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1.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(11): 1099-1104, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of neglect in children aged 3-6 years in the rural areas of Urumqi, China and risk factors for neglect. METHODS: Stratified random cluster sampling was performed to select 1 326 children, aged 3-6 years, from 6 kindergartens in the rural areas of Urumqi. A self-designed questionnaire and "Chinese Neglect Evaluation Questionnaire for Rural Children Aged 3-6 Years" were used for investigation. RESULTS: Of the 1 326 children, the neglect rate was 51.89% (688 cases), and the degree of neglect was 49±6. There were significant differences in the neglect rate and the degree of neglect between the children in different age groups (P<0.01). The single-parent families and the remarried families had significantly higher child neglect rate and degree of neglect than the families of three generations under one roof and the core families (P<0.01). The children in left-behind status had a significantly higher degree of neglect (P<0.01). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that younger children, mothers with low education level, employment status of the mother as a migrant worker, single-parent and remarried families, low-income families, and left-behind status were risk factors for child neglect (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The neglect of children aged 3-6 years in the rural areas of Urumqi is serious, and more attention should be paid to younger children, children whose mothers with low education level, left-behind children, and children from single-parent families, remarried families and low-income families.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 491-497, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemic status and influencing factors of intestinal parasitic diseases among rural children in Henan Province. METHODS: According to the Scheme for The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China, the survey counties were selected based on the ecological zones and economic levels in Henan Province between 2014 and 2015. Then, the included counties were stratified according to the topography and economic levels. A township was randomly sampled from each stratum, and a village was randomly sampled from each township as the study site. Finally, a total of 104 study sites from 35 counties were enrolled for the survey of intestinal parasitic diseases in children. At least 250 fresh stool samples were collected from each study site for detection of intestinal helminth eggs with the Kato-Katz technique, for the identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale with the fecal culture method, and for the detection of intestinal protozoa trophozoite and cyst with the physiological saline smear and iodine staining techniques. In addition, the Enterobius vermicularis and tapeworm eggs were detected in children aged 3 to 6 years using the adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 3.21% (214/6 671) among rural children in Henan Province, and the prevalence of intestinal helminthes (2.62%, 175/6 671) was higher than that of intestinal protozoa (0.60%, 40/6 671). A total of 12 species of intestinal parasites were found, including 4 nematodes species, one trematode species, and 7 protozoa species, and the highest infection was seen in E. vermicularis (2.47%, 161/6 671). Among the four ecological zones in Henan Province, the greatest prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was detected among children in the Qinba Mountain Ecological Zone (5.85%, 90/1 538). There was no gender-specific difference in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children (P > 0.05); however, there were age- (χ2 = 32.762, P < 0.05) and education level-specific differences in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children (χ2 = 67.507, P < 0.05), with the greatest prevalence of E. vermicularis infection seen in all species of intestinal parasites in children at all age groups. Multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis showed that high education level, high coverage of harmless toilets, drinking tap water and deworming were protective factors for intestinal parasitic infections in children in Henan Province. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections appeared a tendency towards a gradual decline among children in Henan Province as compared to the previous two surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections shows a tendency towards a remarkable decline among children in Henan Province. E. vermicularis infection should be given a priority for future parasitic disease control activities among rural children in Henan Province.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1094-1097, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683393

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in China in 2015. Methods: Based on the data quality review and assessment, the esophageal cancer data from 368 cancer registries in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China were included in this study. According to the national population data in 2015, the nationwide incidence and mortality of the esophageal cancer were estimated. Chinese standard population in 2000 and world Segi's population were used to calculate the age-standardized (ASR) incidence and mortality rates (ASR China and world, respectively). Results: The 368 cancer registries covered a total of 309 553 499 populations in China, accounting for 22.52% of the national population. There were 245 651 new esophageal cancer cases estimated in China in 2015, with a crude incidence rate of 17.87/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world were 11.14/100 000 and 11.28/100 000, respectively. The estimated number of esophageal cancer death was 188 044 in China in 2015, with a crude mortality rate of 13.68/100 000; The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 8.33/100 000 and 8.36/100 000, respectively. The ASR China incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in males were higher in males (16.50/100 000 and 12.66/100 000) than those in females (5.92/100 000 and 4.17/100 000), and they were higher in rural areas (15.95/1100 000 and 11.67/100 000) than those in urban areas (7.59/100 000 and 5.87/100 000). Conclusion: The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in China are higher than the global average. The disparity of the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer significantly differed in genders and areas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1104-1109, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683395

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the related factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions among residents aged 40-69 years old in rural areas of Shandong Province. Methods: In October 2018, 300 villages in 13 counties of the Shandong upper gastrointestinal cancerearly diagnosis and treatment projectin 2017 were selected as research areas, and 30 400 residents aged 40-69 were recruited in this study. The demographic characteristics, health status and lifestyle information were collected through the questionnaire survey, and endoscope iodine staining and indicative biopsy methods were used for cancer screening among eligible people.The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors for esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Results: The subjects in this study were (56.42±7.24) years old, including 13 193 males (43.40%).There were 936 cases of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions (3.08%), including 521 males and 415 females.Compared with women, 40-49 years old, high level education, drinking tap water, regular intake of meat, eggs and milk, and family average annual income more than 30 000 RMB, men (OR=1.90, 95%CI: 1.65-2.19), 60-69 years old (OR=5.28, 95%CI: 4.11-7.30), primary school education or below (OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.20-1.89), drinking groundwater (OR=1.71, 95%CI: 1.38-2.13), never eating meat, eggs and milk (OR=1.48, 95%CI: 1.22-1.80), and family average annual income less than 30 000 RMB (OR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.16-1.70) would increase the risk of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Conclusion: The gender, age, educational level, annual household income, drinking water source, the frequency of eating meat, egg and milk were related to the occurrence of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions among 40-69 years old residents in rural areas of Shandong Province.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , China/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1158-1161, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683405

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality rate of leukemia in the cancer registration areas of Zhejiang Province from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed to depict their epidemiological characteristics. From 2010 to 2014, 3789 new cases were diagnosed as leukemia in Zhejiang cancer registration areas, with a crude incidence rate of 6.47 per 100 000. The age-standardized incidence rate of males (standardized by China census data 2000) was 1.35 times that of females. The age-standardized incidence rate of urban areas was similar to that in rural areas (1.04∶1). From 2010 to 2014, 2 568 cases died due to leukemia, with a crude mortality rate of 4.38 per 100 000. The age-standardized mortality rate of males was 1.44 times that of females. The age-standardized mortality rate of urban areas was 0.99 times that of rural areas. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rate did not show any significant change from 2010 to 2014. The annual percent change of these two metrics was -2.36% (t=-0.62, P=0.579) and -3.46% (t=-2.41, P=0.095).


Assuntos
Leucemia/mortalidade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sistema de Registros , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias , Distribuição por Sexo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17736, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689819

RESUMO

To explore associated risk factors and their interactions with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among the elderly with prediabetes in rural areas in China.A nested case-control study was conducted in a fixed cohort to identify the risk factors for T2DM among the elderly with prediabetes in rural areas of Yiyang City in China. A total of 37 elderly with T2DM were included in the cases group and 111 elderly subjects with prediabetes were matched in the control group. Data related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behavior, and anthropometric variables were collected by trained staff using standard tools. The risk factors for T2DM were determined using conditional logistic regression analysis, and their additive interactions were also explored.Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis results showed that overweight/obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-12.28), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.03-12.81), physically inactive (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.14-8.30), high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (OR = 3.15, 95% CI: 1.27-7.80), and inadequate diabetes-specific health literacy (DSHL) (OR = 3.92, 95% CI: 1.14-13.48) increased the risk for T2DM. Additive interactions for T2DM were observed between a family history of diabetes and high WHR with a relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) of 10.02 (95% CI: 4.25, 15.78), and between high WHR and overweight or obesity, with an RERI of 3.90 (95% CI: 0.36, 7.44).The independent risk factors for T2DM are overweight or obesity, high WHR, family history of diabetes, physically inactive, and inadequate DSHL. High WHR as a risk factor for T2DM has additive interactions with family history of diabetes and overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Antropometria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(44): 993-998, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697655

RESUMO

Lung and bronchus (lung) cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States (1). In 2016, 148,869 lung cancer deaths were reported.* Most lung cancers can be attributed to modifiable exposures, such as tobacco use, secondhand smoke, radon, and asbestos (1). Exposure to lung cancer risk factors vary over time and by characteristics such as sex, age, and nonmetropolitan or metropolitan residence that might affect lung cancer rates (1,2). A recent report found that lung cancer incidence rates were higher and decreased more slowly in nonmetropolitan counties than in metropolitan counties (3). To examine whether lung cancer incidence trends among nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties differed by age and sex, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics during 2007-2016, the most recent years for which data are available. During the 10-year study period, lung cancer incidence rates were stable among females aged <35, 45-64, and ≥75 years in nonmetropolitan counties, were stable among females aged <35 years in metropolitan counties, and decreased in all other groups. Overall, among males, lung cancer incidence rates decreased from 99 to 82 per 100,000 in nonmetropolitan areas and from 83 to 63 in metropolitan areas; among females, lung cancer incidence rates decreased from 61 to 58 in nonmetropolitan areas and from 57 to 50 in metropolitan areas. A comprehensive approach to lung cancer prevention and control includes such population-based strategies as screening for tobacco dependence, promoting tobacco cessation, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, testing all homes for radon and using proven methods to lower high radon levels, and reducing exposure to lung carcinogens such as asbestos (1). Increasing the implementation of these strategies, particularly among persons living in nonmetropolitan counties, might help to reduce disparities in the decline of lung cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 546-548, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand and master the infection status of key parasitic diseases in Baise City from 2006 to 2015, so as to provide evidence for the development and adjustment of the control strategy for parasitic diseases. METHODS: The relevant information of the final evaluation of the key parasitic diseases in 12 counties (cities and districts) of Baise City from 2006 to 2015 was collected, and analyzed. RESULTS: During the period of 2006-2015, a total of 20 654 person-times were investigated for parasitic diseases in Baise City and 1 147 persons were infected, with an average infection rate of 5.55%. In 2006, the infection rate was the highest (28.67%, 362/1 254), while the lowest was in 2013 (2.08%, 44/2 113). The infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis was the highest, and the infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was the second. The infection rates of the males and females were 5.35% (631/11 795) and 5.82% (516/8 859) respectively, with no significant difference between them (χ2 = 2.175, P > 0.05). The highest infection rate existed in the 40-49 years group, the rural residents, the farmers and the crowd with the educational level of senior high middle school or above. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of parasitic diseases presents a decline trend overall in Baise City from 2006 to 2013, however it rebounded in 2014 and 2015. The next step is to strengthen the prevention and control of parasitic diseases by promoting health education, regular insect repellent, and fecundity management.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Doenças Parasitárias , Fatores Etários , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
9.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 256-262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate caries prevalence in a sample of schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years from rural and urban areas in Croatia. METHODS: Using standardized World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria, the oral health status of 1,589 children (265 from rural and 1,324 from urban areas) was assessed by recording the following indices: DMFT (decayed, missing, filled permanent teeth), deft (decayed, extracted, filled primary teeth), DMFS (decayed, missing, filled surfaces - permanent teeth), defs (decayed, extracted, filled surfaces - primary teeth) and SiC (Significant Caries Index). Rural areas were Stitar and Babina Greda municipalities in Slavonia and urban areas were the cities of Zupanja (Slavonia), Zagreb and Dubrovnik. RESULTS: Half of the examined children (50.0%) had caries (D component in DMFT), with 46.0% of these being from urban and 70.2% from rural areas. The median DMFT among children was 2, 4 (rural) and 2 (urban) (p < 0.001). Among 12-year-olds, the median DMFT was 4 (rural) and 3 (urban), and mean DMFT was 3.4. The median DMFS for rural area was 5 and for urban area 3 (p < 0.001). The median deft was 1.00 for rural and 1.00 for urban, while the highest value was found among 6-year-olds at 9 in rural and 7 in urban areas. The median SiC was 4, 4 (urban) and 5 (rural). CONCLUSION: Schoolchildren from urban and rural areas in Croatia differ significantly in caries prevalence. They fall into the medium DMFT classification group according to the WHO, which indicates the need for a comprehensive oral health preservation programme.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Adolescente , Criança , Croácia , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
S D Med ; 72(9): 419-423, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A disparity in overweight/obesity prevalence exists between rural and urban youth; however, definitions of 'rural' vary widely and the degree to which rurality impacts overweight/obesity prevalence is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the school height and weight data in a rural Midwest state to determine differences in overweight and obesity prevalence among youth by using Rural-Urban Continuum (RUC) codes to define county-level degree of urbanization. METHODS: De-identified statewide data were obtained in electronic format from the state Department of Health. Height, weight, sex and age were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) z-scores, which were used to determine BMI percentile and categories. The county variable was used to assign a RUC code to each individual. Logistic regression was used to examine binary weight classifications by rural status while controlling for age, sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Odds of obesity and of overweight/obesity were higher among rural youth compared to non-rural. Odds of overweight/obesity increased with increasing rurality. Compared to youth who lived in counties with a RUC code of 3, youth who lived in counties with RUC codes of 5, 7, 8 and 9 had greater odds of overweight/obesity. The number of youth classified as 'rural' ranged from 11-48 percent, depending on how 'rural' was defined. Likewise, overweight/obesity prevalence differed by 4.6 percent depending on how 'rural' was defined. CONCLUSIONS: Consistently defining 'rural' and determining degree of rurality is important in understanding how geographic location plays a role in overweight/obesity among youth. Future research should work to assess the physical and social environments of these different types of rural areas to better understand the role that rurality plays in contributing to overweight/obesity among youth. Assessing social determinants of health and its impact on health in rural youth is essential for designing effective public health interventions that can be implemented to address the issue.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , População Rural , População Urbana , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109615, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581043

RESUMO

Rapid environment change and urbanization process have profoundly altered the socio-ecological relationships and influenced on how local residents perceive ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HW). However, the quantified socio-cultural valuation of rural-urban comparison is still insufficient. In this study, we investigated the perception on provisioning, regulating, and cultural ES importance and HW satisfaction degree of basic materials, health, security, and social relations. Subsequently, we explored the linkages between and within ES and HW by face-to-face interviews with urban and rural residents. The results showed that rural residents valued more genetic resources, flood regulation, erosion regulation, and aesthetics ES, while urban residents gave high importance to wood & fiber ES. Overall, urban residents valued provisioning ES, while rural residents valued regulating ES. No difference was observed in cultural ES. For HW, rural residents felt more satisfied with security and health, while urban residents were more satisfied with basic materials. We observed strong relationships among provisioning and regulating ES in rural and urban communities, and the same was observed as in health and security HW. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed the different variable associations in rural ES and urban HW as well as different groups in urban ES and rural HW. Through confirmation factor analysis (CFA), we screened out freshwater, water purification, air purification, and cultural value as dominant ES indicators for rural and urban population according to the framework of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in Yanhe watershed. The assessment of people's perception can contribute to the integration of socio-cultural values into the policymaking process.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Ecologia , Humanos , População Rural
12.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 451-458, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study had for object to identify factors associated to the cessation of the exclusive breast-feeding at the mothers of children from 0 to 6 months in the urban and rural circles in Mali. METHOD: The study was longitudinal forward-looking, realized in Bamako (urban area) and in Dialakoroba (rural area) from April till November, 2016. in total, 218 mothers were enlisted (114 by area) in a voluntary way in health centers. A monthly follow-up of six months was realized in the place of residence. The SPSS 20 software was used for the seizure and the data analysis. The expected event was to give to the child another food than maternal milk. Test statistics such as Chi2 of Log Rank and Hazard Ratio (HR) were used with threshold of meaning p ≤ 0,05. RESULTS: In urban zones and rural respectively 68,5 % and 71,5% of the mothers had stopped the Exclusive Breast-feeding (EBF) before six months. Factors associated to this cessation of the EBF were: the use of the feeding-bottle (HR=2,61; IC 95%: [1,46-4,48]), the care of the child during less than three months as main occupation (HR=3,18; IC 95%: [1,95-5,20]), the support for the mother during less than three months (HR=3,79; IC 95%: [2,31-6,22]), the advice(council) on the EBF (HR=0,64; IC 95%: [0,46-0,98]) and the experience (experiment) of breastfeeding (HR=0,34; IC 95%: [0,15-0,84]). CONCLUSION: The consideration of the identified factors(mailmen) will allow to improve the practice of the EBF in six months in the sites of the study.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mali , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1038-1042, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607052

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the urban-rural disparity of childhood stunting and its association with subnational economic growth among Chinese Han students aged 7-18 years. Methods: We used the data from 2014 Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health. 213 940 Chinese Han students aged 7-18 years with complete height records were included in this study. Stunting was defined according to the Screening Criteria of Malnutrition for School-age Children and Adolescents(2014 version, in Chinese). We divided students into two groups (economically developed and underdeveloped areas) according to the provincial GDP per capita. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to explore the association between the difference of urban-rural stunting prevalence and the provincial GDP per capita. Logistic regression models were established to assess the risk of stunting in rural children compared with urban children. Results: Among 213 940 students, 107 033 (50.0%) were from urban areas. The average height of 7-18 years old and 18 years old [(152.9±15.7) and (166.1±8.7) cm] of urban students were both higher than those of rural students [(150.7±16.0) and (165.1±8.6) cm] (P<0.001). The stunting prevalence of Chinese urban students (0.4%) was statistically significant lower than that of rural students (1.1%) (P<0.001), which was consistent in all age groups (P<0.05). The urban-rural disparity was found in 60% (18/30) of Chinese provinces. The difference of urban-rural stunting prevalence was negatively associated with provincial GDP per capita (r=-0.62, P<0.001). In economically underdeveloped areas, the risk of stunting for rural students aged 7-9 years was 4.69 (95%CI: 2.93-7.52) times that for urban children, while for students aged 10-18 years, the odds ratio was 2.44 (95%CI: 2.02-2.96). In economically developed areas, the risk of stunting for rural students aged 7-9 years was 5.43 (95%CI: 3.67-8.03) times that for urban children, while for students aged 10-18 years, the odds ratio was 2.15 (95%CI: 1.85-2.49). Conclusions: The urban-rural disparity of childhood stunting existed in most places in China. The difference of growth retardation between urban and rural areas was related to regional economic development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , População Rural , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudantes
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1043-1048, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607053

RESUMO

Objectives: To understand the status of studies about influenza economic burden in mainland China and summarize their major results. Methods: The words of influenza, flu, cost, economic, burden, effectiveness, benefit, utility, China, and Chinese, were used as search keywords. Journal papers published during 2000-2018 were searched from Chinese electronic databases (CNKI and Wanfang) and English electronic databases (PubMed, Web of science, EconLit and Cochrane Library). The language of literature was restricted to Chinese and English. A total of 23 effective documents were included, and the descriptive characteristics, research indexes and methods included in the literature were analyzed. The monetary unit used in this review is Chinese Yuan (CNY). Results: The 23 study sites were mainly in the relatively developed and populous regions. The total cost per capita of laboratory-confirmed influenza,of all age-group was reported in 6 literatures, and only 4 literatures reported it in out-patients (range: 768.0-999.9 CNY), Only one study reported this indicator in inpatients (9 832.0 CNY). One literature reported the total cost per capita of influenza-like illness,, which was 205.1 CNY. And one literature reported that the direct medical cost of inpatients per capita in children under 5 years of age was 6 072.0 CNY while two literature reported this index for the elderly over 60 years of age, ranging from 14 250.0 to 19 349.1 CNY. Four articles reported the economic burden of influenza in urban and rural areas, one of which showed that the related expenses of urban influenza inpatients accounted for 31% of the average annual income, while which for the rural flow was 113%. Conclusion: The average economic burden of lab-confirmed influenza case is higher than that of influenza-like illness, and there are differences in outpatient indirect expenses and inpatients direct medical expenses. The direct medical burden for the hospitalized 60-years-and-beyond influenza case group is heavier thar other age group. By region, the influenza associated individual economic burden in rural area is higher than that of urban area..


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1062-1065, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607057

RESUMO

From 2010 to 2014, a total of 17 150 new cases of thyroid cancer (TC) reported in cancer registration areas of Zhejiang province, the crude incidence rate of TC was 29.28/100 000. Using the Chinese Census in 2000 and the World Segi's population as the standard population, the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 24.11/100 000 and 20.65/100 000 respectively. 256 TC death cases reported in all, the crude mortality rate was 0.44/100 000, the age-standardized mortality rate by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by World standard population (ASMRW) were 0.23/100 000 and 0.23/100 000 respectively. The ASIRC had a upward trend [annual percent change (APC)=28.62%, 95%CI: 21.00%-36.72%, t=13.10, P=0.001], while the ASMRC trend seemed stable (APC=0.73%, 95%CI: -7.47%-9.66%, t=0.27, P=0.803).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Sistema de Registros , População Rural , População Urbana
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17302, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574856

RESUMO

With the deepening population aging process in China, the medical expenses of older adults has become a widespread concerned. Medical insurance is a major source of Chinese medical financing and payment. The study aims to understand the current status of medical expenses for older adults and explore the effect of different types of health insurance on medical expenses in China.The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey (CLHLS) in 2014. The Kruskal-Wallis test and general multivariate linear regression model were applied to analyze the current situation and to explore how medical insurance as the main payment impacts medical expenses.A total of 4376 older participants were included in this study. The median of medical expenses of a total was 1500 Yuan per year. The proportions of participants who had the urban employee-based basic medical insurance (UE-BMI), the urban residents basic medical insurance (UR-BMI), the new rural cooperative medical insurance scheme (NCMS), and the commercial medical insurance were 10.8%, 8.4%, 72.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. 34.8% of older adults paid the health care service via the NCMS and 11.9% paid via the UE-BMI. Participating in the NCMS and UR-BMI are significantly related to the level of the medical fees of older adults. UE-BMI, UR-BMI, and NCMS as main payment eased the pressure of medical expenses.The influence of different types of medical insurances as main payments on the medical expenses of older adults is varied. Implementation of medical insurance should be taken to further relieve the medical expenses of older adults.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594123

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the situation and characteristics of out-patient utilization of urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients in Jiangsu province, and to provide a reference for the formulation of relevant policies. Methods: Using a questionnaire on patients with pneumoconiosis and their influencing factors, 120 patients with pneumoconiosis were randomly selected in Nanjing, Wuxi, Suzhou, Yancheng Vocational Defense Institute or CDC. The rate of outpatients with pneumoconiosis in urban and rural areas and the choice of out-patient hospitals were analyzed. Results: Of the 75 patients with severe pneumoconi-related symptoms such as chest tightness and dyspnea in the first two weeks of the survey, 36 (48.0%) lived in cities and 39 (52.0%) lived in rural areas. Patients with pneumoconiosis who live in urban and rural areas have different aggravating conditions within two weeks. Two weeks of aggravated symptoms in outpatient consultations accounted for36 (48.0%) . Of the 36 patients who used outpatient treatment, rural residents mainly chose 8 people from a hospital and a township health hospital, accounting for 34.8%, while 10 people from urban residents chose a nursing home or nursing home, accounting for 40.0%. The main reason why urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients did not go to the doctor is "conscious symptoms are lighter" and "feel that the doctor is useless." Conclusion: The rate of outpatients with pneumoconiosis in Jiangsu province within two weeks is lower than that of ordinary elderly residents. There may be differences in treatment behavior patterns of urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients.Economic factors have a certain influence on the outpatient treatment behavior of pneumoconiosis patients. The recognition of outpatient service is the main factor affecting the outpatient treatment of pneumoconiosis patients. It is very important to popularize the knowledge of pneumoconiosis and do a good job in propaganda of occupational diseases and health education for pneumoconiosis patients. Focusing on the outpatient treatment of pneumoconiosis patients and making targeted medical policies is very important to standardize and improve the rehabilitation of pneumoconiosis patients.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumoconiose , China , Cidades , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , População Rural , População Urbana
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594128

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the living conditions, insurance coverage, and assistance of pneumoconiosis patients diagnosed in Chongqing from May 2006 to May 2018. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2018, and 40 890 pneumoconiosis patients from occupational diseases report management agency were obtained. 34 625 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were investigated, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed on the data. Results: There were 34 625 cases of pneumoconiosis patients alive in Chongqing, and 22730 (65.6%) had participated in work-related injury insurance, 6 308 (18.2%) had participated in basic medical insurance for urban employees which were still effective. 27 056 (78.1%) had participated in cooperative insurance for urban and rural residents which were still effective. 4 393 (12.7%) received assistance for the residents in need in urban and rural areas. 5827 (16.8%) benefited the policy of "Xiangyu Railway". There were 7 961 cases (2.4%) whose work-related injury insurance had expired did not get one-off compensation, and did not receive any assistance. Conclusion: Most of the patients with pneumoconiosis in Chongqing obtained protection in terms of work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, civil assistance and poverty alleviation to a certain extent, but the strength of the guarantee is not enough. Patients with pneumoconiosis might suffer from poverty caused by illness. It is recommended to improve the system of work-related injury insurance benefits, establish special funds for pneumoconiosis patients, strengthen health education and health promotion for pneumoconiosis patients, and strengthen the management of pneumoconiosis patients.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro , Pneumoconiose , Previdência Social , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , População Rural
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594131

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the situation where pneumoconiosis patients who should be in hospital are not hospitalized, to analyze the main reasons and influencing factors for their restricted use of hospitalization medical services, and to provide a reference for relevant policy making. Methods: Subjects were sampled in nine provinces, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Hebei, using a method that combined stratified sampling and typical sampling, from March 2017 to January 2018. These subjects were patients occupationally diagnosed with pneumoconiosis and patients clinically diagnosed with pneumoconiosis. The questionnaire The health seeking behaviors of pneumoconiosis patients and their influencing factors was used as the survey tool to investigate their health seeking behaviors such as going to the outpatient clinic and being hospitalized. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used as the analysis model; The χ2 test was used for univariate analysis, and the multivariate logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 1 037 patients with pneumoconiosis were surveyed, with a mean age of 55.9±11.2 years and 67.5% (700/1 037) living in rural areas for a long time. Occupational injury insurance and medical insurance for urban and rural residents were the main insurances used, accounting for 40.9% (424/1 037) and 59.4% (616/1 037) of the cases, respectively. A total of 177 (17.1%) patients were once advised by the doctors to be hospitalized because of pneumoconiosis, while they did not. The proportion of patients who should be in hospital but did not do so among rural patients was significantly higher than that in urban patients (20.1% (141/700) vs 10.7% (36/337) , P<0.05) . Financial difficulties (12.0%, 124/1 037) and self-rated mild symptoms (3.2%, 33/1 037) were the main reasons for not being hospitalized. Model analysis showed that the propensity factor, ability factor, health needs, health seeking behaviors, and self-rated health factor in the Anderson model were all statistically significant (P<0.05) . The main features of high proportion of patients who should be in hospital but did not do so were as follows: personal monthly income below 1 000 RMB (odds ratio[OR]of no income=2.92, 95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.14-7.48; OR of less than 1 000 RMB=3.55, 95%CI: 1.35-9.35) , no occupational injury insurance (OR=2.05, 95%CI: 1.16-3.43) , and concurrent emphysema (OR= 1.98, 95%CI: 1.12-3.50) . Conclusion: Low income, no occupational injury insurance, and concurrent emphy-sema are the main constraining factors for hospitalization services use in pneumoconiosis patients.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumoconiose , Adulto , Idoso , China , Enfisema/complicações , Humanos , Renda , Seguro Saúde , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
20.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(10): 721-727, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648492

RESUMO

Objective: Using updated population-based cancer registration (PBCR) data, we estimated nation-wide liver cancer statistics overall, by sex and by areas in China. Methods: Qualified PBCR data of liver cancer in 2015 which met the data quality criteria were stratified by geographical locations, sex, and age groups. Age-specific incidence and mortality rates by sex and area were calculated. The burden of liver cancer was evaluated by multiplying these rates by the year of 2015 population. Chinese standard population in 2000 and World Segi's population were used for the calculation of age-standardized rates (ASR) of incidence and mortality. Results: Qualified 368 cancer registries covered a total of 309 553 499 populations in China, accounting for 22.52% of the national population. It is estimated that there were 370 000 new cases (274 000 males and 96 000 females) of liver cancer in China. The age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and World Segi's population (ASR World) were 17.64 per 100 000 and 17.35 per 100 000, respectively. Rural areas showed higher incidence (ASR China: 20.07 per 100 000, ASR World: 19.67 per 100 000) than urban areas (ASR China: 15.90 per 100 000, ASR world: 15.67 per 100 000). Subgroup analysis showed that western areas of China had highest incidence rate of liver cancer, with the ASR China of 20.65 per 100 000 and 20.22 per 100 000 for ASR world, respectively. For new cases of liver cancer deaths, there were 326 000 new deaths (242 000 males and 84 000 females) in China, with age-standardized mortality rate by Chinese standard population and World Segi's population of 15.33 per 100 000 and 15.09 per 100 000, respectively. Rural areas showed higher mortality (ASR China: 17.17 per 100 000, ASR world: 16.86 per 100 000) than urban areas (ASR China: 14.00 per 100 000, ASR World: 13.81 per 100 000). Conclusions: There is still a heavy burden of liver cancer in China. Rural residents have higher incidence and mortality of liver cancer compared with urban counterparts. It is likely that many factors such as hepatitis virus infection, and aflatoxin exposure play a dominating role. Prevention and control strategies should be enhanced in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Sistema de Registros , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência
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