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2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence and patterns of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the home, workplace, public places, and at all three places amongst the non-smoker respondents between the two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in India. The secondary objectives were to assess the differences in various factors associated with SHS exposure among non-smokers. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis incorporated data generated from the previous two rounds of the cross-sectional, nationally representative GATS India, which covered 69,296 and 74,037 individuals aged 15 years and above. Exposure to the SHS at home, workplace, and public places amongst the non-smokers were the primary outcome variables. Standard definitions of the surveys were used. RESULTS: The overall weighted prevalence of exposure to SHS amongst the non-smokers inside the home and public places reduced. In contrast, the prevalence in the workplace increased marginally in round II compared to I. The proportion of adults who were exposed to SHS at all three places did not change much in two rounds of surveys. A decrease in the knowledge of the respondents exposed to SHS at home and public places was observed about the harmful effects of smoking in round II. Age, gender, occupation, place, and region of respondents were found to be significant determinants of SHS exposure at all the three places on multinomial logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The study calls for focused interventions in India and stringent implementation of anti-tobacco legislation, especially in the workplaces for reducing the exposure to SHS amongst the non-smokers and to produce encouraging and motivating results by next round of the survey.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , não Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Instalações Privadas , Logradouros Públicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Fumar Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pneumologie ; 74(5): 294-299, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since September 2007, the Federal Nonsmoker Protection Act regulates a general legal ban on smoking in federal facilities, public transport vehicles and passenger stations. Other smoking bans are not uniformly regulated and vary from state to state. In addition to places of public interest, sports venues and the workplace, particular attention in political debates has always been paid to bars and restaurants, where smoking has always been part of the picture. The situation of the Südstadt pubs in Cologne considered in this paper is governed by the expanded law for the protection of non-smokers in North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) of December 20, 2007. METHODS: A survey using a specifically created questionnaire comprising 24 items was carried out. Persons over 26 years of age visiting selected bars were interviewed in order to ensure that at the time the Nonsmoker Protection Act was introduced, participants had reached the legal age for smoking. Data acquisition was carried out both by direct surveys of participants in selected pubs in Cologne's Südstadt and by means of online surveys, attention to which had been drawn in the press, television and through social media. RESULTS: A total of 1318 completed questionnaires were evaluated. Participants were on average 49 years old (±â€Š12.1). Of the 1318 respondents, 726 were active smokers in 2007 (55.1 %). In 2018, 518 (39.3 %) (p: < 0.001) respondents stated that they were still active smokers. Of the 726 active smokers, 289 (39.8 %) had been consuming more than 20 cigarettes a day in 2007. In 2018, 179 of 518 (34.6 %) (p: < 0.001) were heavy smokers. In 2007, 303 persons (41.7 % of smokers) fell into the group of medium smokers with 10 - 19 cigarettes per day, in 2018 there were 227 (43.8 %) (p: < 0.001). The group of people who smoked less and consumed 1 - 9 cigarettes per day included a total of 134 persons (18.5 %) in 2007 and 112 (21.6 %) in 2018 (p: < 0.001). Among active smokers, the smoking ban was the most relevant cause for a change in smoking behaviour in this survey. Among non-smokers or former smokers, health aspects as well as family and friends were the decisive factors in rejecting tobacco products. SUMMARY: Based on a sample of 1318 participants among pub visitors, the study showed that the number of active smokers had significantly and distinctly decreased since the introduction of the Nonsmoker Protection Act in 2007. Furthermore, the number of people with rather low cigarette consumption showed a significant increase.


Assuntos
não Fumantes , Política Pública , Política Antifumo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
6.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L1004-L1007, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233791
7.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(1): 53-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174616

RESUMO

Background: Smoke-free policies are increasingly being enacted in several countries. In 2014, Lagos State, the commercial capital of Nigeria, enacted a statewide smoke-free policy; however, university campuses were excluded from the list of public places where smoking would be disallowed. This study aimed to assess students' support for smoke-free campus policies, their attitudes, and exposure toward secondhand smoke (SHS). Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 421 university undergraduates in two premier universities in the state. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling method, and the data were collected using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Results: Many (55.4%) of the respondents agreed that students who are non-smokers have the right to inhale smoke-free air on campuses and expressed feelings of irritation (57.1%) or anger (17.1%) when exposed to SHS on campus. Majority (80.1%) of the respondents were in support of a smoke-free policy on their campus and in favor of a ban on smoking in enclosed spaces on campus (79.6%). Exposure to SHS on campus was high, as one in five respondents were exposed to SHS in their hostel rooms (19.9%) and 44.9% were exposed in outdoor campus spaces in the preceding week. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' age, gender, smoking status, and attitudes toward SHS and support for a smoke-free campus policy. Conclusion: Although the majority of the students were non-smokers, significant exposure to SHS on campuses still exists. There is a huge support for smoke-free campus policies. The state government should consider including campuses on the list of smoke-free public spaces in the review of the statewide smoking law.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
10.
Thorax ; 75(4): 345-347, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988266

RESUMO

England banned smoking in cars carrying children in 2015 and Scotland in 2016. We used survey data from 3 years for both countries (NEngland=3483-6920, NScotland=232-319) to assess effects of the English ban using logistic regression within a difference-in-differences framework. Among children aged 13-15 years, self-reported levels of regular exposure to smoke in cars for Scotland were 3.4% in 2012, 2.2% in 2014 and 1.3% in 2016 and for England 6.3%, 5.9% and 1.6%. The ban in England was associated with a -4.1% (95% CI -4.9% to -3.3%) absolute reduction (72% relative reduction) in exposure to tobacco smoke among children.


Assuntos
Automóveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar da Criança , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(2): 203-208, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855488

RESUMO

Eleven US states and Washington, DC, legalized recreational (adult use) cannabis. Seven states-Alaska, California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington-allow cannabis sales. A public health concern is that exemptions in state or local smoke-free laws for public cannabis smoking or vaping will weaken smoke-free laws, expose the public to secondhand cannabis, and renormalize smoking.We describe the experience of the seven states and challenges faced in maintaining smoke-free laws. Using elements of a tobacco control framework, we identify best practices in cannabis regulation by comparing each state's smoke-free laws and allowances for public cannabis use. All states prohibit public cannabis use; two lack 100% smoke-free protections; one lacks vaping devices in its smoke-free law; three allow cannabis use in retailers; two allow cannabis use in social consumption lounges; and two allow cannabis use in tourism venues.States should close gaps in smoke-free laws and not expand where cannabis use is permitted to ensure public health.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Regulamentação Governamental , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Comércio , Humanos , Restaurantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 767, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To advance public health support for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's smoke-free rule, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated with the Georgia Institute of Technology to develop a geospatial mapping tool. The objective was to create a tool state and local public health agencies could use to tailor smoke-free educational materials and cessation interventions for specific public housing development resident populations. RESULTS: The resulting "Extinguish Tool" includes an interactive map of U.S. public housing developments (PHDs) and healthcare facilities that provides detailed information on individual PHDs, their proximity to existing healthcare facilities, and the demographic characteristics of residents. The tool also estimates the number of PHD residents who smoke cigarettes and calculates crude estimates of the potential economic benefits of providing cessation interventions to these residents. The geospatial mapping tool project serves as an example of a collaborative and innovative public health approach to protecting the health and well-being of the nation's two million public housing residents, including 760,000 children, from the harms of tobacco smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in the places where they live, play, and gather.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública/educação , Habitação Popular/normas , Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ciências Biocomportamentais , Demografia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(11): 1700-1704, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740882

RESUMO

Various legislative measures have been taken in Pakistan to restrict smoking. The law prohibits smoking in public places, which include educational institutions, and provides the procedure and the punishments regarding its violations. Educational institutions, instead of observing the law, have devised their own anti-smoking measures. Consequently, educational institutions themselves determine guilt and impose and collect fines whenever students smoke on their premises. Thus, by implementing their own disciplinary processes and by themselves awarding punishments, educational institutions are acting contrary to what the law has ordained. In order to demonstrate the same, websites and other publically available documents of various educational institutions were consulted to obtain information regarding their anti-smoking policies and rules. The information confirmed that educational institutions are not acting in conformity with the law. It is recommended that awareness-raising campaigns must be launched for educational institutions and students in order for the law to take its course and achieve its objective.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Paquistão
15.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1681756, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694492

RESUMO

Under its Health Promotion Strategic Framework 2018-19 the St Helena Government prioritised action to address smoking and obesity to reduce a high non-communicable disease burden. The first tobacco control measure was a policy, 'Smoke-Free Government' (SFG), to create smoke-free public outdoor and indoor sites across all sites and services for staff and public users, abolish 'official' staff 'smoking breaks', and establish and promote community-wide cessation support. This paper assesses the perceived acceptability and preliminary impact of SFG in St Helena 2018-19. An online survey of government staff was undertaken 6 months post-SFG implementation to obtain insight into perceived impact, implementation, and acceptability. A population-wide health survey provided smoking prevalence and quit data prior to, and 11 months post-implementation. A majority of staff believed the policy contributed to reducing smoking, was generally observed, accepted, and entailed one or more positive effects, including reduced second-hand smoke exposure, increased quit attempts, and reduced disruption from 'smoke-breaks'. Recommendations were consistent enforcement and expanded quit support. Population data for the SFG period indicated that smoking, and particularly daily smoking declined, quit intentions increased, and quit attempts almost doubled. The SFG policy appears to have contributed positively towards stronger tobacco control in St Helena in 2018-19.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640111

RESUMO

This study evaluated compliance with the comprehensive smoke-free law in public indoor places introduced in Shanghai in March 2017. Observations and PM2.5 monitoring over 30 min intervals in 8 types of the venue were conducted three times: within a month before implementation and 3- and 12-months post implementation. Observations of evidence of smoking decreased from 66.2% before legislation to 52.8% three months after (p = 0.002) and 49.7% one year after (p < 0.001). The density of lit cigarettes also reduced significantly after implementation (p < 0.001). When adjusting for outdoor, indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower after the legislation, but only by a small amount (three months later: -0.27, p = 0.08; one year later: -0.12; p = 0.03). Evidence of compliance was weakest in farmer's markets and bars, and smoking in male toilets did not change significantly. The reduction in smoking was affected by the management performance of their obligations. The comprehensive smoke-free law led to modest reductions in smoking and PM2.5 levels as a result, but from levels suggesting quite high levels of pre-compliance. However, compliance was limited in some areas, suggesting more effort is required on management to gain better compliance in some places like farmer's markets, bars, and toilets.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Regulamentação Governamental , Material Particulado/análise , Restaurantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Toaletes
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627282

RESUMO

Environmental air quality can affect asthma control and the development of overt asthmatic manifestations. In this population-based study, we investigated the effect of reinforcing a smoking ban in Taiwan through the enactment of the Tobacco Hazards and Prevention Act (THPA) on healthcare utilization rate by asthmatics. Analysis was performed based on data relevant to non-hospitalized asthmatic patients with insurance claims between 2005 and 2013 from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, reported data on Asian dust storms, and penalty rates for violations of the tobacco ban. Poisson regression showed that the risk for outpatient visits for asthma was lower after enactment of the THPA (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.98-0.99), with a yearly trend of a reduced risk (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.99-1.00), also lower in geographic regions with medium (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.79-0.80) and high (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.91-0.92) penalty rates. Subgroup analysis showed that asthma visit rates were reduced in both male and female groups after the enactment of the THPA. The risk of an asthma ER visit was increased after the enactment of the amended THPA (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.05-1.09), although the yearly trend was not significant (RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.00). The risk of emergency room visits for asthma was significantly reduced in regions with medium (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.68-0.69) and high (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.74-0.76) penalty rates. Subgroup analysis showed that the visit rates were similar in both male and female groups. The effectiveness of reinforcing the smoking ban warrants further policies aimed at further reducing passive smoking.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Asma/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652694

RESUMO

Background: The smoking ban in public places has reduced Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure for non-smokers, but despite this, domestic environments still remain places at high risk of exposure, and, today, about 40% of children worldwide are exposed to ETS at home. The aims of the study are to investigate the contribution of several factors on ETS exposure among a group of Italian children and to evaluate the changes in smoking precautions adopted at home when the smoker is the mother, the father, or both parents, respectively. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 519 Italian schoolchildren. Information was collected via a questionnaire. Results: 41.4% of the participants lived with at least one smoker. Almost half of the children exposed to ETS lived with one or more smokers who do not observe any home smoking ban. Lower maternal or paternal educational levels significantly increase the risk of ETS exposure at home and the "worst case" is represented by both parents who smoke. Conclusions: More effective preventive interventions are needed to protect children from ETS exposure. Some interventions should be specifically dedicated to smokers with a low educational level and to mothers that smoke.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Promoção da Saúde , Pais/educação , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Fumar Tabaco/prevenção & controle
19.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 9790216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662768

RESUMO

Background: Pneumonia causes about two million under-five deaths each year, accounting for nearly one in five child deaths globally. Knowing the determinants of under-five pneumonia is useful for prevention and intervention programs that are aimed to control the disease. Thus, the main aim of this study was to assess the determinants of under-five pneumonia at Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based unmatched case-control study was carried out from April 1 to April 30, 2015, taking a sample size of 435 study participants (145 cases and 290 controls). The researchers used a systematic random sampling technique for selecting cases and controls. Data were entered and cleaned using Epi Info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariable analysis was performed, and variables with a p value less than 0.2 were entered into multivariable logistic regression. Determinant factors were identified based on p value less than 0.05 and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (AOR with 95% CI). Results: An increased odds of pneumonia was associated with children who had diarrhea in the past fifteen days of data collection (AOR = 6.183; 95% CI: 3.482, 10.977), children's mothers who did not hear about how to handle domestic smoking (AOR = 5.814; 95% CI: 2.757, 12.261), and children of mothers who did not follow proper handwashing practice (AOR = 3.469; 95% CI: 1.753, 6.863). Conclusions: Being infected with diarrhea, not knowing how to handle domestic smoking, and poor compliance with proper handwashing practice were identified as determinants of pneumonia. Dedicated, coordinated, and integrated intervention needs to be taken to enhance proper handwashing practice by mothers/caregivers, improve the indoor air quality, and prevent diarrheal diseases at the community level.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
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