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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 83, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466185

RESUMO

Introduction: quality of life and life expectancy of people are improved when preventive health care services are utilized because these identify treatable health problems and puts life-threatening diseases in check. Morbidity and mortality associated with age-related chronic disease among the older adults is on the increase, therefore, this study aims at determining preventive health care services utilization among older adults in rural communities in Anambra State. Methods: a cross sectional design adopted for this study was carried out on older adults from the ages of 65 years and above in rural communities in Anambra State from October 2019 to January 2020. Data were collected through researcher-administered structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using univariable and multivariable regression analysis. Results: a total of 1944 older adults participated with an overall cluster percentage of 40.6% older adults utilizing investigated preventive health care services. The results of the multivariable analysis indicates that the following factors were associated with utilization of preventive healthcare services: male gender (aOR: 0.443, 95%CI: 0.281 - 5.472, p=0.47), level of education; primary (aOR: 1.536, 95%CI: 1.201 - 5.261, p=0.00), secondary (aOR: 4.516, 95%CI: 3.192 - 6.242, p=0.00), and tertiary (aOR: 3.407, 95%CI: 3.199 - 5.666, p=0.00)], income of N50,000-N100,000 (aOR: 2.754, 95%CI: 1.066 - 10.766, p=0.01), and N100,000 and above (aOR: 4.233, 95%CI: 1.846 - 12.811, p=0.00)], and health insurance [aOR: 0.691, 95%CI: 0.422 - 1.945, p=0.03]. Conclusion: preventive health care services were under-utilized. Creating awareness on the importance of utilizing preventive health care services is highly recommended since most age-related chronic diseases once established may last a lifetime and affect quality of life and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928512, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global threat. This study was performed to gain an understanding of COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among susceptible individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who had been diagnosed with old myocardial infarction were followed up via telephone survey based on an established follow-up system at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak (January 2020) in Chongqing, Southwest China. RESULTS A total of 631 eligible patients participated in this survey, and 40.6% of the rural respondents did not know the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2, which was higher than the proportion of urban respondents (40.6% vs 31.0). Rural residents had a lower rate of adopting preventive measures than urban residents, such as wearing masks (76.7% vs 90.1%), avoiding meetings and gatherings (58.6% vs 68.5%), and hand washing (56.0% vs 63.8%). A higher percentage of women than men did not take any preventive measures (11.3% vs 7.6%), while a lower percentage of women than men wore masks (77.7% vs 84.5%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that rural patients were more likely to lack knowledge about transmission (odds ratio (OR): 1.51). Rural patients had an increased risk of failing to implement protective measures. CONCLUSIONS Female and rural populations lacked knowledge and failed to adopt protective measures during the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic. Therefore, these populations may benefit from health education campaigns and policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Separating ill or possibly infectious people from their healthy community is one of the core principles of non-pharmaceutical interventions. However, there is scarce evidence on how to successfully implement quarantine orders. We investigated a community quarantine for an entire village in Germany (Neustadt am Rennsteig, March 2020) with the aim of better understanding the successful implementation of quarantine measures. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Neustadt am Rennsteig six weeks after the end of a 14-day mandatory community quarantine. The sample size consisted of 562 adults (64% of the community), and the response rate was 295 adults, or 52% (33% of the community). FINDINGS: National television was reported as the most important channel of information. Contact with local authorities was very limited, and partners or spouses played a more important role in sharing information. Generally, the self-reported information level was judged to be good (211/289 [73.0%]). The majority of participants (212/289 [73.4%]) approved of the quarantine, and the reported compliance was 217/289 (75.1%). A self-reported higher level of concern as well as a higher level of information correlated positively with both a greater acceptance of quarantine and self-reported compliant behaviour. INTERPRETATION: The community quarantine presented a rare opportunity to investigate a public health intervention for an entire community. In order to improve the implementation of public health interventions, public health risk communication activities should be intensified to increase both the information level (potentially leading to better compliance with community quarantine) and the communication level (to facilitate rapport and trust between public health authorities and their communities).


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e6, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an enormous, growing clinical and public health problem, which together with hypertension contributes significantly to the high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) globally. AIM: To examine the indirect and direct effects of risk factors simultaneously as a network of multiple pathways leading to diabetes in the rurally based adult population (aged 15+) using a household survey. METHODS: This investigation was based on a predictive model using a cross-sectional community-based study to identify the direct and indirect effects of diabetes risk factors in the Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) consisting of 15 villages, with 7200 households and a total population of approximately 36 000. Fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol were measured using ILAB 300 with the following cut-off values: high fasting blood glucose 7 mmol/L and triglycerides 1.70 mmol/L. RESULTS: A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had their blood pressure (BP) measured. The conceptual model was validated by the goodness-of-fit indexes (comparative fit index [CFI] = 1.00, Tucker Lewis index [TLI] = 1.041, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.001). Hypertension had the strongest direct effect of 0.0918 on diabetes, followed by age (0.0039) and high waist circumference (-0.0023). Hypertension also mediates the effects that high waist circumference (0.0005) and triglycerides (0.0060) have on diabetes status. CONCLUSION: The results in this study confirm the conceptual model considered in the risk factors for diabetes and suggest that hypertension, age and high waist circumference are the key variables directly affecting the diabetes status in the South African rural black population. The direct effect of triglycerides on diabetes suggests mediation by some measured factor(s).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371796

RESUMO

Overlapping micronutrient interventions might increase the risk of excessive micronutrient intake, with potentially adverse health effects. To evaluate how strategies currently implemented in Benin and Ghana contribute to micronutrient intake in women of reproductive age (WRA), and to assess the risk for excess intakes, scenarios of basic rural and urban diets were built, and different on-going interventions were added. We estimated micronutrient intakes for all different scenarios. Four types of intervention were included in the scenarios: fortification, biofortification, supplementation and use of locally available nutrient-rich foods. Basic diets contributed poorly to daily micronutrient intake in WRA. Fortification of oil and salt were essential to reach daily requirements for vitamin A and iodine, while fortified flour contributed less. Biofortified products could make an important contribution to the coverage of vitamin A needs, while they were not sufficient to cover the needs of WRA. Iron and folic acid supplementation was a major contributor in the intake of iron and folate, but only in pregnant and lactating women. Risk of excess were found for three micronutrients (vitamin A, folic acid and niacin) in specific contexts, with excess only coming from voluntary fortified food, supplementation and the simultaneous overlap of several interventions. Better regulation and control of fortification and targeting of supplementation could avoid excess intakes.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/análise , Terapia Nutricional/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipernutrição/etiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Benin/epidemiologia , Biofortificação/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacina/análise , Terapia Nutricional/efeitos adversos , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina A/análise , Adulto Jovem
6.
AANA J ; 89(4): 325-333, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342570

RESUMO

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) work in practice models ranging from full scope (independent) to limited scope (dependent). Little is known about the influence of population density on CRNAs' scope of practice (SOP) and job satisfaction in Arizona, an independent practice state. The objectives were to examine relationships between (1) SOP and population density and (2) job satisfaction and SOP. In this descriptive study, an 11-question survey was sent to CRNAs practicing in Arizona. A total of 515 surveys were distributed; 261 responses (50%) were received, and 230 respondents (46%) met inclusion criteria. Spearman rank-order correlation was used to analyze the relationship between SOP and population density and between SOP and job satisfaction. Rank biserial correlation was used to examine association between CRNAs' SOP and geographic location. More than half the participants were male (54%), and 46% were female (age range, 27-75 years; years' experience, 1-50 years). Population density had no association with SOP (P=.074). However, SOP and job satisfaction showed a positive correlation (P<.001). These findings suggest that removal of regulatory barriers to CRNAs' SOP could decrease costs and increase access to care. Autonomy plays a clear role in job satisfaction, which may have implications for recruitment and retention.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/psicologia , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade Demográfica , Papel Profissional/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Âmbito da Prática , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Arizona , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e5, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342484

RESUMO

People with disabilities, especially those living in low- and middle-income countries, experience significant challenges in accessing healthcare services and support. At times of disasters and emergencies, people with disabilities are further marginalised and excluded. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many people with disabilities are unable to access healthcare facilities, receive therapeutic interventions or rehabilitation, or gain access to medication. Of those who are able to access facilities, many experience challenges, and at times direct discrimination, accessing life-saving treatment such as intensive care unit admission and ventilator support. In addition, research has shown that people with disabilities are at higher risk of contracting the virus because of factors that include the need for interpersonal caregivers and living in residential facilities. We explore some of the challenges that people with disabilities residing in South Africa currently experience in relation to accessing healthcare facilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pobreza , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394818

RESUMO

Introduction: patient delay in seeking TB (tuberculosis) care is reported as one of the major hurdles undermining the efforts of controlling TB by many TB control programmes of the world. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of this phenomenon and to profile the TB patients that delayed seeking TB care in a rural area of KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 200 TB patients attending primary health care facilities in Ugu District. Patient data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire, entered into an Excel file and imported into the EpiInfo 7 statistical software for analysis. Frequency tables were used to display the data and the p value was used for statistical significance. Results: about 40% of the participants delayed seeking TB care in this study, and these were mostly individuals who were married, the employed and those who walked to the clinic. Delay was also prevalent among those that self-medicated, bought medication from the pharmacy and sought TB care from a private doctor. The reasons included the great distances, long queues waiting at the facilities, and not feeling ill. Conclusion: the 4 weeks cut-off in seeking TB care in this study far exceeds the recommended 2 weeks. This study recommends periodic active TB case finding and active engagement between the public and the private health sectors.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet HIV ; 8(7): e429-e439, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa matures, evidence about the age distribution of new HIV infections and how this distribution has changed over the epidemic is needed to guide HIV prevention. We aimed to assess trends in age-specific HIV incidence in six population-based cohort studies in eastern and southern Africa, reporting changes in mean age at infection, age distribution of new infections, and birth cohort cumulative incidence. METHODS: We used a Bayesian model to reconstruct age-specific HIV incidence from repeated observations of individuals' HIV serostatus and survival collected among population HIV cohorts in rural Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, in a collaborative analysis of the ALPHA network. We modelled HIV incidence rates by age, time, and sex using smoothing splines functions. We estimated incidence trends separately by sex and study. We used estimated incidence and prevalence results for 2000-17, standardised to study population distribution, to estimate mean age at infection and proportion of new infections by age. We also estimated cumulative incidence (lifetime risk of infection) by birth cohort. FINDINGS: Age-specific incidence declined at all ages, although the timing and pattern of decline varied by study. The mean age at infection was higher in men (cohort mean 27·8-34·6 years) than in women (24·8-29·6 years). Between 2000 and 2017, the mean age at infection per cohort increased slightly: 0·5 to 2·8 years among men and -0·2 to 2·5 years among women. Across studies, between 38% and 63% (cohort medians) of the infections in women were among those aged 15-24 years and between 30% and 63% of infections in men were in those aged 20-29 years. Lifetime risk of HIV declined for successive birth cohorts. INTERPRETATION: HIV incidence declined in all age groups and shifted slightly to older ages. Disproportionate new HIV infections occur among women aged 15-24 years and men aged 20-29 years, supporting focused prevention in these groups. However, 40-60% of infections were outside these ages, emphasising the importance of providing appropriate HIV prevention to adults of all ages. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África Austral/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e7, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a public health threat of global concern with increasing prevalence in many countries, including Nigeria. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hypertension in a rural agrarian community in Edo North, Nigeria. SETTING: The study was carried out in Ayua, a community in Edo North, southern Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study involved the use of a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain relevant data. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and glucose were recorded. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen participants aged 15 years completed the study with a mean age of 54.03 ± 16.61 years and females comprising 159 (72.6%) of the total. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.9% (in 61 participants). Twenty-one (9.8%) respondents gave a family history of hypertension. The mean BMI amongst respondents was 27.10 ± 6.61 kg/m2. Obesity and pre-obesity were found in 58 (26.5%) and 71(32.4%) respondents, respectively. The determinants of hypertension were age and BMI. Compared with those who were less than 40 years old, those aged 40-65 years and 65 years had 1.9 and 4.2 times increased odds of developing hypertension, respectively. Similarly, compared with the non-obese, obese participants had 2.3 times increased odd of having hypertension. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was highly prevalent in this rural community. Health sensitisation and intervention programmes are recommended in rural communities for early detection and management of hypertension, especially amongst older and obese adults.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285754

RESUMO

Introduction: the neighboring Republics of Chad and Cameroon have respectively one of the lowest and highest HIV prevalence rates in central Africa at 1.3% and 4.5%, respectively. We conducted a comparative description of social behaviors and HIV risk factors among heterosexual men and explored the baseline of the first UNAIDS target (by 2020, 90% of people living with HIV will know their status) in the two countries. Methods: this was a retrospective cross-sectional study using Demographic and Health Survey data. We fitted a separate multilevel logistic model for each country. In total, 5248 men were interviewed in Chad and 7191 men in Cameroon. Results: Cameroonian men have a higher level of education, higher HIV testing rate, and are more knowledgeable about HIV than Chadian men. However, Chadian men have a lower number of lifetime sexual partners (2 interquartile range (IQR), 1-4) compared to Cameroonian men (6 IQR 3-15) and 86.96% of Chadian versus 57.30% of Cameroonian men reported fidelity to their domestic partners in the last twelve months. Conclusion: there is a crucial need to encourage HIV screening and testing among Chadian men, especially in rural areas. Testing also needs to be increased in Cameroon to meet the first UNAIDS target. Government and partners in Cameroon could support more research and campaigns that aim at reducing multiple sexual partnerships among the communities in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Chade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Teste de HIV/estatística & dados numéricos , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(3): 6464, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many rural hospitals and health systems in the USA lack sufficient resources to treat COVID-19. St Lawrence Health (SLH) developed a system for managing inpatient COVID-19 hospital admissions in St Lawrence County, an underserved rural county that is the largest county in New York State. METHODS: SLH used a hub-and-spoke system to route COVID-19 patients to its flagship hospital. It further assembled a small clinical team to manage admitted COVID-19 patients and to stay abreast of a quickly changing body of literature and standard of care. A review of clinical data was completed for patients who were treated by SLH's inpatient COVID-19 treatment team between 20 March and 22 May 2020. RESULTS: Twenty COVID-19 patients were identified. Sixteen patients (80%) met National Institutes of Health criteria for severe or critical disease. One patient died. No patients were transferred to other hospitals. CONCLUSION: During the first 2 months of the pandemic, the authors were able to manage hospitalized COVID-19 patients in their rural community. Development of similar treatment models in other rural areas should be considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Hospitais Rurais/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , New York
14.
Lancet ; 398(10294): 53-63, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, mean body-mass index (BMI) and obesity in adults have increased steadily since the early 1980s. However, to our knowledge, there has been no reliable assessment of recent trends, nationally, regionally, or in certain population subgroups. To address this evidence gap, we present detailed analyses of relevant data from six consecutive nationally representative health surveys done between 2004 and 2018. We aimed to examine the long-term and recent trends in mean BMI and prevalence of obesity among Chinese adults, with specific emphasis on changes before and after 2010 (when various national non-communicable disease prevention programmes were initiated), assess how these trends might vary by sex, age, urban-rural locality, and socioeconomic status, and estimate the number of people who were obese in 2018 compared with 2004. METHODS: We used data from the China Chronic Disease and Risk Factors Surveillance programme, which was established in 2004 with the aim to provide periodic nationwide data on the prevalence of major chronic diseases and the associated behavioural and metabolic risk factors in the general population. Between 2004 and 2018 six nationally representative surveys were done. 776 571 individuals were invited and 746 020 (96·1%) participated, including 33 051 in 2004, 51 050 in 2007, 98 174 in 2010, 189 115 in 2013, 189 754 in 2015, and 184 876 in 2018. After exclusions, 645 223 participants aged 18-69 years remained for the present analyses. The mean BMI and prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were calculated and time trends compared by sex, age, urban-rural locality, geographical region, and socioeconomic status. FINDINGS: Standardised mean BMI levels rose from 22·7 kg/m2 (95% CI 22·5-22·9) in 2004 to 24·4 kg/m2 (24·3-24·6) in 2018 and obesity prevalence from 3·1% (2·5-3·7) to 8·1% (7·6-8·7). Between 2010 and 2018, mean BMI rose by 0·09 kg/m2 annually (0·06-0·11), which was half of that reported during 2004-10 (0·17 kg/m2, 95% CI 0·12-0·22). Similarly, the annual increase in obesity prevalence was somewhat smaller after 2010 than before 2010 (6·0% annual relative increase, 95% CI 4·4-7·6 vs 8·7% annual relative increase, 4·9-12·8; p=0·13). Since 2010, the rise in mean BMI and obesity prevalence has slowed down substantially in urban men and women, and moderately in rural men, but continued steadily in rural women. By 2018, mean BMI was higher in rural than urban women (24·3 kg/m2vs 23·9 kg/m2; p=0·0045), but remained lower in rural than urban men (24·5 kg/m2vs 25·1 kg/m2; p=0·0007). Across all six surveys, mean BMI was persistently lower in women with higher levels of education compared with women with lower levels of education, but the inverse was true among men. Overall, an estimated 85 million adults (95% CI 70 million-100 million; 48 million men [95% CI 39 million-57 million] and 37 million women [31 million-43 million]) aged 18-69 years in China were obese in 2018, which was three times as many as in 2004. INTERPRETATION: In China, the rise in mean BMI among the adult population appears to have slowed down over the past decade. However, we found divergent trends by sex, geographical area, and socioeconomic status, highlighting the need for a more targeted approach to prevent further increases in obesity in the Chinese general population. FUNDING: China National Key Research and Development Program, China National Key Project of Public Health Program, and Youth Scientific Research Foundation of the National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0251708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease which is a major public health problem worldwide. Given the serious threats imposed by COVID-19 and the absence of vaccines until August 2020, preventive measures play an essential role in reducing infection rates and controlling its spread. This shows the necessity of public adherence for preventive and control measures, which is affected by their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards COVID-19 and associated factors among outpatient service visitors, Debre Markos compressive specialized hospital, north-west,Ethiopia. METHOD: Institutional-based cross-sectional study design with a systematic random sampling technique was conducted from July to August 2020. Among a total of 404 participants, 398 were recruited. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The data was edited, coded, and entered into Epi data version 4.6 and exported to SPSS-25 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to identify factors associated with KAP. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: The prevalence of poor knowledge, attitude and practice among the outpatient service visitors were 27.1%, 30.7% and 44%, respectively. The mean age of the participants was 33.4 ±10.9 years. Variables like; educational status, ''can't read and write" [AOR = 3.76, 95% CI (1.36-10.42), P = 0.01], read and write [AOR = 5.90, 95% CI (2.39-14.98), P = 0.01], rural residence [AOR = 3.04, 95% CI (1.43-6.46), P = 0.01] and having no television [AOR = 0.8, 95% CI (0.79-0.89), P = 0.03] were significantly associated with poor knowledge. While, educational status of "can't read and write", [AOR = 6.71, 95% CI (2.78-16.16), P = 0.01] and rural residence [AOR = 2.03, 95% CI (1.14-3.61), P = 0.02] were significantly associated with poor attitude. Additionally, poor knowledge, [AOR = 22.73, 95% CI (10.5-49.21), P = 0.01], rural residence [AOR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.08-4.88), P = 0.04] and having no television [AOR = 2.24, 95% CI (1.05-4.79), P = 0.01] were significantly associated with poor practice. CONCLUSION: In this study, knowledge, attitude, and practice among outpatient service visitors was poor which needs targeted health education and interventions from the health professional to enhance their knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19. In parallel with this, special attention should be given for the rural community and for those with an educational status of can't read and write.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Res Nurs Health ; 44(5): 767-775, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227136

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating effects on Black and rural populations with a mortality rate among Blacks three times that of Whites and both rural and Black populations experiencing limited access to COVID-19 resources. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the health, financial, and psychological impact of COVID-19 among rural White Appalachian and Black nonrural central Kentucky church congregants. Secondarily we sought to examine the association between sociodemographics and behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs regarding COVID-19 and intent to vaccinate. We used a cross sectional survey design developed with the constructs of the Health Belief and Theory of Planned Behavior models. The majority of the 942 respondents were ≥36 years. A total of 54% were from central Kentucky, while 47.5% were from Appalachia. Among all participants, the pandemic worsened anxiety and depression and delayed access to medical care. There were no associations between sociodemographics and practicing COVID-19 prevention behaviors. Appalachian region was associated with financial burden and delay in medical care (p = 0.03). Appalachian respondents had lower perceived benefit and attitude for COVID-19 prevention behaviors (p = 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). Among all respondents, the perceived risk of contracting COVID was high (54%), yet 33.2% indicated unlikeliness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine if offered. The COVID-19 pandemic had a differential impact on White rural and Black nonrural populations. Nurses and public health officials should assess knowledge and explore patient's attitudes regarding COVID-19 prevention behaviors, as well as advocate for public health resources to reduce the differential impact of COVID-19 on these at-risk populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Protestantismo/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199924

RESUMO

The nutrition status of children is gaining more attention with a rapid nutrition transition. This study aimed to investigate trends and urban-rural differences in dietary energy and macronutrient composition among Chinese children. A total of 7565 participants aged 6 to 17 years were obtained from three rounds (1991, 2004 and 2015) of the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The individual diet was evaluated via three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). From 1991 to 2015, there was a significant increase in children's fat intake, the proportion of energy intake from fat, and the proportion of children with more than 30% of energy from fat and less than 50% of energy from carbohydrates (p < 0.001). Compared with the DRI, the proportion with higher fat and lower carbohydrate intakes were, respectively, 64.7% and 46.8% in 2015. The urban-rural disparities in fat and carbohydrate intake gradually narrowed, while the gap in protein intake increased notably over time (p < 0.001). Chinese children experienced a rapid transformation to a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet. Urban-rural disparities persistently existed; further nutritional interventions and education were of great significance, so as to ensure a more balanced diet for Chinese children.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113787, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137826

RESUMO

Importance: COVID-19 lockdowns may affect economic and health outcomes, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries remains limited. Objective: To assess the economic security, food security, health, and sexual behavior of women at high risk of HIV infection in rural Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study of women enrolled in a randomized trial in a rural county in Kenya combined results from phone interviews, conducted while social distancing measures were in effect between May 13 and June 29, 2020, with longitudinal, in-person surveys administered between September 1, 2019, and March 25, 2020. Enrolled participants were HIV-negative and had 2 or more sexual partners within the past month. Surveys collected information on economic conditions, food security, health status, and sexual behavior. Subgroup analyses compared outcomes by reliance on transactional sex for income and by educational attainment. Data were analyzed between May 2020 and April 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported income, employment hours, numbers of sexual partners and transactional sex partners, food security, and COVID-19 prevention behaviors. Results: A total of 1725 women participated, with a mean (SD) age of 29.3 (6.8) years and 1170 (68.0%) reporting sex work as an income source before the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, participants reported experiencing a 52% decline in mean (SD) weekly income, from $11.25 (13.46) to $5.38 (12.51) (difference, -$5.86; 95% CI, -$6.91 to -$4.82; P < .001). In all, 1385 participants (80.3%) reported difficulty obtaining food in the past month, and 1500 (87.0%) worried about having enough to eat at least once. Reported numbers of sexual partners declined from a mean (SD) total of 1.8 (1.2) partners before COVID-19 to 1.1 (1.0) during (difference, -0.75 partners; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.67 partners; P < .001), and transactional sex partners declined from 1.0 (1.1) to 0.5 (0.8) (difference, -0.57 partners; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.50 partners; P < .001). In subgroup analyses, women reliant on transactional sex for income were 18.3% (95% CI, 11.4% to 25.2%) more likely to report being sometimes or often worried that their household would have enough food than women not reliant on transactional sex (P < .001), and their reported decline in employment was 4.6 hours (95% CI, -7.9 to -1.2 hours) greater than women not reliant on transactional sex (P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, COVID-19 was associated with large reductions in economic security among women at high risk of HIV infection in Kenya. However, shifts in sexual behavior may have temporarily decreased their risk of HIV infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Assunção de Riscos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122708

RESUMO

Introduction: the health benefits of institutional delivery with the support of skilled professional are one of the indicators of maternal health status which have an impact on the health of women and new coming generation. Despite these benefits, many pregnant women in Ethiopia are not actively bringing delivery at health facility. This study was aimed at determining the readiness level of community for promoting child birth at health facility. Methods: a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. We interviewed 96 key informants using a semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the community readiness assessment model and translated to Amharic language. The key informants were purposively selected in consultation with the district health office to represent the community. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and survey scores were matched with the readiness stage of 1 of the 9 for the five dimensions using the assessment guidelines. Results: this study placed nine kebeles at stage 3 (vague awareness), which indicates the need for more institutional delivery service strategy programming; efforts of the community were not focused and low leadership concern and one kebele was in stage 2 (denial/resistance). Six kebeles were placed at high level of readiness i.e. in stage 7 (stabilization), indicating actions are sustained by the local managers or opinion leaders. Conclusion: evidence derived from the present study can be used to match intervention tactics for promoting health facility child birth service utilization to communities based on their level of readiness.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Safety Res ; 77: 212-216, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Under current law in our rural state, there is no universal requirement for motorcyclists to wear helmets. Roughly 500 motorcycle crashes are reported by the state each year and only a fraction of those riders wear helmets. We sought to determine the difference in injury patterns and severity in helmeted versus non-helmeted riders. METHODS: Retrospective review (2014-2018) of a single level 1 trauma center's registry was done for subjects admitted after a motorcycle collision. Demographic, injury and patient outcome data were collected. Patients were stratified by helmet use (n = 81), no helmet use (n = 144), and unknown helmet use (n = 194). Statistical analysis used Student's t-test or Pearson's χ2p-value ≤0.05 as significant. State Department of Transportation data registry for state level mortality and collision incidence over the same time period was also obtained. RESULTS: Of the 2,022 state-reported motorcycle collisions, 419 individuals admitted to our trauma center were analyzed (21% capture). State-reported field fatality rate regardless of helmet use was 4%. Our inpatient mortality rate was 2% with no differences between helmet uses. Helmeted riders were found to have significantly fewer head and face injuries, higher GCS, lower face, neck, thorax and abdomen AIS, fewer required mechanical ventilation, shorter ICU length of stay, and had a greater number of upper extremity injuries and higher upper extremity AIS. CONCLUSIONS: Helmeted motorcyclists have fewer head, face, and cervical spine injuries, and lower injury severities: GCS and face, neck, thorax, abdomen AIS. Helmeted riders had significantly less mechanical ventilation requirement and shorter ICU stays. Non-helmeted riders sustained worse injuries. Practical Applications: Helmets provide safety and motorcycle riders have a 34-fold higher risk of death following a crash. Evaluating injury severities and patterns in motorcycle crash victims in a rural state with no helmet laws may provide insight into changing current legislation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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