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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1094-1097, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683393

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in China in 2015. Methods: Based on the data quality review and assessment, the esophageal cancer data from 368 cancer registries in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China were included in this study. According to the national population data in 2015, the nationwide incidence and mortality of the esophageal cancer were estimated. Chinese standard population in 2000 and world Segi's population were used to calculate the age-standardized (ASR) incidence and mortality rates (ASR China and world, respectively). Results: The 368 cancer registries covered a total of 309 553 499 populations in China, accounting for 22.52% of the national population. There were 245 651 new esophageal cancer cases estimated in China in 2015, with a crude incidence rate of 17.87/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world were 11.14/100 000 and 11.28/100 000, respectively. The estimated number of esophageal cancer death was 188 044 in China in 2015, with a crude mortality rate of 13.68/100 000; The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 8.33/100 000 and 8.36/100 000, respectively. The ASR China incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in males were higher in males (16.50/100 000 and 12.66/100 000) than those in females (5.92/100 000 and 4.17/100 000), and they were higher in rural areas (15.95/1100 000 and 11.67/100 000) than those in urban areas (7.59/100 000 and 5.87/100 000). Conclusion: The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in China are higher than the global average. The disparity of the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer significantly differed in genders and areas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1158-1161, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683405

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality rate of leukemia in the cancer registration areas of Zhejiang Province from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed to depict their epidemiological characteristics. From 2010 to 2014, 3789 new cases were diagnosed as leukemia in Zhejiang cancer registration areas, with a crude incidence rate of 6.47 per 100 000. The age-standardized incidence rate of males (standardized by China census data 2000) was 1.35 times that of females. The age-standardized incidence rate of urban areas was similar to that in rural areas (1.04∶1). From 2010 to 2014, 2 568 cases died due to leukemia, with a crude mortality rate of 4.38 per 100 000. The age-standardized mortality rate of males was 1.44 times that of females. The age-standardized mortality rate of urban areas was 0.99 times that of rural areas. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rate did not show any significant change from 2010 to 2014. The annual percent change of these two metrics was -2.36% (t=-0.62, P=0.579) and -3.46% (t=-2.41, P=0.095).


Assuntos
Leucemia/mortalidade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sistema de Registros , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias , Distribuição por Sexo
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(44): 993-998, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697655

RESUMO

Lung and bronchus (lung) cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States (1). In 2016, 148,869 lung cancer deaths were reported.* Most lung cancers can be attributed to modifiable exposures, such as tobacco use, secondhand smoke, radon, and asbestos (1). Exposure to lung cancer risk factors vary over time and by characteristics such as sex, age, and nonmetropolitan or metropolitan residence that might affect lung cancer rates (1,2). A recent report found that lung cancer incidence rates were higher and decreased more slowly in nonmetropolitan counties than in metropolitan counties (3). To examine whether lung cancer incidence trends among nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties differed by age and sex, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics during 2007-2016, the most recent years for which data are available. During the 10-year study period, lung cancer incidence rates were stable among females aged <35, 45-64, and ≥75 years in nonmetropolitan counties, were stable among females aged <35 years in metropolitan counties, and decreased in all other groups. Overall, among males, lung cancer incidence rates decreased from 99 to 82 per 100,000 in nonmetropolitan areas and from 83 to 63 in metropolitan areas; among females, lung cancer incidence rates decreased from 61 to 58 in nonmetropolitan areas and from 57 to 50 in metropolitan areas. A comprehensive approach to lung cancer prevention and control includes such population-based strategies as screening for tobacco dependence, promoting tobacco cessation, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, testing all homes for radon and using proven methods to lower high radon levels, and reducing exposure to lung carcinogens such as asbestos (1). Increasing the implementation of these strategies, particularly among persons living in nonmetropolitan counties, might help to reduce disparities in the decline of lung cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 967-973, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671083

RESUMO

Among the 47,600 opioid-involved overdose deaths in the United States in 2017, 59.8% (28,466) involved synthetic opioids (1). Since 2013, synthetic opioids, particularly illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF), including fentanyl analogs, have been fueling the U.S. overdose epidemic (1,2). Although initially mixed with heroin, IMF is increasingly being found in supplies of cocaine, methamphetamine, and counterfeit prescription pills, which increases the number of populations at risk for an opioid-involved overdose (3,4). With the proliferation of IMF, opioid-involved overdose deaths have increased among minority populations including non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) and Hispanics, groups that have historically had low opioid-involved overdose death rates (5). In addition, metropolitan areas have experienced sharp increases in drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths since 2013 (6,7). This study analyzed changes in overdose death rates involving any opioid and synthetic opioids among persons aged ≥18 years during 2015-2017, by age and race/ethnicity across metropolitan areas. Nearly all racial/ethnic groups and age groups experienced increases in opioid-involved and synthetic opioid-involved overdose death rates, particularly blacks aged 45-54 years (from 19.3 to 41.9 per 100,000) and 55-64 years (from 21.8 to 42.7) in large central metro areas and non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 25-34 years (from 36.9 to 58.3) in large fringe metro areas. Comprehensive and culturally tailored interventions are needed to address the rise in drug overdose deaths in all populations, including prevention strategies that address the risk factors for substance use across each racial/ethnic group, public health messaging to increase awareness about synthetic opioids in the drug supply, expansion of naloxone distribution for overdose reversal, and increased access to medication-assisted treatment.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas/etnologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Sintéticos/envenenamento , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
S D Med ; 72(9): 419-423, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A disparity in overweight/obesity prevalence exists between rural and urban youth; however, definitions of 'rural' vary widely and the degree to which rurality impacts overweight/obesity prevalence is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the school height and weight data in a rural Midwest state to determine differences in overweight and obesity prevalence among youth by using Rural-Urban Continuum (RUC) codes to define county-level degree of urbanization. METHODS: De-identified statewide data were obtained in electronic format from the state Department of Health. Height, weight, sex and age were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) z-scores, which were used to determine BMI percentile and categories. The county variable was used to assign a RUC code to each individual. Logistic regression was used to examine binary weight classifications by rural status while controlling for age, sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Odds of obesity and of overweight/obesity were higher among rural youth compared to non-rural. Odds of overweight/obesity increased with increasing rurality. Compared to youth who lived in counties with a RUC code of 3, youth who lived in counties with RUC codes of 5, 7, 8 and 9 had greater odds of overweight/obesity. The number of youth classified as 'rural' ranged from 11-48 percent, depending on how 'rural' was defined. Likewise, overweight/obesity prevalence differed by 4.6 percent depending on how 'rural' was defined. CONCLUSIONS: Consistently defining 'rural' and determining degree of rurality is important in understanding how geographic location plays a role in overweight/obesity among youth. Future research should work to assess the physical and social environments of these different types of rural areas to better understand the role that rurality plays in contributing to overweight/obesity among youth. Assessing social determinants of health and its impact on health in rural youth is essential for designing effective public health interventions that can be implemented to address the issue.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , População Rural , População Urbana , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(7): 834-837, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597804

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was undertaken to assess the knowledge and awareness of oral health literacy among rural and urban people and to correlate it with the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted among the rural and urban population visiting the outpatient department. The study questionnaire was used to assess oral health literacy and these questions were framed based on the various aspects like general demographics, dental visit, and dentition status. A validated questionnaire to record the oral health impact profile (OHIP) was used to assess the quality of life. Further, the rapid estimate of adult literacy in dentistry-30 (REALD-30), the word recognition test, was used to assess oral health literacy. RESULTS: Out of 1,000 participants, 500 were from the urban population and 500 from a rural area. The mean age of participants in the rural and urban population was 32.22 ± 10.66 and 30.43 ± 10.3, respectively. The mean score of OHIP in rural and urban participants was found to be 6.46 ± 6.815 and 6.34 ± 8.492, respectively. The mean score of REALD-30 in rural and urban participants was found to be 12.88 ± 7.214 and 20.9 ± 7.334, respectively. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that dental health literacy have an independent effect on dental health outcomes.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
7.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 451-458, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study had for object to identify factors associated to the cessation of the exclusive breast-feeding at the mothers of children from 0 to 6 months in the urban and rural circles in Mali. METHOD: The study was longitudinal forward-looking, realized in Bamako (urban area) and in Dialakoroba (rural area) from April till November, 2016. in total, 218 mothers were enlisted (114 by area) in a voluntary way in health centers. A monthly follow-up of six months was realized in the place of residence. The SPSS 20 software was used for the seizure and the data analysis. The expected event was to give to the child another food than maternal milk. Test statistics such as Chi2 of Log Rank and Hazard Ratio (HR) were used with threshold of meaning p ≤ 0,05. RESULTS: In urban zones and rural respectively 68,5 % and 71,5% of the mothers had stopped the Exclusive Breast-feeding (EBF) before six months. Factors associated to this cessation of the EBF were: the use of the feeding-bottle (HR=2,61; IC 95%: [1,46-4,48]), the care of the child during less than three months as main occupation (HR=3,18; IC 95%: [1,95-5,20]), the support for the mother during less than three months (HR=3,79; IC 95%: [2,31-6,22]), the advice(council) on the EBF (HR=0,64; IC 95%: [0,46-0,98]) and the experience (experiment) of breastfeeding (HR=0,34; IC 95%: [0,15-0,84]). CONCLUSION: The consideration of the identified factors(mailmen) will allow to improve the practice of the EBF in six months in the sites of the study.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mali , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1062-1065, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607057

RESUMO

From 2010 to 2014, a total of 17 150 new cases of thyroid cancer (TC) reported in cancer registration areas of Zhejiang province, the crude incidence rate of TC was 29.28/100 000. Using the Chinese Census in 2000 and the World Segi's population as the standard population, the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 24.11/100 000 and 20.65/100 000 respectively. 256 TC death cases reported in all, the crude mortality rate was 0.44/100 000, the age-standardized mortality rate by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by World standard population (ASMRW) were 0.23/100 000 and 0.23/100 000 respectively. The ASIRC had a upward trend [annual percent change (APC)=28.62%, 95%CI: 21.00%-36.72%, t=13.10, P=0.001], while the ASMRC trend seemed stable (APC=0.73%, 95%CI: -7.47%-9.66%, t=0.27, P=0.803).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Sistema de Registros , População Rural , População Urbana
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17399, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651843

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders with a prevalence of about 1% and a leading cause of disability among young adults. Pharmacotherapy is the mainstay in the management of schizophrenia. However, even with the best of medication, several problems like refractoriness, negative symptoms, frequent relapses, and cognitive impairments persist. METHODS: This is a randomized-controlled clinical study including patients from an urban tertiary hospital and a semi-urban community center, with a between-group, repeated-measures, longitudinal design. This study will recruit 160 patients with DSM 5 diagnosis of schizophrenia who are on stable medication for a minimum of 6 weeks; they will be randomly assigned into 2 arms viz., yoga therapy (YT), and treatment-as-usual (TAU) with 80 patients in each arm. Participants will undergo Clinical, Laboratory, and Radiological assessments at baseline and at intervals of 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months from the baseline. It is hypothesized that yoga will improve psychopathology and emotion processing, increase serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and plasma oxytocin levels and effect changes in cerebral activation in areas of the brain associated with schizophrenia. DISCUSSION: This study aims to measure the efficacy of a Yoga-based intervention as an adjunct in patients with schizophrenia as well as the mechanisms of these effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered retrospectively with Clinical Trial Registry - India (CTRI) with registration number CTRI/2017/08/009219.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Ioga/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(4): 561-565, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the effects of social capital on depressive symptoms of elderly patients with chronic diseases in urbanized communities, and to explore preventive measures to promote their mental health. METHODS: A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to extract 740 elderly patients with chronic diseases in the urbanized communities in Chengdu and Kunming. The questionnaire survey was conducted by using the center of depression rating scale (CES-D) and the self-made social capital scale. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the impact of urbanized residents' social capital on depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The self-made social capital scale has good reliability and validity. The incidence of depressive symptoms in this study was 24.9%. The incidence of depressive symptoms in elderly females with chronic diseases was higher (P < 0.05); the residents with high "sense of social trust and security" had lower risk of incidence of depressive symptoms 〔odds ratio (OR)=0.489〕; the residents with higher "community belonging" had a lower risk of incidence of depressive symptoms (OR=0.570), and the residents with higher "social support" scores had a lower risk of incidence of depressive symptoms (OR=0.233). CONCLUSION: Targeted measures should be taken to intervene in the social capital factors affecting the depressive symptoms of elderly patients with chronic diseases in urbanized communities to improve their mental health.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Capital Social , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594123

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the situation and characteristics of out-patient utilization of urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients in Jiangsu province, and to provide a reference for the formulation of relevant policies. Methods: Using a questionnaire on patients with pneumoconiosis and their influencing factors, 120 patients with pneumoconiosis were randomly selected in Nanjing, Wuxi, Suzhou, Yancheng Vocational Defense Institute or CDC. The rate of outpatients with pneumoconiosis in urban and rural areas and the choice of out-patient hospitals were analyzed. Results: Of the 75 patients with severe pneumoconi-related symptoms such as chest tightness and dyspnea in the first two weeks of the survey, 36 (48.0%) lived in cities and 39 (52.0%) lived in rural areas. Patients with pneumoconiosis who live in urban and rural areas have different aggravating conditions within two weeks. Two weeks of aggravated symptoms in outpatient consultations accounted for36 (48.0%) . Of the 36 patients who used outpatient treatment, rural residents mainly chose 8 people from a hospital and a township health hospital, accounting for 34.8%, while 10 people from urban residents chose a nursing home or nursing home, accounting for 40.0%. The main reason why urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients did not go to the doctor is "conscious symptoms are lighter" and "feel that the doctor is useless." Conclusion: The rate of outpatients with pneumoconiosis in Jiangsu province within two weeks is lower than that of ordinary elderly residents. There may be differences in treatment behavior patterns of urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients.Economic factors have a certain influence on the outpatient treatment behavior of pneumoconiosis patients. The recognition of outpatient service is the main factor affecting the outpatient treatment of pneumoconiosis patients. It is very important to popularize the knowledge of pneumoconiosis and do a good job in propaganda of occupational diseases and health education for pneumoconiosis patients. Focusing on the outpatient treatment of pneumoconiosis patients and making targeted medical policies is very important to standardize and improve the rehabilitation of pneumoconiosis patients.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumoconiose , China , Cidades , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , População Rural , População Urbana
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594131

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the situation where pneumoconiosis patients who should be in hospital are not hospitalized, to analyze the main reasons and influencing factors for their restricted use of hospitalization medical services, and to provide a reference for relevant policy making. Methods: Subjects were sampled in nine provinces, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Hebei, using a method that combined stratified sampling and typical sampling, from March 2017 to January 2018. These subjects were patients occupationally diagnosed with pneumoconiosis and patients clinically diagnosed with pneumoconiosis. The questionnaire The health seeking behaviors of pneumoconiosis patients and their influencing factors was used as the survey tool to investigate their health seeking behaviors such as going to the outpatient clinic and being hospitalized. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used as the analysis model; The χ2 test was used for univariate analysis, and the multivariate logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 1 037 patients with pneumoconiosis were surveyed, with a mean age of 55.9±11.2 years and 67.5% (700/1 037) living in rural areas for a long time. Occupational injury insurance and medical insurance for urban and rural residents were the main insurances used, accounting for 40.9% (424/1 037) and 59.4% (616/1 037) of the cases, respectively. A total of 177 (17.1%) patients were once advised by the doctors to be hospitalized because of pneumoconiosis, while they did not. The proportion of patients who should be in hospital but did not do so among rural patients was significantly higher than that in urban patients (20.1% (141/700) vs 10.7% (36/337) , P<0.05) . Financial difficulties (12.0%, 124/1 037) and self-rated mild symptoms (3.2%, 33/1 037) were the main reasons for not being hospitalized. Model analysis showed that the propensity factor, ability factor, health needs, health seeking behaviors, and self-rated health factor in the Anderson model were all statistically significant (P<0.05) . The main features of high proportion of patients who should be in hospital but did not do so were as follows: personal monthly income below 1 000 RMB (odds ratio[OR]of no income=2.92, 95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.14-7.48; OR of less than 1 000 RMB=3.55, 95%CI: 1.35-9.35) , no occupational injury insurance (OR=2.05, 95%CI: 1.16-3.43) , and concurrent emphysema (OR= 1.98, 95%CI: 1.12-3.50) . Conclusion: Low income, no occupational injury insurance, and concurrent emphy-sema are the main constraining factors for hospitalization services use in pneumoconiosis patients.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumoconiose , Adulto , Idoso , China , Enfisema/complicações , Humanos , Renda , Seguro Saúde , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(11): 915-925, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Housing First is increasingly implemented for homeless adults with mental illness in large urban centres, but little is known about its long-term effectiveness. The At Home/Chez Soi randomised controlled trial done in five cities in Canada showed that Housing First improved housing stability and other select health outcomes. We extended the At Home/Chez Soi trial at the Toronto site to evaluate the long-term effects of the Housing First intervention on housing and health outcomes of homeless adults with mental illness over 6 years. METHODS: The At Home/Chez Soi Toronto study was a randomised, controlled trial done in Toronto (ON, Canada). Here, we present the results of an extension study done at the same site. Participants were homeless adults (aged ≥18 years) with a serious mental disorder with or without co-occurring substance use disorder. In phase 1, participants were stratified by level of need for mental health support services (high vs moderate), and randomly assigned (1:1) using adaptive randomisation procedures to Housing First with assertive community treatment (HF-ACT), Housing First with intensive case management (HF-ICM), or to treatment as usual (TAU). Participants with moderate support needs were further stratified by ethnoracial status. Considering the nature of the Housing First intervention, study participants and study personnel were not masked to group assignment. Phase 1 participants could choose to enrol in the extension study (phase 2). The primary outcome was the rate of days stably housed per year analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all randomly assigned participants who had at least one assessment for the primary outcome. Participants contributed data to the study up to the point of their last interview. Multilevel multiple imputation was used to handle missing data. The trial was registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN42520374. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1, 2009, and March 31, 2013, 575 individuals participated in phase 1 of the Toronto Site At Home/Chez Soi study (197 [34%] participants with high support needs and 378 [66%] with moderate support needs). Of the 378 participants with moderate support needs, 204 were randomly assigned to receive the HF intervention with ICM or with ethnoracial-specific ICM services (HF-ER-ICM; HF-ICM or HF-ER-ICM groups) and 174 were randomly assigned to TAU. Of the 197 participants with high support needs, 97 were randomly assigned to receive the HF intervention with ACT (HF-ACT treatment group) and 100 were randomly assigned to TAU group. Between Jan 1, 2014, and March 31, 2017, 414 (81%) of 575 phase 1 participants participated in the extended phase 2 study. The median duration of follow-up was 5·4 years (IQR 2·1-5·9). Among phase 2 participants, 141 had high support needs (79 participants in the HF-ACT group; 62 participants in the TAU group), and 273 had moderate support needs (160 participants in the HF-ICM or HF-ER-ICM group; 113 participants in the TAU group). 187 high support needs participants (93 participants in the HF-ACT group, 94 participants in the TAU group), and 361 moderate support needs participants (201 participants in the HF-ICM or HF-ER-ICM group, 160 participants in the TAU group) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis for the primary outcome. The number of days spent stably housed was significantly higher among participants in the HF-ACT and HR-ICM or HF-ER-ICM groups than participants in the TAU groups at all timepoints. For participants with moderate support needs, the rate ratio (RR) of days stably housed in the Housing First group, compared with TAU, was 2·40 (95% CI 2·03-2·83) in year 1, which decreased to 1·13 (1·01-1·26) in year 6. The RR of days stably housed for participants with high support needs, compared with TAU, was 3·02 (2·43-3·75) in year 1 and 1·42 (1·19-1·69) in year 6. In year 6, high support needs participants in the Housing First group spent 85·51% of days stably housed compared with 60·33% for the TAU group, and moderate needs participants in the Housing First group spent 88·16% of days stably housed compared with 78·22% for the TAU group. INTERPRETATION: Rent supplements and mental health support services had an enduring positive effect on housing stability for homeless adults with mental illness in a large, resource-rich urban centre, with a larger impact on individuals with high support needs than moderate support needs. FUNDING: Mental Health Commission of Canada, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, and the Canadian Institute of Health Research.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Habitação Popular/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Ontário , Tempo , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(10): 721-727, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648492

RESUMO

Objective: Using updated population-based cancer registration (PBCR) data, we estimated nation-wide liver cancer statistics overall, by sex and by areas in China. Methods: Qualified PBCR data of liver cancer in 2015 which met the data quality criteria were stratified by geographical locations, sex, and age groups. Age-specific incidence and mortality rates by sex and area were calculated. The burden of liver cancer was evaluated by multiplying these rates by the year of 2015 population. Chinese standard population in 2000 and World Segi's population were used for the calculation of age-standardized rates (ASR) of incidence and mortality. Results: Qualified 368 cancer registries covered a total of 309 553 499 populations in China, accounting for 22.52% of the national population. It is estimated that there were 370 000 new cases (274 000 males and 96 000 females) of liver cancer in China. The age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and World Segi's population (ASR World) were 17.64 per 100 000 and 17.35 per 100 000, respectively. Rural areas showed higher incidence (ASR China: 20.07 per 100 000, ASR World: 19.67 per 100 000) than urban areas (ASR China: 15.90 per 100 000, ASR world: 15.67 per 100 000). Subgroup analysis showed that western areas of China had highest incidence rate of liver cancer, with the ASR China of 20.65 per 100 000 and 20.22 per 100 000 for ASR world, respectively. For new cases of liver cancer deaths, there were 326 000 new deaths (242 000 males and 84 000 females) in China, with age-standardized mortality rate by Chinese standard population and World Segi's population of 15.33 per 100 000 and 15.09 per 100 000, respectively. Rural areas showed higher mortality (ASR China: 17.17 per 100 000, ASR world: 16.86 per 100 000) than urban areas (ASR China: 14.00 per 100 000, ASR World: 13.81 per 100 000). Conclusions: There is still a heavy burden of liver cancer in China. Rural residents have higher incidence and mortality of liver cancer compared with urban counterparts. It is likely that many factors such as hepatitis virus infection, and aflatoxin exposure play a dominating role. Prevention and control strategies should be enhanced in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Sistema de Registros , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17411, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577753

RESUMO

Evidence on the prescription patterns of antihypertensive drug use in children and adolescents in China is scarce. A descriptive analysis of the Beijing Medical Claim Data, which covered over 95% of the urban residents, was conducted to investigate antihypertensive prescribing patterns and trends in children and adolescents aged under 18 from 2009 to 2014 in Beijing, China. An additional meta-analysis of trends in hypertension prevalence was conducted to compare trends with antihypertensive medications.A total of 11,882 patients received at least 1 prescription for antihypertensive drugs from 2009 to 2014. The number of annual antihypertensive users increased from 2009 to 2012, then declined steadily until 2014, which was consistent with the trend of the hypertension prevalence estimated from the meta-analysis. ß-receptor blockers, thiazide diuretics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were the 3 most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs. More boys took the antihypertensive drugs than girls. For users aged under 3 years, thiazide diuretics, α-receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were the most prescribed drugs, while ß-receptor blockers, thiazide diuretics were the most used drugs for users above 3 years.In conclusion, antihypertensive drug prescribing for children and adolescents increased from 2009 to 2014, with different characteristics in different subgroups.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/classificação , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pequim , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1858-1865, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656468

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of newborns in the developing countries are born with congenital anomalies. Objective: This study investigated congenital infections due to Rubella virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum among presumed normal neonates from full term pregnant women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: Sera from mothers were tested for Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii infection while newborns from mothers with acute infections were tested for T. pallidum and T. gondii, and all newborns were tested for Rubella IgM antibodies. Results: A total of 13/300 (4.3 %) mothers had T. pallidum antibodies with 3 of them having acute infection. Two (0.7 %) of the newborns from mothers with acute infection were confirmed to have congenital syphilis. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 92/300 (30.7 %) mothers were IgG seropositive and 7 had borderline positivity, with only 1/99 (1%) being IgM seropositive who delivered IgM seronegative neonate. Only 1/300 (0.3 %) newborn had rubella IgM antibodies indicating congenital rubella infection. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is estimated that in Mwanza city in every 100,000 live births about 300 and 600 newborns have congenital rubella and syphilis infections, respectively. Rubella virus and T. pallidum are likely to be among common causes of congenital infections in developing countries.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/congênito , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , População Urbana
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 873-879, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600183

RESUMO

Correct and consistent condom use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are protective against sexual transmission of HIV (1,2). The incidence of HIV infection among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States is increasing (3). HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino MSM differs based on their place of birth and years of U.S. residence (4). Data from CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS)* for 2011-2017 were analyzed to assess changes in sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino MSM by place of birth and years of U.S. residence. Overall, condomless anal sex during the previous 12 months increased from 63% in 2011 to 74% in 2017, and PrEP use during the previous 12 months increased from 3% in 2014 to 24% in 2017. Regardless of place of birth, nearly 75% of Hispanic/Latino MSM reported condomless anal sex during 2017. However, because of PrEP use, <60% of non-U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM and <50% of U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM reported unprotected anal sex (condomless anal sex and no PrEP use) during 2017. Results indicate that PrEP can be a vital tool for reducing HIV transmission among Hispanic/Latino MSM, especially those who have condomless anal sex. Interventions to prevent HIV acquisition, including increasing PrEP uptake, could address cultural and linguistic needs of Hispanic/Latino MSM, as well as other barriers to prevention of HIV infection typically faced by all MSM.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3303-3315, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621216

RESUMO

Urban greenspace, which serves as a place for residents to connect with nature and relax, provides important ecosystem services. Access to greenspace is often related to the socio-economic characteristics of residents, which received a lot attention from researchers and practitioners. Previous studies have mostly focused on single city to analyze the spatial relationship between greenspace distribution and residents' characteristics. We conducted a meta-analysis with global studies. The objectives were to classify findings from different cases and investigate the impacts from the location of research area, indicator and analytical method, and summarized major factors influen-cing the relationship between greenspace distribution and residents' characteristics. The results showed that more than half of the cases (58.2%) found that the socially advantaged population benefited more from greenspace. About a quarter cases (25.4%) revealed the opposite, that was, the disadvantaged population benefited more from greenspace. The remaining case studies (16.4%) did not find significant correlation between them. The studies reviewed here were diverse in terms of scale, indicator selection, and analytical method. Overall, we found no connection between finding and the choice of scale/indicator/analytical method. The reviewed case studies were mostly conducted in cities of western countries, which differed in their development trajectories and urban characteristics from cities in China. To understand association between urban greenspace and residents' characteristics in China, we urged to carry out more local studies, which would potentially provide scientific evidence for building sustainable cities during rapid urbanization.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
20.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 483-488, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Many studies have indicated numerous nutrition mistakes among school-aged children and adolescents in both urban and rural environments. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional habits of the Polish population, consisting of 7,974 individuals aged 12-17, from rural and urban environments, as well as to identify environmental variations of these habits and to verify the existing information on the incorrect nutrition of school-age children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research covered a group of 7,974 respondents - school-age adolescents with a similar age structure (12-17 years). The study on subjects from secondary school grades 1 - 3 was conducted in randomly selected schools from 2 random Polish provinces; 5 counties were randomly selected, followed by a choice of 2 communes: one rural and one urban. The research technique was a self-designed survey questionnaire. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Pearson Chi 2 and V Cramer test. RESULTS: The research revealed environment-based differences in subjects' nutrition. Breakfast was consumed daily by a statistically significantly fewer subjects from the rural environment (36.31%) than from the urban areas (51.32%); second breakfast was consumed by an insignificantly smaller proportion of respondents from the urban environment (40.00%) than from the rural one (46.00%); dinner was eaten daily by 86.00% of urban subjects and 82.00% of rural respondents; afternoon tea and supper were eaten rarely by respondents from both environments. The diet of respondents was dominated by anti-health behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the respondents displayed incorrect nutritional behaviours. Nutritional mistakes occurred among respondents from both rural and urban environments, with the predominance of the rural areas.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
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