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1.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 66(6): 1039-1046, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346036

RESUMO

The JS7 strain, isolated from an old forest tree, produces extracellular enzymes that decolorize synthetic and natural melanin from human hair. Phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence indicated that JS7 belongs to the genus Irpex. The JS7 strain has laccase activity while it lacks manganese and lignin peroxidase activity, which suggests that the JS7 strain melanin decolorization activity originated from laccase. Laccase production from the Irpex sp. JS7 improved three-fold in the presence of veratryl alcohol, compared to without an inducer. The optimum pH and temperature for melanin decolorization were 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. The crude enzyme half-life at 25 °C was about 100 days, and it had high storage stability. The melanin decolorization reaction rate by the crude enzyme conformed to typical enzyme kinetic principles. In the presence of syringaldehyde as a redox mediator, the melanin decolorization rate was 75% within 5 days, similar to the decolorization percentage obtained using the enzyme alone. Based on these results, the Irpex sp. JS7 enzyme is suitable for use in melanin decolorization by whitening agents in the cosmetics industry.


Assuntos
Lacase , Polyporales , Corantes , Humanos , Lacase/genética , Lacase/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Polyporales/metabolismo
2.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(5): 2140-2151, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310858

RESUMO

Fungal laccases are attracting enzymes for sustainable valorization of biorefinery lignins. To improve the lignin oxidation capacity of two previously characterized laccase isoenzymes from the white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa, we mutated their substrate-binding site at T1. As a result, the pH optimum of the recombinantly produced laccase variant rOrLcc2-D206N shifted by three units towards neutral pH. O. rivulosa laccase variants with redox mediators oxidized both the dimeric lignin model compound and biorefinery poplar lignin. Significant structural changes, such as selective benzylic α-oxidation, were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, although no polymerization of lignin was observed by gel permeation chromatography. This suggests that especially rOrLcc2-D206N is a promising candidate for lignin-related applications.


Assuntos
Lacase , Polyporales , Fungos/metabolismo , Lacase/genética , Lacase/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Polyporales/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067678

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating neurological disorder characterized by an exacerbation of neuroinflammation and neuronal injury, for which few effective therapies are available at present. Inhibition of excessive neuroglial activation has been reported to alleviate ICH-related brain injuries. In the present study, the anti-ICH activity and microglial mechanism of ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß-ol (EK100), a bioactive ingredient from Asian medicinal herb Antrodia camphorate, were evaluated. Post-treatment of EK100 significantly attenuated neurobehavioral deficit and MRI-related brain lesion in the mice model of collagenase-induced ICH. Additionally, EK100 alleviated the inducible expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the ipsilateral brain regions. Consistently, it was shown that EK100 concentration-dependently inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV-2 and primary microglial cells. Furthermore, the production of microglial prostaglandin E2 and reactive oxygen species were attenuated by EK100. EK100 also attenuated the induction of astrocytic MMP-9 activation. Among several signaling pathways, EK100 significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPK in LPS-activated microglial BV-2 cells. Consistently, ipsilateral JNK activation was markedly inhibited by post-ICH-treated EK100 in vivo. In conclusion, EK100 exerted the inhibitory actions on microglial JNK activation, and attenuated brain COX-2 expression, MMP-9 activation, and brain injuries in the mice ICH model. Thus, EK100 may be proposed and employed as a potential therapeutic agent for ICH.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ergosterol/análogos & derivados , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Polyporales/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(1): 131-136, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815534

RESUMO

In dual culture confrontation assays, basidiomycete Irpex lacteus efficiently antagonized Fusarium spp., Colletotrichum spp., and Phytophthora spp. phytopathogenic strains, with growth inhibition percentages between 16.7-46.3%. Antibiosis assays evaluating the inhibitory effect of soluble extracellular metabolites indicated I. lacteus strain inhibited phytopathogens growth between 32.0-86.7%. Metabolites in the extracellular broth filtrate, identified by UPLC-QTOF mass spectrometer, included nine terpenes, two aldehydes, and derivatives of a polyketide, a quinazoline, and a xanthone, several of which had antifungal activity. I. lacteus strain and its extracellular metabolites might be valuable tools for phytopathogenic fungi and oomycete biocontrol of agricultural relevance.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Oomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Phytophthora/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polyporales/química , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas , Oomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phytophthora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polyporales/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/farmacologia
5.
Carbohydr Res ; 503: 108299, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836411

RESUMO

Abuse of antibiotics makes antibiotic-resistance become a huge challenge in bacterial infection treatment. The discovery of new antibiotics is of great significance to human health. In this study, the antibacterial mechanism of Sparassis crispa polysaccharides (SCPs) was explored. The SCPs isolated from Sparassis crispa was composed of fucose, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 0.043 : 0.652: 0.305. Bacteriostatic tests showed SCPs inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus better than Escherichia coli's, and damage to bacteria was observed under scanning electron microscopy. Metabolomic analysis based on HPLC-Q-TOF/MS indicated that SCPs disrupted metabolism of the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways in S. aureus. The variations of fructose-1,6-diphosphate, 1,3-diphosphoglycerol, succinate and oxaloacetate were significant, whose systematic changes accompanied with decrease of ATP in cells indicated that SCPs could exert antibacterial effects by inducing dysfunction of catabolism and energy metabolism. Our research confirmed the antibacterial properties of SCPs and provided a perspective for understanding antibacterial mechanism of polysaccharides from natural products through metabolomics technology.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Polyporales/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polyporales/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Basic Microbiol ; 61(5): 419-429, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721360

RESUMO

The study investigated the characteristics of aerobic degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) by Irpex lacteus F17 (I. lacteus F17) under four different cometabolic substrates (phenol, glucose, sodium pyruvate, and sodium citrate). The biodegradation of TBBPA by I. lacteus F17 could be enhanced via cometabolism, and glucose (8 g/L) was confirmed to be the optimum carbon source. For different initial solution pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.0, the results showed that I. lacteus F17 could be applied to biodegrade TBBPA in a wide pH range of 4.0-8.0, and the degradation rate could reach the maximum 75.31%, while the debromination rate reached the maximum 12.40% under pH 5.0. In addition, it has been confirmed that Mn2+ (50 µmol/L) could promote the secretion of manganese peroxidase and TBBPA biodegradation efficiency. Seven intermediates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and the possible degradation pathways were proposed, which indicated the biodegradation of TBBPA might be subjected to debromination, ß-scission, hydroxylation, deprotonation, and oxidation reactions.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo , Polyporales/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Manganês/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Peroxidases/análise , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Polyporales/efeitos dos fármacos , Polyporales/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(5): 1051-1061, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the content of substances with cosmetologic properties in the extracts obtained from the mycelial cultures of Ganoderma applanatum, Laetiporus sulphureus, and Trametes versicolor. The effect of these extracts on the inhibition of tyrosinase and hyaluronidase was determined, and their values of sun protection factor (SPF) were calculated. RESULTS: The total amount of phenolic acids in the extracts ranged from 2.69 (G. applanatum) to 10.30 mg/100 g dry weight (T. versicolor). The total amount of sterols was estimated at 48.40 (T. versicolor) to 201.04 mg/100 g dry weight (L. sulphureus), and that of indoles at 2.90 (G. applanatum) to 16.74 mg/100 dry weight (L. sulphureus). Kojic acid was determined in the extracts of L. sulphureus and G. applanatum. It was observed that L. sulphureus extract caused dose-dependent inhibition of hyaluronidase, while all the extracts inhibited tyrosinase. The extract of G. applanatum exhibited an SPF value of ~ 9. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the mycelial cultures of the studied species may be used as an alternative source of substances used in cosmetology.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Polyporales/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Indóis/análise , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/metabolismo , Polyporales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pironas/análise , Esteróis/análise , Fator de Proteção Solar , Protetores Solares/química , Protetores Solares/farmacologia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419097

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the beneficial potential of crude polysaccharides from S. crispa (CPS) in one of the most common cancer types-colon cancer. The determination of the chemical composition of CPS has revealed that it contains mostly carbohydrates, while proteins or phenolics are present only in trace amounts. 1H NMR and GC-MS methods were used for the structural analysis of CPS. Biological activity including anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of CPS was investigated. CPS was found to be non-toxic to normal human colon epithelial CCD841 CoN cells. Simultaneously, they destroyed membrane integrity as well as inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines: Caco-2, LS180 and HT-29. Antioxidant activity was determined by various methods and revealed the moderate potential of CPS. The enzymatic assays revealed no influence of CPS on xanthine oxidase and the inhibition of catalase activity. Moreover, pro-inflammatory enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2 or lipooxygenase were inhibited by CPS. Therefore, it may be suggested that S. crispa is a valuable part of the regular human diet, which may contribute to a reduction in the risk of colon cancer, and possess promising activities encouraging further studies regarding its potential use as chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in more invasive stages of this type of cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Polyporales/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Carboidratos , Colo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Lipoxigenase , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 170: 307-316, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358951

RESUMO

Antrodia cinnamomea is a precious Polyporaceous fungus with various bioactivities. This study reports the chemical identification and biological activities of sulfomalonoglucan, a sulfated polysaccharide (SPS), from the sodium sulfate enriched medium of the title fungus. The SPS-containing fraction was separated by gel filtration chromatography (GFC) to give the title SPS (denoted as Na10_SPS-F3). By analyzing the evidence for key inter-glycosidic linkages in the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, one possible repeat unit was proposed as: Na10_SPS-F3 inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Mechanistically, Na10_SPS-F3 downregulated TGFRII also attenuated the LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Moreover, Na10_SPS-F3 inhibited lung cancer cell H1975 EGFR/ERK signaling. This is the first paper reporting a 3-O-sulfomalonyl glucan (Na10_SPS-F3) with eight 1,4-ß-Glc moieties connected with ten 1,4-α-Glc moieties from Antrodia cinnamomea and its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities.


Assuntos
Polyporales/genética , Polissacarídeos/química , Sulfatos/química , Células A549 , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antrodia/química , Antrodia/genética , Antrodia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Polyporales/química , Polyporales/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(10)2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092062

RESUMO

Ceriporiopsis subvermispora is a white-rot fungus with a high specificity towards lignin mineralization when colonizing dead wood or lignocellulosic compounds. Its lignocellulose degrading system is formed by cellulose hydrolytic enzymes, manganese peroxidases, and laccases that catalyze the efficient depolymerization and mineralization of lignocellulose. To determine if this metabolic specialization has modified codon usage of the lignocellulolytic system, improving its adaptation to the fungal translational machine, we analyzed the adaptation to host codon usage (CAI), tRNA pool (tAI, and AAtAI), codon pair bias (CPB), and the number of effective codons (Nc). These indexes were correlated with gene expression of C. subvermispora, in the presence of glucose and Aspen wood. General gene expression was not correlated with the index values. However, in media containing Aspen wood, the induction of expression of lignocellulose-degrading genes, showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher values of CAI, AAtAI, CPB, tAI, and lower values of Nc than non-induced genes. Cellulose-binding proteins and manganese peroxidases presented the highest adaptation values. We also identified an expansion of genes encoding glycine and glutamic acid tRNAs. Our results suggest that the metabolic specialization to use wood as the sole carbon source has introduced a bias in the codon usage of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation. This bias reduces codon diversity and increases codon usage adaptation to the tRNA pool available in C. subvermispora. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that codon usage is modified to improve the translation efficiency of a group of genes involved in a particular metabolic process.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon , Lacase/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Polyporales/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética , Catálise , Hidrólise , Lacase/genética , Peroxidases/genética , Filogenia , Polyporales/genética , Polyporales/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942733

RESUMO

Recent transcriptomic and biochemical studies have revealed that light influences the global gene expression profile and metabolism of the white-rot fungus Cerrena unicolor. Here, we aimed to reveal the involvement of proteases and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome in the response of this fungus to white, red, blue and green lighting conditions and darkness. The changes in the expression profile of C. unicolor genes putatively engaged in proteolysis were found to be unique and specific to the applied wavelength of light. It was also demonstrated that the activity of proteases in the culture fluid and mycelium measured using natural and synthetic substrates was regulated by light and was substrate-dependent. A clear influence of light on protein turnover and the qualitative and quantitative changes in the hydrolytic degradation of proteins catalyzed by various types of proteases was shown. The analysis of activity associated with the 26S proteasome showed a key role of ATP-dependent proteolysis in the initial stages of adaptation of fungal cells to the stress factors. It was suggested that the light-sensing pathways in C. unicolor are cross-linked with stress signaling and secretion of proteases presumably serving as regulatory molecules.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Polyporales/efeitos da radiação , Madeira/microbiologia , Criptocromos/genética , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Luz , Transdução de Sinal Luminoso , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Opsinas/genética , Opsinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/classificação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fitocromo/genética , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polyporales/genética , Polyporales/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos da radiação , Proteólise/efeitos da radiação
12.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932919

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a pathological process with intrahepatic diffused deposition of the excess extracellular matrix, which leads to various chronic liver diseases. Drugs with high efficacy and low toxicity for liver fibrosis are still unavailable. Antrodia camphorata has antioxidant, antivirus, antitumor and anti-inflammation roles, and has been used to treat liver diseases in the population. However, the hepatoprotective effects of A. camphorata spores and the mechanisms behind it have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of spore powder of A. camphorata (SP, 100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. SP groups reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities compared with the CCl4 group. SP also showed a decrease in hydroxyproline (Hyp) content in liver tissues. SP improved cell damage and reduced collagen deposition by H&E, Sirius red and Masson staining. Furthermore, SP down-regulated the mRNA levels of α-SMA and Col 1, and the protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I (Col 1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-Κb (NF-κB) p65. In summary, SP has an ameliorative effect on hepatic fibrosis, probably by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells, reducing the synthesis of extracellular matrix.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Polyporales/metabolismo , Esporos/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
13.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 22(7): 615-626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865919

RESUMO

Taiwanofungus camphoratus, a medicinal mushroom indigenous to Taiwan, has attracted the attention of pharmaceutical companies due to its remarkable properties and considerable commercial value. Since it grows slowly and most of its components are chemically unstable, its production and distribution have been problematic. In the present study, cordycipitoid fungi powders of seven species were used to cultivate T. camphoratus, and optimal conditions for biomass production were determined by response surface methodology. The initial liquid medium was enriched with cordycipitoid fungi powders, inoculated with a spore suspension of T. camphoratus, and then incubated on a rotary shaker (120 r/min at 27°C) for 14 days. The effects of cordycipitoid fungi powders on T. camphoratus production were investigated by examining the biomass production of T. camphoratus. The key factors influencing biomass production, as identified by a two-level Plackett-Burman design with eight variables, were (1) powder content of cordycipitoid fungi, (2) glucose content, and (3) bottling volume. Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis were applied to further investigate the mutual interactions among these factors, and to obtain optimal values leading to maximal biomass yields. Levels of triterpenoids, polysaccharides, mannitol, adenosine, and ergosterol were determined as estimates of the medicinal value of T. camphoratus cultured with or without cordycipitoid fungi powders. The results showed that Paecilomyces hepiali, Metacordyceps neogunnii, and Beauveria bassiana promoted mycelial growth of T. camphoratus, with P. hepiali showing the most prominent effect. The optimal conditions promoting maximal biomass production were found to be as follows: 6.93 g/L P. hepiali powder content; 26.48 g/L glucose content; 180.55 mL of bottling volume (in a 500-mL Erlenmayer flask). Under these conditions, the biomass production was increased by 38.32%, from 13.10 to 18.12 g/L. The polysaccharide, mannitol, adenosine and ergosterol contents, but not the triterpenoid contents of T. camphoratus cultured with P. hepiali powder, were noticeably higher than when cultured with no powder (control condition), and were higher than those of the P. hepiali powder itself. These results indicate the feasibility of large-scale fermentation of T. camphoratus to produce valuable substances that may be used in pharmaceutical products.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polyporales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Fermentação , Polyporales/metabolismo , Pós , Taiwan
14.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(6): 637-644, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785942

RESUMO

Widespread of heavy metals contamination has led to several environmental problems. Some biological methods to remove heavy metals from contaminated wastewater are being widely explored. In the present study, the efficiency of a white-rot fungus, Phlebia brevispora to remove different metals (Pb, Cd and Ni) has been evaluated. Atomic absorption spectroscopy of treated and untreated metal containing water revealed that all the metals were efficiently removed by the fungus. Among all the used metals, cadmium was the most toxic metal for fungal growth. Phlebia brevispora removed maximum Pb (97·5%) from 100 mmol l-1 Pb solution, which was closely followed by Cd (91·6%) and Ni (72·7%). Scanning electron microscopic images revealed that the presence of metal altered the morphology and fine texture of fungal hyphae. However, the attachment of metal on mycelia surface was not observed during energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, which points towards the intracellular compartmentation of metals in vacuoles. Thus, the study demonstrated an application of P. brevispora for efficient removal of Pb, Cd and Ni from the metal contaminated water, which can further be applied for bioremediation of heavy metals present in the industrial effluent.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Polyporales/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/análise
15.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 73(10): 711-720, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820242

RESUMO

The conspicuous bright golden to orange-reddish coloration of species of the basidiomycete genus Laetiporus is a hallmark feature of their fruiting bodies, known among mushroom hunters as the "chicken of the woods". This report describes the identification of an eight-domain mono-modular highly reducing polyketide synthase as sole enzyme necessary for laetiporic acid biosynthesis. Heterologous pathway reconstitution in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger verified that LpaA functions as a multi-chain length polyene synthase, which produces a cocktail of laetiporic acids with a methyl-branched C26-C32 main chain. Laetiporic acids show a marked antifungal activity on Aspergillus protoplasts. Given the multiple products of a single biosynthesis enzyme, our work underscores the diversity-oriented character of basidiomycete natural product biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Polienos/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Polyporales/enzimologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus nidulans/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polienos/isolamento & purificação , Polienos/farmacologia , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Polyporales/química , Polyporales/genética , Polyporales/metabolismo
16.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 192(3): 895-909, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607899

RESUMO

In efforts to lower the cost of total conversion of lignocellulosic materials, utilization of hemicellulose must be considered. White-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60 can produce ethanol directly from cellulose and has fermentation ability for glucose, cellulose, and xylose. Therefore, white-rot fungi can be considered a good candidate for consolidated bioprocessing to give bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, although little information is available on the direct fermentation of xylan. In the present study, some Phlebia species were selected as candidates because of their ability to ferment xylose to ethanol more efficiently than Phlebia sp. MG-60. This process indicated that the basidiomycetes that can produce ethanol from xylose are closely related genetically within the Phlebia genus. The selected Phlebia species showed higher ethanol productivity from corn core and beechwood xylans than Phlebia sp. MG-60. The ethanol yields from corn core xylan in culture with Phlebia acerina HHB11146, Phlebia ludoviciana HHB9640, and Phlebia subochracea HHB8494 were 46.2%, 46.7%, and 39.7% of theoretical maximum, and those from beechwood xylan were 19.09%, 17.7%, and 21.4% of the theoretical maximum, respectively.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Polyporales/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Zea mays/química
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(11): 4252-4262, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In situ extractive fermentation (ISEF) is an important technique for improving metabolite productivity. The different extractants can induce the synthesis of different bioactive metabolites of Antrodia camphorata during ISEF. However, a lack of research on the molecular genetics of A. camphorata during ISEF currently hinders such studies on metabolite biosynthetic mechanisms. RESULTS: To clarify the differentially expressed genes during ISEF, the gene transcriptional expression features of A. camphorata S-29 were analysed. The addition of n-tetradecane as an extractant during ISEF showed more pronounced up-regulation of ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis pathway genes (CoQ2, wrbA and ARO8). When oleic acid was used as an extractant, the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis pathways were significantly enriched, and genes (IDI, E2.3.3.10, HMGCR atoB, and CoQ2) related to these two pathways were also significantly up-regulated. The CoQ2 genes encode puru-hydroxybenzoate:polyprenyltransferase, playing an important role in antroquinonol synthesis. The IDI, E2.3.3.10, HMGCR and atoB genes of the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway might play an important role in the synthesis of the triquine-type sesquiterpene antrodin C. CONCLUSION: This investigation advances our understanding of how two different extractants of n-tetradecane and oleic acid affect the biosynthesis of metabolites in A. camphorata. It is beneficial to provide potential strategies for improving antrodin C and antroquinonol production by genetic means. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Maleimidas/metabolismo , Polyporales/genética , Polyporales/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Vias Biossintéticas , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Polyporales/enzimologia , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma , Ubiquinona/biossíntese
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 159: 1013-1021, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417542

RESUMO

This research utilized zinc sulfate enriched cultural conditions to produce sulfated polysaccharides from Antrodia cinnamomea (denoted as ZnFSPS) and physiochemically characterize functional and mechanical investigations of ZnFSPS. The maximum SPS yield reached a value of 6.68% when A. cinnamomea was fed zinc sulfate with 250 mM (denoted as Zn250). Zn250 had a maximal inhibitory effect on LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) release in RAW264.7 macrophage. Zn250 contained the highest area percentage of molecular weight of 178.5, 105.1, and 1.56 kDa at values of 19.08, 15.09, and 5.04. Zn250 contained three times the sulfate content as compared with the control. Mechanism studies revealed a novel finding that Zn250 inhibited the LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammation and selectively blocked pAKT, pERK and p38. Zn250 also attenuated the LPS-induced IkB-α degradation. In addition, ZnFSPS interfered with lung cancer cell H1975 TGFRI/FAK/Slug signaling. These results suggest ZnFSPS plays roles in regulating inflammatory and anti-lung cancer activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polyporales/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polyporales/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Sulfato de Zinco/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
19.
J Nat Prod ; 83(5): 1374-1382, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401511

RESUMO

The distinctive nature of the endophyte Irpex lacteus, host plant, and the phytopathogen Collectotrichum gloeosporioides resulted in both negative and positive regulation of the production of phytotoxins from Nigrospora oryzae. The coculture of nonhomologous I. lacteus and N. oryzae resulted in a greater number of anti-phytopathogenic metabolites from the dominant endophyte than the coculture of homologous I. lacteus and N. oryzae. The coculture of the phytopathogen N. oryzae and either the nonhomologous (isolation of I. lacteus and N. oryzae from the different plants) or homologous (isolation of I. lacteus and N. oryzae from the same plant) endophyte I. lacteus from different sources indicated that the nonhomologous I. lacteus grew faster than the homologous I. lacteus, and the production of phytotoxic azaphilone from the phytopathogenic N. oryzae decreased due to the inhibition resulting from being cocultured with nonhomologous I. lacteus. On the other hand, the production of phytotoxic azaphilone was promoted by the coculture of two phytopathogens, N. oryzae and C. gloeosporioides. The extract of the host plant, Dendrobium officinale, also increased anti-phytopathogenic metabolite production. Six new phytotoxic azaphilones from N. oryzae, four new tremulane sesquiterpenes from I. lacteus, and a new polyketone were isolated. The endophyte-phytopathogen, phytopathogen-phytopathogen, and endophyte-phytopathogen-host interactions can induce the chemical diversity of novel anti-phytopathogenic metabolites.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Dendrobium/microbiologia , Dendrobium/toxicidade , Polyporales/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzopiranos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Endófitos , Cetonas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polyporales/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
20.
J Nat Prod ; 83(5): 1368-1373, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301614

RESUMO

A new isoindolinone alkaloid, irpexine (1), was isolated as a racemate, along with a known green pigment, hypoxyxylerone (2), from the coculture of two endophytic fungi, Irpex lacteus and Phaeosphaeria oryzae. Compound 1 was found to be a newly produced metabolite of I. lacteus in the coculture with P. oryzae. Although 2 was produced in a monoculture of I. lacteus, its production was markedly enhanced by the coculture.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Polyporales/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Gleiquênias/microbiologia , Células HeLa , Houttuynia/microbiologia , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular
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