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1.
Virol J ; 20(1): 12, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only two cases of papillomavirus infections in North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) have been described thus far, and molecular investigation linked these cases to two distinct papillomavirus species. METHODS: In this report, we present the clinical, histological and molecular investigation of a third case of a porcupine papillomavirus infection. Papillomatous lesions occurred on the upper and lower lip of an otherwise healthy three-year old female that was kept in captivity. Within one month, the lesions progressed into exophytic black nodules, followed by a temporary stabilization and ultimately spontaneous regression within seven months of their initial observation. PCR-based screening using specific primers for Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus 1 and 2 revealed the presence of both these virus types, after which nanopore sequencing was used to determine the complete sequences of the two virus genomes. RESULTS: One of the genomes shares 99.9% similarity with the only known sequence for Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus 1, while the second represents a distinct lineage of Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus 2, sharing only 93.3% similarity with the previously discovered strain. CONCLUSIONS: This report marks the first observation of a papillomavirus co-infection in a North American porcupine, although the individual contribution of the two virus types to the clinical presentation was not assessed.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/veterinária , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , América do Norte
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(4): 855-863, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640090

RESUMO

Neoplasia in porcupines is rarely reported in the literature, and the prevalence is unknown. A retrospective review of records from a private zoo diagnostic pathology service found four cases of mammary adenocarcinoma in Indian crested porcupines (Hystrix indica) from four separate zoological institutions. All cases presented in geriatric females (14-19 yr of age) as freely movable subcutaneous masses within the mammary chain. None of the individuals had additional clinical signs, radiographic, or hematologic changes at initial presentation. All cases were managed with surgical excision in the form of either an excisional biopsy or a partial mastectomy. Histologic examination diagnosed all tumors with anaplasia and moderate to high numbers of mitotic figures. Two cases required subsequent surgeries for management of local recurrence in the years following initial diagnosis. One case is 19 months postsurgical removal without evidence of metastasis or local recurrence. Two of the cases were euthanized after diagnosis of inoperable metastases to the lungs and spinal cord, including one previously treated with an oral nonsteroidal antiestrogen medication, tamoxifen. The third case was euthanized due to degenerative mobility changes and renal dysfunction and had no evidence of metastasis. The average survival time from initial surgical excision to euthanasia for the three applicable cases was 33 months. These cases suggest that surgical excision alone may result in temporary management of mammary adenocarcinoma in this species. Metastasis can occur, and routine screening with advanced imaging may aid in early detection of these lesions.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores , Feminino , Animais , Mastectomia/veterinária , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

RESUMO

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Porcos-Espinhos , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Animais Selvagens
4.
Vet Surg ; 51(8): 1257-1264, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the perioperative findings and outcomes in dogs that underwent exploratory thoracotomy following porcupine quill migration and report (1) the use of traction alone for the removal of superficial quills in the pulmonary parenchyma, and (2) the use of exploratory pericardiotomy for the incidental identification of cardiac quills. ANIMALS: Five client-owned dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Short case series. METHODS: Medical records of dogs with pneumothorax or pericardial effusion secondary to porcupine quill migration from January 2019 to January 2022 were reviewed. Advanced imaging and a median sternotomy were performed in each dog. Demographics, preoperative findings, surgical treatment, and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Pulmonary quills were treated with gentle traction or lung lobectomy. The intraoperative palpation or appearance of the pericardium prompted pericardiotomy in three dogs, exposing epicardial and intravascular quills. No evidence of these quills was detected on preoperative advanced imaging or on gross appearance of the pericardium. Quills were removed with a combination of gentle traction, purse-string sutures, and mattress sutures. Pneumothorax and pericardial effusion resolved postoperatively in all dogs. All dogs survived to discharge. CONCLUSION: Traction allowed removal of quills that were superficially attached to the pulmonary parenchyma without the need for subsequent lobectomy. Epicardial and myocardial quills were detected following pericardiotomy in three dogs despite the absence of quills grossly penetrating the pericardium. Preoperative imaging did not allow consistent detection of quills.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Corpos Estranhos , Derrame Pericárdico , Pneumotórax , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Cães , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Derrame Pericárdico/veterinária , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 51(5): 666-673, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899393

RESUMO

The complexity of the Sunda porcupine skin has become an important topic due to the unique characteristics of its quill follicles. The structure and chemical composition of the skin has affected many physiological and other conditions. Generally, quills are larger, stronger and stiffer than hair; therefore, the skin structure needs to adapt to support their physiology. The strength of the skin is determined by its collagen composition and arrangement; therefore, this study aims to analyse the composition and distribution of thick and thin fibres based on the specific characteristics of Sunda porcupine skin under polarized light using picrosirius red staining. The skin samples used were from the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions of eight Sunda porcupine adults. The histological staining was carried out using the picrosirius red method, while the samples were observed under a polarized light microscope and analysed with software. The results showed that the skin is composed of 36%-65% thick fibres, 20%-35% thin fibres and small amounts of other types with the lumbosacral region having higher compositions of thick and thin fibres than those in the thoracodorsal region. Furthermore, the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions have the highest composition of thick fibre in the deeper dermis and quill follicle, respectively. These demonstrated that the complexity of the skin structure of Sunda porcupine due to its quill derivates correlated with its collagen composition and distribution.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Compostos Azo , Colágeno/análise , Pele/química , Coloração e Rotulagem/veterinária
6.
Can Vet J ; 63(7): 747-750, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784768

RESUMO

A 22-year-old miniature horse gelding was brought to a veterinary clinic with multiple porcupine quills embedded in the face. One quill had perforated through the left caudoventral cornea but did not extend beyond the anterior chamber. The horse was referred to a specialist clinic for removal of the intraocular quill and subsequent primary surgical repair of the corneal wound. Following aggressive medical treatment, the horse retained vision.


Piquants de porc-épic oculaires et faciaux chez un cheval miniature. Un cheval hongre miniature de 22 ans a été amené à une clinique vétérinaire avec plusieurs piquants de porc-épic incrustés dans le visage. Un piquant avait perforé la cornée en partie caudo-ventrale gauche mais ne s'étendait pas au-delà de la chambre antérieure de l'oeil. Le cheval a été référé à une clinique spécialisée pour le retrait du piquant intraoculaire et la réparation chirurgicale primaire de la plaie cornéenne. Après un traitement médical agressif, le cheval était toujours capable de voir.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Masculino
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12293, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853976

RESUMO

Mammals are generally brown in colour, but recent publications are showing that they may not be as uniform as once assumed. Monotremes, marsupials, and a handful of eutherians reflect various colours when lit with UV light, mostly purple. Because of these still scarce records, we aimed to explore UV reflectance among rodent genera, the most diverse mammalian group, and the group of eutherians with the most common records of biofluorescence. Here we report structures like nails and quills reflected green, but for most genera, it was faded. However, Hystrix, Erethizon, and Ctenomys showed intense and contrasting green glow, while Chaetomys presented a vivid orange anogenital. The main available explanation of fluorescence in mammals relies on porphyrin. This explanation applies to the cases like Chaetomys, where specimens showed anogenital orange biofluorescence, but does not apply to the green biofluorescence we observed. In our sample, because the structures that reflected green were all keratinized, we have reasons to believe that biofluorescence results from keratinization and is a structurally-based colouration. However, not all spines/quills equally biofluoresced, so we cannot rule out other explanations. Since Rodentia is the most common mammalian group with reports on biofluorescence, this trait likely serves various functions that match the species diversity of this group.


Assuntos
Marsupiais , Monotremados , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Fluorescência , Mamíferos , Roedores
8.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(4): 2321-2327, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906453

RESUMO

Brazilian porcupine poxvirus (BPoPV) is a new poxvirus recently described in porcupines (Coendou prehensilis) from Brazil. Herein, we described a free-ranging adult male Coendou (Sphiggurus) spinosus rescued after being found lethargic on the ground in a rural area. The animal presented crusty, edematous, and suppurative skin lesions on the face, tail, and perineum, and yellowish ocular secretion. The diagnosis was performed by histopathology, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), PCR, and sequencing. Microscopically, proliferative and necrotizing dermatitis, subacute, multifocal with ballooning degeneration, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies were observed. TEM confirmed large brick-shaped virions inside the keratinocyte cytoplasm, measuring about 200-280 × 120-180 nm. Partial fragment of intracellular mature virion membrane protein gene and putative metalloproteinase gene was successfully amplified and sequenced, and the strain herein denoted IAL/21 V-102 was classified as BPoPV, showing 99.4% of nucleotide identity to the reference strain UFU/USP001. Enrofloxacin 10% (10 mg/kg) was administered every 24 h through intramuscular injection for 10 days, dipyrone/metamizole (25 mg/kg) every 24 h orally (PO) for 3 days, 0.5 ml (mL) of thymomodulin every 24 h PO for 30 days, and each 48 h for another 15 days. The lesions were cleaned and debrided every 15 days. Seventy-five days after the beginning of the treatment, the cutaneous lesions regressed, the animal gained weight, and was clinically stable. After treatment, the skin biopsy showed only mild epidermal acanthosis, intra-cellular edema, and mild lymphoplasmacytic perivascular dermatitis. No viral particles were observed by TEM and no poxviral DNA was amplified by PCR. This study documents the first case of confirmed and treated BPoPV infection in a hairy dwarf porcupine. The implemented therapeutic plan eliminated the infection and improved the general state of the animal.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Porcos-Espinhos , Infecções por Poxviridae , Animais , Masculino , Pele , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(9): 1230-1236, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851265

RESUMO

The fatty acid composition in the skin of Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica) is an interesting topic due to the special features of quills, especially in the dorsal region. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the composition of fatty acids in the dorsal region of Sunda porcupine skin. It was conducted using skin samples of the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions taken by biopsies and from frozen specimens. The skin lipid was extracted and then derivatized into fatty acid methyl ester before analyzing with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the skin is composed of up to 25 fatty acids ranging from C12 to C25 with various types but only 16 were found in both regions and sexes. Fatty acids with an antibacterial effect were found abundantly, such as oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The total abundance in the thoracodorsal region was higher than lumbosacral, while the composition in male was higher than in female. Based on the results, the fatty acid composition in the dorsal skin region of Sunda porcupine consists of at least 16 types ranging from C12-C25. Additionally, the region and sex were observed to contribute significantly to the variation in skin fatty acid composition.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Masculino , Pele
10.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 51(4): 549-556, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748654

RESUMO

Although there have been morphological and morphometric studies on the porcupine skull, three-dimensional modelling of the skull is performed for the first time with the present study. In this study, it was aimed to model the skull and mandible of Hystrix cristata in 3D to reveal its morphometric values and the differences between the sexes. Morphometric analyses were performed on a total of eight (four male and four female) adult porcupine skulls and mandibles. Skulls and mandibles of porcupines were scanned usinf a 64-detector MDCT (General Electric Revolution) device at 80 kV, 200 MA, 639 mGY and 0.625 mm slice thickness. Skull and mandible reconstructions were made with the help of MIMICS 20.1 (Materialize) software program and the surface area and volume values of the skull and mandible were calculated. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 22.0 software. The longest measurement in the skulls, based on the metric measurement points, was the total length (TL), and it was measured as 135.4750 ± 0.54976 mm in males and 134.4725 ± 0.86681 mm in females (p < 0.5). The highest value was the foramen magnum index (p < 0.5), and the lowest value the was skull index (p < 0.1). While the total volume ratio of the mandibles was 29901.64 mm3 in males, it was 27296.20 mm3 in females (p > 0.5). Statistical differences in the morphometric values of skulls and mandibles of male and female porcupines were demonstrated for the first time using CT and three-dimensional modelling software.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Feminino , Cabeça , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5426, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361851

RESUMO

Settlements are usually shared at different times by semi-fossorial mammals. Porcupine reproductive pair shows high den-site fidelity, but no data are available on the spatio-temporal inhabitation of settlements. In this investigation, the spatio-temporal inhabitation of settlements by crested porcupine families was investigated using camera-trapping as well as the ethological factors affecting the settlements selection. The crested porcupine resulted to be the main inhabitant of settlements surveyed in the present study. Each settlement was inhabited exclusively by one porcupine family. Five out of six porcupine families, each alternatively and complementarily inhabited the same two settlements. In all the five monitored families, settlements selection doesn't follow a seasonal pattern. Settlement inhabitation of porcupines resulted positively affected by cohabitation with badger, while presence of porcupettes did not affect settlements selection. Long periods of settlement inhabitation were positively affected both by the presence of porcupettes and cohabitation with badger. The pattern of settlements inhabitation in relation to their availability and porcupine population density as well as factors promoting porcupine-badger cohabitation should be further investigated. New ethological knowledge obtained in this investigation could be involved in the evaluation of the ecological epidemiology of infectious diseases between porcupine and badger within a one health approach and may be a useful tool for a sustainable management of semi-fossorial mammals.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Humanos
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3225-e3230, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196418

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ubiquitous coccidia Toxoplasma gondii. Rodents play an important role in maintaining its life cycle, as they are one of the main diet sources for felids (wild and domestic), the unique definitive hosts. However, reports of toxoplasmosis in porcupines (Order Rodentia) are uncommon, with gaps concerning its pathophysiology. South America is the continent with the greatest genetic diversity of rodents and T. gondii. A free-ranging hairy dwarf porcupine was admitted to a wildlife rescue centre with a history of trauma. During rehabilitation, the animal presented neurological symptoms (sporadic episodes of hind limbs paresis) and died 5 months later. The main findings during necropsy were brain congestion and severe incisor overgrowth associated with maxillary perforation. The histopathological exam showed moderate encephalitis, with variable-sized round cysts, positive for PAS stain and immunohistochemistry for T. gondii. Additionally, two cysts were observed in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Molecular techniques were performed to characterize the parasite load by qPCR (Cq = 30) and the genotype by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers, which revealed a potential new genotype. This case adds to the body of knowledge in comparative pathology of Neotropical Rodentia and reports a new potential genotype circulating in South America.


Assuntos
Felidae , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Genótipo , Roedores , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 356-367, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104340

RESUMO

Skunk adenovirus-1 (SkAdV-1) has been reported infecting several North American wildlife species; however, lesions associated with disease have not yet been completely characterized, particularly in porcupines. We describe and characterize the tissue distribution and lesions associated with SkAdV-1 infection in 24 wildlife diagnostic cases submitted between 2015 and 2020, including 16 North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), three striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and five raccoons (Procyon lotor), which constitute a new host species. The most common lesion in all species was severe necrotizing bronchopneumonia with (n=12) or without (n=10) interstitial involvement. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were common in respiratory epithelium (n=21) and less often in renal tubular (n=6) and biliary epithelium (n=1). Several cases (n=4) had secondary bacterial infections, including Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. In situ hybridization in porcupine (n=6), raccoon (n=1), and skunk (n=1) revealed SkAdV-1 DNA in multiple tissue types, including lung, trachea, turbinates, liver, kidney, lymph node, and brain, and multiple cell types including epithelial, endothelial, and mesothelial cells. These findings were consistent across species. Comparison of viral genomes from a porcupine and a raccoon with that originally isolated from a skunk demonstrated DNA point mutations affecting several viral genes, including the fiber protein gene. Our findings show the spectrum of disease associated with SkAdV-1 infection in a broad host range of wildlife species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores , Adenoviridae , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Mephitidae , América do Norte , Guaxinins
14.
Acta Trop ; 228: 106276, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973955

RESUMO

Population of Trichuris sp. isolated from Hystrix cristata was analyzed based on morphological, biometrical characteristics and mitochondrial (cox1, cob, rrnL) and ribosomal (ITS1) (rDNA) region sequences. Morphological and biometrical results revealed that Trichuris sp. from H. cristata present a high similarity with Trichuris landak from Hystrix javanica and less similarity with other Trichuris species from porcupine species (Trichuris hystricis, Trichuris lenkorani and Trichuris mettami). The lack of molecular data corresponding to Trichuris species that parasitize the porcupine (genus Hystrix and Atelerix) has not allowed a comparative molecular or phylogenetic study. Molecular analyses revealed the existence of two different haplotypes that did not correspond to different morphospecies. Relationships among Trichuris sp. from H. cristata and other Trichuris spp. have been resolved by molecular sequence data in this study. Thus, the combined analysis of one ribosomal and three mitochondrial markers revealed a sister relationship between whipworms parasitizing porcupine and other Trichuris spp. from rodents and canids and separated from the rest of Trichuris spp. from other hosts species. It is necessary accurate information on the possible zoonotic behavior of different Trichuris species for health workers to improve existing control measures. Thus, it is necessary to increase the studies of integrative taxonomy on Trichuris spp. based on morphological, biometrical and molecular data, which will inevitably contribute to our knowledge on the etiology of trichuriasis.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Tricuríase , Animais , Filogenia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris
15.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 106(2): 387-394, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288168

RESUMO

Mammal's saliva contains a variety of electrolytes and proteins. They carry out an important role in the digestion process, in the antibacterial and antiviral activity, in lubrication and maintenance of oral general health status. It may also contain several enzymes according to dietary habits and general wellness. Sialochemistry is a valid alternative to the haematochemical analysis for the evaluation of animal health and nutritional status. At present, very little knowledge is available on health status and pathology of crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) and no data are yet available on salivary enzymes. Between 2018 and 2020, a preliminary investigation of enzymatic activity on saliva samples was carried out from captured porcupines. In crested porcupine saliva, enzymatic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, N-Aminopeptidase, amylase, lignin peroxidise, cellulase and chitinase were recorded. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and alkaline phosphatase activity was also detected. The superoxide dismutase activity resulted higher (3.13 SD 3.58 U/mg proteins) than those of catalase (130.80 SD 110.65 mU/mg proteins) and glutathione S-transferase (20.21 SD 16.62 mM/mg proteins). Alkaline phosphatase activity resulted lower (5.91 SD 6.12 mU/mg proteins) than acidic phosphatase (19.00 SD 16.16 U/mg proteins) with the highest values of saliva alkaline phosphatases recorded in young individuals. These preliminary data bring new knowledge on crested porcupine saliva enzymes and may provide a useful tool for further investigation on the adaptive response of crested porcupine to different environmental condition and diet. Additional investigation concerning a possible alternative use of saliva enzymes as indicator of health and nutritional status of this rodent are desirable.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Porcos-Espinhos/microbiologia , Porcos-Espinhos/fisiologia , Saliva
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243063, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285598

RESUMO

Abstract The Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) is classified as an agricultural pest species. It feeds on plants and crops; hence, it is responsible for massive financial losses worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess the diet composition of Indian Crested Porcupine in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). Thus, fecal samples were collected and examined from different sampling sites. Reference slides of the material collected from the study area were prepared for identification of dietary components in fecal pellets. A total of 80 fecal samples were collected and processed. Percent relative frequencies (P.R.F.) were calculated for each plant species recovered from pellets. Data revealed that Indian Crested Porcupine consumed 31 plant species in its diet, among them Zea mays (34.31±7.76) was the most frequently selected species followed by Rumex obtusifolius (15.32±2.57) and Melia azedarach (12.83±4.79). The study revealed that the greatest diversity of (n=20) plant species were consumed in summer season while minimum (n=13) species were used during winter. Among the parts of plants, stem was highly consumed in spring (57.2%) as compared to seed in fall (36.7%) while spikes and leaf were the least recovered parts from the fecal matter. The Berger-Parker diversity index showed highly diversified food (10.92) in the summer time of the year as compared to the autumn season (2.95). This study provides a baseline for the diet preference of this pest in the study area. Based on current findings, a detailed investigation on damage assessment, exploration, habitat use and management of Indian Crested Porcupine in AJ&K has been recommended.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é classificado como uma espécie de praga agrícola. Alimenta-se de plantas e colheitas; portanto, é responsável por enormes perdas financeiras em todo o mundo. O estudo atual foi realizado para avaliar a composição da dieta do porco-espinho de crista indiano nos distritos de Bagh, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJ&K). Assim, amostras fecais foram coletadas e examinadas em diferentes locais de amostragem. Lâminas de referência do material coletado na área de estudo foram preparadas para identificação dos componentes da dieta em pellets fecais. Um total de 80 amostras fecais foi coletado e processado. As frequências relativas percentuais (P.R.F.) foram calculadas para cada espécie de planta recuperada de pelotas. Os dados revelaram que o porco-espinho indiano consumiu 31 espécies de plantas em sua dieta, entre elas Zea mays (34,31 ± 7,76) foi a espécie mais selecionada, seguida por Rumex obtusifolius (15,32 ± 2,57) e Melia azedarach (12,83 ± 4,79). O estudo revelou que a maior diversidade de (n = 20) espécies de plantas foi consumida no verão, enquanto o mínimo (n = 13) espécies foi utilizado durante o inverno. Entre as partes das plantas, o caule foi muito consumido na primavera (57,2%) em relação à semente no outono (36,7%), enquanto a espiga e a folha foram as partes menos recuperadas da matéria fecal., O índice de diversidade de Berger-Parker mostrou alimentos altamente diversificados (10,92) no verão do ano em comparação com o outono (2,95). Este estudo fornece uma linha de base para a preferência alimentar dessa praga na área de estudo. Com base nas descobertas atuais, uma investigação detalhada sobre avaliação de danos, exploração, uso de habitat e gerenciamento de porco-espinho de crista indiano em AJ&K foi recomendada.


Assuntos
Animais , Porcos-Espinhos , Ecossistema , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Comportamento Alimentar
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242635, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278477

RESUMO

Abstract Indian crested porcupine is the largest rodent pest that damages a wide variety of crops, vegetables, and tree species which ultimately causes huge economic loss in Pakistan, which is an agricultural country. It prefers to live in hilly terrain but common in temperate and tropical forests, shrublands, and grasslands. This study focused on the identification and assessment of crops damaged along with the main precautionary measures used by the local farmers. The data was collected from twenty-four villages of two union councils i.e. Chamhad and Slahad of district Abbottabad. Two types of data (primary and secondary) were collected from the study area. Primary data was collected for identification and estimation calculation of total crop damaged through direct field observation by taking random quadrates in each village of the study area. The damage in the crop was assessed by randomly selecting a quadrate of 1x1 m2 for the wheat, pearl millet, and Sorghum fields. While 4x4 m2 quadrates were taken for maize and vegetables. At least three quadrate samples were taken from each field including one quadrate taken from the center of the field area. In union council Chamhad, damage to maize (11.31%) and wheat (0.73%) by the Indian crested porcupine while in union council Salhad, damage of maize (6.95%) and wheat (1.6%) was observed. In the entire study area, overall damage to maize crop (8.01%) and wheat (0.88%) was calculated. Based on information obtained from the farmers, the Indian porcupine inflicted damage to potato, tomato, cauliflower, chili pepper, turnip, radish, pea, and onion, etc. Secondary data obtained through a questionnaire survey to explore the human porcupine conflict and precautionary measures used by the farmers and landowners. Open and close-ended questionnaires (159) highlighted the presence of Indian crested porcupine in the study area and 96% of the respondents have seen porcupine directly. Many types of precautionary measures were used by the farmers such as fencing, night stay, night firing, and dogs to decrease the crop damage, respondents (63.91%) use guns for hunting. however, due to the largely agricultural area and nocturnal behavior of Indian crested porcupine majority of the respondents (51.57%) did not use any precautionary measure. Biological control of Indian porcupine is recommended in the study area. Farmers should be encouraged and provide incentives and killing through current should be banned while proper hunting license should be issued to overcome overhunting. Scientific studies are required to control the reproduction of porcupine specifically in the more damaged areas.


Resumo O porco-espinho indiano é a maior praga de roedores que danifica uma grande variedade de culturas, vegetais e espécies de árvores, o que acaba por causar enormes perdas econômicas no Paquistão, que é um país agrícola. Prefere viver em terrenos montanhosos, mas comuns em florestas temperadas e tropicais, arbustos e pastagens. Este estudo concentrou-se na identificação e avaliação das lavouras danificadas, juntamente com as principais medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores locais. Os dados foram coletados de 24 aldeias de dois conselhos sindicais, ou seja, Chamhad e Slahad, do distrito de Abbottabad. Dois tipos de dados (primário e secundário) foram coletados da área de estudo. Foram coletados dados primários para identificação e cálculo de estimativa do total da cultura danificada por meio da observação direta do campo, tomando quadrantes aleatórios em cada aldeia da área de estudo. O dano na cultura foi avaliado pela seleção aleatória de um quadrante de 1x1 m2 para os campos de trigo, milheto pérola e sorgo, enquanto quadrantes de 4x4 m2 foram tomados para milho e legumes. Pelo menos três amostras de quadrante foram colhidas de cada campo, incluindo um quadrante retirado do centro da área do campo. No Conselho Sindical de Chamhad, houve danos ao milho (11,31%) e ao trigo (0,73%) pelo porco-espinho indiano, enquanto no Conselho Sindical de Salhad, danos ao milho (6,95%) e ao trigo (1,6%) foram observados. Em toda a área do estudo, danos gerais à cultura do milho (8,01%) e ao trigo (0,88%) foram calculados. Com base em informações obtidas dos agricultores, o porco-espinho indiano infligiu danos à batata, tomate, couve-flor, pimenta, nabo, rabanete, ervilha, cebola, etc. Dados secundários foram obtidos por meio de um questionário para explorar o conflito suíno humano e as medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores e proprietários de terras. Questionários abertos e fechados (159) destacaram a presença de porco-espinho indiano na área de estudo e 96% dos entrevistados viram o porco-espinho diretamente. Muitos tipos de medidas de precaução foram utilizados pelos agricultores, como esgrima, estadia noturna, fogo noturno e cães para diminuir os danos na lavoura. Dos entrevistados, 63,91% usaram armas para caçar. No entanto, devido à área ser em grande parte agrícola e ao comportamento noturno da maioria dos porcos-espinhos indianos, 51,57% não usaram nenhuma medida de precaução. O controle biológico do porco-espinho indiano é recomendado na área de estudo. Os agricultores devem ser encorajados e fornecer incentivos, e o uso da corrente para matar os animais deve ser banido, assim como deve ser emitida a licença de caça adequada para superar a caça excessiva. Estudos científicos são necessários para controlar a reprodução de porco-espinho, especificamente nas áreas mais danificadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Porcos-Espinhos , Paquistão , Árvores , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura
18.
Zootaxa ; 5047(5): 501-519, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810828

RESUMO

Taxonomy is a mistreated matter, but its role in ecology, behaviour and conservation studies is pivotal. Disentangling amongst different subspecies is challenging given the high arbitrariness level in determining thresholds of genetic and morphological distances. Splitting frenzy trends have increased the number of animal taxa and for most of them a critical redefinition is required. In this work, we reviewed knowledge and validity of subspecific taxa identified for African crested porcupines Hystrix cristata and Hystrix africaeaustralis. In the past, several subspecies were recognized for both the species, but successive works suggested H. cristata and H. africaeaustralis as monotypic species with no clear explanation. Recently, the validity of the taxon H. cristata senegalica has been claimed again. We analysed all available data and discussed all the subspecific taxa in light of both genetic and morphological data. We revalidated here the synonymy Hystrix senegalica Cuvier, 1823 = Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758. Syn. rev. Two names are treated as nomina dubia: Acanthion daubentonii Cuvier, 1823 (formalization) and Hystrix capensis Gr.. Hystrix cristata var. alba de Slys-Longchamps, 1839 has been deleted from the synonymic list of H. cristata. Neither mitochondrial nor nuclear DNA data militate for the existence of any subspecific taxon, although further data are required for H. cristata from East Africa (e.g., Kenya and Tanzania). Similarly, morphology seems to play for a clinal variation in both species. For available data, we thus strongly recommend to keep both H. cristata and H. africaeaustralis as monotypic species.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais
19.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 500(1): 113-122, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731374

RESUMO

The remains of large porcupines (an incomplete skull, cranial and mandibular fragments, isolated teeth and postcranial bones) from the Early Pleistocene Taurida cave locality in central Crimea (Belogorsk district, Zuya village) are referred to the species Hystrix (Hystrix) refossa Gervais, 1852, which has not been reported from Crimea previously. Based on the stages of eruption, replacement and attrition of the lower dentition, the presence of individuals of six age categories, from juvenile to senile, was established. One dentary shows an intravital loss of cheek teeth, presumably caused by abnormal development of their roots and sockets.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Cavernas , Fósseis , Humanos , Roedores , Crânio
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287526

RESUMO

The Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) is classified as an agricultural pest species. It feeds on plants and crops; hence, it is responsible for massive financial losses worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess the diet composition of Indian Crested Porcupine in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). Thus, fecal samples were collected and examined from different sampling sites. Reference slides of the material collected from the study area were prepared for identification of dietary components in fecal pellets. A total of 80 fecal samples were collected and processed. Percent relative frequencies (P.R.F.) were calculated for each plant species recovered from pellets. Data revealed that Indian Crested Porcupine consumed 31 plant species in its diet, among them Zea mays (34.31±7.76) was the most frequently selected species followed by Rumex obtusifolius (15.32±2.57) and Melia azedarach (12.83±4.79). The study revealed that the greatest diversity of (n=20) plant species were consumed in summer season while minimum (n=13) species were used during winter. Among the parts of plants, stem was highly consumed in spring (57.2%) as compared to seed in fall (36.7%) while spikes and leaf were the least recovered parts from the fecal matter. The Berger-Parker diversity index showed highly diversified food (10.92) in the summer time of the year as compared to the autumn season (2.95). This study provides a baseline for the diet preference of this pest in the study area. Based on current findings, a detailed investigation on damage assessment, exploration, habitat use and management of Indian Crested Porcupine in AJ&K has been recommended.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar
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