age: 11.2 ± 6.4 months, male: 50.7%) were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of current household ETS exposure was 31.5%, prevalence of prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking was 3.5% and 1.6% respectively. Independent factors associated with children's ETS exposure were: never breastfed (AOR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.13-1.93, p = 0.004); prenatal maternal smoking (AOR: 7.46, 95% CI: 2.73-20.39, p< 0.001); overcrowding of household living place (AOR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.02-4.96, P< 0.001); lower household income (AOR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.72, p = 0.02). Interestingly, children residing in Kowloon (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.19-2.33, p = 0.003) and New Territories West (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.11-2.15, p = 0.01) were associated with exposure compared with children residing in Hong Kong Island. CONCLUSION: Exposure to household ETS is prevalent among Hong Kong young children, particularly in children with maternal unfavourable behaviour and lower socioeconomic status. The identified risk factors should be considered while tobacco control interventions and legislations are planned.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
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