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1.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 182-192, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696592

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the levels of SLIT3 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of healthy and periodontal disease subjects, and their correlations to periodontal disease. A total of 45 periodontal patients and 45 periodontally healthy volunteers were enrolled. The clinical parameters, radiographic bone loss and the levels of SLIT3, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in GCF were measured. The prevalences of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque were also analyzed. The expression of SLIT3 and RANKL was detected in the periodontium of experimental periodontitis in rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse macrophage. The total amounts and concentrations of SLIT3 and RANKL were significantly higher in periodontitis than those in healthy, while the level of OPG was significantly lower (p < .05). Significant positive correlations were observed between the level of GCF SLIT3 and clinical attachment level and radiographic bone loss (p < .05). There existed a significant positive correlation between SLIT3 and RANKL (p < .05). Increased expression of SLIT3 and RANKL was observed in the periodontium of periodontal rats. SLIT3 expression was induced by LPS stimulation in macrophages. These results suggest that SLIT3 may act as a diagnostic indicator of periodontal disease and should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Periodontite/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Periodonto/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tannerella forsythia/isolamento & purificação , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação
2.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1142-1146, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447467

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess whether a specific cardiovascular disease was related to an increased antibody level against a periodontal pathogen.A strong association between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis was shown, however, the causal relationship was not proven. Increased inflammatory reaction of patients with periodontitis was a possible factor, which connected periodontal infection and vascular diseases.We assessed medical history, blood data, and periodontal conditions in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Serum IgG antibody titers against major periodontal pathogens and existence of salivary periodontal bacteria were analyzed.In total, 348 subjects were enrolled in this study. The patients who exhibited 10,000 counts/mL or more of salivary Porphyromonas gingivalis were divided into two groups according to the antibody level of the pathogen. Patients with a high antibody level against Porphyromonas gingivalis exhibited a high rate of heart failure compared to the low antibody group. Mean probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level significantly increased in the high antibody group. We found that the high anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis antibody group also experienced enhanced antibody levels against other periodontal bacteria.An increased heart failure prevalence was found in patients with a high antibody level against a major periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/imunologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/imunologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/imunologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Oral Dis ; 25(7): 1789-1797, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis is the main pathogen of periodontal disease affecting over half of the worldwide adult population. Recent studies have shown that P. gingivalis is related to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a global major chronic liver disease, especially in developed countries. However, how P. gingivalis contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD has not been fully clarified. We aimed to conduct a preliminary exploration of the underlying mechanism of P. gingivalis infection in the development of NAFLD. METHODS: Human hepatocellular cells HepG2 were incubated with/without oleic acid (OA) and tested for lipid accumulation upon stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from P. gingivalis or Escherichia coli. Intracellular lipid droplet formation was analyzed and quantified by Oil Red O staining. The involvement of signaling pathway molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines related to NF-κB and MAPKs were examined with Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses and further evaluated with inhibitor treatment and RNA interference. RESULTS: HepG2 cells accumulated more intracellular lipids when stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS, as compared to cells treated with E. coli LPS or control. Further pathway analysis demonstrated that after stimulation with P. gingivalis LPS, cells displayed significantly upregulated MyD88 expression, increased phosphorylation of p65 and JNK, and more release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-8, and TNF-α. In addition, suppression of phosphorylation of p65 and JNK by inhibitors and RNA interference resulted in a reduction in lipid accumulation upon P. gingivalis LPS treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that P. gingivalis-derived LPS may contribute to intracellular lipid accumulation and inflammatory reaction of HepG2 cells via the activation of NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways. This study offers a possible explanation to the functional involvement of P. gingivalis infection in the pathological progression of NAFLD. These findings may help design new treatment strategies in NAFLD.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , NF-kappa B , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Adulto , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae , Western Blotting , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
4.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 32(1): 36-43, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206573

RESUMO

Several studies have tried to associate the presence of different pathogens with the onset and progression ofperiodontitis, reporting a wide variety of results from different populations and environments. The aim of this study was to determine the main periodontal pathogens present in the subgingival biofilm of Dominican patients with periodontitis, by using specific microbiological culturing techniques. Periodontitis patients were selected after a full-mouth periodontal evaluation, and assigned to different periodontitis groups based on percentage of affected locations. Subgingival samples were collected and analyzed by means of specific culture techniques. Anaerobic counts, frequency of detection and proportions of target pathogens were calculated. Variables were analyzed by means of Student's T-test or chi-square test. Twenty-nine subjects were recruited, of whom 17 were diagnosed with generalized periodontitis (GenP) and 12 with localized periodontitis (LocP). The most prevalent bacterial species in both groups was Prevotella intermedia (94.1% in GenP and 91.7% in LocP), followed by Porphyromonas gingivalis (88.2% in GenP and 83.3% in LocP). Total microbiota in subgingival samples was 1.3 x107 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL (standard deviation, SD=1.5 x107) and 9.6x10s CFU/mL (SD=1.1 x107) in GenP and LocP subjects, respectively, though differences were not statistically significant (p=0.222). The highest counts were observed for P gingivalis in both groups, with mean concentration 2.5x10s CFU/mL (6.1x10s) in GenP and 2.9x10s CFU/mL (5x10s) in LocP, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.879). These results suggest that relevant periodontal pathogens are found with diversity and abundance in the subgingival microbiota of adult Dominican patients with periodontitis.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Periodontite/microbiologia , Adulto , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Biofilmes , Estudos Transversais , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/classificação , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Prevotella intermedia/isolamento & purificação
5.
Nanoscale ; 11(19): 9526-9532, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049503

RESUMO

Fluorescent materials can be powerful contrast agents in photoelectric devices and for bioimaging. As emerging fluorescent materials, carbonized polymer dots (CPDs) with high quantum yields (QYs), long-wavelength emission and multiple functions are highly desired. Despite great progress in the synthetic methods and QYs of CPDs, multiple emission of CPDs is challenging. Therefore, we developed CPDs with dual-emission fluorescence in terms of inherent blue and red emission. In addition, CPDs with sole blue emission (B-CPDs) and red emission (R-CPDs) were synthesized, respectively, by regulating the reaction conditions to control the quantitative structure and emission centers. The absolute QY of R-CPDs in water was 24.33%. These three types of CPDs with dual/sole emission could be used in optoelectronic and bioimaging applications. With different CPDs coated on a commercially available gallium nitride light-emitting diode chip as a color-conversion layer, LEDs with blue, yellow, and red emission were achieved. Benefiting from the different emission intensities and emission peaks of R/B-CPDs in different pH conditions, they were used (without further modification) to distinguish between Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in dental plaque biofilms (the first time this has been demonstrated). These findings could enable a new development direction of CPDs based on the design of multi-emission centers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/citologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Polímeros/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes , Carbono/química , Linhagem Celular , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/patologia , Escherichia coli/citologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Porphyromonas gingivalis/citologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Staphylococcus aureus/citologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Streptococcus mutans/citologia , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180205, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994772

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the most important Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an arsenal of specialized virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. Among them, fimbriae play a role in the initial attachment and organization of biofilms. Different genotypes of fimA have been related to length of fimbriae and pathogenicity of the bacterium. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify 5 types of fimA genotype strains in smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis, before and after periodontal therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with periodontitis harboring P. gingivalis were selected: 16 nonsmokers (NS) and 15 smokers (SM). Clinical and microbiological parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment, namely: plaque index, bleeding on probe, probing depth, gingival recession and clinical attachment level. The frequency of P. gingivalis and fimA genotype strains were determined by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Type I fimA was detected in the majority of SM and NS at baseline, and the frequency did not diminish after 3 months of treatment. The frequency of type II genotype was higher in SM than NS at baseline. After 3 months, statistical reduction was observed only for types II and V fimA genotypes in SM. The highest association was found between types I and II at baseline for NS (37.5%) and SM (53.3%). CONCLUSION: The most prevalent P. gingivalis fimA genotypes detected in periodontal and smoker patients were genotypes I and II. However, the presence of fimA genotype II was higher in SM. Periodontal treatment was effective in controlling periodontal disease and reducing type II and V P. gingivalis fimA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fímbrias/isolamento & purificação , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/terapia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Bacteriano , Feminino , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 157-163, 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856692

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate periodontal status of patients with pre-diabetes and evaluate the prevalence of periodontal pathogens in oral cavity. Methods: All the subjects were under regular care in urban area of Beijing, including 88 subjects with normal blood glucose (normal blood glucose group), 27 pre-diabetic patients (pre-diabetic group), 58 well-controlled diabetic patients (glucose well controlled group) and 72 poor-controlled diabetic patients (glucose poor controlled group). Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected before periodontal examination. Periodontal parameters, including plaque index (PLI), probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment loss (CAL), were examined at mesial-buccal and distal-lingual sites of each tooth. Number of missing teeth was recorded. DNA was extracted from the salivary deposition, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Treponema denticola (Td), Campylobacter rectus (Cr), and Prevotella nigrescens (Pn) were detected by using PCR method based on 16SrRNA. Periodontal status and prevalence and quantity of the pathogens under various blood glucose states were compared. Results: The PD scores of four groups had no statistical differences. The CAL [(2.29±1.35) mm] and the number of missing teeth[2.0 (7.0)] in pre-diabetic group were significantly lower than that in glucose poor controlled group [(3.07±1.45) mm, P=0.04 and 5.0 (10.0), P=0.04, respectively]. The number of missing teeth in pre-diabetic group [2.0 (7.0)] was significantly lower than that in glucose well controlled group [5.0 (9.0), P=0.02]. The percent of bleeding on probing [BOP(+)%] in pre-diabetic group [(63.89±20.03)%] was significantly higher than that in normal blood glucose group [(54.51±22.29)%, P=0.04] and glucose well controlled group [(53.12±21.77)%, P=0.03]. The prevalence of Pg in pre-diabetic group (81.5%) was significantly higher than that in glucose poor controlled group (54.2%, P=0.02). The prevalence of Tf in pre-diabetic group (96.3%) was significantly higher than that in glucose poor controlled group (76.4%, P=0.01). Meanwhile the quantity of Pg [1.58 (4.75)] and Tf [5.46 (7.77)] in pre-diabetic group were significantly higher than that in glucose poor controlled group [0.60 (1.87), P=0.01 and 1.63 (3.06), P<0.01, respectively]. The quantity of Pn [0.85 (1.68)] in pre-diabetic group was significantly higher than that in normal blood glucose group [0 (1.02), P=0.04]. Conclusions: Pre-diabetic patients showed severe periodontal infection and BOP(+)% than other three groups and had high risk-level of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Estado Pré-Diabético , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Pequim , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação
8.
APMIS ; 127(4): 187-195, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861212

RESUMO

Periodontal disease is an oral inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth supporting periodontal tissues resulting in tooth loss. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen that plays a significant role in periodontitis. In previous studies, resveratrol has shown significant results by targeting inflammatory and adhesive markers. Virulence factors of P. gingivalis play an important role in the bacterial adhesion and colonization. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of resveratrol and also study the effect of resveratrol on the expression of virulence factor genes of P. gingivalis using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The anti-microbial and anti-biofilm activity of resveratrol on P. gingivalis was carried out by broth microdilution assay and biofilm adhesion reduction-crystal violet assay, respectively. We carried out the gene expression analysis by RT-PCR with the P. gingivalis treated compound to analyze the change in the expression of virulence factors: fimbriae and gingipain. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of resveratrol against P. gingivalis and other clinical strains are in the range of 78.12-156.25 µg/mL. Resveratrol dose-dependently prevented the biofilm formation and also attenuated the virulence of P. gingivalis by reducing the expression of virulence factor genes such as fimbriae (type II and IV) and proteinases (kgp and rgpA). Resveratrol demonstrated superior anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against P. gingivalis. There was significant reduction in the expression of fimbriae and gingipain with the resveratrol-treated compound. The results suggest that resveratrol, due to its multiple actions, may become a simple and inexpensive therapeutic strategy for treating periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Fatores de Virulência/antagonistas & inibidores , Adesinas Bacterianas/análise , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/análise , Proteínas de Fímbrias/análise , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Violeta Genciana/análise , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Coloração e Rotulagem
9.
Arch Microbiol ; 201(2): 259-266, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610246

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to establish a novel high resolution tracking ability of a specific bacterium in multispecies biofilm. A periodontal multispecies biofilm was constructed with Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. A single species was stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The mature biofilm was stained for viability (propidium iodide) and analysis was performed with flow cytometry. The sensitivity of the assay was compared with colony forming units (CFU) counts. A single cell suspension of P. gingivalis was grown in broth and biofilm to identify the location of these events on side scatter and forward scatter. The sensitivity of the assay was comparable to that of the CFU counts. The assay allows quantification of the ratio of a single bacterium within the biofilm, and its viable proportion. The described method is reproducible and of high resolution, and allows the examination of microbes' composition and viability within a biofilm structure.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes , Citometria de Fluxo , Actinomyces/isolamento & purificação , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus sanguis/isolamento & purificação
10.
J Periodontal Res ; 54(1): 63-72, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological and microbiological aspects of the potential association between bipolar affective disorder (BAPD) and periodontitis. METHODOLOGY: The present case-control study comprised 176 individuals with BAPD and 176 controls. All individuals underwent a complete full-mouth periodontal examination and microbiological sampling. Data on bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level in all present teeth were recorded. Quantification of total bacterial load and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis counts were performed through qPCR. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis, Spearman correlation and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis was 39.7% among controls and 58.5% among individuals with BAPD (OR = 2.13; 95% CI 1.39-3.27). A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis counts were significantly higher in individuals with BPAD and periodontitis. The final multivariate logistic regression revealed that periodontitis was strongly associated with the total bacterial load (OR = 1.91; 95% IC = 1.0-1.99; P < 0.001) and the depressive phase of BPAD (OR = 28.94; 95% IC = 4.44-177.27; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: BAPD was associated with increased risk for periodontitis. Individuals with BPAD presented higher levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, suggesting that periodontitis could be a co-morbidity frequently found in individuals with BAPD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Adulto , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Risco , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação
11.
Photochem Photobiol ; 95(3): 839-845, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481378

RESUMO

Various antimicrobial modalities have been proposed to treat peri-implantitis but resulted in limited outcomes. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of combined application of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) of titanium surfaces previously contaminated with Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm. P. gingivalis biofilms were grown on 32 polished and 32 sandblasted large-grit acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces. Titanium disks were allocated into four groups as follows: (1) immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (2) immersed in 0.2% CHX, (3) application of aPDT and (4) immersed in 0.2% CHX and subsequent aPDT. Residual bacteria were determined by microbial culture analysis and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging. Combination protocol (CHX+ aPDT) was the most effective in eradicating P. gingivalis (P < 0.05) on both polished and SLA surfaces. There was no significant difference in the number of remaining P. gingivalis between polished titanium disks and the SLA ones in four groups (P > 0.05). Under the limitation of this study, combined technique of preceding application of CHX and subsequent aPDT was shown to be an efficient method in reducing P. gingivalis numbers in both polished and SLA titanium surfaces.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/química , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(2): 213-221, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542916

RESUMO

Although periodontal diseases during fixed appliance treatment are a common issue, few studies have focused on the clinical and microbial factors associated with orthodontic appliances. Hence, we investigated changes in the subgingival microbial community and their association with periodontal changes at the early stage of fixed appliance treatment. Subgingival plaques from ten female patients with fixed appliances were obtained at three time points: before, 1 month and 3 months after the placement of the brackets (T0, T1 and T2). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the microbial community of the subgingival plaque. The Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) were also recorded. The GBI significantly increased at T2, and the PI showed a temporary increase without a significant difference. The alpha diversity indices were stable. However, the beta diversity was significantly higher at T2 compared to T0 and T1. The relative abundance of core microbiomes at the genus level was relatively stable. Four periodontal pathogens at the species level, including Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Campylobacer rectus (Cr), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Treponema denticola (Td), increased without significant differences. The subgingival microbial community affected by fixed appliance treatment might cause transient mild gingival inflammation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Carga Bacteriana , Gengiva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Hemorragia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Prevotella intermedia/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella intermedia/patogenicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(3): 1393-1404, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470868

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship between specific bacterial infections or microbial compositions and the development of certain malignant neoplasms. In this study, we performed research through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization to certify the relationship between periodontal pathogens and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Subgingival plaque, cancer and paracancerous tissues from 6 patients with OSCC were selected for mapping bacterial profiles by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The research showed that periodontal pathogens were enriched in cancer and paracancerous tissues, while the bacterial profiles were similar between the cancer tissues and subgingival plaque. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus sanguinis was detected in 61 cancer tissues, paracancerous tissues and subgingival plaque samples and in 30 normal tissues by qPCR. The results revealed that P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum existed at higher levels in cancer tissue than in normal tissues and were correlated with subgingival plaques. P. gingivalis was detected using a special oligonucleotide probe in 60.7% of OSCC tissues, 32.8% of paracancerous tissues and 13.3% of normal tissues. Relevance analysis showed that P. gingivalis infection was positively associated with late clinical staging, low differentiation and lymph node metastasis in patients with OSCC, which was accompanied by deeper periodontal pockets, severe clinical attachment loss and loss of teeth. This study revealed that there might be a close relationship between oral microorganisms, particularly periodontal pathogens, and OSCC, which might enrich the pathogenesis of oral squamous carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/microbiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus sanguis/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
Arch Oral Biol ; 98: 213-219, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to compare the presence and amounts of bacteremia induced by interdental brushing in periodontally healthy (H) and periodontitis (P) individuals using culture based (direct culture [DC]) and molecular based techniques (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) in a cross-sectional study model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After a full mouth periodontal evaluation, blood samples were taken before and 1 min after professionally-administered interdental brushing. These samples were analyzed by DC and qPCR, targeting Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Subgingival samples were also collected and analyzed. Student t-test, chi-squar tests and correlations were used for analyzing the data. RESULTS: Thirty individuals per group were included. P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were detected with qPCR methods, but not with DC. At baseline, bacteremia was observed in 5 P patients (16.7%) and in 2 H individuals (6.6%) (p = 0.421). After interdental brushing, bacteremia was only observed in 2 P patients (6.6%) (p = 0.901). A positive correlation between subgingival and blood levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans was observed (r = 0.3; p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Bacteremia related to A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis did not significantly increase after a single session of use of interdental brushes.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolamento & purificação , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/patogenicidade , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/genética , Bacteriemia/sangue , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/sangue , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Espanha
15.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 32(3): 147-155, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176238

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological profile of HIV patients under highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). This crosssectional study comprised 32 HIV patients with periodontal disease (PD) who had been under HAART for more than 6 months. Information about the patients' medical history was obtained from clinical records. Clinical dental examination was performed by a calibrated researcher using standard dental instruments to determine probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP). A total 4,765 periodontal sites were evaluated, 125 of which were also studied microbiologically. Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using sterile paper points; one set was used for microbiological culture studies and the other for endpoint PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using KruskalWallis and posthoc DunnBonferroni contrast tests. All participants were on HAART at the time of the study, and 90.6% had a viral load below 50 copies / mm3. Prevalence of periodontally active sites was low in the study population. Microbiological studies: Black pigmented anaerobic bacteria and fusiform CFU counts were significantly higher in samples from sites with BOP and PD ≥4mm (p 0.020 and p 0.005, respectively). Molecular Assays: Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p 0.002), Tannerella forsythia (p 0.023) and Treponema denticola (p 0.015) was significantly more frequent at sites with BOP and PD ≥4mm. Conclusions: The patients living with HIV/AIDS under HAART studied here had low prevalence of clinical periodontal disease signs. However, significant detection of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia in periodontal active sites, and the involvement of these microorganisms as potential HIV reactivators, show the importance of creating awareness among dental health professionals of the need for close dental and periodontal monitoring in HIV patients.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Gengiva/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Argentina , Biofilmes , Serviços de Saúde Bucal , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite/complicações , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Tannerella forsythia , Treponema denticola
16.
Future Microbiol ; 13: 1585-1601, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430852

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 12 kaurane-type diterpenes against a panel of bacteria that cause endodontic infection. METHODS & MATERIALS: We conducted tests against bacteria in the planktonic or in the sessile mode, cytotoxic assays for the most promising compounds against human normal lung fibroblast cells, and Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC 33277) proteomic analysis. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Kaurenoic acid and its salt exhibited satisfactory antibacterial action against the evaluated bacteria. Proteomic analysis suggested that these compounds might interfere in bacterial metabolism and virulence factor expression. Kaurane-type diterpenes are an important class of natural products and should be considered in the search for new irrigating solutions to treat endodontic infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Mikania/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Pulpite/tratamento farmacológico , Pulpite/microbiologia
17.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 247, 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence to suggest that periodontal disease (PD) is involved in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is increasing. The complement system plays a critical role in immune responses. C5a has been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases, including PD and RA. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major causative bacteria of PD and can produce C5a. Therefore, it is hypothesized that P. gingivalis infection is involved in the progression of RA by elevating C5a levels. In the present study, P. gingivalis-infected RA model mice were established to investigate the involvement of C5a. METHODS: SKG mice orally infected with P. gingivalis were immunized with intraperitoneal injection of laminarin (LA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis development was assessed by arthritis score (AS), bone destruction on the talus, histology, and serum markers of RA. In order to investigate the effects of serum C5a on bone destruction, osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow mononuclear cells was examined by using serum samples from each group of mice. The relationship between C5a levels and antibody titers to periodontal pathogens in patients with RA was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: P. gingivalis oral infection increased AS, infiltration of inflammatory cells, bone destruction on the talus, and serum markers of RA in mice immunized with LA. The addition of serum from LA-injected mice with the P. gingivalis oral infection promoted osteoclast differentiation, and the addition of a neutralization antibody against C5a suppressed osteoclast differentiation. C5a levels of serum in RA patients with positive P. gingivalis antibody were elevated compared with those in RA patients with negative P. gingivalis antibody. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that P. gingivalis infection enhances the progression of RA via C5a.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/sangue , Artrite Experimental/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/sangue , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/diagnóstico por imagem , Complemento C5a/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Microtomografia por Raio-X/tendências
18.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 365(22)2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203018

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4, DPP5, DPP7 and DPP11, expressed in the periplasmic space, are crucial for energy production for Porphyromonas gingivalis, an asaccharolytic bacterium that causes periodontal disease. Bacterial DPP4 seems to be involved in regulation of blood glucose level via degradation of incretins. The present study aimed to identify four dpp orthologs in oral microbiota by database searches, and their enzymatic activities in periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria, as well as oral specimens were determined. Search in the databases suggested that 43 species of 772 taxa possess dpp4 and other dpp genes. Most species are in the genera Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Tannerella, indicating a limited distribution of dpp orthologs in anaerobic periodontopathic rods. In accordance with those results, activities of all four DPPs were demonstrated in P. gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Tannerella forsythia, while they were negligible in Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Furthermore, DPP activities were also detected in subgingival dental plaque at different intensities among individual specimens, while DPP4 activity presumably derived from human entity was solely predominant in saliva samples. These findings demonstrated that DPP activities in dental plaque serve as potent biomarkers to indicate the presence of periodontopathic bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Porphyromonas gingivalis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Humanos , Incretinas/metabolismo , Boca/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 188: 135-145, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267963

RESUMO

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) kills several planktonic pathogens. However, the susceptibility of biofilm-derived anaerobic bacteria to aPDT is poorly characterized. Here, we evaluated the effect of Photodithazine (PDZ)-mediated aPDT on Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms. In addition, aPDT was tested with metronidazole (MTZ) to explore the potential antimicrobial effect of the treatment. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of MTZ was defined for each bacterial species. Single-species biofilms of each species were grown on polystyrene plates under anaerobic conditions for five days. aPDT was performed by applying PDZ at concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 mg/L, followed by exposure to 50 J/cm2 LED light (660 nm) with or without MTZ. aPDT exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial viability at a PDZ concentration of 100 mg/L, with 1.12 log10 and 2.66 log10 reductions for F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis in biofilms, respectively. However, the antimicrobial effect against F. nucleatum was achieved only when aPDT was combined with MTZ at 100× MIC. Regarding P. gingivalis, the combination of PDZ-mediated aPDT at 100 mg/L with MTZ 100× MIC resulted in a 5 log10 reduction in the bacterial population. The potential antimicrobial effects of aPDT in combination with MTZ for both single pathogenic biofilms were confirmed by live/dead staining. These results suggest that localized antibiotic administration may be an adjuvant to aPDT to control F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis biofilms.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusobacterium nucleatum/fisiologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Glucosamina/análogos & derivados , Glucosamina/química , Humanos , Luz , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/microbiologia
20.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 19(8): 992-996, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150503

RESUMO

AIM: In the current study, Porphyromonas gingivalis was identified in chronic periodontitis patients and healthy subjects by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its presence correlated with the severity of clinical periodontal parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgingival plaque samples were collected with sterile curette and subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and subsequent PCR for detection of P. gingivalis. RESULTS: Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected in 60% of patients of group II (pocket depth up to 5 mm), and in 93.33% of patients of group III (pocket depth more than 5 mm). One periodontally healthy subject in group I (probing depth < 3 mm) showed the presence of P. gingivalis. CONCLUSION: Detection frequency of bacterium increased significantly with increase in probing pocket depth (PPD), loss of attachment (LOA), and gingival index (GI). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis and its detection frequency positively correlates with the severity of periodontal destruction.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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