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2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67Suppl 1(Suppl 1): 22-25, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406293

RESUMO

Despite substantial evidence on the negative effect of active smoking to Covid-19, the impact of passive smoking in the course of disease remains largely unclear. Our aim was to reflect passive smoking as a risk factor in the current pandemic. Studies are needed to increase our knowledge on passive smoking and Covid-19 implications. The reflections current findings strongly support interventions and policies to curb the tobacco epidemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Produtos do Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26986, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal tobacco exposure during pregnancy is known to cause a potential hazard to the offspring's health. So far, published studies have shown no consistent results with whether tobacco exposure in utero is causally linked to the development of allergic rhinitis in offspring. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the association between maternal tobacco exposure during pregnancy and allergic rhinitis in offspring by meta-analysis and to provide reference for clinical work. METHODS: Literatures were searched in CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Web of science and Embase up to September 30,2020. Screening, inclusion, quality assessment, data extraction and data analysis of the literatures were conducted. Meta-analysis was performed with Revman 5.3 and State15.1 software. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were used as observation indicators. RESULTS: We had retrieved 16 articles with 22 independent datasets and 11,49,879 sample size. When all the studies were analyzed together, the results showed that maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy would increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in offspring (OR = 1.13, 95%CI:1.02-1.26), especially maternal passive smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.39, 95%CI:1.05-1.84). But subgroup analysis showed that maternal active smoking during pregnancy was only significantly associated with offspring allergic rhinitis in cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.24, 95%CI:1.07-1.45) and study done in America study (OR = 1.22, 95%CI:1.05-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco exposure during pregnancy could increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in offspring. The importance of avoiding prenatal tobacco exposure should be emphasized more for the health of next generation in the public.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
4.
Turk J Pediatr ; 63(3): 404-416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent wheezing is common in young children, with a cumulative prevalence of up to 40 % in the first 6 years of life. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between the number of wheezing episodes and the number of cigarettes smoked at home and serum / saliva cotinine and carnosine levels in children with recurrent wheezing. METHODS: This study was conducted with 80 young children with recurrent wheezing, aged between 1-4 years and 50 healthy control groups. Patient population was divided into three groups depending on the number of their exposure to cigarette smoke and wheezing attacks. Serum cotinine, saliva cotinine, serum carnosine, saliva carnosine, vitamin D levels were measured by using the ELISA method. RESULTS: A significant relationship for serum cotinine and saliva cotinine levels was found between groups (p < 0.05). It was determined that as the number of exposure to cigarette smoke and number of wheezing episodes in young children with recurrent wheezing increased, the level of serum/saliva cotinine levels increased significantly, compared to the control group. In contrast, it was determined that as the number of exposure to cigarette smoke and number of wheezing episodes in young children with recurrent wheezing increased, serum/saliva carnosine levels decreased significantly, compared to the control group. In addition, a significant difference in serum vitamin D levels was found between healthy young children and young children with recurrent wheezing (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We think that the measurement of salivary cotinine is a useful and noninvasive marker to evaluate passive smoking exposure in the etiology of recurrent wheezing in young children.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Saliva/química , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
5.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e579-e586, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Scotland, childhood admissions to hospital for asthma fell from March, 2006, after legislation was introduced to prohibit smoking in public places. In December, 2016, new Scottish legislation banned smoking in vehicles containing a child. We aimed to determine whether the introduction of this new legislation produced additional benefits. METHODS: We obtained data on all asthma emergency admissions to hospitals in Scotland between 2000 and 2018 for individuals younger than 16 years. We used interrupted time-series analyses to study changes in monthly incidence of asthma emergency admissions to hospital per 100 000 children after the introduction of smoke-free vehicle legislation, taking into account previous smoke-free interventions. We did subgroup analyses according to age and area deprivation, using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, and repeated the analyses for a control condition, gastroenteritis, and other respiratory conditions. FINDINGS: Of the 32 342 emergency admissions to hospital for asthma among children younger than 16 years over the 19-year study period (Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2018), 13 954 (43%) were among children younger than 5 years and 18 388 (57%) were among children aged 5-15 years. After the introduction of smoke-free vehicle legislation, there was a non-significant decline in the slope for monthly emergency admissions to hospital for asthma among children younger than 16 years (-1·21%, 95% CI -2·64 to 0·23) relative to the underlying trend in hospital admissions for childhood asthma. However, children younger than 5 years had a significant decline in the slope for monthly asthma admissions (-1·49%, -2·69 to -0·27) over and above the underlying trend among children in this age group (equivalent to six fewer hospitalisations per year), but no such decline was seen in children aged 5-15 years. Monthly admissions to hospital for asthma fell significantly among children living in the most affluent areas (-2·27%, -4·41 to -0·07) but not among those living in the most deprived areas. We found no change in admissions to hospital for gastroenteritis or other respiratory conditions after the introduction of the smoke-free vehicle legislation. INTERPRETATION: Although legislation banning smoking in vehicles did not affect hospital admissions for severe asthma among children overall or in the older age group, this legislation was associated with a reduction in severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospital admission among preschool children, over and above the underlying trend and previous interventions designed to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke. Similar legislation prohibiting smoking in vehicles that contain children should be adopted in other countries. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
6.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e566-e578, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoke-free policies in outdoor areas and semi-private and private places (eg, cars) might reduce the health harms caused by tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). We aimed to investigate the effect of smoke-free policies covering outdoor areas or semi-private and private places on TSE and respiratory health in children, to inform policy. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched 13 electronic databases from date of inception to Jan 29, 2021, for published studies that assessed the effects of smoke-free policies in outdoor areas or semi-private or private places on TSE, respiratory health outcomes, or both, in children. Non-randomised and randomised trials, interrupted time series, and controlled before-after studies, without restrictions to the observational period, publication date, or language, were eligible for the main analysis. Two reviewers independently extracted data, including adjusted test statistics from each study using a prespecified form, and assessed risk of bias for effect estimates from each study using the Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions tool. Primary outcomes were TSE in places covered by the policy, unplanned hospital attendance for wheezing or asthma, and unplanned hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections, in children younger than 17 years. Random-effects meta-analyses were done when at least two studies evaluated policies that regulated smoking in similar places and reported on the same outcome. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190563. FINDINGS: We identified 5745 records and assessed 204 full-text articles for eligibility, of which 11 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of these studies, seven fit prespecified robustness criteria as recommended by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care group, assessing smoke-free cars (n=5), schools (n=1), and a comprehensive policy covering multiple areas (n=1). Risk of bias was low in three studies, moderate in three, and critical in one. In the meta-analysis of ten effect estimates from four studies, smoke-free car policies were associated with an immediate TSE reduction in cars (risk ratio 0·69, 95% CI 0·55-0·87; 161 466 participants); heterogeneity was substantial (I2 80·7%; p<0·0001). One additional study reported a gradual TSE decrease in cars annually. Individual studies found TSE reductions on school grounds, following a smoke-free school policy, and in hospital attendances for respiratory tract infection, following a comprehensive smoke-free policy. INTERPRETATION: Smoke-free car policies are associated with reductions in reported child TSE in cars, which could translate into respiratory health benefits. Few additional studies assessed the effect of policies regulating smoking in outdoor areas and semi-private and private places on children's TSE or health outcomes. On the basis of these findings, governments should consider including private cars in comprehensive smoke-free policies to protect child health. FUNDING: Dutch Heart Foundation, Lung Foundation Netherlands, Dutch Cancer Society, Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, Netherlands Thrombosis Foundation, and Health Data Research UK.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
7.
EBioMedicine ; 69: 103463, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family with Sequence Similarity 13, Member A (FAM13A) gene has been consistently associated with COPD by Genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our previous study demonstrated that FAM13A was mainly expressed in the lung epithelial progenitors including Club cells and alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cells. Fam13a-/- mice were resistant to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema through promoting ß-catenin/Wnt activation. Given the important roles of ß-catenin/Wnt activation in alveolar regeneration during injury, it is unclear when and where FAM13A regulates the Wnt pathway, the requisite pathway for alveolar epithelial repair, in vivo during CS exposure in lung epithelial progenitors. METHODS: Fam13a+/+ or Fam13a-/- mice were crossed with TCF/Lef:H2B-GFP Wnt-signaling reporter mouse line to indicate ß-catenin/Wnt-activated cells labeled with GFP followed by acute (1 month) or chronic (7 months) CS exposure. Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry analysis, immunofluorescence and organoid culture system were performed to identify the ß-catenin/Wnt-activated cells in Fam13a+/+ or Fam13a-/- mice exposed to CS. Fam13a;SftpcCreERT2;Rosa26RmTmG mouse line, where GFP labels ATII cells, was generated for alveolar organoid culture followed by analyses of organoid number, immunofluorescence and gene expression. Single cell RNA-seq data from COPD ever smokers and nonsmoker control lungs were further analyzed. FINDINGS: We found that FAM13A-deficiency significantly increased Wnt activation mainly in lung epithelial cells. Consistently, after long-term CS exposure in vivo, FAM13A deficiency bestows alveolar epithelial progenitor cells with enhanced proliferation and differentiation in the ex vivo organoid model. Importantly, expression of FAM13A is significantly increased in human COPD-derived ATII cells compared to healthy ATII cells as suggested by single cell RNA-sequencing data. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that FAM13A-deficiency promotes the Wnt pathway-mediated ATII cell repair/regeneration, and thereby possibly mitigating CS-induced alveolar destruction. FUND: This project is funded by the National Institutes of Health of United States of America (NIH) grants R01HL127200, R01HL137927, R01HL148667 and R01HL147148 (XZ).


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Autorrenovação Celular , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048590, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during childhood on type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and coronary heart disease among Chinese non-smoking women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the SHS exposure data in childhood were obtained using a questionnaire survey. Self-reported childhood SHS exposure was defined as the presence of at least one parent who smoked during childhood. RESULTS: Of the 6522 eligible participants, 2120 Chinese women who had never smoked were assessed. The prevalence of SHS exposure in the entire population was 28.1% (596). SHS exposure during childhood was not significant for the standard risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p=0.628) and hypertension (p=0.691). However, SHS was positively associated with hyperlipidaemia (p=0.037) after adjusting for age, obesity, education status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, current SHS exposure status, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In addition, childhood SHS increased the occurrence of coronary heart disease (p=0.045) among non-smokers after further adjusting for hyperlipidaemia. CONCLUSION: SHS exposure during childhood is associated with prevalent hyperlipidaemia and coronary heart disease in adulthood among non-smoking Chinese women.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperlipidemias , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208503

RESUMO

Objective: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is a serious public health concern with the potential to interfere with various components of healthy child development. Even so, there has been limited nationally representative research investigating these connections. The current study examines the relationship between ETS and language difficulties among toddlers and preschool-aged children in the United States. Method: Data are derived from the 2018 National Survey of Children's Health and facilitate strategic comparisons between different forms of ETS-namely, children who live with family members who smoke vs. children whose family members smoke inside the housing unit. Results: The findings reveal a robust association between family members smoking inside the housing unit and both receptive and expressive language difficulties, but only among male children. After adjusting for covariates, smoking inside the housing unit is associated with a 182% increase in the rate of early composite language difficulties among male children. These associations persist even when compared to male children who live with smoking family members who do not smoke inside the housing unit. Conclusions: The findings suggest a need for interventions designed to reduce ETS in households with young children and increase targeted language skill training for vulnerable children in an effort to enhance child development and well-being. To maximize this effort, we advocate for interdisciplinary teams, including medical and public health practitioners, educators, and researchers, to work together to develop and implement evidence-based strategies to limit ETS in homes and facilitate healthy language development among young children.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Família , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 674142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150711

RESUMO

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been recognized as a major health hazard by environmental and public health authorities worldwide. In Portugal, smoke-free laws are in force for some years, banning smoking in most indoor public spaces. However, in hospitality venues such as restaurants and bars, owners can still choose between a total smoke-free policy or a partial smoking restriction with designated smoking areas, if adequate reinforced ventilation systems are implemented. Despite that, a previous study showed that workers remained continuously exposed to higher ETS pollution in Lisbon restaurants and bars where smoking was still allowed, comparatively to total smoke-free venues. This was assessed by measurements of indoor PM2.5 and urinary cotinine, a biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, demonstrating that partial smoking restrictions do not effectively protect workers from ETS. The aim of the present work was to characterize effect and susceptibility biomarkers in non-smokers from those hospitality venues occupationally exposed to ETS comparatively to non-exposed ones. A group of smokers was also included for comparison. The sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN) and comet assays in whole peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and the micronucleus assay in exfoliated buccal cells, were used as biomarkers of genotoxicity. Furthermore, a comet assay after ex vivo challenge of leukocytes with an alkylating agent, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), was used to analyze the repair capacity of those cells. Genetic polymorphisms in genes associated with metabolism and DNA repair were also included. The results showed no clear association between occupational exposure to ETS and the induction of genotoxicity. Interestingly, the leukocytes from non-smoking ETS-exposed individuals displayed lower DNA damage levels in response to the ex vivo EMS challenge, in comparison to those from non-exposed workers, suggesting a possible adaptive response. The contribution of individual susceptibility to the effect biomarkers studied was unclear, deserving further investigation.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/química , Portugal/epidemiologia , Restaurantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111589, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130200

RESUMO

Oxidative stress associated with the course of acute pancreatitis (AP) can cause changes in the involvement of antioxidants, which can result in the increased production of free radicals with pro-inflammatory potential. Through its noncatalytic activity, the glutathione S-transferase and its π isoenzyme (GST-π), apart from cellular xenobiotics detoxification, are involved in the regulation of cellular signalling, metabolism and apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of SNP rs1695 in the GSTP1 gene on GST and GST-π activity in healthy subjects and patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). The concentration of glutathione (GSH) as an important component of the antioxidant system, necessary for environmental xenobiotics detoxification by GST, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress induced by inflammation were also assessed. SNP was examined in 39 AP patients and 51 healthy subjects using PCR-RFLP methods. GST activity (in plasma and erythrocyte lysate) and GST-π activity (in erythrocyte lysate) were measured using the spectrophotometric method with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and ethacrynic acid as substrate, respectively. Blood GSH concentration was measured using the Patterson method. Concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and MDA were measured using commercial tests. In the blood of non-smoking AP patients with GG genotypes for SNP rs1695 in the GSTP1 gene, the lowest GST-π activity was shown. It was accompanied by the lowest hsCRP concentration in this group. In the blood of smoking healthy subjects with AG genotype, a decrease in GST-π activity was noted compared to non-smokers from this group. However, in the blood of smokers with AP, a gradually decreasing GST-π activity was noted in individuals with AA genotype, which was associated with the increasing MDA concentration. It confirms the role of GST-π in the neutralization of oxidative stress induced by the exposure to smoke xenobiotics.


Assuntos
Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Pancreatite/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Prev Med ; 150: 106710, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181942

RESUMO

In-utero, postnatal, and childhood smoke exposure are associated with adverse health consequences, and examining factors related to smoke exposure during these vulnerable periods are critical to inform efforts that promote maternal and child health. This study included pregnant and postpartum women aged 20-44 years and children aged 3-12 years from National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2016 cycles. Logistic regression examined association of household food insecurity with firsthand (FHS) and secondhand (SHS) exposure among pregnant and postpartum women, and SHS exposure among children, based on serum cotinine and respondent-reports. Very low household food security was significantly associated with increased odds of cotinine-based FHS exposure among pregnant (OR(95%CI) = 5.19 (1.75, 15.39)) and postpartum women (OR(95%CI) = 4.75(1.66, 13.57)). Non-smoking, postpartum women from very low food secure households also had significantly greater odds of cotinine-based SHS exposure (OR(95%CI) = 7.40 (2.08, 26.37)) than those from food secure households. Using respondent-reported smoking status, low food security in pregnant and postpartum women was significantly related to increased odds of FHS exposure (OR(95% CI) = 3.75(1.52, 9.23)). Further, children from marginal, low and very low food secure households had significantly higher odds of SHS exposure compared to those from food secure households. Results imply the co-occurrence food insecurity and in-utero and early life smoke exposure.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Cotinina , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26268, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115022

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To assess associations and interactions of maternal smoking and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genetic variants with the developments of congenital heart disease (CHD) and specific subtypes.A case-control study of 654 cases and 666 controls was conducted from November 2017 to March 2020. The exposures of interest were maternal active and passive smoking before/in the early pregnancy and CYP450 genetic polymorphisms. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis.After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, our study showed maternal active (ORadj = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.19-4.60) or passive (ORadj = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.34-2.31) smoking before pregnancy, passive smoking in the early pregnancy (ORadj = 3.05, 95%CI: 2.26-4.12), as well as polymorphisms of CYP450 at rs1065852 (G/A vs G/G: ORadj = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.07-1.99; A/A vs G/G: ORadj = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.15-2.33) and rs16947 (A/A vs G/G: ORadj = 3.61, 95%CI: 2.09-6.23), were significantly associated with risk of total CHD in offspring. Similar results were also found for some subtypes of CHD. Additionally, significant interactions between maternal smoking and CYP450 genes on the risk of CHD were observed.Maternal smoking and CYP450 genetic variants were associated with increased risk of CHD and specific subtypes in offspring. And the effects of CYP450 genes on CHD may be modified by maternal smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Complicações na Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Medição de Risco
14.
Rev Prat ; 71(3): 261-263, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161023

RESUMO

Health consequences of tobacco exposure during pregnancy and childhood.In France, about 15% of fetuses are exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy and about 30% of children are exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke. Furthermore, 20 to 25% of young adults are active smokers. These high rates underline the persistent need for preventive actions against tobacco exposure from pregnancy through adulthood.Tobacco exposure leads to numerous deleterious consequences on physical and mental health. During pregnancy, the main adverse effects are increased risks of congenital anomalies, in utero death, preterm delivery and low birthweight for gestational age. Children exposed to tobacco before or after birth have increased risks of sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections and recurrent otitis media.Adolescents and adults have similar tobacco-related complications.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 4): e20200804, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the association between individual characteristics and housing context with smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. METHODS: a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 3,580 pregnant women who underwent prenatal care in the Unified Health System in 2019. The outcomes were firsthand, secondhand smoke and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Individual characteristics and the living environment were used as exploratory variables. RESULTS: living in a neighborhood with episodes of violence, without social cohesion and without urban elements that encourage physical activity was associated with smoking. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was associated with living in environments that do not encourage physical activity. Smoking was also associated with lower income and education. CONCLUSIONS: individual characteristics and the living environment are associated with smoking, secondhand smoke and alcohol consumption during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
16.
Environ Int ; 155: 106516, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with increased attention problems in children, however, the effects of such exposure on children's brain structure and function have not been studied. Herein, we probed effects of prenatal ETS on children's cognitive control circuitry and behavior. METHODS: Forty-one children (7-9 years) recruited from a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of non-smoking mothers completed structural and task-functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate effects of maternal ETS exposure, measured by maternal prenatal urinary cotinine. Attention problems and externalizing behaviors were measured by parent report on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: Compared to non-exposed children, exposed children had smaller left and right thalamic and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) volumes, with large effect sizes (p-FDR < .05, Cohen's D range from 0.79 to 1.07), and increased activation in IFG during the resolution of cognitive conflict measured with the Simon Spatial Incompatibility Task (38 voxels; peak t(25) = 5.25, p-FWE = .005). Reduced thalamic volume was associated with increased IFG activation and attention problems, reflecting poor cognitive control. Mediation analyses showed a trend toward left thalamic volume mediating the association between exposure and attention problems (p = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy has deleterious effects on the structure and function of cognitive control circuitry which in turn affects attentional capacity in school-age children. These findings are consistent with prior findings documenting the effects of active maternal smoking on chidlren's neurodevleoment, pointing to the neurotixicity of nicotine regardless of exposure pathway.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Cognição , Cotinina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
17.
Rev Environ Health ; 19(3-4): 291-310, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058084

RESUMO

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) can be a major constituent of air pollution in indoor environments, including the home. Regulation on smoking in the workplace and public places has made the home the dominant unregulated source of ETS, with important potential impacts on children. Between 40% and 60% of cbildren in the United Kingdom are exposed to ETS in the home. Many experimental and human and studies have investigated the adverse health effects of ETS. Substantial evidence shows that in adults ETS is associated with increased risk of chronic respiratory illness, including lung cancer, nasal cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In children, ETS increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, middle ear disease, lower respiratory tract illness, prevalence of wheeze and cough, and exacerbates asthma. Although banning smoking in the home would be the optimal reduction strategy, several barrier and ventilation methods can be effective. Nevertheless, such methods are not always practical or acceptable, particularly when social pressures contribute to a lack of support for ETS control in the home. Smoking cessation interventions have bad limited success. Research is needed to explore the barriers to adopting ETS risk-reducing behaviors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Habitação , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 152, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increase of the number of smokers, tobacco exposure among pregnant women is becoming more and more common. Pregnant women exposed to first-hand smoke and second-hand smoke are susceptible to physiological and psychological health issues has been proved in previous studies. Nevertheless, there are no enough studies focus on the impact of third-hand smoke during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess and compare health-related quality of life for pregnant women with exposure to first-hand smoke, second-hand smoke, third-hand smoke and non-exposure to tobacco in mainland China. METHODS: National-based cross-sectional study is based on a questionnaire survey which collects information including demographics, smoking behaviors and self-evaluation. All questionnaires were delivered and collected from August to September 2019. EuroQol group's visual analog scale and EuroQoL Five-dimension Questionnaire were used to collect data in mainland China. RESULTS: Totally, 15,682 pregnant women were included in this study, among which non-exposure to smoke were 7564 (48.2%), exposed to first-hand smoke, second-hand smoke and third-hand smoke were 89 (0.6%), 2349 (15.0%), and 5680 (36.2%) respectively. Pregnant women without tobacco exposure had the highest EuroQol group's visual analog scale score (mean value = 85.4[SD = 14.0]), while those with first-hand smoke had the lowest score (mean value = 77.4[SD = 22.2]). Among all five dimensions of EuroQoL Five-dimension Questionnaire, there were significant differences of EQ-index among groups with different tobacco exposure in usual activity and anxiety or depression dimensions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Third-hand smoke exposure had close relationship with low health-related quality of life in pregnant women. Moreover, second-hand smoke exposure significantly led more problems on mental dimension of pregnant women.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Gestantes/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 146: 110755, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Passive exposure of children to cigarette smoke has been implicated in several recalcitrant respiratory childhood disorders. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding the connection between passive exposure to tobacco smoke and the formation of nasal biofilms in children. The present study was therefore geared at investigating the hypothesis that exposure of children to household passive smoking may induce the formation of nasal biofilms. METHODS: The study included 20 children between the ages of 6 and 12 years with a positive history of prolonged exposure to household passive smoke, and who required inferior turbinate reduction together with other procedures. Another 20 children who required similar surgeries but with negative history of exposure to household smoking formed the control group. None of children, in the study and control groups, had evidence of adenoids or infective rhinosinusitis. At the time of surgery, a tiny biopsy was taken from the lower border of the inferior turbinate. The specimens were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The nasal mucosa of 11 out of 20 children with positive history of exposure to passive smoking showed biofilm formation. Ten of these biofilms grew S. aureus. On the other hand, only one child in the control group showed nasal biofilm. Longer exposure to tobacco smoke and higher urinary cotinine levels were associated with more frequent biofilm formation. Likewise, children of heavy smokers developed biofilms more frequently than other children. On the other hand, the age of the children and nasal allergy had no effect on the chances of biofilm formation. CONCLUSIONS: This is a preliminary report showing that children exposed to household passive cigarette smoking may develop nasal biofilms. Development of these biofilms may increase susceptibility of affected children to persistent sinonasal and possibly other respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Biofilmes , Criança , Cotinina , Humanos , Mucosa Nasal , Fumar , Staphylococcus aureus , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
20.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 415, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term smoking exposure will increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), whereas the mechanism is still unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore whether serum metabolites mediate the occurrence of ESCC caused by cigarette smoking. METHODS: Serum metabolic profiles and lifestyle information of 464 participants were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of smoking exposure to ESCC risk. High-dimensional mediation analysis and univariate mediation analysis were performed to screen potential intermediate metabolites of smoking exposure for ESCC. RESULTS: Ever smoking was associated with a 3.11-fold increase of ESCC risk (OR = 3.11, 95% CI 1.63-6.05), and for each cigarette-years increase in smoking index, ESCC risk increased by 56% (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.18-2.13). A total of 5 metabolites were screened as mediators by high-dimensional mediation analysis. In addition, glutamine, histidine, and cholic acid were further proved existing mediation effects according to univariate mediation analysis. And the proportions of mediation of histidine and glutamine were 40.47 and 30.00%, respectively. The mediation effect of cholic acid was 8.98% according to the analysis of smoking index. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that cigarette smoking contributed to incident ESCC, which may be mediated by glutamine, histidine and cholic acid.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
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