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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-02-16. (OPS/CDE/HT/21-0002).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53277

RESUMO

En América Latina y el Caribe, entre 70% y 80% de las nuevas infecciones por el VIH se presentan en los grupos de población clave o en sus clientes o parejas sexuales. La información estratégica de calidad sobre los servicios ofrecidos a estos grupos de población, es esencial para la toma de decisiones programáticas que pongan a los países en el camino hacia la eliminación del VIH para el 2030. Desde el 2019, varios países de la región han fortalecido el monitoreo de los servicios preventivos de VIH ofrecidos a los grupos de población clave. Las mejoras han incluido el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de información, la capacitación para la recogida y el análisis de los datos, y el fomento de la toma de decisiones basada en evidencia para mejorar la disponibilidad y cobertura de los servicios de VIH e ITS. A través de la construcción de las cascadas de prevención y atención al VIH, ocho países han conseguido medir el impacto de los servicios de VIH no solo a partir de que las personas de población clave con VIH mantengan una carga viral indetectable, sino también de que las personas de población clave VIH-negativas se mantengan libres de infección. Además se ha progresado en medir la contribución que las asociaciones de la sociedad civil llevan a cabo en la respuesta contra el VIH y las ITS. Este aspecto es fundamental para garantizar su sostenibilidad y el financiamiento por fuentes nacionales. En esta publicación se resumen los principales logros alcanzados en América Latina y el Caribe en favor de la mejora de la información estratégica relacionada con los servicios de VIH para los grupos de población clave. En él se ponen de relieve las experiencias de la region, que pueden servir de ejemplo a otras regiones, a medida que nos adentramos en los últimos diez años para alcanzar los objetivos de eliminación del VIH/sida.


Assuntos
HIV , Parceiros Sexuais , Infecções por HIV , População , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero , Reforço de Estruturas , América , Região do Caribe , Profissionais do Sexo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-02-11. (PAHO/CDE/HT/21-0002).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53271

RESUMO

In Latin America and the Caribbean, 70-80% of new HIV infections occur among key populations and their clients or sexual partners. High-quality strategic information on the monitoring of HIV prevention services offered to key populations is essential to drive programmatic decisions that put countries on the path to eliminating HIV by 2030. Since 2019, several countries in the region have strengthened the monitoring of HIV preventive services offered to key populations. Improvements include the strengthening of information systems, capacity building for data collection and analysis, and fostering evidence-based decision making to improve the availability and coverage of HIV and STI services. By building the HIV prevention and care cascades, 8 countries in the region have measured the impact of HIV services. This impact is determined not only from the number of people from the key population living with HIV maintaining an undetectable viral load but also from the number of people from the HIV-negative key population kept HIV-free through the provision of essential services. Moreover, countries have progressed in measuring civil society's contribution in the response against HIV and STIs. This aspect is essential to guarantee their sustainability and financing from national sources. The document shown here is a guide for Latin American and Caribbean countries to improve strategic information related to HIV services for key populations through strengthened monitoring using a combination prevention approach.


Assuntos
HIV , População , Reforço de Estruturas , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , América , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero , Profissionais do Sexo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis
3.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210200. 41 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1146906

RESUMO

La Directiva contiene los criterios técnicos para la vacunación contra la COVID-19, a la población a partir de los 18 años a más, a nivel nacional, ante la situación de emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia. Contiene la R.M N° 195-2021 que modifica.


Assuntos
População , Vacinação em Massa , Vacinação , Guias como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identificação da Emergência
4.
5.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 18(2): 1-20, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144710

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) En este artículo se explora una serie de experiencias escolares que viven las y los jóvenes de secundaria que, después de haber estado por un tiempo significativo en escuelas estadounidenses, han retornado y ahora cursan estudios en instituciones mexicanas. La metodología utilizada fue cualitativa; se empleó un cuestionario sociodemográfico y se tomó como punto de partida la etnografía escolar. La población estuvo conformada por veinte estudiantes retornados de cinco secundarias públicas de Mexicali, Baja California, a quienes se les aplicó el cuestionario. Asimismo, se realizaron nueve entrevistas en profundidad. Los principales resultados obtenidos señalan la clasificación de las experiencias escolares identificadas por los propios estudiantes retornados, divididas en infraestructura de la escuela, discontinuidad del sistema educativo y cultura escolar.


Abstract (analytical) This paper describes the secondary school experiences of Mexican young people after having spent a significant period of time attending American schools. The methodology used in the study was qualitative, supported by a sociodemographic survey inspired based on an ethnography of the schools. The population for the study consisted of 20 returned students studying in five public schools in Mexicali, Baja California, who responded to the questionnaire; besides. Nine indepth interviews of these students were conducted. The responses of the returned students highlighted differences in school infrastructure, discontinuity in the educational system and school culture.


Resumo (analítico) Neste artigo exploram-se as experiências escolares de jovens mexicanos de ensino médio retornantes ao sistema de ensino mexicano após longos períodos de imigração nos Estados Unidos. A metodologia utilizada é qualitativa, apoiada num questionário sociodemográfico e inspirada na etnografia escolar, enquanto a população do estudo consistiu de 20 estudantes retornantes localizados em cinco escolas públicas de ensino médio em Mexicali, Baja California, com quem o questionário foi trabalhado. Além disso foram aplicadas nove entrevistas em profundidade. O principal resultado obtido é a classificação das experiências escolares identificadas pelos proprios estudantes retornantes, dividindo-se na infraestrutura da escola, a discontinuidade do sistema educacional e na cultura escolar.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , População
6.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Dirección General de Estadística y Censos; nov. 2020. a) f: 50 l:57 p. tab, graf.(Población de Buenos Aires, 17, 29).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1146287

RESUMO

En un nuevo contexto de la migración en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, el presente informe tiene como objetivo analizar las características sociodemográficas de los principales orígenes que integran el conjunto de inmigrantes externos y que, como se mencionó, presentan particularidades en su composición y antigüedad de residencia en la Ciudad, considerando asimismo desde una perspectiva comparativa a los residentes nacidos en el país. Para este informe se explotaron los datos de la última Encuesta Anual de Hogares disponible correspondiente a 2019 que releva la Dirección General de Estadística y Censos sobre la base de una muestra probabilística de viviendas y hogares residentes en CABA y que contiene preguntas específicas sobre el lugar de nacimiento y el año desde que la persona reside en forma continua, que permiten identificar la antigüedad y cohortes de inmigrantes. (AU)


Assuntos
População , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia/tendências , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , População Residente , Migração Humana/tendências , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5482, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127893

RESUMO

The current human reference genome is predominantly derived from a single individual and it does not adequately reflect human genetic diversity. Here, we analyze 338 high-quality human assemblies of genetically divergent human populations to identify missing sequences in the human reference genome with breakpoint resolution. We identify 127,727 recurrent non-reference unique insertions spanning 18,048,877 bp, some of which disrupt exons and known regulatory elements. To improve genome annotations, we linearly integrate these sequences into the chromosomal assemblies and construct a Human Diversity Reference. Leveraging this reference, an average of 402,573 previously unmapped reads can be recovered for a given genome sequenced to ~40X coverage. Transcriptomic diversity among these non-reference sequences can also be directly assessed. We successfully map tens of thousands of previously discarded RNA-Seq reads to this reference and identify transcription evidence in 4781 gene loci, underlining the importance of these non-reference sequences in functional genomics. Our extensive datasets are important advances toward a comprehensive reference representation of global human genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , População/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional , Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA-Seq , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042867, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine any change in referral patterns and outcomes in children (0-18) referred for child protection medical examination (CPME) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study, analysing routinely collected clinical data from CPME reports in a rapid response to the pandemic lockdown. SETTING: Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, which provides all routine CPME for Birmingham, England, population 1.1 million including 288 000 children. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged under 18 years attending CPME during an 18-week period from late February to late June during the years 2018-2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of referrals, source of disclosure and outcomes from CPME. RESULTS: There were 78 CPME referrals in 2018, 75 in 2019 and 47 in 2020, this was a 39.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 59.0%) reduction in referrals from 2018 to 2020, and a 37.3% (95% CI 8.6% to 57.4%) reduction from 2019 to 2020. There were fewer CPME referrals initiated by school staff in 2020, 12 (26%) compared with 36 (47%) and 38 (52%) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In all years 75.9% of children were known to social care prior to CPME, and 94% of CPME concluded that there were significant safeguarding concerns. CONCLUSIONS: School closure due to COVID-19 may have harmed children as child abuse has remained hidden. There needs to be either mandatory attendance at schools in future or viable alternatives found. There may be a significant increase in safeguarding referrals when schools fully reopen as children disclose the abuse they have experienced at home.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/métodos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , População , Isolamento Social , Serviço Social/métodos , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915809

RESUMO

The number of national reference populations that are whole-genome sequenced are rapidly increasing. Partly driving this development is the fact that genetic disease studies benefit from knowing the genetic variation typical for the geographical area of interest. A whole-genome sequenced Swedish national reference population (n = 1000) has been recently published but with few samples from northern Sweden. In the present study we have whole-genome sequenced a control population (n = 300) (ACpop) from Västerbotten County, a sparsely populated region in northern Sweden previously shown to be genetically different from southern Sweden. The aggregated variant frequencies within ACpop are publicly available (DOI 10.17044/NBIS/G000005) to function as a basic resource in clinical genetics and for genetic studies. Our analysis of ACpop, representing approximately 0.11% of the population in Västerbotten, indicates the presence of a genetic substructure within the county. Furthermore, a demographic analysis showed that the population from which samples were drawn was to a large extent geographically stationary, a finding that was corroborated in the genetic analysis down to the level of municipalities. Including ACpop in the reference population when imputing unknown variants in a Västerbotten cohort resulted in a strong increase in the number of high-confidence imputed variants (up to 81% for variants with minor allele frequency < 5%). ACpop was initially designed for cancer disease studies, but the genetic structure within the cohort will be of general interest for all genetic disease studies in northern Sweden.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Polimorfismo Genético , População/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Edumecentro ; 12(3): 277-283, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124715

RESUMO

RESUMEN Las autoras analizan el impacto social de la COVID-19 en Ecuador y Brasil como una muestra representativa de las tendencias de América Latina bajo las llamadas democracias capitalistas. El objetivo es valorar críticamente estas realidades a la luz de las teorías de las ciencias sociales y otros estudios previos.


ABSTRACT Authors analyze the social impact of COVID-19 on Ecuador and Brazil as a representative sample of Latin American trends under the so-called capitalist democracies. The purpose of the paper is to critically assess these realities in the light of social science theories and other previous studies.


Assuntos
População , Pobreza , Infecções por Coronavirus , Impacto de Calamidades
12.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20200900. 64 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1121804

RESUMO

El documento contiene cuatro partes: en el primero se trata de la comprensión en la adolescencia, en el segundo de pensar en la salud adolescente, en el tercero de promover el desarrollo de la población adolescente y en el cuarto de las habilidades sociales para la interacción efectiva.


Assuntos
População , Adolescente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Compreensão , Habilidades Sociais
14.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(11): 807-816, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School closures have occurred globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, empiric data on transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children and in educational settings are scarce. In Australia, most schools have remained open during the first epidemic wave, albeit with reduced student physical attendance at the epidemic peak. We examined SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children and staff in schools and early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW). METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed paediatric (aged ≤18 years) and adult COVID-19 cases who attended a school or ECEC setting while considered infectious (defined as 24 h before symptom onset based on national guidelines during the study period) in NSW from Jan 25 to April 10, 2020, were investigated for onward transmission. All identified school and ECEC settings close contacts were required to home quarantine for 14 days, and were monitored and offered SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing if symptomatic. Enhanced investigations in selected educational settings included nucleic acid testing and SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing in symptomatic and asymptomatic contacts. Secondary attack rates were calculated and compared with state-wide COVID-19 rates. FINDINGS: 15 schools and ten ECEC settings had children (n=12) or adults (n=15) attend while infectious, with 1448 contacts monitored. Of these, 633 (43·7%) of 1448 had nucleic acid testing, or antibody testing, or both, with 18 secondary cases identified (attack rate 1·2%). Five secondary cases (three children; two adults) were identified (attack rate 0·5%; 5/914) in three schools. No secondary transmission occurred in nine of ten ECEC settings among 497 contacts. However, one outbreak in an ECEC setting involved transmission to six adults and seven children (attack rate 35·1%; 13/37). Across all settings, five (28·0%) of 18 secondary infections were asymptomatic (three infants [all aged 1 year], one adolescent [age 15 years], and one adult). INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates were low in NSW educational settings during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave, consistent with mild infrequent disease in the 1·8 million child population. With effective case-contact testing and epidemic management strategies and associated small numbers of attendances while infected, children and teachers did not contribute significantly to COVID-19 transmission via attendance in educational settings. These findings could be used to inform modelling and public health policy regarding school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: NSW Government Department of Health.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação a Distância/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , População , Quarentena/organização & administração , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008895, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760067

RESUMO

The sequencing of Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes has yielded many new insights about interbreeding events between extinct hominins and the ancestors of modern humans. While much attention has been paid to the relatively recent gene flow from Neanderthals and Denisovans into modern humans, other instances of introgression leave more subtle genomic evidence and have received less attention. Here, we present a major extension of the ARGweaver algorithm, called ARGweaver-D, which can infer local genetic relationships under a user-defined demographic model that includes population splits and migration events. This Bayesian algorithm probabilistically samples ancestral recombination graphs (ARGs) that specify not only tree topologies and branch lengths along the genome, but also indicate migrant lineages. The sampled ARGs can therefore be parsed to produce probabilities of introgression along the genome. We show that this method is well powered to detect the archaic migration into modern humans, even with only a few samples. We then show that the method can also detect introgressed regions stemming from older migration events, or from unsampled populations. We apply it to human, Neanderthal, and Denisovan genomes, looking for signatures of older proposed migration events, including ancient humans into Neanderthal, and unknown archaic hominins into Denisovans. We identify 3% of the Neanderthal genome that is putatively introgressed from ancient humans, and estimate that the gene flow occurred between 200-300kya. We find no convincing evidence that negative selection acted against these regions. Finally, we predict that 1% of the Denisovan genome was introgressed from an unsequenced, but highly diverged, archaic hominin ancestor. About 15% of these "super-archaic" regions-comprising at least about 4Mb-were, in turn, introgressed into modern humans and continue to exist in the genomes of people alive today.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Modelos Genéticos , Homem de Neandertal/genética , População/genética , Recombinação Genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Migração Humana , Humanos
16.
San Salvador; MINSAL; 2 ed; ago.21, 2020. 16 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1118490

RESUMO

El presente documento describe las principales recomendaciones alimentarias que la población debe practicar ante la pandemia generada por la COVID-19, estas recomendaciones abordan adquisición, preparación, conservación y consumo de alimentos saludables, y las recomendaciones específicas para grupos priorizados de la población


This document describes the main dietary recommendations that the population should practice in the face of the pandemic generated by COVID-19, these recommendations address the acquisition, preparation, conservation and consumption of healthy foods, and the specific recommendations for prioritized groups of the population


Assuntos
População , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ciências da Nutrição
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638477

RESUMO

Although there are a number of Vietnamese native pig (VnP) populations, some are on the verge of extinction, and therefore adequate management and conservation are necessary. In this study, we conducted a field survey of VnP populations and analyzed interrelationships among their characteristics. We also established a relational database for management of field data on these populations. For data collection, we conducted interviews with farmers and visual inspection of 32 VnP populations in 22 provinces of Vietnam, as well as taking photographs of individual animals. Data on the characteristics of VnP populations were subjected to multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). For establishment of the database, normalization and table partitioning were performed to eliminate redundancy and ensure consistency of the collected data items. Passport data, characteristics data, and image data were collected from a total of 1,918 VnPs and entered as a normalized table. Upon MCA, most of the populations were not separated from each other, but the Mong Cai, O Lam, and Chu Prong populations were separated from the other populations. Thus, we have constructed a relational database from comprehensive information on the characteristics of VnP populations.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Fenótipo , Suínos , Animais , População , Vietnã
19.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(10): 1099-1102.e1, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615153

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has rapidly grown worldwide,1 and many governments have implemented policies to control the infection rate. For example, school suspension, self-quarantine, requirement of citizens to stay at home,2 travel and border controls, and discouragement of outdoor activities3 have been used. Although these actions emphasizing the importance of "spatial distancing" are based on the perspective of public health, they may result in health problems other than COVID-19 infection, such as psychological distress and fear.4 Therefore, the present authors examined the potential predictors for psychological distress among schoolchildren during COVID-19 school suspension.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , População
20.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200700. 34 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1103051

RESUMO

El documento contiene los procedimiento técnicos de los primeros auxilios psicológicos como intervención en personas, familias y comunidad ante una crisis.


Assuntos
População , Saúde Mental , Guias como Assunto , Primeiros Socorros
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