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1.
Zootaxa ; 5047(5): 501-519, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810828

RESUMO

Taxonomy is a mistreated matter, but its role in ecology, behaviour and conservation studies is pivotal. Disentangling amongst different subspecies is challenging given the high arbitrariness level in determining thresholds of genetic and morphological distances. Splitting frenzy trends have increased the number of animal taxa and for most of them a critical redefinition is required. In this work, we reviewed knowledge and validity of subspecific taxa identified for African crested porcupines Hystrix cristata and Hystrix africaeaustralis. In the past, several subspecies were recognized for both the species, but successive works suggested H. cristata and H. africaeaustralis as monotypic species with no clear explanation. Recently, the validity of the taxon H. cristata senegalica has been claimed again. We analysed all available data and discussed all the subspecific taxa in light of both genetic and morphological data. We revalidated here the synonymy Hystrix senegalica Cuvier, 1823 = Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758. Syn. rev. Two names are treated as nomina dubia: Acanthion daubentonii Cuvier, 1823 (formalization) and Hystrix capensis Gr.. Hystrix cristata var. alba de Slys-Longchamps, 1839 has been deleted from the synonymic list of H. cristata. Neither mitochondrial nor nuclear DNA data militate for the existence of any subspecific taxon, although further data are required for H. cristata from East Africa (e.g., Kenya and Tanzania). Similarly, morphology seems to play for a clinal variation in both species. For available data, we thus strongly recommend to keep both H. cristata and H. africaeaustralis as monotypic species.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524374

RESUMO

The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Paquistão
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287526

RESUMO

The Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) is classified as an agricultural pest species. It feeds on plants and crops; hence, it is responsible for massive financial losses worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess the diet composition of Indian Crested Porcupine in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). Thus, fecal samples were collected and examined from different sampling sites. Reference slides of the material collected from the study area were prepared for identification of dietary components in fecal pellets. A total of 80 fecal samples were collected and processed. Percent relative frequencies (P.R.F.) were calculated for each plant species recovered from pellets. Data revealed that Indian Crested Porcupine consumed 31 plant species in its diet, among them Zea mays (34.31±7.76) was the most frequently selected species followed by Rumex obtusifolius (15.32±2.57) and Melia azedarach (12.83±4.79). The study revealed that the greatest diversity of (n=20) plant species were consumed in summer season while minimum (n=13) species were used during winter. Among the parts of plants, stem was highly consumed in spring (57.2%) as compared to seed in fall (36.7%) while spikes and leaf were the least recovered parts from the fecal matter. The Berger-Parker diversity index showed highly diversified food (10.92) in the summer time of the year as compared to the autumn season (2.95). This study provides a baseline for the diet preference of this pest in the study area. Based on current findings, a detailed investigation on damage assessment, exploration, habitat use and management of Indian Crested Porcupine in AJ&K has been recommended.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190803

RESUMO

Indian crested porcupine is the largest rodent pest that damages a wide variety of crops, vegetables, and tree species which ultimately causes huge economic loss in Pakistan, which is an agricultural country. It prefers to live in hilly terrain but common in temperate and tropical forests, shrublands, and grasslands. This study focused on the identification and assessment of crops damaged along with the main precautionary measures used by the local farmers. The data was collected from twenty-four villages of two union councils i.e. Chamhad and Slahad of district Abbottabad. Two types of data (primary and secondary) were collected from the study area. Primary data was collected for identification and estimation calculation of total crop damaged through direct field observation by taking random quadrates in each village of the study area. The damage in the crop was assessed by randomly selecting a quadrate of 1x1 m2 for the wheat, pearl millet, and Sorghum fields. While 4x4 m2 quadrates were taken for maize and vegetables. At least three quadrate samples were taken from each field including one quadrate taken from the center of the field area. In union council Chamhad, damage to maize (11.31%) and wheat (0.73%) by the Indian crested porcupine while in union council Salhad, damage of maize (6.95%) and wheat (1.6%) was observed. In the entire study area, overall damage to maize crop (8.01%) and wheat (0.88%) was calculated. Based on information obtained from the farmers, the Indian porcupine inflicted damage to potato, tomato, cauliflower, chili pepper, turnip, radish, pea, and onion, etc. Secondary data obtained through a questionnaire survey to explore the human porcupine conflict and precautionary measures used by the farmers and landowners. Open and close-ended questionnaires (159) highlighted the presence of Indian crested porcupine in the study area and 96% of the respondents have seen porcupine directly. Many types of precautionary measures were used by the farmers such as fencing, night stay, night firing, and dogs to decrease the crop damage, respondents (63.91%) use guns for hunting. however, due to the largely agricultural area and nocturnal behavior of Indian crested porcupine majority of the respondents (51.57%) did not use any precautionary measure. Biological control of Indian porcupine is recommended in the study area. Farmers should be encouraged and provide incentives and killing through current should be banned while proper hunting license should be issued to overcome overhunting. Scientific studies are required to control the reproduction of porcupine specifically in the more damaged areas.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Cães , Paquistão , Árvores
5.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(3): 705-707, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019672

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a worldwide zoonosis involving a wide range of hosts among domestic and wild animals. We describe tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a wild crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) found dead in the district of Macerata, Marche Region, Italy in 2019.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores , Tuberculose Bovina , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bovinos , Itália/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia
6.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(3): 534-542, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474749

RESUMO

The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) (ICP) is widely distributed in Asia; however, compared with other rodents, little is known about the structures of its respiratory system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histomorphology of the lower respiratory portion of the ICP to provide a basis for the identification of the normal structure of this organ. The larynx, trachea and lungs of four carcasses of adult Indian crested porcupines (two males and two females) were dissected and fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. The gross anatomy and histology of all specimens were evaluated. A macroscopic evaluation showed unique structures in the ICP respiratory system, including the presence of a chamber-like structure at the origin of the bronchi and a difference in epiglottis shape between males and females. Histologically, the stratified squamous epithelium covered the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilage, and the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium covered the internal part of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages. Histomorphological studies showed a few goblet cells in the tracheal epithelium. In the bronchi and larger bronchioles, pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelia were observed. Bronchi were surrounded by segments of cartilage. Distal bronchioles had a simple cuboidal/columnar epithelium with club (Clara) cells, lacked cartilaginous tissue in their walls and had a complete smooth muscle layer. These results revealed histomorphological differences between the ICP and other rodents.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Brônquios , Epitélio , Feminino , Pulmão , Masculino , Traqueia
7.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(2): 188-e48, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lodderomyces elongisporus is a yeast with a worldwide distribution that has been reported as a cause of infection in immunocompromised humans and in a dog that had been quilled by a porcupine. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this report is to describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis caused by L. elongisporus in a North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum). ANIMAL: One wild adult male North American porcupine from New York state, USA. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The porcupine was presented for alopecia and scaling dermatitis over the caudal dorsum. Diagnostic testing included cytological evaluation, trichogram, bacterial and fungal culture, and histopathological examination of skin biopsies. RESULTS: Histopathological findings from skin specimens demonstrated mild eosinophilic perivascular-to-interstitial dermatitis with superficial dermal fibrosis, mild epidermal hyperplasia with moderate-to-marked intracorneal and intrafollicular yeast. Fungal culture with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization confirmed L. elongisporus as the cause of the dermatitis. The porcupine was treated with a six week course of oral itraconazole with clinical resolution. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Infection with L. elongisporus should be included as a differential diagnosis for North American porcupines exhibiting signs of dermatitis including scaling and alopecia. This case report may be relevant for the diagnosis and treatment of porcupines with dermatitis and for animals or humans that have been quilled by a porcupine.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Doenças do Cão , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores , Alopecia/veterinária , Animais , Dermatite/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Masculino , América do Norte , Saccharomycetales
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1054-1061, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810361

RESUMO

In Brazil, the orange-spined hairy dwarf porcupine (Sphiggurus villosus) is widely distributed in the Atlantic Rainforest biome being amongst the most frequently road-killed animal. Porcupines may also be commonly found on forest borders and occasionally, near urban areas where human and domestic dogs injuries caused by its spines may occur. Therefore, the aims of this study were (a) to screen porcupines for TBD pathogens and haemoplasmas and (b) to identify the tick species parasitizing these rodents in Paraná State, southern Brazil. Blood and/or spleen samples were collected from nine orange-spined hairy dwarf porcupines. A total of 275 ticks (34 males, 11 females, 7 nymphs and 223 larvae) were collected from eight porcupines: Amblyomma longirostre, A. parkeri and Amblyomma spp. larvae. Two out of nine (22%; 95% CI: 3%-60%) porcupines were PCR-positive for haemoplasmas. All animals tested negative for Theileria/Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. by PCR. Phylogenetic and network analysis of the 16S and 23S rRNA gene fragments confirmed that animals were infected by a potentially novel haemotropic Mycoplasma sp. The name 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosphiggurus' is proposed for this novel organism that should be further fully characterized.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycoplasma/classificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
9.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(3): 979-991, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875396

RESUMO

Scavenging animals often scatter skeletal remains of forensic interest and cause scavenging damage. This study aimed to identify scavenging animals in the peri-urban agricultural Highveld of South Africa, describe their scattering patterns, and the damage they cause to bone. Ten pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus) (40-80 kg) were placed at the University of Pretoria's Mierjie Le Roux Experimental Farm (Highveld) in summer and winter. Motion-activated cameras recorded the scavenging. Scavenger species were identified and their behaviors, scattering pattern, and the damage they cause to bone were described. Scavenging was primarily by black-backed jackals; however, mongooses (slender, yellow, and water mongoose), Cape porcupine, and honey badger were also active. Remains were commonly scattered in two directions by jackals. The distance of scattering was heavily influenced by fencing. The remains were scattered within a maximum radius of 73.7 m. The remains were scavenged and skeletonized faster in summer. Jackals caused minimal damage to bone, isolated to superficial, nonspecific scores, furrows, and punctures. A few mongoose bone alterations were present as jagged gnaw marks on the angle of the mandible and gnawing of the vertebral spinous process. Cape porcupine bone damage included gnaw marks on the condyle of a femur and head of humerus, and destruction of the proximal and distal ends of a tibia. The described scattering pattern and bone modification patterns will assist in the recovery and analysis of scavenged remains found in peri-urban agricultural areas in South Africa.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo , Restos Mortais/lesões , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Comportamento Alimentar , Antropologia Forense , Animais , Herpestidae , Chacais , Mustelidae , Porcos-Espinhos , Estações do Ano , África do Sul
10.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 24(2): 114-124, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332752

RESUMO

The objectives of this retrospective study were to evaluate the histopathologic changes associated with porcupine ocular quill injuries in dogs, to discuss the various methods of quill detection when quills are not grossly visible, and to discuss the pathogenesis of delayed ocular quill injuries in dogs. Seventeen globes sustaining ocular quilling injuries from 17 dogs (1986-2018) were identified in the COPLOW archives and the gross and histologic changes tabulated and compared. All cases were dogs, with one whole globe submitted from each patient. Sixteen of 17 cases had known or suspected porcupine encounters in the weeks or years preceding enucleation. Histopathologic findings included retinal detachment, hyphema, cataract, granulomatous to pyogranulomatous inflammation (uveitis, endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis), lens capsule rupture, suppurative phakitis, scleral perforation, stromal keratitis, breaks in Descemet's membrane, preiridal fibrovascular membrane, anterior and posterior synechia, Schnabel's cavernous atrophy, and periorbital fibrosis. Quill-associated ocular trauma can have a significant deleterious effect on vision and result in enucleation. The time from initial quilling to the manifestation of ocular signs may be prolonged (weeks to years). Any dog presenting for ocular signs with a history of a previous porcupine encounter should be carefully checked for quill migration into the globe as the source of ocular disease. Quills may not be visible grossly, and ancillary imaging techniques can be utilized with various rates of success.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/veterinária , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Enucleação Ocular/veterinária , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/patologia , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(12): 1729-1733, 2020 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055467

RESUMO

Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) was believed to be an exclusive protein found in the brown adipose tissue of small rodents and humans; however, recent studies show that the expression of UCP-1 protein has been found in the sebaceous glands of the mouse tail and human skin. There are a few reports about the presence of UCP-1 in the sebaceous glands of other rodents, such as the Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica), a wild spiny rodent commonly found in Indonesia with a large sebaceous gland. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of UCP-1 in the sebaceous glands on the skin of the Sunda porcupine. The skin from three regions (thoracodorsal, lumbosacral and apex caudal) of eight adult Sunda porcupines was used to detect UCP-1-immunopositive cells through immunohistochemistry. All three regions were found immunopositive to anti-UCP-1 antibody in the sebaceous gland of quill and hair follicles, and the epidermal layer in quill and hair follicles with various intensities. The result of immunohistochemistry revealed that the thoracodorsal and apex caudal region was the most intense immunoreaction followed by the lumbosacral region. These findings proved that the presence of UCP-1 was also identified in the sebaceous glands of other rodent (Hystrix javanica) and regions of the body, which has not been reported previously.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Glândulas Sebáceas , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína Desacopladora 1
12.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra-conserved non-coding elements (UCNEs) are genomic sequences that exhibit > 95% sequence identity between humans, mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. Recent findings reported their functional role in cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the DNA methylation modifications of UNCEs in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from different mammal species. METHODS: Fifty SCCs from 26 humans, 17 cats, 3 dogs, 1 horse, 1 bovine, 1 badger, and 1 porcupine were investigated. Fourteen feline stomatitis and normal samples from 36 healthy human donors, 7 cats, 5 dogs, 5 horses, 2 bovines and 1 badger were collected as normal controls. Bisulfite next generation sequencing evaluated the DNA methylation level from seven UCNEs (uc.160, uc.283, uc.416, uc.339, uc.270, uc.299, and uc.328). RESULTS: 57/59 CpGs were significantly different according to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05) comparing normal samples with SCC. A common DNA hypermethylation pattern was observed in SCCs from all the species evaluated in this study, with an increasing trend of hypermethylation starting from normal mucosa, through stomatitis to SCC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that UCNEs are hypermethylated in human SCC, and this behavior is also conserved among different species of mammals.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Cavalos/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Mustelidae/genética , Porcos-Espinhos/genética , Idoso , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária , Gatos , Bovinos , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 438, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rodents, globally overpopulated, are an important source for zoonotic disease transmission to humans, including Enterocytozoon bieneusi (one of the most prevalent zoonotic pathogens). Here, we studied the prevalence and performed genetic analyses of E. bieneusi in rodents from the Hainan Province of China. METHODS: A total of 603 fresh fecal samples were gathered from 369 wild rats, 117 bamboo rats, 93 Asiatic brush-tailed porcupine and 24 red-bellied squirrels. The wild rats were identified to the species level by amplification of a 421-bp region of the cytb gene from fecal DNA using PCR. Genotype analysis was performed by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA of E. bieneusi using PCR. RESULTS: Seven wild rat species were identified. The average rate of infection with E. bieneusi was 15.8% (95/603) with 18.7% (69/369) in wild rats, 11.9% (25/210) in farmed rodents and 4.2% (1/24) in red-bellied squirrels. Sixteen E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, including 9 known genotypes (D, Type IV, PigEBITS7, Peru8, Peru11, ESH02, S7, EbpA and CHG5), and 7 novel genotypes (HNR-I to HNR-VII). Genotype D (44.2%, 42/95) predominated, followed by PigEBITS7 (20.0%, 19/95), HNR-VII (15.8%, 15/95), Type IV (5.3%, 5/95), HNR-III (2.1%, 2/95), HNR-VI (2.1%, 2/95) and each of the remaining 10 genotypes (1.1%, 1/95). The phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region of E. bieneusi divided the identified genotypes into the following four groups: Group 1 (n = 13), Group 2 (n = 1), Group 12 (n = 1), and the novel Group 13 (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of E. bieneusi in rodents from Hainan, China. The zoonotic potential of the identified E. bieneusi genotypes suggested that the rodents poses a serious threat to the local inhabitants. Thus, measures need to be taken to control the population of wild rats in the areas investigated in this study, along with identification of safe methods for disposal of farmed rodent feces. Additionally, the local people should be made aware of the risk of disease transmission from rodents to humans.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Fúngicos , Variação Genética , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Porcos-Espinhos/microbiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Ratos/parasitologia , Sciuridae/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776964

RESUMO

Outbreaks of emerging coronaviruses in the past two decades and the current pandemic of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in China highlight the importance of this viral family as a zoonotic public health threat. To gain a better understanding of coronavirus presence and diversity in wildlife at wildlife-human interfaces in three southern provinces in Viet Nam 2013-2014, we used consensus Polymerase Chain Reactions to detect coronavirus sequences. In comparison to previous studies, we observed high proportions of positive samples among field rats (34.0%, 239/702) destined for human consumption and insectivorous bats in guano farms (74.8%, 234/313) adjacent to human dwellings. Most notably among field rats, the odds of coronavirus RNA detection significantly increased along the supply chain from field rats sold by traders (reference group; 20.7% positivity, 39/188) by a factor of 2.2 for field rats sold in large markets (32.0%, 116/363) and 10.0 for field rats sold and served in restaurants (55.6%, 84/151). Coronaviruses were also detected in rodents on the majority of wildlife farms sampled (60.7%, 17/28). These coronaviruses were found in the Malayan porcupines (6.0%, 20/331) and bamboo rats (6.3%, 6/96) that are raised on wildlife farms for human consumption as food. We identified six known coronaviruses in bats and rodents, clustered in three Coronaviridae genera, including the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammacoronaviruses. Our analysis also suggested either mixing of animal excreta in the environment or interspecies transmission of coronaviruses, as both bat and avian coronaviruses were detected in rodent feces on wildlife farms. The mixing of multiple coronaviruses, and their apparent amplification along the wildlife supply chain into restaurants, suggests maximal risk for end consumers and likely underpins the mechanisms of zoonotic spillover to people.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/genética , Carne/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Porcos-Espinhos/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Ratos , Risco , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 262: 113138, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726681

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Porcupine bezoar (PB) is used as folk medicine for various medical conditions including cancer treatment in Malaysia. However, its toxicity profile has never been thoroughly ascertained to confirm its safe nature as an efficacious traditional medicine in the treatment of cancer as well as other ailments. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to reveal three different PBs' aqueous extracts(viz. PB-A, PB-B, PB-C) chemical constituent's profile using GC-MS analysis, anticancer property on A375, HeLa and MCF7 cancer cells, toxicity profile on zebrafish embryo morphology, EC50, LC50 and teratogenicity index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PBs' extracts characterization was performed through GC-MS analysis, in vitro anticancer effect was carried out on A375, HeLa and MCF7 cancer cell lines and finally and toxicity properties on three different PBs aqueous extracts (viz. PB-A, PB-B, PB-C) were determined using zebrafish embryo model. RESULTS: The GC-MS analysis revealed 10 similar compounds in all PBs' extracts. Dilauryl thiodipropionate was found to be a major compound in all PBs' extracts followed by tetradecanoic acid. An in vitro anticancer study revealed PB extracts exerted median inhibition concentration (IC50) <50 µg/mL, on cancer cells viz. A375, HeLa and MCF7 with no significant toxicity on normal cells viz. NHDF cells. In vivo toxicity of PBs extracts found affecting tail detachment, hatching, craniofacial, brain morphology, soft tissues, edema, spinal, somites, notochord and cardiovascular system (brachycardia, disruption of blood circulation) deformities. The LC50 and EC50 demonstrated PB extracts effect as dose and time dependent with median concentration <150.0 µg/mL. Additionally, teratogenicity index (TI) viz. >1.0 revealed teratogenic property for PB extracts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that all three PBs aqueous extracts possessed anticancer activity and exhibited significant toxicological effects on zebrafish embryos with high teratogenicity index. Hence, its use as an anticancer agent requires further investigation and medical attentions to determine its safe dose.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Bezoares , Fatores Biológicos/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Biológicos/análise , Fatores Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Braquiúros , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12297, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704027

RESUMO

The vegetarian diet of many herbivorous mammals is supplemented with proteins of animal origin, especially in young individuals and in breeding females, to provide key proteins necessary for both growth and breeding. Among porcupine species, only the Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) has been observed to consume carrion flesh. From June to August 2019, a pigeon carcass was placed together with corn in 7 study settlements and near 2 monitored capture-traps, in order to assess the carrion flesh feeding habits of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). Scavenging behaviour was recorded on four occasions. All the recorded individuals were adults and at least one was female. This demonstrates that the crested porcupine occasionally does eat flesh. Such evidence raises important questions concerning the relationship between feeding habits and the physiological needs of this herbivorous rodent.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Porcos-Espinhos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Masculino
17.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 88, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Old World porcupines (Family: Hystricidae) are the third-largest rodents and inhabit southern Europe, Asia, and most regions of Africa. They are a typical indicator of warm climate and their distribution is restricted to tropical and subtropical zones. In China, porcupines are widely distributed in southern areas of the Yangtze River. However, fossil remains have been identified in a few sites in northern China, among which Tianyuan Cave-near Zhoukoudian site-represents the latest known porcupine fossil record. So far, studies have focused mainly on porcupines' husbandry and domestication but little is known about their intrafamilial phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history. RESULTS: In this study, we sequence partial mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cyt b genes for seven Late Pleistocene porcupine individuals from Northern, Southern and Central China. Phylogenetic analyses show that the Tianyuan Cave porcupines, which had been morphologically identified as Hystrix subcristata, have a closer relationship to Hystrix brachyura. CONCLUSION: Together with morphological adaptation characteristics, associated fauna, and climate change evidence, the molecular results reveal that a Late Quaternary extirpation has occurred during the evolutionary history of porcupines.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , DNA Antigo , Fósseis , Porcos-Espinhos/anatomia & histologia , Porcos-Espinhos/genética , Animais , China , Geografia , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 6(4): 985-991, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558332

RESUMO

Pathogenic Leptospira is widespread in rodents, the most studied reservoir and the main hosts involved in its transmission. In Italy, among rodents, Hystrix cristata (crested porcupine) is the largest species and it is distributed all over the country. In this paper, the isolation and characterization of pathogenic Leptospira spp. from the kidney of H. cristata is reported for the first time. During Autumn 2018, Leptospira detection by real-time PCR and isolation were performed from kidneys of two died female porcupines (an adult and a porcupette). Only for porcupette kidney sample, real-time PCR for pathogenic Leptospira tested positive. The isolated strain was identified as Leptospira interrogans serogroup Pomona serovar Pomona, using the three schemes of multilocus sequence typing. The results show that H. cristata could be a Leptospira host. The infection of serovars Pomona could be related to the habitat shared with wild boar, a typical reservoir host for this serovar.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico , Animais , Feminino , Itália , Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona/classificação , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia
19.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 49(6): 779-787, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537746

RESUMO

The conventional anatomical study of specimens requires cutting processes which destruct the limited specimens. A non-destructive method, namely an ultrasonography, can be used to assess the anatomical organ information of those specimens. The aim of this research is to analyse the macroanatomy of the female reproductive organ in the Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica), using ultrasonographical imaging. In this study, four formaldehyde-fixed reproductive organ specimens of the Sunda porcupine were used. A 10-12 MHz linear ultrasound transducer was utilized to provide an imaging format of both longitudinal and transversal views. Photographic images were then used as comparison with a sonographic image. The results show that the ultrasound image of the Sunda porcupine reproductive organ soft tissue was hypoechoic, the lumen and antrum follicles were anechoic, while atretic follicles and the mons pubis were hyperechoic. Generally, the size of the organ was not significantly different between photographical and ultrasonographical imaging (p > .05). In conclusion, ultrasound images can be utilized for anatomical studies of the Sunda porcupine reproductive organs without destructing the specimen.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina/diagnóstico por imagem , Porcos-Espinhos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tubas Uterinas/anatomia & histologia , Tubas Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/anatomia & histologia , Fotografação/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Vagina/anatomia & histologia , Vagina/diagnóstico por imagem , Vulva/anatomia & histologia , Vulva/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(5): 506-515, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213731

RESUMO

Wound healing in the Sunda porcupine is believed to occur quickly, although the wound is large and severe. Wound enclosure involves many processes to restore the lost or damaged skin structure where conjugated polysaccharide-protein and collagen, as the main components deposited in wound tissue to restore it. The aim of this study was to evaluate alteration of polysaccharide contents and collagen in untreated full-thickness wound healing in the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions in the Sunda porcupines. Histological analysis was performed by periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue pH 2.5, picrosirius red staining method and Low Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope (LV-SEM) imaging to obtain the fundamental data of healing process. Wound healing began with re-epithelization followed by progressive wound contraction with 4 overlapping stages in about 30-50 days until the wound closed (21-30 days in thoracodorsal and 30-50 days in lumbosacral). Neutral polysaccharide was more widely distributed compared to the acid polysaccharide in almost all stages of wound healing. The ratio of collagen I to III appeared to be higher in the thoracodorsal region than the lumbosacral region during healing process. LV-SEM imaging showed changes in connective tissue structure in the wound border and granulation tissue which appeared abundant and mixed of thin and thick fiber. In conclusion, cutaneous full thickness wound healing in the Sunda porcupine occurred faster in the thoracodorsal region, which might be correlated to the role of neutral polysaccharide and a high ratio of collagen I to III.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Porcos-Espinhos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Animais
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