Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.577
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17736, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689819

RESUMO

To explore associated risk factors and their interactions with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among the elderly with prediabetes in rural areas in China.A nested case-control study was conducted in a fixed cohort to identify the risk factors for T2DM among the elderly with prediabetes in rural areas of Yiyang City in China. A total of 37 elderly with T2DM were included in the cases group and 111 elderly subjects with prediabetes were matched in the control group. Data related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behavior, and anthropometric variables were collected by trained staff using standard tools. The risk factors for T2DM were determined using conditional logistic regression analysis, and their additive interactions were also explored.Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis results showed that overweight/obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-12.28), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.03-12.81), physically inactive (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.14-8.30), high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (OR = 3.15, 95% CI: 1.27-7.80), and inadequate diabetes-specific health literacy (DSHL) (OR = 3.92, 95% CI: 1.14-13.48) increased the risk for T2DM. Additive interactions for T2DM were observed between a family history of diabetes and high WHR with a relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) of 10.02 (95% CI: 4.25, 15.78), and between high WHR and overweight or obesity, with an RERI of 3.90 (95% CI: 0.36, 7.44).The independent risk factors for T2DM are overweight or obesity, high WHR, family history of diabetes, physically inactive, and inadequate DSHL. High WHR as a risk factor for T2DM has additive interactions with family history of diabetes and overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Antropometria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Relação Cintura-Quadril
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(44): 993-998, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697655

RESUMO

Lung and bronchus (lung) cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States (1). In 2016, 148,869 lung cancer deaths were reported.* Most lung cancers can be attributed to modifiable exposures, such as tobacco use, secondhand smoke, radon, and asbestos (1). Exposure to lung cancer risk factors vary over time and by characteristics such as sex, age, and nonmetropolitan or metropolitan residence that might affect lung cancer rates (1,2). A recent report found that lung cancer incidence rates were higher and decreased more slowly in nonmetropolitan counties than in metropolitan counties (3). To examine whether lung cancer incidence trends among nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties differed by age and sex, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics during 2007-2016, the most recent years for which data are available. During the 10-year study period, lung cancer incidence rates were stable among females aged <35, 45-64, and ≥75 years in nonmetropolitan counties, were stable among females aged <35 years in metropolitan counties, and decreased in all other groups. Overall, among males, lung cancer incidence rates decreased from 99 to 82 per 100,000 in nonmetropolitan areas and from 83 to 63 in metropolitan areas; among females, lung cancer incidence rates decreased from 61 to 58 in nonmetropolitan areas and from 57 to 50 in metropolitan areas. A comprehensive approach to lung cancer prevention and control includes such population-based strategies as screening for tobacco dependence, promoting tobacco cessation, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, testing all homes for radon and using proven methods to lower high radon levels, and reducing exposure to lung carcinogens such as asbestos (1). Increasing the implementation of these strategies, particularly among persons living in nonmetropolitan counties, might help to reduce disparities in the decline of lung cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 491-497, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemic status and influencing factors of intestinal parasitic diseases among rural children in Henan Province. METHODS: According to the Scheme for The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China, the survey counties were selected based on the ecological zones and economic levels in Henan Province between 2014 and 2015. Then, the included counties were stratified according to the topography and economic levels. A township was randomly sampled from each stratum, and a village was randomly sampled from each township as the study site. Finally, a total of 104 study sites from 35 counties were enrolled for the survey of intestinal parasitic diseases in children. At least 250 fresh stool samples were collected from each study site for detection of intestinal helminth eggs with the Kato-Katz technique, for the identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale with the fecal culture method, and for the detection of intestinal protozoa trophozoite and cyst with the physiological saline smear and iodine staining techniques. In addition, the Enterobius vermicularis and tapeworm eggs were detected in children aged 3 to 6 years using the adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 3.21% (214/6 671) among rural children in Henan Province, and the prevalence of intestinal helminthes (2.62%, 175/6 671) was higher than that of intestinal protozoa (0.60%, 40/6 671). A total of 12 species of intestinal parasites were found, including 4 nematodes species, one trematode species, and 7 protozoa species, and the highest infection was seen in E. vermicularis (2.47%, 161/6 671). Among the four ecological zones in Henan Province, the greatest prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was detected among children in the Qinba Mountain Ecological Zone (5.85%, 90/1 538). There was no gender-specific difference in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children (P > 0.05); however, there were age- (χ2 = 32.762, P < 0.05) and education level-specific differences in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children (χ2 = 67.507, P < 0.05), with the greatest prevalence of E. vermicularis infection seen in all species of intestinal parasites in children at all age groups. Multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis showed that high education level, high coverage of harmless toilets, drinking tap water and deworming were protective factors for intestinal parasitic infections in children in Henan Province. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections appeared a tendency towards a gradual decline among children in Henan Province as compared to the previous two surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections shows a tendency towards a remarkable decline among children in Henan Province. E. vermicularis infection should be given a priority for future parasitic disease control activities among rural children in Henan Province.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1094-1097, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683393

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in China in 2015. Methods: Based on the data quality review and assessment, the esophageal cancer data from 368 cancer registries in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China were included in this study. According to the national population data in 2015, the nationwide incidence and mortality of the esophageal cancer were estimated. Chinese standard population in 2000 and world Segi's population were used to calculate the age-standardized (ASR) incidence and mortality rates (ASR China and world, respectively). Results: The 368 cancer registries covered a total of 309 553 499 populations in China, accounting for 22.52% of the national population. There were 245 651 new esophageal cancer cases estimated in China in 2015, with a crude incidence rate of 17.87/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world were 11.14/100 000 and 11.28/100 000, respectively. The estimated number of esophageal cancer death was 188 044 in China in 2015, with a crude mortality rate of 13.68/100 000; The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 8.33/100 000 and 8.36/100 000, respectively. The ASR China incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in males were higher in males (16.50/100 000 and 12.66/100 000) than those in females (5.92/100 000 and 4.17/100 000), and they were higher in rural areas (15.95/1100 000 and 11.67/100 000) than those in urban areas (7.59/100 000 and 5.87/100 000). Conclusion: The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in China are higher than the global average. The disparity of the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer significantly differed in genders and areas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1104-1109, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683395

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the related factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions among residents aged 40-69 years old in rural areas of Shandong Province. Methods: In October 2018, 300 villages in 13 counties of the Shandong upper gastrointestinal cancerearly diagnosis and treatment projectin 2017 were selected as research areas, and 30 400 residents aged 40-69 were recruited in this study. The demographic characteristics, health status and lifestyle information were collected through the questionnaire survey, and endoscope iodine staining and indicative biopsy methods were used for cancer screening among eligible people.The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors for esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Results: The subjects in this study were (56.42±7.24) years old, including 13 193 males (43.40%).There were 936 cases of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions (3.08%), including 521 males and 415 females.Compared with women, 40-49 years old, high level education, drinking tap water, regular intake of meat, eggs and milk, and family average annual income more than 30 000 RMB, men (OR=1.90, 95%CI: 1.65-2.19), 60-69 years old (OR=5.28, 95%CI: 4.11-7.30), primary school education or below (OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.20-1.89), drinking groundwater (OR=1.71, 95%CI: 1.38-2.13), never eating meat, eggs and milk (OR=1.48, 95%CI: 1.22-1.80), and family average annual income less than 30 000 RMB (OR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.16-1.70) would increase the risk of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Conclusion: The gender, age, educational level, annual household income, drinking water source, the frequency of eating meat, egg and milk were related to the occurrence of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions among 40-69 years old residents in rural areas of Shandong Province.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , China/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1158-1161, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683405

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality rate of leukemia in the cancer registration areas of Zhejiang Province from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed to depict their epidemiological characteristics. From 2010 to 2014, 3789 new cases were diagnosed as leukemia in Zhejiang cancer registration areas, with a crude incidence rate of 6.47 per 100 000. The age-standardized incidence rate of males (standardized by China census data 2000) was 1.35 times that of females. The age-standardized incidence rate of urban areas was similar to that in rural areas (1.04∶1). From 2010 to 2014, 2 568 cases died due to leukemia, with a crude mortality rate of 4.38 per 100 000. The age-standardized mortality rate of males was 1.44 times that of females. The age-standardized mortality rate of urban areas was 0.99 times that of rural areas. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rate did not show any significant change from 2010 to 2014. The annual percent change of these two metrics was -2.36% (t=-0.62, P=0.579) and -3.46% (t=-2.41, P=0.095).


Assuntos
Leucemia/mortalidade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sistema de Registros , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias , Distribuição por Sexo
7.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 451-458, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study had for object to identify factors associated to the cessation of the exclusive breast-feeding at the mothers of children from 0 to 6 months in the urban and rural circles in Mali. METHOD: The study was longitudinal forward-looking, realized in Bamako (urban area) and in Dialakoroba (rural area) from April till November, 2016. in total, 218 mothers were enlisted (114 by area) in a voluntary way in health centers. A monthly follow-up of six months was realized in the place of residence. The SPSS 20 software was used for the seizure and the data analysis. The expected event was to give to the child another food than maternal milk. Test statistics such as Chi2 of Log Rank and Hazard Ratio (HR) were used with threshold of meaning p ≤ 0,05. RESULTS: In urban zones and rural respectively 68,5 % and 71,5% of the mothers had stopped the Exclusive Breast-feeding (EBF) before six months. Factors associated to this cessation of the EBF were: the use of the feeding-bottle (HR=2,61; IC 95%: [1,46-4,48]), the care of the child during less than three months as main occupation (HR=3,18; IC 95%: [1,95-5,20]), the support for the mother during less than three months (HR=3,79; IC 95%: [2,31-6,22]), the advice(council) on the EBF (HR=0,64; IC 95%: [0,46-0,98]) and the experience (experiment) of breastfeeding (HR=0,34; IC 95%: [0,15-0,84]). CONCLUSION: The consideration of the identified factors(mailmen) will allow to improve the practice of the EBF in six months in the sites of the study.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mali , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(10): 721-727, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648492

RESUMO

Objective: Using updated population-based cancer registration (PBCR) data, we estimated nation-wide liver cancer statistics overall, by sex and by areas in China. Methods: Qualified PBCR data of liver cancer in 2015 which met the data quality criteria were stratified by geographical locations, sex, and age groups. Age-specific incidence and mortality rates by sex and area were calculated. The burden of liver cancer was evaluated by multiplying these rates by the year of 2015 population. Chinese standard population in 2000 and World Segi's population were used for the calculation of age-standardized rates (ASR) of incidence and mortality. Results: Qualified 368 cancer registries covered a total of 309 553 499 populations in China, accounting for 22.52% of the national population. It is estimated that there were 370 000 new cases (274 000 males and 96 000 females) of liver cancer in China. The age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and World Segi's population (ASR World) were 17.64 per 100 000 and 17.35 per 100 000, respectively. Rural areas showed higher incidence (ASR China: 20.07 per 100 000, ASR World: 19.67 per 100 000) than urban areas (ASR China: 15.90 per 100 000, ASR world: 15.67 per 100 000). Subgroup analysis showed that western areas of China had highest incidence rate of liver cancer, with the ASR China of 20.65 per 100 000 and 20.22 per 100 000 for ASR world, respectively. For new cases of liver cancer deaths, there were 326 000 new deaths (242 000 males and 84 000 females) in China, with age-standardized mortality rate by Chinese standard population and World Segi's population of 15.33 per 100 000 and 15.09 per 100 000, respectively. Rural areas showed higher mortality (ASR China: 17.17 per 100 000, ASR world: 16.86 per 100 000) than urban areas (ASR China: 14.00 per 100 000, ASR World: 13.81 per 100 000). Conclusions: There is still a heavy burden of liver cancer in China. Rural residents have higher incidence and mortality of liver cancer compared with urban counterparts. It is likely that many factors such as hepatitis virus infection, and aflatoxin exposure play a dominating role. Prevention and control strategies should be enhanced in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Sistema de Registros , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência
9.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 256-262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate caries prevalence in a sample of schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years from rural and urban areas in Croatia. METHODS: Using standardized World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria, the oral health status of 1,589 children (265 from rural and 1,324 from urban areas) was assessed by recording the following indices: DMFT (decayed, missing, filled permanent teeth), deft (decayed, extracted, filled primary teeth), DMFS (decayed, missing, filled surfaces - permanent teeth), defs (decayed, extracted, filled surfaces - primary teeth) and SiC (Significant Caries Index). Rural areas were Stitar and Babina Greda municipalities in Slavonia and urban areas were the cities of Zupanja (Slavonia), Zagreb and Dubrovnik. RESULTS: Half of the examined children (50.0%) had caries (D component in DMFT), with 46.0% of these being from urban and 70.2% from rural areas. The median DMFT among children was 2, 4 (rural) and 2 (urban) (p < 0.001). Among 12-year-olds, the median DMFT was 4 (rural) and 3 (urban), and mean DMFT was 3.4. The median DMFS for rural area was 5 and for urban area 3 (p < 0.001). The median deft was 1.00 for rural and 1.00 for urban, while the highest value was found among 6-year-olds at 9 in rural and 7 in urban areas. The median SiC was 4, 4 (urban) and 5 (rural). CONCLUSION: Schoolchildren from urban and rural areas in Croatia differ significantly in caries prevalence. They fall into the medium DMFT classification group according to the WHO, which indicates the need for a comprehensive oral health preservation programme.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Adolescente , Criança , Croácia , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17302, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574856

RESUMO

With the deepening population aging process in China, the medical expenses of older adults has become a widespread concerned. Medical insurance is a major source of Chinese medical financing and payment. The study aims to understand the current status of medical expenses for older adults and explore the effect of different types of health insurance on medical expenses in China.The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey (CLHLS) in 2014. The Kruskal-Wallis test and general multivariate linear regression model were applied to analyze the current situation and to explore how medical insurance as the main payment impacts medical expenses.A total of 4376 older participants were included in this study. The median of medical expenses of a total was 1500 Yuan per year. The proportions of participants who had the urban employee-based basic medical insurance (UE-BMI), the urban residents basic medical insurance (UR-BMI), the new rural cooperative medical insurance scheme (NCMS), and the commercial medical insurance were 10.8%, 8.4%, 72.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. 34.8% of older adults paid the health care service via the NCMS and 11.9% paid via the UE-BMI. Participating in the NCMS and UR-BMI are significantly related to the level of the medical fees of older adults. UE-BMI, UR-BMI, and NCMS as main payment eased the pressure of medical expenses.The influence of different types of medical insurances as main payments on the medical expenses of older adults is varied. Implementation of medical insurance should be taken to further relieve the medical expenses of older adults.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 896-899, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474070

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between the level of mental stimulation and the suicide attempts of rural residents in Shandong Province. Methods: A 1:1 matched case-control study was designed to collect 1 200 cases from a survey of three suicide attempts in rural areas of Shandong Province. Controls were selected according to the following matched factors: age difference within 3 years, same gender, same village or neighboring village, no blood relationship, no suicide history. The basic characteristics of all subjects were collected through the questionnaire, and the level of mental stimulation of life events was measured. Multivariate conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between the level of mental stimulation of life events and suicide attempts. Results: The mean age of the case group and the control group was both (36.6±0.3) years old, and 35.8% (430/1 200) were males in each group. The low-medium level of mental stimulation of negative life events in the case group was 16.7% (200/1 200) and 61.7% (740/1 200), respectively, which was higher than that in the control group, about 2.5% (30/1 200) and 29.3% (352/1 200) (all P values <0.05), respectively. A total of 11.1% (133/1 200) of the case group had positive life events, which was lower than that of the control group [16.8% (201/1 200)] (all P values<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after the adjustment of gender, age, place of residence, education level, marital status, occupation, family income, somatic disease, mental disorders, family history of suicide, and opposite life events, the low-medium and high level of mental stimulation of negative life events were risk factors for suicide attempts, with OR (95%CI) as 5.88 (4.53-7.64) and 13.94 (8.15-23.86), respectively. Mental stimulation of positive life events was protective factor of suicide attempts, with OR (95%CI) as 0.58 (0.41-0.82). Conclusion: Mental stimulation of negative and positive life events were risk and protective factors for suicide attempts.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , População Rural , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 907-912, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474072

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the blood lead level and its relationship with behavior in school-age children from rural areas of Chongqing. Methods: A total of 697 students from grades 3 to 6 in the fall semester of 2014 from 14 rural townships in one district of Chongqing was selected by using the random cluster sampling method. Blood were sampled to analyze the lead level. Neurobehavioral tests were performed to determine their personal cognitive and memory ability. Questionnaires and physical examinations were administered to obtain the information of confounding factors. All students were divided into Q1-Q4 groups according to the quartile of their blood lead level. The relationship between the blood lead level and behavior was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model and restricted spline regression model. Results: The mean age of 697 students was (10.07±1.36) years old, and the median (interquartile range) of their blood lead level was 44.31 (35.42) µg/L. Multivariate logistic regression model showed that after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and maternal culture level, compared with Q1 group, the OR (95%CI) values of high digit symbol substitution test (DSST) scores and high overall memory quotient (MQ) scores in Q3 group were 1.65 (1.01-2.70) and 2.10 (1.21-3.62), and the OR (95%CI) value of high long term memory (LTM) scores in Q4 group was 0.53 (0.31-0.92). The results of the restricted spline regression model showed that the dose-response curves between the blood lead level and MQ/LTM test scores were both parabolic (P<0.05). Conclusion: The blood lead level of school-age children from rural areas of Chongqing is the same as that from other areas of China, but slightly higher than that from other areas of Chongqing. Children with higher blood lead level have poor long-term memory ability.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Chumbo , População Rural , Estudantes , Criança , China , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(3): 383-389, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512425

RESUMO

This paper presents findings of the comparative computer analysis of brain bioelectrical activity (EEG) in three groups of rural population, which include: long-livers, their close relatives, and representatives of families without records of longevity (the latter was conventionally accepted as the «control group¼). Registration of EEG was carried out in conditions of quiet wakefulness with eyes closed. For each group, the average spectral power, frequency characteristics, EEG indices in the ranges of δ-, θ-, α- and ß-rhythms were estimated. The results have revealed the increased ascending effects of the synchronizing link and the weakening of the activating assumptions of non-specific brain systems in long-livers, which we consider as reflection of inhibitory mechanisms which are required to replenish the mobilization resources. With regard to the group of relatives, there were revealed a smaller percentage of δ-rhythm and a greater severity of the α-rhythm index in the temporal areas, as compared to the control group, which is indicative of a more optimal level of processes responsible for memory, integration of afferent (auditory and visual) information and harmonization of the emotional background.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Longevidade , Ritmo alfa , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ritmo Delta , Humanos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 483-488, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Many studies have indicated numerous nutrition mistakes among school-aged children and adolescents in both urban and rural environments. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional habits of the Polish population, consisting of 7,974 individuals aged 12-17, from rural and urban environments, as well as to identify environmental variations of these habits and to verify the existing information on the incorrect nutrition of school-age children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research covered a group of 7,974 respondents - school-age adolescents with a similar age structure (12-17 years). The study on subjects from secondary school grades 1 - 3 was conducted in randomly selected schools from 2 random Polish provinces; 5 counties were randomly selected, followed by a choice of 2 communes: one rural and one urban. The research technique was a self-designed survey questionnaire. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Pearson Chi 2 and V Cramer test. RESULTS: The research revealed environment-based differences in subjects' nutrition. Breakfast was consumed daily by a statistically significantly fewer subjects from the rural environment (36.31%) than from the urban areas (51.32%); second breakfast was consumed by an insignificantly smaller proportion of respondents from the urban environment (40.00%) than from the rural one (46.00%); dinner was eaten daily by 86.00% of urban subjects and 82.00% of rural respondents; afternoon tea and supper were eaten rarely by respondents from both environments. The diet of respondents was dominated by anti-health behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the respondents displayed incorrect nutritional behaviours. Nutritional mistakes occurred among respondents from both rural and urban environments, with the predominance of the rural areas.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 804, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among less than 5 years old children and it contributes to the deaths of approximately one million children every year. In Ethiopia, diarrhea is the second cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. However, in the study area, studies were limited. Therefore, this study has assessed the prevalence of diarrhea and associated factors among < 5 years of age in Jamma district, Northeast Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 15, 2017, in Jamma district, South Wello zone, northeast Ethiopia. A Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 614 households and a pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with diarrheal disease. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for variables with P-value < 0.05 was used to show statistically significant association. RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children was 23.1% (95% CI: (19.4, 26.5). Child's age 6 to 23 months [AOR: 2.46, 95% CI: (1.49, 4.05)], Living in rural area [AOR: 2.75, 95% CI: (1.33,5.66)], absence of latrine [AOR: 4.80, 95% CI: (2.39,9.60)], absence of handwashing facility [AOR: 2.45, 95% CI: (1.53,3.93], unprotected drinking water source [AOR:2.68, 95% CI: (1.54,4.68)], and Improper waste disposal practices [AOR:3.86, 95% CI: (2.38,6.26)] were associated with diarrhea disease. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of diarrheal disease among children in the study area. Child age, rural residence, availability of latrine and handwashing facility, source of drinking water, and improper waste disposal were notably associated with childhood diarrheal disease. Therefore, improving handwashing practices and pure water supply, proper waste disposal including the availability of latrines would minimize the burden of diarrheal disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/mortalidade , Água Potável/normas , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1171, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes as being a chronic disease with a number of complications deteriorates the quality of life among the people with type 2 diabetes. Health related quality of life is widely used as an important health outcome measure worldwide. This study assessed the quality of life among the people living with type 2 diabetes in rural area of eastern Nepal. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among type 2 diabetic patient of rural area of eastern Nepal. Pre-tested Nepali version of D-39 questionnaire was administered through face to face interview to assess the quality of life. Door to door visit was done to identify all the type 2 diabetic patients residing in Baniyani village. Data was entered in Micro-soft excel 2007 and further processed in SPSS v.11.5 for analysis. RESULTS: Highest quality of life mean (SD) score was in social burden domain (56.26 ± 12.07), followed by sexual functioning domain (54.35 ± 9.47), Anxiety and worry domain (54.33 ± 7.76), energy and mobility domain (51.46 ± 8.73) and diabetes control domain (50.08 ± 10.84). There was negative correlation between age and domains sexual functioning (p = 0.001) and energy and mobility (p = 0.002). In bivariate analysis, there was significance difference by sex in sexual functioning (p = 0.002), educational status in diabetes control (p = 0.021), smoking habit in energy and mobility (p = 0.038), duration of disease in diabetes control (p = 0.002) and sexual functioning (p = 0.001), presence of co-morbidity in social burden (p = 0.034) and family history of diabetes in anxiety and worry (p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Increasing age affects sexual life and mobility of the type 2 diabetic patient. The domain sexual functioning is difference by sex and presence of co-morbidity. Similarly, domain diabetic control is affected by duration of disease and educational status of the patient. And having family history of diabetes affects the mental state of the type 2 diabetic patient.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 119, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Considerable evidence has advanced the role of citizen-led coalitions (CLC) in supporting the health and social needs of rural citizens. There has been little research focusing on the experiences and strategies of coalitions, with their limited resources and status, in targeting health inequities in their rural communities. The aim of this study was to understand the entrepreneurial strategies and experiences of rural coalitions to effect change in the delivery of health services for their older adult populations. METHOD: A qualitative descriptive study method was used to generate understanding of the entrepreneurial experiences and strategies of CLCs in advancing health services to meet the health and social needs of their citizens. Seven diverse CLCs (n = 40) from different rural communities participated in focus groups and in individual and coalition-level surveys. Thematic analysis was used to construct themes from the data. RESULTS: Two over-riding themes emerged: entrepreneurial strategies and societal recognition. CLCs engaged in numerous entrepreneurial strategies that enabled actions and outcomes in meeting their health care needs. These strategies included: securing quick wins, leveraging existing resources, and joining forces with stakeholder groups/individuals. However, despite these strategies and successes, coalitions expressed frustration with not being seen and not being heard by decision-makers. This pointed to a key structural barrier to coalition successes -- a broader societal and institutional problem of failing to recognize not only the health needs of rural citizens, but also the legitimacy of the community coalitions to represent and act on those needs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the potential for coalitions to mobilize and effect change in addressing the inequities of rural health service access for older adults, broader barriers to their recognition, may undermine their entrepreneurial strategies and success.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde das Minorias , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 121, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of high quality population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries examining the relative economic status of households with and without a member with a mental health problem. The aim of the study was to explore the socio-economic status of households with a person with severe mental disorder (SMD; psychosis or bipolar disorder) or depression compared to households without an affected person. METHODS: A population-based, comparative, cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Sodo district, south Ethiopia, between January and November 2015. Two samples were recruited, each with its own comparison group. Sample (1): households of 290 community-ascertained persons with a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of SMD and a comparison group of 289 households without a person with SMD. Sample (2): households of 128 people who attended the primary health care centre and who were identified by primary care staff as having a probable diagnosis of depressive disorder; and comparison households of 129 patients who attended for other reasons and who did not receive a diagnosis of depression. Household socioeconomic status (household income, consumption and asset-based wealth) was assessed using a contextualized version of theWorld Health Organization (WHO) Study on global Ageing and adult health (SAGE) questionnaire. Each disorder group (SMD and depression) was further divided into higher and lower disability groups on the basis of median score on the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. RESULTS: Households of a person with SMD who had higher disability were more likely to have a poorer living standard (no toilet facility; p < 0.001). Having a reliable source of regular income was significantly lower in households of a person with SMD (p = 0.008) or depression (p = 0.046) with higher disability than the comparison group. Households of persons with SMD with higher disability earned less (p = 0.005) and owned significantly fewer assets (p < 0.001) than households without SMD. Households including persons with depression who had higher disability had lower income (p = 0.042) and reduced consumption (p = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Households with a member who had either SMD or depression were socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to the general population. Moreover, higher disability was associated with worse socio-economic disadvantage. Prospective studies are needed to determine the direction of association. This study indicates a need to consider households of people with SMD or depression as a vulnerable group requiring economic support alongside access to evidence-based mental healthcare.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 123, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent progress in improving access to maternal health services, the utilization of these services remains inequitable among women in developing countries, and rural women are particularly disadvantaged. This study sought to measure i) disparities in the rates of institutional births between rural and urban women in Ghana, ii) the extent to which existing disparities are due to differences in the distribution of the determinants of institutional delivery between rural and urban women, and iii) the extent to which existing disparities are due to discrimination in resource availability. METHODS: Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 2003, 2008, and 2014, this study decomposed inequalities in institutional delivery rates among urban and rural Ghanaian woman using the Oaxaca, the Blinder, and related decompositions for non-linear models. The determinants of the observed inequalities were also analyzed. RESULTS: Institutional delivery rates in urban areas exceeded those of rural areas by 32.4 percentage points due to differences in distribution of the determinants of institutional delivery between the two areas. The main determinants driving the observed disparities were wealth, which contributed to about 16.1% of the gap, followed by education level, and number of antenatal visits. CONCLUSION: Relative to urban women, rural women have lower rates of institutional deliveries due primarily to lower levels of wealth, which results in financial barriers in accessing maternal health services. Economic empowerment of rural women is crucial in order to close the gap in institutional delivery between urban and rural women.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Gana , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
S D Med ; 72(4): 168-173, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence is higher among rural populations than urban, including youth. Reduced physical activity levels are associated with childhood obesity. It could be assumed that the obesity disparity between rural and urban children is attributable, in part, to differences in physical activity levels; however, previous research quantifying and comparing physical activity levels between rural and urban youth are mixed. Lifestyle may be more important than geographic location in determining physical activity levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare sex and lifestyle group (Hutterite vs. non-Hutterite) differences in physical activity in a free-living, rural pediatric population. METHODS: Youth (n=58) were instructed to wear accelerometers for seven days. Mean percent time in light, moderate or vigorous activity during waking hours was calculated. Two-way ANOVAs and multiple regression models were used for analyses. RESULTS: Percent time in vigorous activity was significantly greater for Hutterite males than Hutterite females, and Hutterite males had greater percent time in vigorous activity and moderate plus vigorous activity than non-Hutterite males. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence to support differences in rural lifestyles to be associated with differences in physical activity levels between children living in the same geographic location, particularly among males. Active transportation and having a safe environment for unstructured outdoor play may account for activity and lifestyle differences between the two rural groups.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica , População Rural , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA