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1.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 293, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To summarize the diagnosis and treatment of 13 patients with mixed-type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) and propose another classification for mixed TAPVC. METHODS: A retrospective review of 13 patients with mixed TAPVC undergoing repair at a single institution was conducted between January 2010 and November 2019. The diagnosis of mixed-type TAPVC was made in all patients using echocardiography combined with computed tomography angiography. According to the mixed TAPVC anatomy, there were 3 patients with type I TAPVC (2 + 2 veins), 10 patients with type II TAPVC (3 + 1 veins) and no patients with type III TAPVC. Correspondingly, there was 1 patient with the "SVC + VV" subtype, 2 patients with the "CS + C" subtype, 8 patients with the "CS + VV" subtype, 1 patient with the "CS + SVC" subtype and 1 patient with the "RA + SVC" subtype according to our classification system. All patients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. RESULTS: The median weight at surgery was 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (3.4-7.3 kg), and the median age at surgery was 96.2 ± 81.2 days (10-242 days). The median cardiopulmonary bypass time was 132.7 ± 25.1 min (range, 100 to 190 min). The cross-clamping time was 69.2 ± 14.4 min (range, 45 to 88 min). The hospital mortality rate was 7.7% (1 of 13), with late mortality occurring in 1 patient because of pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO) 7 months after surgery. The average follow-up after surgery was 3.4 ± 2.2 years (range, 5 months to 8 years). The survival rates at 3 and 5 years were both 90.9% ± 8.7% (95% CI: 73.8-108%). All remaining surviving patients were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Mixed TAPVC can be repaired with good results in children and can be correctly diagnosed with echocardiography combined with computed tomography angiography. The classification system we propose is pragmatic and can guide the surgical approach.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cimitarra/cirurgia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Cimitarra/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
2.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(4): NP424-NP425, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645765

RESUMO

This editorial accompanies an original research article by Dr Elzein and colleagues describing findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nitric oxide administration during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in infants undergoing the Norwood procedure.


Assuntos
Procedimentos de Norwood , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Óxido Nítrico
3.
Perfusion ; 35(6): 465-473, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666887

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious health concern which affects all healthcare professionals worldwide. The pandemic puts health services, including cardiac surgery units, under escalating pressure. There are significant challenges caused by this novel virus and ensuing disease that leads to great uncertainty. While it has been advocated to delay elective surgeries, most cardiac surgical patients present in a more urgent manner which elevates the critical nature for intervention, which may make the surgical decision inevitable. To date, no definitive treatments to the pandemic have been promoted. Cardiac surgical centers may experience an increasing number of COVID-19 patients in clinical practice. Preparation for managing these patients will require a change in the current modalities for perioperative care. Therefore, the goal of this report is to share our own experiences, combined with a review of the emerging literature, by highlighting principles for the adult cardiac surgery community regarding treatment of patients scheduled for surgery. The following report will recommend perioperative guidance in patient management to include safety precautions for the heart team, the conduct of extracorporeal circulation and related equipment, and covering the early period in intensive care in the context of the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20934, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664090

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the myocardial protective effect of liquid sodium phosphocreatine cardiac arrest in extracorporeal circulation surgery treating infants with atrial septal defects.Eighty-four infants with atrial septal defects who required extracorporeal circulation surgery treatment at our hospital from January 2016 to June 2018 were divided into an observation group and a control group through a digitally randomized method, with 42 cases in each group. The control group adopted the conventional modified St Thomas II high potassium cold liquid crystal cardiac arrest, while the observation group adopted the liquid sodium phosphocreatine cardiac arrest.The myocardial enzyme indexes of the 2 groups 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively were higher than before establishing the cardiopulmonary bypass and the enzyme indexes of the control group at the same time were higher than that of the observation group; adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and other energy levels and the postoperative recovery rate energy levels of the observation group were higher than those in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P < .05).Liquid sodium phosphocreatine cardiac arrest used in extracorporeal circulation surgery treating infants with atrial septal defects can reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, maintain energy supply during ischemia, strengthen the St Thomas II effect, and aid postoperative cardiac function recovery of high potassium cold liquid crystal cardiac arrest used in infants with atrial septal defects and treated with extracorporeal circulation surgery.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/métodos , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Fosfocreatina/farmacologia , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Circulação Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico , Comunicação Interatrial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio/química , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Fosfocreatina/administração & dosagem , Período Pós-Operatório , Cloreto de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Card Surg ; 35(8): 1877-1884, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652654

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hydatid pulmonary embolism (HPE) is rare but remains an etiology that needs to be considered and kept in mind, especially in endemic areas, as regards nonthrombotic embolism. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2014, 10 patients were treated in our department for the presence of hydatid material in the pulmonary arterial circulation. Through these 10 cases, we try to assess the radioclinical characteristics and results of the surgical treatment. RESULTS: The study included six men and four women, average age 28 years. Discovery of HPE was made following the exploration of cardiorespiratory symptoms in nine cases and was incidental in a single patient. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the chest directly visualized the hydatid material in the pulmonary arteries in nine cases. Surgery consisted of an embolectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass in nine cases. This embolectomy was preceded by the treatment of an embolic hydatid cyst (HC) in seven cases (HCs of the right heart chambers in six cases and a liver HC ruptured in the inferior vena cava in one case), whereas for only one patient, who presented a HC pedunculated in the right ventricle and protruding into the pulmonary artery, the cure of the cardiac location was sufficient. Only one patient died on the third postoperative day. CONCLUSION: Endoluminal hydatid involvement of pulmonary arteries is extremely rare. CTA chest has an important contribution to the positive diagnosis. Treatment is surgical when the patient's condition allows it.


Assuntos
Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Adulto , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Embolectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
J Card Surg ; 35(8): 1865-1870, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Double-outlet left ventricle (DOLV) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. The aorta and the main pulmonary arterial trunk arises predominantly from the left ventricle and is associated with a malaligned ventricular septal defect, various degrees of hypoplasia of the right ventricle, and presence, or absence of pulmonary stenosis. Bi-ventricular repair is the preferred treatment option whenever possible. Multiple techniques for bi-ventricular repair have been described. The best option for DOLV correction is by translocating the pulmonary root from the left ventricle to the right ventricle. In this series, we report four patients who underwent biventricular repair of DOLV with excellent outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of four patients who underwent surgical correction of DOLV between January 2014 and December 2018. We collected all patient details from the institute patient record system. Echocardiographic data were obtained from the records. Intraoperative charts were reviewed for further information on the surgical procedure and cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative data included survival, functional status, and followup echocardiography. RESULTS: Of the four children, three underwent pulmonary root translocation, and one child underwent a Reparation al etage Ventriculaire (REV) procedure. There was no mortality in our series, and all children are in a stable clinical condition in the recent follow-up, and no re-operations or interventions were required following primary surgical correction. CONCLUSION: DOLV is anatomically and surgically a challenging subset. Pulmonary root translocation in this anatomy is technically challenging but safe and superior option when compared to other alternative surgical procedures. Pulmonary root translocation can be performed with excellent results, even in infants.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Dupla Via de Saída do Ventrículo Direito/terapia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(3): 291-297, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery has one of the highest incidences of intraoperative awareness. The periods of initiation and discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass could be high-risk periods. Certain frontal EEG patterns might plausibly occur with unintended intraoperative awareness. This study sought to quantify the incidence of these pre-specified patterns during cardiac surgery. METHODS: Two-channel bihemispheric frontal EEG was recorded in 1072 patients undergoing cardiac surgery as part of a prospective observational study. Spectrograms were created, and mean theta (4-7 Hz) power and peak alpha (7-17 Hz) frequency were measured in patients under general anaesthesia with isoflurane. Emergence-like EEG activity in the spectrogram during surgery was classified as an alpha peak frequency increase by 2 Hz or more, and a theta power decrease by 5 dB or more in comparison with the median pre-bypass values. RESULTS: Data from 1002 patients were available for analysis. Fifty-five of those patients (5.5%) showed emergence-like EEG activity at least once during surgery with a median duration of 13.2 min. These patients were younger (median age, 59 vs 67 yr; P<0.001) and the median end-tidal isoflurane concentration before cardiopulmonary bypass was higher (0.82 vs 0.75 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]; P=0.013). There was no significant difference between those with or without emergence-like EEG activity in sex, lowest core temperature, or duration of surgery. Forty-six of these EEG changes (84%) occurred within a 1 h time window centred on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that approximately one in 20 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with a volatile anaesthetic agent have a sustained EEG pattern while surgery is ongoing that is often seen with emergence from general anaesthesia. Monitoring the frontal EEG during cardiopulmonary bypass may identify these events and potentially reduce the incidence of unintended awareness. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02976584.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Consciência no Peroperatório/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and affects the organ vascular bed. Experimentally, the lack of pulsatility alters myogenic tone of resistance arteries and increases the parietal inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to compare the vascular reactivity of the internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) due to the inflammatory response between patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) under CPB with a roller pump or with a centrifugal pump. METHODS: Eighty elective male patients undergoing CABG were selected using one or two internal thoracic arteries under CPB with a roller pump (RP group) or centrifugal pump (CFP group). ITA samples were collected before starting CPB (Time 1) and before the last coronary anastomosis during aortic cross clamping (Time 2). The primary endpoint was the endothelium-dependent relaxation of ITAs investigated using wire-myography. The secondary endpoint was the parietal inflammatory response of arteries defined by the measurements of superoxide levels, leukocytes and lymphocytes rate and gene expression of inflammatory proteins using. Terminal complement complex activation (SC5b-9) and neutrophil activation (elastase) analysis were performed on arterial blood at the same times. RESULTS: Exposure time of ITAs to the pump flow was respectively 43.3 minutes in the RP group and 45.7 minutes in the CFP group. Acetylcholine-dependent relaxation was conserved in the two groups whatever the time. Gene expression of C3 and C4a in the artery wall decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. No oxidative stress was observed in the graft. There was no difference between the groups concerning the leukocytes and lymphocytes rate. SC5b-9 and elastase increased between Time 1 and Time 2. CONCLUSION: Endothelium-dependent relaxation of the internal thoracic arteries was preserved during CPB whatever the type of pump used. The inflammatory response observed in the blood was not found in the graft wall within this time frame. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Name of trial study protocol: IPITA Registration number (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT04168853.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Artéria Torácica Interna/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/instrumentação , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Transplantes/fisiologia , Transplantes/cirurgia , Vasoconstrição , Vasodilatação
10.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 52(2): 112-117, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669737

RESUMO

The optimal setting to achieve a suitable PaCO2 value of 35-45 mmHg upon initiating cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the pediatric population is undefined in the literature. Sweep gas is set upon initiating and modified throughout CPB to reduce potential complications related to compensatory metabolic acidosis or metabolic alkalosis and associated cerebral blood flow fluctuations. This study retrospectively examined 1,077 CPB cases for which PaCO2 values were no less than 30 mmHg and no greater than 50 mmHg on the pre-CPB blood gas result. Through an observation of the results, we attempted to determine the optimal sweep gas setting upon initiating CPB to obtain a physiologic PaCO2 value of 35-45 mmHg. The probability of achieving an optimal PaCO2 value was modeled as a function of the average sweep gas to blood flow ratio during the period before the first blood gas on CPB. The median sweep gas to blood flow ratio (V/Q) was .64 (.51; .76), with a median first PaCO2 value on CPB of 42 mmHg (38.8; 45). A .6 V/Q had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.57 of obtaining a PaCO2 value between 35 and 45 mmHg on the first CPB blood gas when compared with a .4 V/Q (Figure 1Figure 1.Bivariate associations between PaCO2 and the V/Q ratio. (A) Spike histogram with loess curve showing the proportion of patients with a first PaCO2 value on CPB between 35 and 45 mmHg according to the V/Q ratio. (B) Scatterplot and loess curve (gray line) for PaCO2 on CPB according to the V/Q ratio. Dashed lines indicate the target range of 35-45 mmHg. (C) Model-based estimate of the predicted probability and 95% CI for PaCO2 on CPB between 35 and 45 mmHg according to the V/Q ratio obtained from logistic regression. (D) Model-based estimate of the predicted PaCO2 on CPB according to the V/Q ratio obtained from ordinal regression. Prop, proportion.). A .9 V/Q had a 1.76 OR when compared with a .4 and a 1.12 OR when compared with .6. Using a .6 V/Q ratio achieved a PaCO2 value within normal physiologic limits with no significant advantage to a higher V/Q ratio overall. However, younger or smaller patients required a higher V/Q to achieve similar probabilities of being within limits and similar PaCO2 values when compared with the older or larger patients.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Gasometria , Dióxido de Carbono , Cognição , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 52(2): 142-145, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669741

RESUMO

Bloodless pediatric cardiac surgery requiring the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains a challenge for the entire operating room (OR) team. The amount of circulating blood volume to pump prime volume mismatch of small patients results in hemodilution that frequently results in transfusion of allogeneic blood products. Patients of families of the Jehovah's Witness (JW) faith reject the use of these products because of religious beliefs. Our institution is a referral center for children of JW families because we have developed techniques to minimize blood loss with the hope of performing bloodless pediatric cardiac surgery whenever possible. These techniques include preoperative treatment with erythropoietin, intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution, CPB circuit miniaturization, ultrafiltration during and after CPB, limiting blood gas analyses or other unnecessary blood draws, and using hemostatic agents during and after CPB. We present the case of a 4-day-old patient of the JW faith weighing 2.7 kg with transposition of the great arteries and an intact ventricular septum who underwent an arterial switch operation. The patient received no allogeneic blood product administration throughout the entire hospitalization. The patient's first hematocrit in the OR was 43%, lowest hematocrit on bypass was 15%, and first hematocrit in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit post-procedure was 21%. The patient was discharged on post-op day nine with a hematocrit of 36%.


Assuntos
Transposição das Grandes Artérias , Testemunhas de Jeová , Procedimentos Médicos e Cirúrgicos de Sangue , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Criança , Humanos , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos
12.
Am Heart J ; 226: 188-197, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in children with heart disease are challenging and therefore infrequently performed. We sought to improve feasibility of perioperative RCTs for this patient cohort using data from a large, multicenter clinical registry. We evaluated potential enrollment and end point frequencies for various inclusion cohorts and developed a novel global rank trial end point. We then performed trial simulations to evaluate power gains with the global rank end point and with use of planned covariate adjustment as an analytic strategy. METHODS: Data from the Society of Thoracic Surgery-Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS-CHSD, 2011-2016) were used to support development of a consensus-based global rank end point and for trial simulations. For Monte Carlo trial simulations (n = 50,000/outcome), we varied the odds of outcomes for treatment versus placebo and evaluated power based on the proportion of trial data sets with a significant outcome (P < .05). RESULTS: The STS-CHSD study cohort included 35,967 infant index cardiopulmonary bypass operations from 103 STS-CHSD centers, including 11,411 (32%) neonatal cases and 12,243 (34%) high-complexity (Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery mortality category ≥4) cases. In trial simulations, study power was 21% for a mortality-only end point, 47% for a morbidity and mortality composite, and 78% for the global rank end point. With covariate adjustment, power increased to 94%. Planned covariate adjustment was preferable to restricting to higher-risk cohorts despite higher event rates in these cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Trial simulations can inform trial design. Our findings, including the newly developed global rank end point, may be informative for future perioperative trials in children with heart disease.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Cardiopatias/congênito , Humanos
14.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 28(6): 336-338, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539424

RESUMO

Rapidly progressive epicardial hemorrhagic blebs during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after perimembranous ventricular septal defect closure has not been reported previously. Here, we describe the case of a 3-month-old baby with life-threatening epicardial hemorrhagic blebs and an interventricular septal hematoma after perimembranous ventricular septal defect patch closure.


Assuntos
Vesícula/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Hematoma/etiologia , Pericárdio/transplante , Vesícula/diagnóstico por imagem , Evolução Fatal , Comunicação Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
15.
Surgery ; 168(1): 155-159, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide Y acts directly on the vasculature as a cotransmitter with norepinephrine for an augmented contraction. Little, however, is known about the effects of neuropeptide Y on the microvasculature of human skeletal muscle. Neuropeptide Y signaling has not been studied in the setting of cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the role of neuropeptide Y signaling on vasomotor tone in the microvessels of human skeletal muscle, as well as the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on neuropeptide Y-induced responsiveness. METHODS: Specimens taken from intercostal muscles were collected from patients, pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass, undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or cardiac valve surgery (n = 8/group). Microvessels (157 ± 47 microns) were isolated in vitro in a no-flow state. Arterial microvascular responses to a neuropeptide Y agonist, a Y1 receptor antagonist, phenylephrine, and the coadministration of neuropeptide Y and phenylephrine were examined. The abundance and localization of the Y1 receptor were measured using Western blot and immunofluorescence, respectively. RESULTS: Arterial microvessels showed responsiveness to the neuropeptide Y agonist (10-9 to 4 × 10-7 mol/L) both before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, reaching a 12.5% vasoconstriction from the baseline luminal diameter. With administration of the Y1 receptor antagonist after neuropeptide Y, the contractile response was eliminated (n = 3/group, P = .04). No difference in vasoconstriction was observed between pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass groups (P = .73). The coadministration of neuropeptide Y and phenylephrine (10-9 to 10-4 mol/L) elicited no difference in vasoconstriction (n = 7/group, P = .06 both pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass) when compared with phenylephrine alone (10-9 to 10-4 mol/L). No change in the protein expression or localization of the Y1 receptor was detected by Western blotting (n = 6/group, P = .44) or immunofluorescence (n = 6/group, P = .13). CONCLUSION: Neuropeptide Y induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that neuropeptide Y may play an important role in the regulation of the peripheral microvasculature. There was no change in microvascular responsiveness to neuropeptide Y after cardiopulmonary bypass nor were there any synergistic effects of neuropeptide Y on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction in the skeletal muscle microvasculature.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Microvasos/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/fisiologia , Vasoconstrição , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea
16.
JAMA ; 323(24): 2485-2492, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573670

RESUMO

Importance: Corticosteroids are widely used in pediatric cardiac surgery to blunt systemic inflammatory response and to reduce complications; nevertheless, their clinical efficacy is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether intraoperative administration of dexamethasone is more effective than placebo for reducing major complications and mortality during pediatric cardiac surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Intraoperative Dexamethasone in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery was an investigator-initiated, double-blind, multicenter randomized trial that involved 4 centers in China, Brazil, and Russia. A total of 394 infants younger than 12 months, undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled from December 2015 to October 2018, with follow-up completed in November 2018. Interventions: The dexamethasone group (n = 194) received 1 mg/kg of dexamethasone; the control group (n = 200) received an equivolume of 0.9% sodium chloride intravenously after anesthesia induction. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, acute kidney injury, prolonged mechanical ventilation, or neurological complications within 30 days after surgery. There were 17 secondary end points, including the individual components of the primary end point, and duration of mechanical ventilation, inotropic index, intensive care unit stay, readmission to intensive care unit, and length of hospitalization. Results: All of the 394 patients randomized (median age, 6 months; 47.2% boys) completed the trial. The primary end point occurred in 74 patients (38.1%) in the dexamethasone group vs 91 patients (45.5%) in the control group (absolute risk reduction, 7.4%; 95% CI, -0.8% to 15.3%; hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.10; P = .20). Of the 17 prespecified secondary end points, none showed a statistically significant difference between groups. Infections occurred in 4 patients (2.0%) in the dexamethasone group vs 3 patients (1.5%) in the control group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among infants younger than 12 months undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative administration of dexamethasone, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce major complications and mortality at 30 days. However, the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02615262.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20007, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481266

RESUMO

To investigate the changes in the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and its relationship with postoperative acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).A prospective, case-control study was performed on 55 patients undergoing elective cardiac valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass, between November 2017 and May 2019. According to the diagnosis of postoperative ARDS, the patients were divided into ARDS group and control group. We compared the clinical characteristics, outcomes, respiratory mechanics, oxygenation parameters, and mediators in the 2 groups immediately after tracheal intubation (T1), at the end of CPB (T2), and 2 hours (T3) and 6 hours (T4) after CPB, and calculated the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), sensitivity, and specificity of the corresponding mediators.ARDS occurred in 29 patients after CPB. The ARDS group exhibited prolonged postoperative ventilator support, time to extubation, length of stay in the ICU, and postoperative length of stay. The peak airway pressure (Ppeak) and plat airway pressure (Pplat) at T4 were higher in the ARDS group compared with the control group. The alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure [P(A-a)O2] and respiratory index (RI) were higher and PaO2/FiO2 was lower in the ARDS group at T2-4 compared with the control group. The levels of EBC and serum mediators in the ARDS group were significantly higher at T2-4 compared with those in the control group. All the mediators in EBC were correlated significantly with those in the serum in the ARDS group (r = 0.7314, 0.898, 0.8386, 0.792) and control group (r = 0.6093, 0.8524, r = 0.7828, r = 0.6575) (P < .001). Meanwhile, the area under the curve (AUC) of IL-8 in EBC was significantly lower at T2 and the AUC of IL-6 in EBC was significantly higher at T4 than in serum (P < .05). In addition, all of the mediators in EBC had a certain accuracy in diagnose of postoperative ARDS.EBC analysis could be used to predict the high incidence of ARDS after cardiac valve replacement under CPB.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Expiração , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
18.
Adv Gerontol ; 33(2): 319-324, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593247

RESUMO

To identify predictors of neurological complications in the hospital period after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 92 patients with coronary heart disease aged 70 years and over were analyzed. Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral oxygenation (rSO2, %) was carried out. At the stage of induction anesthesia, the average level of rSO2 for left and right hemispheres was 64-65% without significant changes during the operation. A decrease in rSO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was associated with increased risk of neurological complications. The risk of neurological complications increase 7-fold and 9-fold with a decrease in rSO2 by 20% or more during CPB relative to baseline for left and right hemispheres, respectively. A history of two or more myocardial infarctions increases 3-fold the risk of neurological complications after CABG.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
20.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 79, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cold hemagglutinin disease (CHAD) is a rare autoimmune disease, in which patients manifest symptoms when the body temperature decreases. It causes critical problems with blood clotting and hemolysis during hypothermia in cardiac surgery. Although various methods are recommended, the CHAD discovered incidentally during cardiac surgery is still a clinical challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old male visited our hospital for chest pain. Angiography revealed unstable angina, left-main and three-vessel disease. We performed coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass after heparin injection. Shortly after aorta cross-clamping (ACC) and infusion of cold blood cardioplegia, we found massive blood clots in the cardioplegia line. Upon suspicion of CHAD, we raised the temperature and infused warm blood cardioplegia in a retrograde manner. After performing cardiac arrest, we opened the coronary artery and found blood clots in the coronary artery. We eliminated the clots and washed with warm crystalloid cardioplegia simultaneously in an antegrade and retrograde manner. During the ACC, warm cardioplegia was infused every 15 min, via retrograde and antegrade techniques simultaneously. After distal anastomosis of the saphenous venous graft (SVG) to the coronary artery, we performed a direct SVG warm cardioplegia infusion. Finally, before the proximal SVG anastomosis to the aorta, we used warm cardioplegia to eliminate the remaining microemboli. The cold reactive protein test showed a positive result. The patient was discharged without any complications. CONCLUSION: In this rare case, we incidentally discovered CHAD associated with massive blood clots in the cardioplegia line and the coronary artery, during CABG. However, we performed CABG without any complications using a reasonable and appropriate cardioplegia infusion technique, including direct SVG warm cardioplegia infusion.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Parada Cardíaca Induzida , Trombose/diagnóstico , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Coagulação Sanguínea , Vasos Coronários , Hemaglutininas/sangue , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Veia Safena/cirurgia , Temperatura , Trombose/cirurgia
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