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1.
J Hum Evol ; 125: 38-49, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502896

RESUMO

Orangutans (Pongo spp.) are reported to have extremely slow life histories, including the longest average interbirth intervals of all mammals. Such slow life history can be viable only when unavoidable mortality is kept low. Thus, orangutans' survivorship under natural conditions is expected to be extremely high. Previous estimates of orangutan life history were based on captive individuals living under very different circumstances or on small samples from wild populations. Here, we combine birth data from seven field sites, each with demographic data collection for at least 10 years (range 12-43 years) on wild orangutans to better document their life history. Using strict criteria for data inclusion, we calculated infant survival, interbirth intervals and female age at first reproduction, across species, subspecies and islands. We found an average closed interbirth interval of 7.6 years, as well as consistently very high pre-weaning survival for males and females. Female survival of 94% until age at first birth (at around age 15 years) was higher than reported for any other mammal species under natural conditions. Similarly, annual survival among parous females is very high, but longevity remains to be estimated. Current data suggest no major life history differences between Sumatran and Bornean orangutans. The high offspring survival is remarkable, noting that modern human populations seem to have reached the same level of survival only in the 20th century. The orangutans' slow life history illustrates what can be achieved if a hominoid bauplan is exposed to low unavoidable mortality. Their high survival is likely due to their arboreal and non-gregarious lifestyle, and has allowed them to maintain viable populations, despite living in low-productivity habitats. However, their slow life history also implies that orangutans are highly vulnerable to a catastrophic population crash in the face of drastic habitat change.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Pongo abelii
2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15672, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353034

RESUMO

The integration of Bayesian analysis into existing great ape survey methods could be used to generate precise and reliable population estimates of Bornean orang-utans. We used the Marked Nest Count (MNC) method to count new orang-utan nests at seven previously undocumented study sites in Sarawak, Malaysia. Our survey teams marked new nests on the first survey and revisited the plots on two more occasions; after about 21 and 42 days respectively. We used the N-mixture models to integrate suitability, abundance and detection models which account for zero inflation and imperfect detection for the analysis. The result was a combined estimate of 355 orang-utans with the 95% highest density interval (HDI) of 135 to 602 individuals. We visually inspected the posterior distributions of our parameters and compared precisions between study sites. We subsequently assess the strength or reliability of the generated estimates using identifiability tests. Only three out of the seven estimates had <35% overlap to indicate strong reliability. We discussed the limitations and advantages of our study design, and made recommendations to improve the sampling scheme. Over the course of this research, two of the study sites were gazetted as extensions to the Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary for orang-utan conservation.


Assuntos
Pongo pygmaeus , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Malásia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica
3.
Am J Primatol ; 80(6): e22870, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756650

RESUMO

Stillbirths, or births of infants that died in the womb, represent a failure of the materno-feto-placental unit to maintain a suitable fetal environment. Typical studies of nonhuman primate (NHP) stillbirth patterns are primarily descriptive and focus on macaques (genus Macaca). Thus, less is known about other NHP species and rarer still are studies that examine possible biological factors that influence stillbirth rates across taxa. To examine possible contributors to stillbirths in great apes, we analyzed 36 years (1980-2016) of historical data documenting births of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 391), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, N = 491), and orangutans (Pongo spp, N = 307) in accredited zoological parks in the United States. The average number of births for each of the 446 mothers was 2.7, resulting in a total of 1,189 births with 143 stillbirths (12%). Stillbirths represented 12% of chimpanzee births, 13% of gorilla births, and 10% of orangutan births. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to assess possible relationships between stillbirth likelihood and mother origin (wild- versus captive-born), age, and genus. Across taxa, older mothers were more likely to have a stillbirth (p = 0.004). While these results are likely influenced by both biological and management-related factors (e.g., selective captive breeding), they may be useful to population managers in evaluating pregnancy risks for great apes. Captive settings and archival studbook data such as these may provide a unique opportunity to further explore this topic.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Pongo/fisiologia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7606, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765067

RESUMO

Indonesia's peatlands experience frequent and intense wildfires, producing hazardous smoke with consequences for human health, yet there is a lack of research into adverse effects on wildlife. We evaluated the effects of smoke on the activity and energy balance of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in a peat swamp forest at the Tuanan Research Station, Central Kalimantan. We collected behavioural data and urine samples from four adult flanged males before, during, and after wildfires between March 2015 and January 2016. During fires, particulate matter (PM10) concentrations were hazardous. Orangutans increased rest time during and after the smoke period, and decreased travel time and distance and increased fat catabolism post-smoke. The increase in post-smoke ketones was not related to changes in caloric intake and was likely due to an increase in energy expenditure, possibly related to immune response. Results show that wildfire smoke negatively affects orangutan condition, and sustained research is needed to assess the magnitude of the threat to the long-term viability of this Critically Endangered species.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras/metabolismo , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Material Particulado , Caminhada , Incêndios Florestais
5.
Primates ; 59(2): 135-144, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383576

RESUMO

The Bukit Merah Orang Utan Island (OUI) Foundation has been conducting behavioral and veterinary research on orangutans as an attempt at ex situ conservation. Since 2010, the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University has been collaborating with OUI to promote environmental enrichment and infant rearing by biological mothers in addition to the continuous efforts of refining the veterinary management of the endangered species. In 2011, three Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) were released on an island, called BJ Island, adjacent to OUI. This island is approximately 5.6 ha in size, and 635 trees belonging to 102 plant species were identified prior to their release. Behavioral monitoring of the released individuals has been conducted to evaluate their behavioral adaptation to the new environment. Two of the three released orangutans were born in the wild, whereas the youngest individual was born on OUI and expected to learn forest survival strategies from the two older individuals. One of the orangutans was pregnant at the time of release and subsequently gave birth to two male infants on BJ Island. The behavioral monitoring indicated that these orangutans traveled more and spent more time on trees following their release onto BJ Island. However, resting was longer for two females both on OUI and BJ Island when compared to other populations. The orangutans consumed some natural food resources on BJ Island. The release into a more naturalistic environment may help the orangutans to develop more naturalistic behavioral patterns that resemble their wild counterparts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/etiologia , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/terapia , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Variação Genética , Ilhas , Malásia , Masculino , Filogenia , Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração , Medicina Veterinária/normas
6.
Primates ; 59(2): 127-133, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387973

RESUMO

The reproductive success of male primates is not always associated with dominance status. For example, even though male orangutans exhibit intra-sexual dimorphism and clear dominance relationships exist among males, previous studies have reported that both morphs are able to sire offspring. The present study aimed to compare the reproductive success of two male morphs, and to determine whether unflanged males sired offspring in a free-ranging population of Bornean orangutans, using 12 microsatellite loci to determine the paternity of eight infants. A single flanged male sired most of the offspring from parous females, and an unflanged male sired a firstborn. This is consistent with our observation that the dominant flanged male showed little interest in nulliparous females, whereas the unflanged males frequently mated with them. This suggests that the dominant flanged male monopolizes the fertilization of parous females and that unflanged males take advantage of any mating opportunities that arise in the absence of the flanged male, even though the conception probability of nulliparous females is relatively low.


Assuntos
Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Comportamento Agonístico , Animais , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Paternidade , Pongo pygmaeus/classificação , Pongo pygmaeus/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Predomínio Social
7.
Curr Biol ; 28(5): 761-769.e5, 2018 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456144

RESUMO

Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources is increasingly affecting the highly biodiverse tropics [1, 2]. Although rapid developments in remote sensing technology have permitted more precise estimates of land-cover change over large spatial scales [3-5], our knowledge about the effects of these changes on wildlife is much more sparse [6, 7]. Here we use field survey data, predictive density distribution modeling, and remote sensing to investigate the impact of resource use and land-use changes on the density distribution of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Our models indicate that between 1999 and 2015, half of the orangutan population was affected by logging, deforestation, or industrialized plantations. Although land clearance caused the most dramatic rates of decline, it accounted for only a small proportion of the total loss. A much larger number of orangutans were lost in selectively logged and primary forests, where rates of decline were less precipitous, but where far more orangutans are found. This suggests that further drivers, independent of land-use change, contribute to orangutan loss. This finding is consistent with studies reporting hunting as a major cause in orangutan decline [8-10]. Our predictions of orangutan abundance loss across Borneo suggest that the population decreased by more than 100,000 individuals, corroborating recent estimates of decline [11]. Practical solutions to prevent future orangutan decline can only be realized by addressing its complex causes in a holistic manner across political and societal sectors, such as in land-use planning, resource exploitation, infrastructure development, and education, and by increasing long-term sustainability [12]. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/tendências , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Animais , Bornéu , Indonésia , Malásia , Recursos Naturais/provisão & distribução , Dinâmica Populacional
8.
Sci Adv ; 3(5): e1601517, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28560319

RESUMO

Nursing behavior is notoriously difficult to study in arboreal primates, particularly when offspring suckle inconspicuously in nests. Orangutans have the most prolonged nursing period of any mammal, with the cessation of suckling (weaning) estimated to occur at 6 to 8 years of age in the wild. Milk consumption is hypothesized to be relatively constant over this period, but direct evidence is limited. We previously demonstrated that trace element analysis of bioavailable elements from milk, such as barium, provides accurate estimates of early-life diet transitions and developmental stress when coupled with growth lines in the teeth of humans and nonhuman primates. We provide the first detailed nursing histories of wild, unprovisioned orangutans (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus) using chemical and histological analyses. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine barium distributions across the teeth of four wild-shot individuals aged from postnatal biological rhythms. Barium levels rose during the first year of life in all individuals and began to decline shortly after, consistent with behavioral observations of intensive nursing followed by solid food supplementation. Subsequent barium levels show large sustained fluctuations on an approximately annual basis. These patterns appear to be due to cycles of varying milk consumption, continuing until death in an 8.8-year-old Sumatran individual. A female Bornean orangutan ceased suckling at 8.1 years of age. These individuals exceed the maximum weaning age reported for any nonhuman primate. Orangutan nursing may reflect cycles of infant demand that relate to fluctuating resource availability.


Assuntos
Bário/metabolismo , Pongo abelii/fisiologia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Desmame
9.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40052, 2017 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067260

RESUMO

Non-human animals sometimes show marked intraspecific variation in their cognitive abilities that may reflect variation in external inputs and experience during the developmental period. We examined variation in exploration and cognitive performance on a problem-solving task in a large sample of captive orang-utans (Pongo abelii &P. pygmaeus, N = 103) that had experienced different rearing and housing conditions during ontogeny, including human exposure. In addition to measuring exploration and cognitive performance, we also conducted a set of assays of the subjects' psychological orientation, including reactions towards an unfamiliar human, summarized in the human orientation index (HOI), and towards novel food and objects. Using generalized linear mixed models we found that the HOI, rather than rearing background, best predicted both exploration and problem-solving success. Our results suggest a cascade of processes: human orientation was accompanied by a change in motivation towards problem-solving, expressed in reduced neophobia and increased exploration variety, which led to greater experience, and thus eventually to higher performance in the task. We propose that different experiences with humans caused individuals to vary in curiosity and understanding of the physical problem-solving task. We discuss the implications of these findings for comparative studies of cognitive ability.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Exploratório , Pongo abelii/fisiologia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas , Animais , Humanos
10.
J Med Primatol ; 46(1): 3-8, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under the environment of pregnancy, the placenta assumes an important steroidogenic role in the maintenance of pregnancy. METHODS: Urinary placental leucine aminopeptidase (PLAP), estrone-3-glucuronide (E1 G), and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) concentrations were compared among five pregnancies (four live births and one stillbirth) in four orangutans. RESULTS: The gestation period of the stillbirth (223 days) was shorter than that of the live births (239-254 days). In females who gave a live birth, average PLAP and E1 G concentrations increased until the delivery. Conversely, in the female who gave a stillbirth, PLAP concentration failed to increase, and E1 G concentration was significantly low in late pregnancy period. Regarding PdG concentrations, there was no significant difference among all pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study reporting a change in urinary PLAP, E1 G, and PdG concentrations during orangutan stillbirth and live birth pregnancies. The findings will assist in developing pregnancy screening tests.


Assuntos
Cistinil Aminopeptidase/análise , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/urina , Nascimento Vivo/veterinária , Placenta/enzimologia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Natimorto/veterinária , Animais , Estrona/análogos & derivados , Estrona/urina , Feminino , Gravidez , Pregnanodiol/análogos & derivados , Pregnanodiol/urina
11.
Primates ; 58(1): 211-224, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27600514

RESUMO

Orangutans have a long period of immaturity and the longest inter-birth interval (IBI) of all mammals, which can be explained by their solitary life style, preventing the mother from rearing two offspring simultaneously (solitary life hypothesis) [corrected]. We collected data on mother-offspring dyads living in a primary lowland forest in Danum Valley, East Borneo in an effort to examine the developmental and behavioral patterns of the subspecies Pongo pygmaeus morio. We analyzed developmental changes in mother-offspring distance, contact, and activity budgets in orangutans ranging from 1 to 7 years of age. The results indicated decreased resting and playing with increasing age, whereas feeding, traveling and social play all increased significantly. Mothers' feeding and traveling time were good predictors of their offspring's feeding and traveling activities. Mother-offspring contact lasted longer in resting contexts; contact during traveling was almost non-existent after 4 years of age. Comparisons with previously published data on the Sumatran species Pongo abelli revealed no fundamental differences in these behavioral measures. However, a shorter association time with the mother after behavioral independence is documented for this East Bornean population in comparison to Sumatran populations. These results are best explained by the solitary life hypothesis, in agreement with previous studies. We suggest that environmental constraints in Bornean forests, as well as a lower population density, should be considered when interpreting the differences between Sumatran and Bornean orangutans in both the period of association with mother and the IBI.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Atividade Motora , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bornéu , Feminino , Malásia , Masculino , Mães , Pongo pygmaeus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Primates ; 58(1): 225-235, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27848156

RESUMO

We investigated the population density of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) and fruit availability for 10 years (2005-2014), in primary lowland dipterocarp forests in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. During the research period, two mast fruitings and three other peak fruiting events of different scales occurred in the study area. The orangutan population density, estimated every 2 months by the marked nest count method, changed between 0.3 and 4.4 ind/km2 and the mean population density was 1.3 ind/km2 ± SE 0.1 (n = 56). The population density increased markedly during mast and peak fruiting periods. A significant positive correlation was observed between the population density and fruit availability in the study period (Spearman, R = 0.3, P < 0.01, n = 56). During non-fruiting periods, however, no significant correlation was observed between them. These results suggest that the spatial difference in fruit availability during mast and peak fruiting periods was larger than during non-fruiting periods, and many orangutans temporarily moved to the study site from the surrounding areas seeking fruit.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malásia , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
13.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 87(5): 305-319, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27931024

RESUMO

Acoustic characteristics and context of the long-distance call of male orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) were examined in a population of orang-utans from Central Kalimantan, Borneo. Male orang-utans produced long calls under different circumstances, including calls made spontaneously, in response to conspecifics, when accompanied by a snag crash and when travelling with a female. It was shown by acoustic analyses that there was individual discrimination between the male's calls, discrimination between the calls made under different contexts, and between calls from one individual from different years, which coincided with a change in his dominance status. We also confirm that flanged male orang-utans advertise their intended travel route, by long calling in the direction of their travel. If other orang-utans (males and females) within ear shot of the caller can identify the caller from their long call, and even obtain information about the context and status of the individual, they can then therefore choose whether to approach or avoid them. Thus, males seem to be using their long call to announce their presence, allowing them to orient themselves spatially to other orang-utans, and, potentially, to co-ordinate a network of loose associations between both males and females in the area.


Assuntos
Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bornéu , Feminino , Masculino , Pongo pygmaeus/psicologia , Predomínio Social
14.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159960, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27458728

RESUMO

Saliva crystallization was previously studied in both humans and animals with various results. The study aimed to confirm of the presence of saliva crystallization in female Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), to evaluate the quality of samples which were collected from animals and processed by keepers, and to test preliminarily if the saliva crystallization could be connected with menstrual cycle and could serve as a cheap, quick and simple method for the basic monitoring of their reproductive status. The research was carried out from September 2014 to January 2015. Sampling of saliva was done in three female orangutans from three zoological gardens (Dvur Kralove, Usti nad Labem, Bojnice) daily, mostly by tongue prints on glass slides with ground edges or by sampling directly from the mouth using plastic spoons from which the saliva was transferred onto glass slides. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy with ×400 magnification. The quality of the sample and type of crystallization was assessed for two different approaches. In total, 246 samples were evaluated. We confirmed the presence of saliva crystallization in orangutans. The quality of samples was variable however acceptable. Unfortunately, it was impossible to detect exact fertile period in two females. However in one orangutan female, when the crystallization was evaluated by the approach typically used in humans, we discovered that saliva crystallization during the fertile period significantly differed from saliva crystallization in the non-fertile period. This points out the possibility of using saliva crystallization for detection of the fertile period in orangutans. However, further research was recommended.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Animais , Cristalização , Feminino
15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 38(1): 51-64, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25600229

RESUMO

Geophagy among orangutans is the most poorly documented in contrast to the knowledge of soil-eating practices of other great ape species. Observations of soil consumption by orangutans in the Sungai Wain Forest Preserve (Wanariset) of Borneo are presented, along with physico-mineral-chemical analyses of the ingested soil in an effort to understand what might stimulate the activity. The consumed soils are: light colored, not excessively weathered by normal standards, higher in the clay size fraction relative to controls, and are comprised of a mix of clay minerals without any specificity of 1:1, 2:1 and/or 2:1:1 (Si:Al) species. The geophagic soils contain chlorides below detection limits, effectively eliminating salt as a stimulus. Soil chemical and geochemical analyses confirm that orangutans prefer soils with pH levels near or above 4.0, while controls are consistently lower (pH = 3.5-4.0), a considerable difference in acidity for at least four out of six soils consumed. Geochemical analysis shows Al, Fe and K are high in the consumed vs control samples; higher Al follows from higher clay percentages in the consumed earth. Iron and K may play physiological roles, but Fe is mostly in the ferrous form (Fe(+2)) and may not be readily taken up by the animals. The preferential choice of consumed samples, with pH above 4.0 and higher clay contents, may promote a more beneficial intestinal environment.


Assuntos
Pica , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Solo/química , Animais , Bornéu , Indonésia
16.
Am J Primatol ; 77(12): 1276-89, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26469521

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a long-term picture of orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) behavioral adjustments to damaged masting forest around Mentoko, Kutai National Park, Indonesia. Mentoko is regenerating from two severe burnings and is one of few areas where orangutans were well-studied before and early after damage. We studied orangutans' feeding ecology, diet, and activity budgets 12-15 years after the second burning then compared our findings with earlier pre- and post-damage ones to assess the changes and factors involved. By our study, we predicted (1) improved feeding ecology compared to early in regeneration, (2) behavior diverging from the normal foraging strategy and (3) behavior shifting toward pre-damage patterns with improving feeding ecology. Data were behavioral observations on 42 orangutans (422 full day follows, 3,522 hr) and tree plot measures of feeding ecology. Findings were consistent with the first and third predictions but not the second: (1) feeding ecology had improved (plant food abundance was near per-damage levels, but species composition had changed); (2) foraging strategies showed no divergence from normal (fallback-preferred food switches in diet and activity budget adjustments were both normal, notably travel did not reduce), (3) diet and activity budgets had reverted to near pre-damage values by our study. Differently than post-damage studies on other orangutans but consistent with those on other primates, our comparisons showed behavioral adjustments were flexible, multiple vs. single, and influenced by multiple factors. Factors likely involved at Mentoko include type and spatial configuration of damage, duration of regeneration, and P. p. morio's recognized resilience. Findings have value for orangutan and nature conservation in showing that recovery to near-normal levels from severe habitat damage is possible within ca 15 years and in adding to understanding of the factors and processes that contribute to recovery.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dieta , Secas , Ecossistema , Fogo , Florestas , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino
17.
Primates ; 56(4): 293-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26298471

RESUMO

We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan.


Assuntos
Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Lorisidae , Carne , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Bornéu , Indonésia , Masculino
18.
Am J Primatol ; 77(11): 1216-29, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26317698

RESUMO

Orangutans (genus Pongo) are the largest arboreal mammals, but Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus spp.) also spend time on the ground. Here, we investigate ground use among orangutans using 32,000 hr of direct focal animal observations from a well-habituated wild population of Bornean orangutans (P. p. wurmbii) living in a closed-canopy swamp forest at Tuanan, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Ground use did not change with increasing observation time of well-habituated individuals, suggesting it was not an artifact of observer presence. Flanged males spent the most time on the ground (ca. 5% of active time), weaned immatures the least (around 1%). Females and immatures descended mainly to feed, especially on termites, whereas flanged males traveled more while on the ground. Flanged males may travel more inconspicuously, and perhaps also faster, when moving on the ground. In addition, orangutans engaged in ground-specific behavior, including drinking from and bathing in swamp pools. Supplementary records from 20 ground-level camera traps, totaling 3986 trap days, confirmed the observed age-sex biases in ground use at Tuanan. We conclude that ground use is a natural part of the Bornean orangutan behavioral repertoire, however it remains unclear to what extent food scarcity and canopy structure explain population differences in ground use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Indonésia , Locomoção , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Homo ; 66(6): 477-91, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26256651

RESUMO

When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology.


Assuntos
Antebraço/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Antebraço/fisiologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Rádio (Anatomia)/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie , Ulna/anatomia & histologia
20.
Am J Primatol ; 77(11): 1170-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26235914

RESUMO

Among primates, orangutans are unique in having pronounced male bimaturism leading to two fully adult morphs that differ in both physical appearance and behavior. While unflanged males have a female-like appearance, flanged males have the full suite of secondary sexual characteristics, including cheek flanges and a large throat sac. So far, hormonal correlates of arrested development in unflanged males and the expression of secondary sexual characteristics in flanged males have only been studied in zoo-housed individuals. In this study, we investigated fecal androgen and glucocorticoid metabolites as hormonal correlates of male bimaturism in 17 wild adult Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. We predicted and found higher androgen levels in flanged males compared to unflanged males, probably due to ongoing strong competition among flanged males who meet too infrequently to establish a clear linear dominance hierarchy. Furthermore, we found no difference in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations between flanged and unflanged males, indicating that social stress is unlikely to explain arrested development in unflanged wild orangutans. The only actively developing male in our study showed significantly higher androgen levels during the period of development than later as a fully flanged male. This supports earlier findings from zoo studies that elevated androgen levels are associated with the development of secondary sexual characteristics.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Pongo pygmaeus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Animais , Fezes/química , Indonésia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Predomínio Social
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