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1.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 251-259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879189

RESUMO

Preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an urgent public health challenge. Although brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) can indicate the risk of arterial stiffness and CVD, findings regarding whether baPWV is associated with smoking are inconsistent. This study considered the influence of smoking on arteriosclerosis, specifically focusing on secondhand smoke (SHS), and aimed to construct a strategy for preventing the worsening of arteriosclerosis. We recruited 295 male employees from five companies who had smoking habits such as being smokers, living with smokers, and exposure to SHS outside the home. We measured body composition and hemodynamics, including blood pressure and baPWV, and found that baPWV had significant positive correlations with age, smoking index, alcohol consumption, body-fat percentage, blood pressure, and heart rate, and significant negative correlations with height, fat-free mass, and lower-limb muscle mass. Moreover, baPWV showed a significant adverse effect on participants who had metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Multiple regression analysis showed that baPWV had significant positive relationships with age, height, MetS risk factors, cohabitation with smokers, blood pressure, and heart rate, and a significant negative relationship with lower-limb muscle mass. The same results were obtained when adjusting for current smoking status, smoking index, cohabitation with smokers at birth, and frequency of exposure to SHS outside the home. Exposure to tobacco smoke due to cohabitation with smokers increased baPWV regardless of the person's smoking habits. Thus, to prevent an increase in baPWV in housemates and smokers, it is necessary for smokers to quit smoking.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/etiologia , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Características de Residência , Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Rigidez Vascular , Local de Trabalho , Arteriosclerose/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003355, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions targeted at expectant fathers. We examined the effectiveness of a video-based smoking cessation intervention focusing on maternal and child health in promoting quitting among expectant fathers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A single-blind, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted at the obstetrics registration centers of 3 tertiary public hospitals in 3 major cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Foshan) in China. Smoking expectant fathers who registered with their pregnant partners were invited to participate in this study. Between 14 August 2017 to 28 February 2018, 1,023 participants were randomized to a video (n = 333), text (n = 322), or control (n = 368) group. The video and text groups received videos or text messages on the risks of smoking for maternal and child health via instant messaging. The control group received a leaflet with information on smoking cessation. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 week and at 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary outcome, by intention to treat (ITT), was validated abstinence from smoking at the 6-month follow-up. The secondary outcomes included 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) and level of readiness to quit at each follow-up. The mean age of participants was 32 years, and about half of them were first-time expectant fathers. About two-thirds of participants had completed tertiary education. The response rate was 79.7% (815 of 1,023) at 6 months. The video and text groups had higher rates of validated abstinence than the control group (video group: 22.5% [75 of 333], P < 0.001; text group: 14.9% [48 of 322], P = 0.02; control group: 9.2% [34 of 368]) with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 2.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-4.37, P < 0.001) in the video group and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.06-2.74, P = 0.03) in the text group. The video and text groups differed in the rates of validated abstinence (22.5% versus 14.9%, P = 0.008; adjusted OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.10-2.46, P = 0.02). The video and text groups had higher rates of 7-day PPA than the control group at 6 months (video group: 24.6% [82 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P < 0.001; text group: 17.4% [56 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P = 0.02). The video and text groups also differed in the rates of 7-day PPA (24.6% versus 17.4%, P = 0.02). Excluding the quitters, the video and text groups had higher levels of readiness to quit than the control group at 6 months (video group: 43.5% [109 of 251] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.002; text group: 40.6% [108 of 266] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.01), No such difference was detected between the video and text groups (43.5% versus 40.6%, P = 0.29). The study was limited in that the long-term effectiveness of the intervention is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: This smoking cessation intervention for expectant fathers that focused on explaining the ramifications of smoking on maternal and child health was effective and feasible in promoting quitting, and video messages were more effective than texts in delivering the information. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03236025.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Pai , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Fumar/epidemiologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
3.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 99-103, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994598

RESUMO

In this viewpoint we briefly review the evidence for smoke-free car legislation. We find that this legislation has been consistently associated with reduced secondhand exposure in cars with children/youth in all nine jurisdictions studied. Despite this, there are various aspects of this intervention that warrant further study-especially determining its impact on reducing tobacco-related ethnic inequalities. So we argue that the New Zealand Ministry of Health should invest in a thorough evaluation of this important upcoming public health intervention. This could both help the country in further refining the design of the law (if necessary) and would also be a valuable contribution to advancing the knowledge base for international tobacco control.


Assuntos
Automóveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Automóveis/normas , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141327, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758989

RESUMO

Few studies have assessed the cumulative effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS1) in relation to children's neurobehavioral problems over time. We assessed the longitudinal associations between ETS exposure at age 5 and behavioral problems at ages 5, 7, and 9 using the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, in Seoul, Korea. Children with available urinary cotinine levels at age 5 and one or more behavioral problem scores measured with the Korean Version of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL2) at age 5, 7, and 9 were included in the study. Those whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were excluded, and a total of 179 children were included in the analysis. A linear mixed-model analysis using a REPEATED statement was conducted to assess whether ETS exposure was associated with the total, internalizing, and externalizing behavioral problem scores of the CBCL. The group with higher levels of cotinine showed continuously higher total and external behavioral problem scores from ages 5 to 9, which was seen after adjusting for preterm birth, father's education level, and television watching time. In addition, the difference in the total and external behavioral problem scores between the higher and lower cotinine groups at age 5 was statistically significant after a Bonferroni correction (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively), even though the fixed effect of cotinine level was almost but not statistically significant (p = 0.07 and 0.08, respectively). The results of this longitudinal cohort study provide evidence regarding the negative effects of ETS exposure in early childhood and their behavioral problems over time. This study supports the strengthening of anti-smoking policies used in educational interventions for parents, in order to reduce early ETS exposure in children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Seul
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236988, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764771

RESUMO

Exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke is associated with the development of diverse diseases. Resistance training has been considered one of the most useful tools for patients with pulmonary disease, improving their quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resistance training (RT) on the prevention of thickening of the right ventricle wall of rats exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (C), Smoker (S), Exercised (E) and Exercised Smoker (ES). The smoker groups were exposed to the smoke of four cigarettes for 30 min, twice daily, five days a week, for 16 weeks. The exercised groups climbed on a vertical ladder with progressive load, once a day, five days a week, for 16 weeks. The heart, trachea, lung, liver and gastrocnemius muscle were removed for histopathological analysis. Pulmonary emphysema (S and ES vs C and E, P < 0.0001) and pulmonary artery thickness enlargement (S vs C and E, P = 0.003, ES vs C, P = 0.003) were detected in the smoking groups. There was an increase in the right ventricle thickness in the S group compared with all other groups (P < 0.0001). An increase in resident macrophages in the liver was detected in both smoking groups compared with the C group (P = 0.002). Additionally, a relevant reduction of the diameter of the muscle fibers was detected only in ES compared with the C, S and E groups (P = 0.0002), impairing, at least in part, the muscle mass in exercised smoking rats. Therefore, it was concluded that resistance training prevented the increase of thickness of the right ventricle in rats exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke, but it may be not so beneficial for the skeletal muscle of smoking rats.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Treinamento de Resistência
6.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(3): 214-222, mayo-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Functional and inflammatory measures have been recommended to corroborate asthma diagnosis in schoolchildren, but the evidence in this regard is conflicting. We aimed to determine, in real-life clinical situation, the value of spirometry, spirometric bronchial reversibility to salbutamol (BDR), bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (MCT) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), to corroborate the diagnosis of asthma in children on regular inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) referred from primary care. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven schoolchildren with mild-moderate persistent asthma, on treatment with regular ICS, participated in the study. Abnormal tests were defined as FENO ≥ 27 ppb, BDR (FEV1 ≥ 12%) and methacholine PC20 ≤ 4 mg/mL. RESULTS: The proportions of positive BDR, FENO and MCT, were 16.4%, 33.3%, and 87.0%, respectively. MCT was associated with FENO (p < 0.03) and BDR (p = 0.001); FENO was associated with BDR (p = 0.045), family history of asthma (p = 0.003) and use of asthma medication in the first two years of life (p = 0.004). BDR was significantly related with passive tobacco exposure (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Spirometry, BDR and BDR had a poor performance for corroborating diagnosis in our asthmatic children on ICS treatment; on the contrary, MCT was positive in most of them, which agrees with previous reports. Although asthma tests are useful to corroborate asthma when positive, clinical diagnosis remains the best current approach for asthma diagnosis, at least while better objective and feasible measurements at the daily practice are available. At present, these tests may have a better role for assessing the management and progression of the condition


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Metacolina/administração & dosagem , Espirometria/instrumentação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Análise de Dados
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008756, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520939

RESUMO

Paternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is associated with increased risk of behavioral disorders and cancer in offspring, but the mechanism has not been identified. Here we use mouse models to investigate mechanisms and impacts of paternal CS exposure. We demonstrate that CS exposure induces sperm DNAme changes that are partially corrected within 28 days of removal from CS exposure. Additionally, paternal smoking is associated with changes in prefrontal cortex DNAme and gene expression patterns in offspring. Remarkably, the epigenetic and transcriptional effects of CS exposure that we observed in wild type mice are partially recapitulated in Nrf2-/- mice and their offspring, independent of smoking status. Nrf2 is a central regulator of antioxidant gene transcription, and mice lacking Nrf2 consequently display elevated oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress may underlie CS-induced heritable epigenetic changes. Importantly, paternal sperm DNAme changes do not overlap with DNAme changes measured in offspring prefrontal cortex, indicating that the observed DNAme changes in sperm are not directly inherited. Additionally, the changes in sperm DNAme associated with CS exposure were not observed in sperm of unexposed offspring, suggesting the effects are likely not maintained across multiple generations.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Exposição Paterna , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(6): 884-889, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564554

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the association between maternal passive smoking during perinatal period and congenital heart disease (CHD) in their offspring. Methods: A case-control study was designed. Data being used was based on a case-control study of congenital heart disease collected in Shaanxi province from January 2014 to December 2016. Cases under this study were perinatal infants diagnosed as CHD from 28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth, and fetus less than 28 weeks of gestation but diagnosed as CHD by ultrasonography. The controls would include newborn infants without any birth defects, born at the same period of the cases. Logistic regression model with confounding factors adjusted was established to analyze the association between maternal passive smoking status during perinatal period and CHD in their offspring. Subgroup analysis was carried out to explore its stability. Results: A total of 2 259 subjects, consisting 695 cases and 1 564 controls were included in this study. Passive smokers accounted for 26.76% in the case group while only 6.01% in the control group. After adjusting for related confounding factors, the risk of CHD in the offspring of passive smokers was 3.32 times higher than that of the non-passive smokers (OR=3.32, 95%CI: 2.41-4.56), during the perinatal period. Results also showed that related risk accumulated with the increase of exposure frequency to passive smoking. For mothers who smoked passively for 1-3 days per week, the risk of CHD in their offspring was 2.75 times higher than that of those non-passive smokers (OR=2.75, 95%CI: 1.62-4.66). For mothers who smoked passively for more than 3 days per week, the risk was 3.62 times higher than the non-passive smokers (OR=3.62, 95%CI: 2.48-5.29). Data from the subgroup analysis showed that the association between maternal passive smoking during perinatal period and CHD in their offspring appeared stable. Conclusions: Maternal passive smoking during perinatal period seemed a risk factor for congenital heart disease related to their offspring. Pregnant women should avoid exposure to second-hand smoke as much as possible, so as to prevent the harm from passive smoking.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int Dent J ; 70(5): 388-395, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Second-hand smoke (SHS) is considered a risk factor for a number of oral diseases. However, its influence on tooth loss, which is the final consequence of periodontal disease and caries, remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between SHS experience and the number of remaining teeth among non-smoking older Japanese individuals. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2013 were used. From the 27,561 people ≥65 years of age who responded to a self-reported questionnaire (response rate = 71.1%), data of 18,865 respondents who had never smoked were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression with multiple imputations was applied to estimate the odds ratio of the frequency of SHS exposures on the number of remaining teeth. RESULTS: The prevalence of participants with ≥20 teeth, 10-19 teeth, 5-9 teeth, 1-4 teeth, and no teeth were 53.2%, 20.4%, 9.9%, 6.6%, and 9.9%, respectively. The proportion of participants with SHS was 37.5%. After adjusting for sex, the SHS experience tended to be associated with a lower risk of having the fewer number of remaining teeth (P < 0.05). However, after being adjusted for age and sex, participants with SHS exposure at "a few times a week" and "almost every day" were significantly associated with the fewer number of teeth. After adding all other covariates, compared to the participants without any exposure to SHS, the odds ratio for having no teeth rather than having ≥20 teeth among the participants with daily exposure to SHS was 1.35 (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Daily second-hand smoke was significantly associated with fewer remaining teeth based on the self-reported survey among older Japanese people.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Autorrelato
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560517

RESUMO

Evidence and campaigns highlighting smoking and second-hand smoke risks have significantly reduced smoking prevalence and denormalised smoking in the home in Scotland. However, smoking prevalence remains disproportionally high in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Using stigma as a theoretical lens, this article presents a thematic analysis of parents' accounts of attempting to abstain from smoking at home, using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), in disadvantaged areas of Edinburgh and the Lothians. Smoking stigma, particularly self-stigma, underpinned accounts, with two overarching themes: interplaying barriers and enablers for creation of a smoke-free home and reconceptualisation of the study as an opportunity to quit smoking. Personal motivation to abstain or stop smoking empowered participants to reduce or quit smoking to resist stigma. For those struggling to believe in their ability to stop smoking, stigma led to negative self-labelling. Previously hidden smoking in the home gradually emerged in accounts, suggesting that parents may fear disclosure of smoking in the home in societies where smoking stigma exists. This study suggests that stigma may act both as an enabler and barrier in this group. Reductions in smoking in the home were dependent on self-efficacy and motivations to abstain, and stigma was entwined in these beliefs.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Estigma Social , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Populações Vulneráveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Redução do Dano , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Motivação , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Escócia , Autoeficácia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Dev Cell ; 53(5): 514-529.e3, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276241

RESUMO

The factors mediating fatal SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly understood. Here, we show that cigarette smoke causes a dose-dependent upregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in rodent and human lungs. Using single-cell sequencing data, we demonstrate that ACE2 is expressed in a subset of secretory cells in the respiratory tract. Chronic smoke exposure triggers the expansion of this cell population and a concomitant increase in ACE2 expression. In contrast, quitting smoking decreases the abundance of these secretory cells and reduces ACE2 levels. Finally, we demonstrate that ACE2 expression is responsive to inflammatory signaling and can be upregulated by viral infections or interferon treatment. Taken together, these results may partially explain why smokers are particularly susceptible to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. Furthermore, our work identifies ACE2 as an interferon-stimulated gene in lung cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infections could create positive feedback loops that increase ACE2 levels and facilitate viral dissemination.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433675

RESUMO

Reduced exercise capacity is common in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and chronic smokers and is suggested to be related to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Previous studies using human muscle biopsies have shown fiber-type shifting in chronic smokers particularly those with COPD. These results, however, are confounded with aging effects because people with COPD tend to be older. In the present study, we implemented an acute 7-day cigarette smoke-exposed model using Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate early effects of cigarette smoking on soleus muscles. Rats (n = 5 per group) were randomly assigned to either a sham air (SA) or cigarette smoking (CS) groups of three different concentrations of total particulate matters (TPM) (CSTPM2.5, CSTPM5, CSTPM10). Significantly lower percentages of type I and higher type IIa fiber were detected in the soleus muscle in CS groups when compared with SA group. Of these, only CSTMP10 group exhibited significantly lower citrate synthase activity and higher muscle tumor necrosis factor-α level than that of SA group. Tumor necrosis factor-α level was correlated with the percentage of type I and IIa fibers. However, no significant between-group differences were found in fiber cross-sectional area, physical activities, or lung function assessments. In conclusion, acute smoking may directly trigger the onset of glycolytic fiber type shift in skeletal muscle independent of aging.


Assuntos
Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Dev Cell ; 53(5): 514-529.e3, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425701

RESUMO

The factors mediating fatal SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly understood. Here, we show that cigarette smoke causes a dose-dependent upregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in rodent and human lungs. Using single-cell sequencing data, we demonstrate that ACE2 is expressed in a subset of secretory cells in the respiratory tract. Chronic smoke exposure triggers the expansion of this cell population and a concomitant increase in ACE2 expression. In contrast, quitting smoking decreases the abundance of these secretory cells and reduces ACE2 levels. Finally, we demonstrate that ACE2 expression is responsive to inflammatory signaling and can be upregulated by viral infections or interferon treatment. Taken together, these results may partially explain why smokers are particularly susceptible to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. Furthermore, our work identifies ACE2 as an interferon-stimulated gene in lung cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infections could create positive feedback loops that increase ACE2 levels and facilitate viral dissemination.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380770

RESUMO

Children are commonly exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in the domestic environment or inside vehicles of smokers. Unfortunately, prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) exposure is still common, too. SHS is hazardous to the health of smokers and non-smokers, but especially to that of children. SHS and PTS increase the risk for children to develop cancers and can trigger or worsen asthma and allergies, modulate the immune status, and is harmful to lung, heart and blood vessels. Smoking during pregnancy can cause pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes as well as changes in the development of the foetus. Lately, some of the molecular and genetic mechanisms that cause adverse health effects in children have been identified. In this review, some of the current insights are discussed. In this regard, it has been found in children that SHS and PTS exposure is associated with changes in levels of enzymes, hormones, and expression of genes, micro RNAs, and proteins. PTS and SHS exposure are major elicitors of mechanisms of oxidative stress. Genetic predisposition can compound the health effects of PTS and SHS exposure. Epigenetic effects might influence in utero gene expression and disease susceptibility. Hence, the limitation of domestic and public exposure to SHS as well as PTS exposure has to be in the focus of policymakers and the public in order to save the health of children at an early age. Global substantial smoke-free policies, health communication campaigns, and behavioural interventions are useful and should be mandatory.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos , Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Biomarcadores , Criança , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
15.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(1): H51-H65, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412791

RESUMO

Although there is a strong association between cigarette smoking exposure (CSE) and vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED), the underlying mechanisms by which CSE triggers VED remain unclear. Therefore, studies were performed to define these mechanisms using a chronic mouse model of cigarette smoking (CS)-induced cardiovascular disease mirroring that in humans. C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to CSE for up to 48 wk. CSE impaired acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic and mesenteric segments and triggered hypertension, with mean arterial blood pressure at 32 and 48 wk of exposure of 122 ± 6 and 135 ± 5 mmHg compared with 99 ± 4 and 102 ± 6 mmHg, respectively, in air-exposed mice. CSE led to monocyte activation with superoxide generation in blood exiting the pulmonary circulation. Macrophage infiltration with concomitant increase in NADPH oxidase subunits p22phox and gp91phox was seen in aortas of CS-exposed mice at 16 wk, with further increase out to 48 wk. Associated with this, increased superoxide production was detected that decreased with Nox inhibition. Tetrahydrobiopterin was progressively depleted in CS-exposed mice but not in air-exposed controls, resulting in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and secondary superoxide generation. CSE led to a time-dependent decrease in eNOS and Akt expression and phosphorylation. Overall, CSE induces vascular monocyte infiltration with increased NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species generation and depletes the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, uncoupling eNOS and triggering a vicious cycle of oxidative stress with VED and hypertension. Our study provides important insights toward understanding the process by which smoking contributes to the genesis of cardiovascular disease and identifies biomarkers predictive of disease.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In a chronic model of smoking-induced cardiovascular disease, we define underlying mechanisms of smoking-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). Smoking exposure triggered VED and hypertension and led to vascular macrophage infiltration with concomitant increase in superoxide and NADPH oxidase levels as early as 16 wk of exposure. This oxidative stress was accompanied by tetrahydrobiopterin depletion, resulting in endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling with further superoxide generation triggering a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and VED.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vasodilatação , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/etiologia , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/fisiopatologia , Superóxidos/metabolismo
16.
Life Sci ; 251: 117644, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259604

RESUMO

AIMS: Electronic cigarette (ECIG) has been used as an alternative to tobacco smoking as it lacks the majority of toxicants found in tobacco smoke. However, the effect of ECIG aerosol inhalation on cardiac health are not well studied. The present study aimed to compare the effects of ECIGs with that of combustible tobacco cigarette (T-Cigs) and waterpipe (WP) smoke on cardiac biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. MAIN METHODS: Rats were randomized into control (fresh air, n = 12), ECIG aerosol (n = 12), T-Cig smoke (n = 15), or WP (n = 13) smoke conditions in which they were exposed 1 h/daily, 6 day/week for 4 weeks. Cardiac biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and remodeling were assessed. KEY FINDINGS: Relative to control, significant increase in heart to body weight ratio was observed in all exposed groups. Cardiac endothelin-1 and myeloperoxidase were increased for ECIG and T-Cig. Cardiac nitrite and TBARS were increased in all exposed groups, but activity of superoxide dismutase was increased for ECIG and T-Cig only while glutathione levels increased for ECIG only. No changes were observed for cardiac C-reactive protein and catalase activity. Cardiac fibrosis was observed in all exposed groups coupled with an increase in the transforming growth factor beta protein that was significant for ECIG only. SIGNIFICANCE: ECIG aerosol may promote cardiac alterations in similar manner to tobacco smoke by promoting myocardial oxidative stress and inflammation leading to fibrosis. With regard to cardiac health, exposure to ECIG aerosol and combustible T-Cig smoke may lead to similar adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Inflamação/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Aerossóis , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fibrose/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos
17.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(3): 183-190, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238754

RESUMO

Objectives Differences in exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace, based on job category, have been assessed in some countries. While differences due to socioeconomic status have been assessed in Japan, few studies have been conducted to examine differences across job categories. We aimed to clarify the differences in nonsmokers' exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace across job categories in Japan.Methods This cross-sectional study used data from an online survey conducted in 2017. A total of 1,739 participants, aged 20-69 years, were included. The dependent variable was exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace, whereas the independent variable was job category, which was classified into the following 7 categories: 1) Management, Professional, and Technical; 2) Clerical; 3) Sales and Service; 4) Security; 5) Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishery; 6) Production Process, Transport, Cleaning, Packaging, etc.; and 7) Transportation, Machine Operation, Construction, and Mining. Analysis included estimates of the prevalence ratios (PRs) for the differences in exposure to secondhand smoke based on job category. In the analyses, sex, age, educational status, income, smoking environment at business, and awareness of secondhand smoke were considered covariates.Results The mean age of the participants was 43.3 years (SD=11.9); men constituted 60.5% of the study participants. A total of 529 individuals (30.4%) were exposed to secondhand smoke at the workplace in the past month. Of these, 171 (27.9%), 155 (27.1%), 116 (33.7%), 10 (45.5%), 7 (31.8%), 39 (34.5%), and 31 (58.5%) were found from the 1st to the 7th category, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, PRs (95% confidence interval) of exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace among non-smokers were 1.27 (1.04-1.56), 1.61 (1.02-2.56), and 1.75 (1.33-2.31) for the Sales and Service category; Security category; and Transportation, Machine Operation, Construction, and Mining category, respectively, compared to the Clerical category.Conclusion Certain job categories may not be able to benefit from secondhand smoke prevention measures, although the measures have been promoted by the revised Health Promotion Act. It is, thus, necessary to monitor the situation of exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace across diverse settings.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(5): 1189-1198, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274638

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This cross-sectional case-control study of post-partum women aimed to estimate whether maternal periodontitis was a predictive contributor to preterm birth and to identify other risk factors associated with preterm birth in our target population. METHODS: The case group included women who delivered preterm (74 cases) and the control group included women who had a normal term delivery (120 controls). Medical records, a 16-item questionnaire, and a full-mouth periodontal examination were used to collect information about socio-demographic characteristics, general health problems, birth-related information, behavioral factors and periodontal status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the strength of the relationship between predictors and the categorical outcome variable, preterm birth. RESULTS: The bivariate analysis revealed the significant associations between preterm birth and socio-demographic factors (educational level, p = 0.003), antepartum smoking habit (p = 0.001) and birth weight lower than 2500 g (p < 0.001). The multivariate analysis highlighted that the presence of post-partum maternal periodontitis and its severity remained independent risk factors of preterm birth in the presence of antepartum smoking habit and route of delivery [adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI (1.06; 4.82), respectively, OR 3.46, 95% CI (1.08; 11.15)]. CONCLUSION: Post-partum maternal periodontal disease and its severity might, in part, be considered as contributor to preterm deliveries before 37 weeks of gestation.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Periodontite/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340304

RESUMO

Smoking is a risk factor for adult-onset Crohn's disease (CD). Although passive smoking from family members is a major concern, especially in pediatric CD, the number of existing epidemiological studies is limited. This multicenter case-control study aimed to assess the effects of familial smoking on pediatric CD. We examined 22 pediatric CD cases and 135 controls. The subjects' mothers were given a self-administered questionnaire about family smoking before disease onset in the CD group or the corresponding period in the control group. Univariable logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), whereas dose-response relationship analyses were performed for more in-depth evaluations. Univariable analyses indicated that passive smoking from the mother (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.61-7.10) was not a significant, but a candidate risk factor for developing pediatric CD. In contrast, the dose-response relationship analyses revealed that passive smoking from the mother (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31) was significantly associated with pediatric CD. Therefore, passive smoking from the mother may be predominantly associated with the development of pediatric CD. Further follow-up studies comprising environmental measurements of passive smoking exposure doses and genetic factors interaction analysis are necessary.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Mães , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340114

RESUMO

Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a potential direct cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) among infants. Disparities in SHS exposure and SIDS deaths may be due to inconsistent communication among practitioners about SHS/SIDS risks. In order to assess current SHS/SIDS risks and communication practices and to identify areas of improvement, we conducted a survey of 316 obstetricians and gynecologists (ob/gyns) about the length of time spent having discussions, supplemental materials used, risks covered, cessation, and frequency of discussions. Most (55.3%) reported spending 1-4 min discussing risks/cessation. Nearly a third reported not using any supplemental materials; few used apps (4.4%) or videos (1.9%). Assisting patients with steps toward cessation was infrequent. Few ob/gyns had discussions with patients immediately postpartum. Only 51.9% strongly agreed that they felt sufficiently informed about SHS/SIDS risks to educate their patients. The communication by ob/gyns of SHS/SIDS risk varies greatly and presents opportunities for improvement. Each additional minute spent having discussions and the use of supplemental materials, such as apps, may improve communication effectiveness. The discussion of smoking behaviors immediately postpartum may help to prevent smoker relapse. An increased awareness of statewide cessation resources by ob/gyns is needed to assist patients with cessation. The development of standardized risk messaging may reduce the variation in communication practices among ob/gyns.


Assuntos
Ginecologia , Obstetrícia , Médicos/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Comunicação , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
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