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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111592, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396115

RESUMO

Accidental spills are pervasive pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Resorting to chemical dispersant is one of the most implemented strategies in response to oil spills, but it results in an increase in the bio-availability of oil compounds known to disturb fish neurosensory capacities and hence fish habitat use. While it has become well established that acute oil exposure can cause a range of physiological defects, sub-lethal consequences on animal behaviour have only received recent attention. Here we investigated the effect of an exposure to a 62 h- dispersant treated oil on the exploration tendency (exploratory activity, and avoidance of unfamiliar open areas) of juvenile European sea bass. Three different concentrations of chemically dispersed oil were tested, low and medium conditions bracketing the range of likely situations that fish encounter following an oil spill, the high dose representing a more severe condition. Fish recovery capacities were also evaluated during 2 weeks post-exposure. Our results suggest a dose-response relationship; the low dose (0.048 ± 0.007 g L-1 of total petroleum hydrocarbons ([TPH])) had no effect on sea bass behavioural response to a novel environment while medium (0.243 ± 0.012 g L-1 [TPH]) and high (0.902 ± 0.031 g L-1 [TPH]) doses altered fish exploratory activity and their typical avoidance of unfamiliar open areas. Our experiment also suggest signs of recovery capacities in the first 10 days following oil exposure even if fish might need more time to fully recover from observed alterations. We discuss the possibility that observed alterations may result from a neurosensory or physiological known defects of oil exposure, causing anaesthetic-like sedative behaviours. Altogether, this study shows that juvenile sea bass exposed to oil spill exhibit transient behavioural impairments that may have major population-level consequences given the high mortality experienced by juveniles.


Assuntos
Bass/fisiologia , Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Comportamento Exploratório , Hidrocarbonetos , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(1): 9-27, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393551

RESUMO

With the increased demand for petroleum and petroleum products from all parts of the society, environmental pollution caused by petroleum development and production processes is becoming increasingly serious. Soil pollution caused by petroleum seriously affects environmental quality in addition to human lives and productivity. At present, petroleum in soil is mainly degraded by biological methods. In their natural state, native bacteria in the soil spontaneously degrade petroleum pollutants that enter the soil; however, when the pollution levels increase, the degradation rates decrease, and it is necessary to add nutrients, dissolved oxygen, biosurfactants and other additives to improve the degradation ability of the native bacteria in the soil. The degradation process can also be enhanced by adding exogenous petroleum-degrading bacteria, microbial immobilization technologies, and microbial fuel cell technologies.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111908, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421938

RESUMO

Switchgrass, both raw and torrefied, was tested for its ability to sorb water or oil. The cyclic performance was also examined, utilizing centrifugal extraction as the regeneration method. Both oil and water sorption capacity increase with the decreasing size of raw switchgrass particles. Results indicate that 3 mm raw switchgrass can sorb water at a capacity of about 6 times its mass and can sorb oil at a capacity of about 3 times its mass, which makes it a suitable biodegradable sorbent. Torrefaction at 220 °C for 30 min reduces water sorption capacity by an average of 55% but does not have a statistically significant impact on oil sorption. Sorption of liquid is negatively correlated to particle size. Centrifugation is able to partially desorb either liquid from the sorbent, and subsequent sorption cycles do not display lower sorption capacity than the first cycle when calculated on a dry mass basis.


Assuntos
Panicum , Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Tamanho da Partícula , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111934, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412410

RESUMO

Small-scale experiments performed at SINTEF, Norway in 2011-12 led to the development of a modified Weber scaling algorithm. The algorithm predicts initial oil droplet sizes (d50) from a subsea oil and gas blowout. It was quickly implemented in a high number of operational oil spill models used to predict fate and effect of subsea oil releases both in academia and in the oil industry. This paper presents experimental data from large-scale experiments generating oil droplet data in a more realistic multi-millimeter size range for a subsea blow-out. This new data shows a very high correlation with predictions from the modified Weber scaling algorithm both for untreated oil and oil treated by dispersant injection. This finding is opposed to earlier studies predicting significantly smaller droplets, using a similar approach for estimating droplet sizes, but with calibration coefficients that we mean are not representative of the turbulence present in such releases.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Calibragem , Noruega , Petróleo/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111932, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418342

RESUMO

Droplet size substantially affects the fate of oil released from deep subsea leaks. A baseline dataset of volume-median droplet diameters (d50), culled from ~250 laboratory observations, is used to validate seven droplet-size models. Four models compare reasonably well, having 95% confidence limits in d50 of ~±50%. Simulations with a near-field fate model (TAMOC) reveals that the four best-performing models, with d50 of 1.3-2.2 mm, agree similarly with observed fractionation of petroleum compounds in the water column during June 4-July 15, 2010. Model results suggest that, had a higher dose of dispersant been applied at the wellhead during Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH), the d50 would have dropped by an order of magnitude, reducing surfacing C1-C9 volatiles by 3.5×. Model uncertainty is found to be substantial for DWH-like blowouts treated with chemical dispersants, suggesting the need for further droplet-size model improvement.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 142958, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498113

RESUMO

Three-dimensional graphene aerogel materials used for treatment of oily wastewater with sophisticated composition remains a challenge due to volume shrinkage, resulting in single-function and low adsorption capacity. In this work, renewable Enteromorpha was introduced into the graphene aerogel via facile hydrothermal-freeze casting treatment, forming the compression, ultralight and amphiphilic adsorbent for oil spill cleanup and water pollution remediation. Meanwhile, further freeze casting avoids aerogel collapse for capillary tension during drying and produce more hierarchical pores. As for oil spill clean up, the Enteromorpha modified graphene aerogel (EGA) exhibits excellent adsorption capacity towards oil and organic solvents than pristine graphene aerogel (GA). Even after several cycles by compression and heat treatment, it still has a stable adsorption capacity for oil and organic solvents. The EGA also showed high ability to absorb water-soluble pollutants, such as dyes through hydrogen bonding and electrostatic reactions between dye molecules and aerogel. The facile strategy to fabricate the Enteromorpha-based amphiphilic EGA broadens the applications in water treatment through the high-value utilization of Enteromorpha.


Assuntos
Grafite , Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111673, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396005

RESUMO

In the present research, a bioremediation process was developed using solid complex bacterial agents (SCBA) through a combined two-step biodegradation process. Four isolated strains showed high efficiency for the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the reduction of COD of the oily sludge, at 96.6% and 92.6%, respectively. The mixed strains together with bran prepared in form of SCBA exhibited improved performance compared to individual strains, all of which had an optimal temperature of around 35 °C. The use of SCBA provided advantages over commonly used liquid media for storage and transportation. The two-step process, consisting of firstly biosurfactant-assisted oil recovery and secondly biodegradation of the remaining TPH with SCBA, demonstrated the capability for treating oily sludge with high TPH content (>10 wt%) and short process period (60 days). The large-scale (5 tons oily sludge) field test, achieving a TPH removal efficiency of 93.8% and COD reduction of 91.5%, respectively, confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the technology for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluição por Petróleo/prevenção & controle , Petróleo/análise , Esgotos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Meios de Cultura , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Esgotos/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Temperatura
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111549, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254407

RESUMO

Meiobenthos has been considered as an excellent tool for biomonitoring assessment. Elevated temperature and oil pollution are considered as the most pervasive aspects of global environmental changes and matter of concern for contemporary society. Presently, very limited information is available about the synergistic effect of these stressors on meiobenthic community structure and tolerance potential from tropical intertidal environment. Here, we assessed their impacts on meiobenthic community by conducting a 60 days long benthocosm experiment selecting three sets of temperature (25°, 30° and 35 °C) and two sets of diesel oil (low and high) combinations. Gradual changes in their community composition were revealed discernibly with exposures to both the disturbances after 30 and 60 days of experimental period. Diversity profiles for the nematodes were less affected, but copepods showed a graded response of decreasing density with increasing dose of both the stressors. Other meiobenthic taxa such as halacarid mite, turbellaria and polycheate juveniles were adversely affected and eliminated from the treatments, howbeit abundance of ostracods, foraminiferans and bivalve settlers varied significantly. A 3-factor PERMANOVA indicated a significant effect of temperature, diesel, between their interaction and interaction among stressors and time on meiofaunal abundances. In case of free-living nematodes, temperature rise and diesel contamination synchronously led to an elimination of k-selected species like Halalaimus gracilis, H. longicaudatus, Oxystomina aesetosa and Pomponema sp. with a significant decrease in abundance of H. capitulatus and Oncholaimus sp. The r-selected species Daptonema invagiferoum, Sabatieria praedatrix, Theristus acer, Monhystera sp. and Thalassomonhystera sp. had endured even at high doses of diesel treatment in three different temperatures set up. The effects were evident in term of changes in life strategies with an increment of opportunistic species and increased trophic diversity of deposit feeders in treated sediments. Overall, elevated temperature together with diesel oil contamination were found to alter species dynamics within shallow intertidal meiobenthic communities, which might have significant Armageddon on benthic ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Poluição por Petróleo , Temperatura , Animais , Copépodes , Gasolina , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Características de Residência
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111551, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254409

RESUMO

Oil spills have an important threat to the ecological security and human health, for example the important oil field and coastal wetland Yellow River Delta is facing the dual problems of oil pollution and salinization. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the changes of soil microbial community and physicochemical properties, including pH value, total organic carbon (TOC), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and electrical conductivity under the combined effect of petroleum and salinization. The soil properties results showed that the petroleum addition promoted the increase of TOC from 2.31 ± 0.59 mg/kg to 7.04 ± 0.42 mg/kg (r > 0.95, P < 0.1, R2 > 0.9), TPHs from 9.18 ± 0.07 mg/kg to 33.09 ± 4.61 mg/kg (r > 0.9, P < 0.05, R2 > 0.9) significantly. At the initial stage hydrocarbons caused the increase of soil salt content and the decrease of pH. Salt addition increased soil salt from 2.46 ± 0.13 g/kg to 15.12 ± 0.21 g/kg (r > 0.8, P > 0.1, R2 > 0.95), but it had no direct effect on other soil properties. It was found that the nitrate reducing bacteria Halorhodospiraceae with potential petroleum degradation ability and the anaerobic bacteria Lactobacilliceae appeared after adding crude oil. The salt tolerant bacteria Halobacilli and the stone oil degrading bacteria Immundisolidcharacter appeared in the high salt and low salt environments respectively. The aerobic bacteria Acidimicrobiaceae, Hyphomonas and the nonoil efficient Peptoccaceae disappeared in the process of salinization and oil pollution. Lactobacilliceae can ferment carbohydrate, fatty acid or ester to produce lactic acid, acetic acid and fumaric acid to provide metabolic substrate for other microorganisms. The above results showed that sensitive microorganisms were easy to be affected by pollution to indicate soil conditions, while tolerant microorganisms could potentially use oil to achieve bioremediation. The soil properties and microbial results provided data support and theoretical basis for further understanding the pollution mechanism of oil and salinization combined stress on soil.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluição por Petróleo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Microbiota , Petróleo/análise , Rios , Solo/química , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128175, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297143

RESUMO

Vacuum freeze-drying is a scientifically advanced method to prepare solid inoculants from oil degrading bacterium. The introduction of oil-degrading microbes or bioaugmentation can be an efficient way to bioremediate oil spills in marine areas, where oil-degrading bacteria are deficient. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential use of solid inoculants of LZ-2 bacteria to enhance the degradation rate of crude oil. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was incorporated into the experimental design to optimize a response, which is influenced by different protectants. Our results showed that five factors have interactive and synergistic protective effects on the growth of LZ-2. Optimal growth of freeze-dried LZ-2 (63.8%) was observed with a 10.5% solution of skim milk supplemented with 14.3% sucrose, 14.4% of trehalose, 4.9% of glycerin and 14.7% of ß-cyclodextrin. The culture grew in medium containing crude oil (3 g L-1) at 37 °C at 150 rpm for 30 d, GC and GC-MS analysis showed biodegradation of 44.2 and 21.6% for total saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons respectively. These results indicated that the solid inoculants of LZ-2 bacteria had the potential to be used for ex-situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants associated with crude oil.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141264, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871308

RESUMO

Arctic sea ice has alarmingly high concentrations of microplastics (MPs). Additionally, sea ice reduction in the Arctic is opening new opportunities for the oil and maritime industries, which could increase oil pollution in the region. Yet knowledge of the effects of co-exposure to MPs and crude oil on Arctic zooplankton is lacking. We tested the influence of MPs (polyethylene, 20.7 µm) on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioaccumulation and oil toxicity in the key arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus after exposure to oil with and without dispersant. Up to 30% of the copepods stopped feeding and fecal pellet production rates were reduced after co-exposure to oil (1 µL L-1) and MPs (20 MPs mL-1). The PAH body burden was ~3 times higher in feeding than in non-feeding copepods. Copepods ingested both MPs and crude oil droplets. MPs did not influence bioaccumulation of PAHs in copepods or their fecal pellets, but chemical dispersant increased bioaccumulation, especially of ≥4 ring-PAHs. Our results suggest that MPs do not act as vectors of PAHs in Arctic marine food webs after oil spills, but, at high concentrations (20 MPs mL-1), MPs can trigger behavioral stress responses (e.g., feeding suppression) to oil pollution in zooplankton.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Bioacumulação , Microplásticos , Petróleo/toxicidade , Plásticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zooplâncton
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141804, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882563

RESUMO

Crude oil is a well-known toxicant that reduces cardiorespiratory performance in acutely exposed fishes. While toxic effects can manifest in death in severe cases, the ecological consequences of sub-lethal exposure remain uncertain. This study investigated the impact of crude oil exposure on long-term social competition, growth, and metabolic performance in a coastal species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Fish were acutely exposed to either control or one of two environmentally relevant oil concentrations and reared together in groups of 15 (5 from each exposure concentration) for eight weeks under resource-rich or resource-limited scenarios. Relative to controls, a 41.3% and 45.9% reduction in the specific growth rate was-observed following exposure to 25.3 and 53.4 µg l-1 ΣPAH respectively under resource-limited conditions. These fish were subsequently sampled for metabolic performance and common indicators of social subordination including reduced glucocorticoid receptors in the gill and caudal fin damage. The reduction in specific growth rate coincided with a 15.1% and 17.3% reduction in standard metabolic rate; however, maximum metabolic rate and aerobic scope were unaffected. Additionally, measures of social subordination showed no differences between oil-exposed and control fish. These results reinforce the hypothesis that acute oil exposure can have prolonged sub-lethal effects that compromise the ability of exposed individuals to perform effectively in their environment, including gathering and/or metabolizing food. Furthermore, this work highlights the premise that oil spills can be more detrimental in already at-risk ecosystems.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141786, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890829

RESUMO

The formation and fallout of oil-related marine snow have been associated with interactions between dispersed oil and small marine particles, like phytoplankton and mineral particles. In these studies, the influences of phytoplankton species, mineral particle concentration, and oil concentration on the aggregation of oil in seawater (SW) were investigated. The experiments were performed in a low-turbidity carousel incubation system, using natural SW at 13 °C. Aggregation was measured by silhouette camera analyses, and oil compound group distribution and depletion by gas chromatography (GC-FID or GC-MS). Aggregates with median sizes larger than 500 µm in diameter were measured in the presence of dispersed oil and the phytoplankton species Thalassiosira rotula, Phaeocystis globosa, Skeletonema pseudocostatum, but not with the microalgae Micromonas pusilla. When mineral particles (diatomaceous earth) were incubated at different concentrations (5-30 mg/L) with dispersed oil and S. pseudocostatum, the largest aggregates were measured at the lower mineral particle concentration (5 mg/L). Since dispersed oil rapidly dilutes in the marine water column, experiments were performed with oil concentrations of from 10 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L in the presence of S. pseudocostatum and diatomaceous earth. Aggregates larger than 500 µm was measured only at the highest oil concentrations (10 mg/L). However, oil attachment to the marine particles were also measured at low oil concentrations (≤1 mg/L). Depletion of oil compound groups (n-alkanes, naphthalenes, PAHs, decalins) were measured at all oil concentrations, both in aggregate and water phases, with biodegradation as the expected main depletion process. These results showed that oil concentration may be important for oil-related marine snow formation, but that even oil droplets at low concentrations may attach to the particles and be transported by prevailing currents.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Sedimentos Geológicos , Minerais , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Fitoplâncton , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 160-167, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183693

RESUMO

The brackish tidal marsh in the Baimaosha area of the Yangtze River Estuary was severely contaminated by 400 tons of heavy crude petroleum from a tanker that sank in December 2012. The spill accident led to severe environmental damage owing to its high toxicity, persistence and wide distribution. Microbial communities play vital roles in petroleum degradation in marsh sediments. Therefore, taxonomic analysis, high-throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA functional prediction were used to analyze the structure and function of microbial communities among uncontaminated (CK), lightly polluted (LP), heavily polluted (HP), and treated (TD) sediments. The bacterial communities responded with increased richness and decreased diversity when exposed to petroleum contamination. The dominant class changed from Deltaproteobacteria to Gammaproteobacteria after petroleum contamination. The phylum Firmicutes increased dramatically in oil-enriched sediment by 75.78%, 346.19% and 267.26% in LP, HP and TD, respectively. One of the suspected oil-degrading genera, Dechloromonas, increased the most in oil-contaminated sediment, by 540.54%, 711.27% and 656.78% in LP, HP and TD, respectively. Spore protease, quinate dehydrogenase (quinone) and glutathione-independent formaldehyde dehydrogenase, three types of identified enzymes, increased enormously with the increasing petroleum concentration. In conclusion, petroleum contamination altered the community composition and microorganism structure, and promoted some bacteria to produce the corresponding degrading enzymes. Additionally, the suspected petroleum-degrading genera should be considered when restoring oil-contaminated sediment.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 142156, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207514

RESUMO

Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, extensive research has been conducted on the toxicity of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment. Many studies have identified the toxicological effects of PAHs in estuarine and marine fishes, however, only recently has work begun to identify the combinatorial effect of PAHs and abiotic environmental factors such as hypoxia, salinity, and temperature. This study aims to characterize the combined effects of abiotic stressors and PAH exposure on the cardiac transcriptomes of developing Fundulus grandis larvae. In this study, F. grandis larvae were exposed to varying environmental conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO) 2, 6 ppm; temperature 20, 30 °C; and salinity 3, 30 ppt) as well as to a single concentration of high energy water accommodated fraction (HEWAF) (∑PAHs 15 ppb). Whole larvae were sampled for RNA and transcriptional changes were quantified using RNA-Seq followed by qPCR for a set of target genes. Analysis revealed that exposure to oil and abiotic stressors impacts signaling pathways associated with cardiovascular function. Specifically, combined exposures appear to reduce development of the systemic vasculature as well as strongly impact the cardiac musculature through cardiomyocyte proliferation resulting in inhibited cardiac function and modulated blood pressure maintenance. Results of this study provide a holistic view of impacts of PAHs and common environmental stressors on the cardiac system in early life stage estuarine species. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to simultaneously manipulate oil exposure with abiotic factors (DO, salinity, temperature) and the first to analyze cardiac transcriptional responses under these co-exposures.


Assuntos
Fundulidae , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Fundulidae/genética , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Transcriptoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111520, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166738

RESUMO

The risk of a large-scale oil spill remains significant in marine environments as international maritime transport continues to grow. The environmental as well as the socio-economic impacts of a large-scale oil spill could be substantial. Oil spill models and modeling tools for Pollution Preparedness and Response (PPR) can support effective risk management. However, there is a lack of integrated approaches that consider oil spill risks comprehensively, learn from all information sources, and treat the system uncertainties in an explicit manner. Recently, the use of the international ISO 31000:2018 risk management framework has been suggested as a suitable basis for supporting oil spill PPR risk management. Bayesian networks (BNs) are graphical models that express uncertainty in a probabilistic form and can thus support decision-making processes when risks are complex and data are scarce. While BNs have increasingly been used for oil spill risk assessment (OSRA) for PPR, no link between the BNs literature and the ISO 31000:2018 framework has previously been made. This study explores how Bayesian risk models can be aligned with the ISO 31000:2018 framework by offering a flexible approach to integrate various sources of probabilistic knowledge. In order to gain insight in the current utilization of BNs for oil spill risk assessment and management (OSRA-BNs) for maritime oil spill preparedness and response, a literature review was performed. The review focused on articles presenting BN models that analyze the occurrence of oil spills, consequence mitigation in terms of offshore and shoreline oil spill response, and impacts of spills on the variables of interest. Based on the results, the study discusses the benefits of applying BNs to the ISO 31000:2018 framework as well as the challenges and further research needs.


Assuntos
Arte , Poluição por Petróleo , Teorema de Bayes , Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Incerteza
17.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128352, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182087

RESUMO

As organic pollution of soil and groundwater increases, the effective and economical remediation of contaminated sites has drawn growing attention. In this study, running-water (RW) was designed to modify alkali-heat/persulfate (MAH/PS) for integrated remediation of an actual organic-contaminated site. The degradation efficiency mainly reached 60%-99% for Benz[a]anthracene, Benzo[a]pyrene and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). MAH/PS was more effective in degrading Benzene and 1,2-Dichloroethane with simple molecular configurations. The pollutant degradation efficiencies decreased with increasing site depth and increased with increasing pollutant concentrations. Migration with RW enhanced site remediation. By monitoring the groundwater after remediation, it was found that residual TPHs presented anomalous diffusion; SO42- ranged from 8.00 to 237.00 mg L-1 to 8.00-290.00 mg L-1 and pH presented alkalescence (7.00-8.20). Mathematical models were established to describe the reaction process including the solubility equilibrium of calcium hydroxide, temperature equilibrium, and reaction kinetics. Moreover, MAH/PS provided a cost-saving approach for site remediation.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Álcalis , Benzo(a)pireno/química , China , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Temperatura Alta , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Modelos Teóricos , Oxirredução , Petróleo/análise , Poluição por Petróleo , Solo/química , Sulfatos/química
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 317-327, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279045

RESUMO

The biodegradation was considered as the prime mechanism of crude oil degradation. To validate the efficacy and survival of the crude oil-degrading strain in a bioremediation process, the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (egfp) was introduced into Acinetobacter sp. HC8-3S. In this study, an oil-contaminated sediment microcosm was conducted to investigate the temporal dynamics of the physicochemical characterization and microbial community in response to bacterium amendment. The introduced strains were able to survive, flourish and degrade crude oil quickly in the early stage of the bioremediation. However, the high abundance cannot be maintained due to the ammonium (NH4+-N) and phosphorus (PO43--P) contents decreased rapidly after 15 days of remediation. The sediment microbial community changed considerably and reached relatively stable after nutrient depletion. Therefore, the addition of crude oil and degrading cells did not show a long-time impact on the original microbial communities, and sufficient nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients ensures the survive and activity of degrader. Our studies expand the understanding of the crude oil degradative processes, which will help to develop more rational bioremediation strategies.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Nutrientes , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111637, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340963

RESUMO

The Shoreline Response Program (SRP) is an adjustment within an Incident Management System (IMS) intended to improve current practices during planning and preparedness for and from the initial response to an oil spill. An SRP builds on the recognized strengths of an IMS-based organization and of a Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) program that utilizes an integrated and focused approach to streamline and better coordinate the decision and planning processes and the operational implementation activities. An SRP is an extension of the traditional SCAT program but with a broader focus on strategic and tactical planning to minimize the short- and long-term impacts of oil on shorelines, the efforts and costs involved in a shoreline response, and the volumes of waste that would be generated. The objective of this discussion is to identify and address five specific areas for improvement in the shoreline component of an IMS that are associated with the separation of responsibility, streamlining the Environmental Unit (EU), internal communications, Operations support and training. These improvements essentially constitute a paradigm shift and are described in the context of the integration of an SRP into the IMS, the relationship between an SRP and the Environmental Unit, and the enabling of a more formal support approach to the Operations Section by an SRP SCAT-OPS Liaison program. The inclusion of an SRP concept in drills, exercises and preparedness training can directly change the management culture and improve the ability to respond quickly and effectively during the initial response phase. Not implementing an SRP at the very outset of a spill response, when typically the best opportunities exist for the removal of bulk oil, can have significant long-term consequences. Shifting an emphasis of management and physical resources from, often only partially successful, on-water activities to onshore shoreline activities when oil can be picked up more rapidly and effectively can significantly reduce i) the footprint of the response, ii) the duration and scale of the shoreline operation, iii) the exposure of shore zone resources to the oil, and so accelerates ecological and socio-economic recovery. The concept of an SRP as an integrated "single point of contact" for all shoreline-related issues and activities is likely to become more significant as IMS models evolve with potentially fewer people in a more decentralized Command Post and with a greater number of IMS planners, managers, and decision-makers participating from remote locations and/or in a virtual environment.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143896, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316527

RESUMO

Early life stages of fish are highly sensitive to crude oil exposure and thus, short term exposures during critical developmental periods could have detrimental consequences for juvenile survival. Here we administered crude oil to Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in short term (3-day) exposures at two developmental time periods: before first heartbeat, from gastrulation to cardiac cone stage (early), and from first heartbeat to one day before hatching (late). A frequent sampling regime enabled us to determine immediate PAH uptake, metabolite formation and gene expression changes. In general, the embryotoxic consequences of an oil exposure were more severe in the early exposure animals. Oil droplets on the eggshell resulted in severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities in the highest treatments. Gene expression changes of Cytochrome 1 a, b, c and d (cyp1a, b, c, d), Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (bmp10), ABC transporter b1 (abcb1) and Rh-associated G-protein (rhag) were linked to PAH uptake, occurrence of metabolites of phenanthrene and developmental and functional abnormalities. We detected circulation-independent, oil-induced gene expression changes and separated phenotypes linked to proliferation, growth and disruption of formation events at early and late developmental stages. Changes in bmp10 expression suggest a direct oil-induced effect on calcium homeostasis. Localized expression of rhag propose an impact on osmoregulation. Severe eye abnormalities were linked to possible inappropriate overexpression of cyp1b in the eyes. This study gives an increased knowledge about developmentally dependent effects of crude oil toxicity. Thus, our findings provide more knowledge and detail to new and several existing adverse outcome pathways of crude oil toxicity.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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