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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 5-10, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176412

RESUMO

This work aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity, antibiotic-resistance phenotype/genotype and virulence factors in staphylococci of farm-animals. Nasal samples of 117 farm-animals (calve: 72; lamb: 37; goat: 8) were collected from one slaughterhouse in La Rioja/Spain and cultured for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) recovery. Identification was performed by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype was determined by susceptibility testing and specific PCRs. Molecular typing (spa-typing, multilocus-sequence-typing, agr-typing, SCCmec), and detection of 12 virulence genes and human Immune-evasive-cluster (IEC) genes were performed by PCR/sequencing in S. aureus. Two marker genes of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) were determined by PCR (USA300-MRSA detection). Staphylococci were identified in 50%, 54% and 21% of goat, lamb and calve samples, respectively. Among the 13 S. aureus isolates recovered, 11 were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and two were multidrug-resistant-MRSA [beta-lactams (blaZ, mecA), macrolides [(msr(A)/msr(B)] and fluoroquinolones]. The MSSA harboured either tst or enterotoxin genes, while the MRSA harboured the lukF/lukS-PV genes. Five sequence-types were detected. The two MRSA strains (from lamb and goat) were typed as t5173/ST8/agr-I/SCCmec-IVa/ACME-positive, corresponding to USA300 clone, and were IEC-B-positive. Among the 47 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), six species were identified, predominating S. simulans (n = 25) and S. sciuri (n = 11). Fifty-three percent of CoNS showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent (six multidrug-resistant strains), and the following resistance phenotypes/genotypes were detected: streptomycin [27.6%; ant(6)-Ia, str], tetracycline [23.4%; tet(M), tet(L), tet(K)], clindamycin [19.1%; lnu(A), vgaA], erythromycin [10.6%; erm(C), msr(A)/msr(B)], chloramphenicol (8.5%; fexA), tobramycin (6.4%), penicillin-cefoxitin (4.3%; blaZ, mecA), and SXT (2.1%). The detection of the MRSA-USA300 lineage in food animals is worrisome and should be further monitored.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Variação Genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus/classificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Genótipo , Cabras/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nariz/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 61-67, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176414

RESUMO

The incidence of infections with extended spectrum ß-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) is increasing both in humans and animals. There is a paucity of data about the rate of faecal carriage of ESBL-E in pets. In this study, faecal swabs collected from 586 pets (225 cats; 361 dogs) in Auckland, New Zealand, were analysed for the presence of ESBL-E by culture, and a questionnaire was delivered to the owners. The ESBL-E were characterised and data elicited by the questionnaires were used for a multivariable analysis, to investigate the factors associated with faecal ESBL-E carriage. The prevalence of ESBL-E in faecal swabs was 6.4%. The ß-lactamase genes detected in the ESBL-E were the blaCTX-M-14 (n = 2) and blaCMY-2 (n = 34). Several isolates displayed multilocus sequence types (ST) associated with human and animal infections. Multiple isolates sharing the same ST displayed different antibiograms and ß-lactamase genes, reflecting horizontal gene transfer between and within ST. Variables independently associated with increased odds of ESBL-E carriage were: animal received systemic antimicrobial treatment in the six months before the sampling; presence of household members working in veterinary clinics; presence of household members travelling overseas in the six months before the sampling. We conclude that pets are colonised by ESBL-E which are genotypically similar to the bacteria found to infect humans and animals. The statistical analysis suggested a number of eco-epidemiological factors associated with ESBL-E carriage. In particular, they suggest veterinary clinics may represent hot-spots of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/genética , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese
3.
Mycoses ; 62(7): 584-587, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050372

RESUMO

The zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton benhamiae has received attention due to increasing infections in human in recent years. Trichophyton benhamiae has been found on asymptomatic rodents from pet shops in several countries posing a potential risk for transmission to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of positive dermatophyte cultures from rodents in Danish pet shops in order to clarify the magnitude of potential sources of zoophilic infections and to prevent further spread. Specimen sampling was performed in 17 Danish pet shops using the brush technique (MacKenzie technique). After incubation, cultures were sent to ITS DNA sequencing for molecular species identification. Pet shop employees were asked to fulfil a five-question survey regarding purchase and procedures of diseased animals. A total of 98 animals were sampled (N = 32 rabbits, N = 32 guinea pigs and N = 34 hamsters). Trichophyton benhamiae was found in 14/98 samples (14%); 12/32 guinea pigs (38%) were positive with T benhamiae, 2/34 (6%) hamsters and 0/32 rabbits (0%). We found that hamsters and particularly guinea pigs from Danish pet shops are common asymptomatic carriers of the dermatophyte T benhamiae. Although a larger study is warranted to test this postulate, and it raises the question if infection control measures should be implemented in pet shops.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Tinha/veterinária , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 40-44, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955821

RESUMO

Haemophilus parasuis is a common colonizer of the upper respiratory tract of swine and frequently causes disease, especially in weaner pigs. To date, limited epidemiological data was available for H. parasuis from healthy pigs, which might be carriers of potential pathogenic strains. In this study, from September 2016 to October 2017, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of H. parasuis from healthy pigs in China. Totally, we obtained 244 isolates from 1675 nasal samples from 6 provinces. H. parasuis isolation was more successful in weaner pigs (22.6%, 192/849), followed by finisher pigs (9.3%, 43/463), and sows (2.5%, 9/363). The most prevalent serovars were 7 (20.1%, 49/244), followed by 3 (14.8%, 36/244), 2 (14.3%, 35/244), 11 (12.7%, 31/244), 5/12 (5.7%, 14/244) and 4 (2.5%, 6/244). Bimodal or multimodal distributions of MICs were observed for most of the tested drugs, which suggested the presence of non-wild type populations. It was noted that the MIC90 values of tilmicosin (64 µg/ml) was relatively higher than that reported in previous studies. Our results suggest that: 1) potentially pathogenic serovars of H. parasuis are identified in healthy pigs, and 2) elevated MICs and presence of mechanisms of resistance not yet described for clinically important antimicrobial agents would increase the burden of disease caused by H. parasuis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus parasuis/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Haemophilus parasuis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nariz/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Sorogrupo , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
5.
J Vet Sci ; 20(2): e6, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944529

RESUMO

The recent emergence of Staphylococcus schleiferi in dogs with otitis externa or skin and soft tissue infections has become a significant zoonotic issues. In the current study, we investigated 1) the carriage rates of S. schleiferi among major staphylococci in healthy dogs and dogs with otitis externa, 2) antibiotic susceptibility profiles of S. schleiferi, particularly methicillin resistance (MR), and 3) virulence factors associated with skin and soft tissue infections such as ability to form biofilm, resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and carriage of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. Among the 21 S. schleiferi isolates, 5 isolates (24%) were determined to be methicillin-resistant (MRSS). Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing revealed the presence of SCCmec type V in 4 MRSS isolates and type VII in one MRSS. Higher levels of antibiotic resistance, especially multidrug resistance, were observed in MRSS isolates compared to the methicillin-susceptible S. schleiferi (MSSS) isolates. In addition, MRSS isolates exhibited enhanced ability to form biofilm under static condition and all the 5 MRSS isolates carried three or more enterotoxin genes. However, there were no significant differences in resistance to CAMPs between MRSS and MSSS isolates. These findings suggest that coagulase-negative S. schleiferi is becoming more prevalent in canine otitis externa cases. Our results also highlight the presence of multidrug-resistant MRSS isolates with enhanced biofilm production and carriage of multiple enterotoxins.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Otite Externa/veterinária , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Otite Externa/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência
6.
Vet J ; 246: 66-70, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902191

RESUMO

After strangles outbreaks, Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi) can persist in clinically normal silent carriers for months to years. Two naturally occurring outbreaks of strangles with 53 and 100% morbidity, respectively, were followed longitudinally to assess occurrence of carrier state and optimal detection methods Outbreak A involved 98 yearling warmbloods, and outbreak B 38 mature Icelandic horses. Fully recovered horses were sampled at least 6 months after index cases using nasal swabs (one sampling occasion only) nasopharyngeal lavage and guttural pouch visualisation and lavages for culture and qPCR to S. equi. Any horse with at least a single sample positive was deemed a carrier. Descriptive statistics and sensitivity and negative predictive values were calculated. Comparisons were made with McNemars and Fishers exact tests. Carrier rates in outbreak A were 3% based on culture and 15% based on qPCR and for outbreak B 13% based on culture and 37% based on qPCR. All culture positives were also qPCR positive. One carrier culture negative sampled after an additional 8 months was culture positive to S. equi, indicating that qPCR positives should be suspected to carry live bacteria. Findings indicate that reliance on guttural pouch sampling and appearance does not capture all silent carriers. All culture positives were identified by qPCR and even horses positive by qPCR but culture negative should be suspected carriers of live bacteria.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Orelha Média/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus equi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Lavagem Nasal/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus equi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 127, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While in Europe Babesia canis has been traditionally held responsible for canine piroplasmosis, Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Bml) infection is being ever more observed in dogs, with the first clinical cases reported in northwestern Spain. This study examines the epidemiological role of healthy dogs living in endemic areas of Bml infection in Spain. The data obtained were used to describe the clinical status and map the geographical distribution of Bml infection in healthy dogs in northwestern Spain. RESULTS: Blood samples and ticks were taken from 756 healthy dogs representatively across the whole Galicia region (northwestern Spain): stray (n = 211), hunting dogs (n = 333) and pets (n = 212). Blood samples were tested by microscopy parasite observation, nested PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Piroplasm infection prevalences in healthy dogs from northwestern Spain were 17.1% (129/756) by PCR and 3.4% (26/756) by microscopy observation. The species found by PCR were: 2.2% (17/756) for B. canis and 15.1% (114/756) for Bml. Co-infection with B. canis and Bml was noted in 2 dogs. The higher prevalences detected were Bml in hunting dogs (25.5%; 85/333) and B. canis in stray dogs (6.6%; 14/211). In fox-hunting dogs from any area and dogs from the A Coruña Province, significantly higher prevalences of Bml infection were detected (P < 0.001). Upon physical examination, tick infestation was observed: 130 ticks in 18 hunting and three pet dogs. These were subsequently identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (s.l.) (49.2%), Ixodes hexagonus (38.5%), Ixodes ricinus (6.9%) and Dermacentor reticulatus (5.4%). Among the more prevalent ticks infesting healthy carrier dogs were I. hexagonus, followed by D. reticulatus and I. ricinus. CONCLUSIONS: Babesia canis and Bml were the only piroplasm species found infecting healthy dogs in Galicia, the prevalence of Bml being higher than of B. canis. Factors correlated with a higher Bml infection risk were being a hunting dog and living in the A Coruña Province. Healthy dogs travelling to other countries could act as carriers and probably contribute to the spread of Bml infection in dogs and wild carnivores throughout Europe.


Assuntos
Babesia microti , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Babesiose/transmissão , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Tipagem Molecular , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/parasitologia
8.
J Med Microbiol ; 67(7): 931-935, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799389

RESUMO

Extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and/or carbapenem-resistant (ESCR and/or CarbR) Enterobacteriaceae constitute a public health hazard because of limited treatment options and are endemic among humans in Greece. Recently, ESCR and CarbREnterobacteriaceae have been increasingly isolated from companion animals, stressing their potential role as a reservoir for humans. However, the presence of ESCR bacteria in companion animals within Greek households has not been determined yet. Genes conferring the ESCR and CarbR phenotype were detected among canine isolates and their chromosomal or plasmid location was determined. Standard methods were applied for plasmid characterization. The clonal relatedness of the recovered isolates was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here, we report the first findings on the presence of ESCREnterobacteriaceae in healthy Greek dogs. ESCREscherichia coli isolates were associated with different sequence types (STs), including the human pandemic ST131 clone. The occurrence of human-related ESBL/pAmpC genes, plasmid types and/or strain STS in this animal reservoir suggests possible bilateral transmission.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Cães , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Genótipo , Grécia , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Animais de Estimação , Plasmídeos/análise
9.
Anaerobe ; 51: 42-46, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604338

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile can cause neonatal enteritis, but has been isolated from both diseased and healthy pigs. C. difficile shedding by pigs is a potential source of zoonotic transmission to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile with respect to age and health status in the pig industry for the first time in Korea. Fecal samples of 910 pigs were analyzed for the presence of C. difficile. In total, 176 (19.3%) C. difficile strains were isolated. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in diarrheic samples (30.4%) than in non-diarrheic samples (13.3%). The prevalence was highest in diarrheic suckling piglets (53.6%), followed by diarrheic sows (40.0%) and non-diarrheic suckling piglets (34.0%). The toxin genes tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, and cdtB were all detected in 153 isolates (A+B+CDT+, 86.9%). Furthermore, the majority of toxigenic strains (86.5%) were identified as PCR ribotype 078, which is an important pathogen in both pigs and humans. These results indicated that C. difficile is a leading causative pathogen of neonatal diarrhea in piglets in Korea.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Clostridium difficile/classificação , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/veterinária , Variação Genética , Ribotipagem , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Coreia (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
10.
Anaerobe ; 51: 61-63, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680295

RESUMO

Features of Clostridioides difficile transmission in swine and the role of rodents as C. difficile reservoir are not clear. To investigate if rodents can carry strains of C. difficile that are genetically similar to those isolated from swine, 97 fecal samples from neonatal piglets and 41 intestinal contents from rodents were collected in two farms. All samples were subjected to C. difficile culture and the presence of A/B toxins in piglet feces were accessed by commercial enzyme imunoassay (EIA). C. difficile isolates were typed by double- (DLST) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). C. difficile was isolated from 15.5% of piglets and 31.7% of rodents. Most isolates were identified as DLST type 4-4 and 17-5 (both are ST11), which were found in both rodents and piglets. Results of this study suggested that rodents may have a role on the transmission and spread of C. difficile strains to swine.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/classificação , Clostridium difficile/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Genótipo , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Suínos
11.
Anaerobe ; 51: 21-25, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571666

RESUMO

C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains belonged to 3 different PCR-ribotypes (039/2, 205 and 001/FLI01). The detection of strains related to RT 001 known for its ability to cause disease in humans makes poultry a potential reservoir for pathogenic C. difficile.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium difficile/classificação , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Ribotipagem , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/genética , Egito , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
12.
Anaerobe ; 51: 36-41, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596988

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and identification of leukotoxin gene, lktA, variant strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum in the footrot lesions of sheep. The detection of F. necrophorum was carried out by PCR targeting the lktA gene fragment and identification of lktA variant strains was done by PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and gene sequencing. Of the 450 swabs collected from footrot lesions of sheep, 117 were lktA-positive for F. necrophorum. Of the 50 swabs collected from apparently asymptomatic sheep, only one was lktA-positive for F. necrophorum. The overall prevalence of F. necrophorum in footrot affected sheep in Kashmir valley was 26%, and ranged from 20 to 34.8%, respectively. PCR-SSCP of lktA gene fragment analysis revealed three lktA variants, designated as JKS-F1/F2/F3, while two samples (1.7%) showed multiple lktA variant strains of F. necrophorum in a single footrot-affected sheep hoof. This appears to be the first report on the presence of more than one lktA variant of F. necrophorum in a footrot lesion of sheep. The JKS-F3 lktA variant was the most frequent (75.4%), followed by JKS-F2 (14.4%) and JKS-F1 (8.4%), respectively. Among the three lktA variants identified, JKS-F3 was detected in 74 (86.0%) samples from severe footrot affected sheep with a lesion score of 4. The data suggest that JKS-F3 is the predominant lktA variant of F. necrophorum and is associated with severe footrot in sheep. Hence, JKS-F3 may be a significant variant contributing to the severity and duration of the disease in sheep.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Exotoxinas/genética , Infecções por Fusobacterium/veterinária , Fusobacterium necrophorum/genética , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Infecções por Fusobacterium/microbiologia , Fusobacterium necrophorum/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos
13.
Microb Pathog ; 116: 241-245, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410122

RESUMO

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a normal flora of gastrointestinal tracts of humans and warm-blooded animals including dogs that has close vicinity with humans. Because the inter-species transmission of E. coli between pets and human beings, within a household, obtaining more information about the epidemiology, genetics, virulence factors, and antibiotic resistance of E. coli from dogs and their owners will help to control the inter-species transmission and treatment of E. coli infections. In this study we characterize and compare the antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles of fecal E. coli isolates from dogs and their owners. A total of 149 commensal E. coli isolates comprised 62 isolates from dogs, 56 isolates from their owners and 31 isolates from humans with no pet as control were collected. Extracted DNA was assessed for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes cmlA (chloramphenicol), sulI (sulfamethoxazole), floR (florfenicol) and blaCTX-M1 (cefotaxime) and virulence genes (papA, ompT, hlyD, traT, tsh and cnf1). To determine the extent of genetic relatedness of isolates, RAPD-PCR was performed. sulI and traT genes were the most dominant resistance profile and the most prevalent virulence gene in all groups, respectively, while hlyD had the lowest frequency among investigated virulence genes. Based on RAPD-PCR analysis clonal sharing between dogs and their owners were observed in 2/28 (7.1%) potential within-household clone-sharing pairs. Allowing dog to lick on owner's face, dog sex (female dogs), dog's sexual status (intact dogs) and times of disposing the feces (≥twice a day) were associated with a higher percentage of RAPD profile similarity (P < 0.05). The current study did not show an obvious evidence to prove considerable transmission of fecal E. coli from dogs to their owners. But in two households, there were relationship between isolates from dogs and their owners.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Variação Genética , Fatores de Virulência/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Cães , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/transmissão , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Can J Vet Res ; 82(1): 66-69, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382971

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are important human pathogens that are also carried by animals. The role of wild mammals on farms in their maintenance and transmission, however, is poorly understood. To determine if Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are potential carriers of these bacteria on Canadian farms, we tested 21 rats from swine farms in Ontario. The MRSA spa type t034 was isolated from 1 (4.8%) rat. This livestock-associated strain often colonizes pigs and pig farmers, suggesting that transmission among rats and pigs or environmental transmission is possible on pig farms. Clostridium difficile ribotype 078 was isolated from 1 rat from a different farm. This strain is associated with infection in piglets, calves, and humans. The identification of MRSA and C. difficile in Norway rats on farms in Canada adds to the growing knowledge about the role of rats in the ecology of these pathogens. Further studies are required to determine if rats play a part in the epidemiology of these pathogens on farms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Fazendas , Ontário , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Suínos
15.
Poult Sci ; 97(3): 764-769, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294099

RESUMO

Resistance to diseases varies considerably among populations of the same species and can be ascribed to both genetic and environmental factors. Salmonella Pullorum (SP) is responsible for significant losses in the poultry industry, especially in developing countries. To better understand SP resistance in chicken populations with different genetic backgrounds, we orally challenged 3 chicken lines with SP-a highly selected commercial breed (Rhode Island Red, RIR), a local Chinese chicken (Beijing You, BY), and a synthetic layer line (dwarf, DW)-at 4 d of age. Two traits related to SP resistance, survival, and bacterial carriage in the spleen were evaluated after infection. Survival rates were recorded up to 40 d of age when all chickens still alive were killed to verify the presence of SP in the spleen to determine carrier state. Mortalities for RIR, BY, and DW chicks were 25.1%, 8.3%, and 22.7%, respectively, and the corresponding carrier-states in the spleens were 17.9%, 0.6%, and 15.8%. Survival and carrier-state heritabilities were estimated using an animal threshold model. Survival heritability was 0.197, 0.091, and 0.167 in RIR, BY, and DW populations, respectively, and the heritabilities of carrier state for DW and RIR were 0.32 and 0.16, respectively. This is the first time that the heritability of the SP carrier state has been evaluated in chickens. Our study provides experimental evidence that chickens with various genetic background exhibited significantly different SP-resistant activities and heritabilities. These results may be useful for selecting lines with better disease resistance.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Salmonelose Animal/genética , Salmonella enterica/fisiologia , Animais , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Baço/microbiologia
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(2): e404-e415, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205858

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important transboundary disease with substantial economic impacts. Although between-herd transmission of the disease has been well studied, studies focusing on within-herd transmission using farm-level outbreak data are rare. The aim of this study was to estimate parameters associated with within-herd transmission, host physiological factors and FMD virus (FMDV) persistence using data collected from an outbreak that occurred at a large, organized dairy farm in India. Of 1,836 regularly vaccinated, adult dairy cattle, 222 had clinical signs of FMD over a 39-day period. Assuming homogenous mixing, a frequency-dependent compartmental model of disease transmission was built. The transmission coefficient and basic reproductive number were estimated to be between 16.2-18.4 and 67-88, respectively. Non-pregnant animals were more likely to manifest clinical signs of FMD as compared to pregnant cattle. Based on oropharyngeal fluid (probang) sampling and FMDV-specific RT-PCR, four of 36 longitudinally sampled animals (14%) were persistently infected carriers 10.5 months post-outbreak. There was no statistical difference between subclinical and clinically infected animals in the duration of the carrier state. However, prevalence of NSP-ELISA antibodies differed significantly between subclinical and clinically infected animals 12 months after the outbreak with 83% seroprevalence amongst clinically infected cattle compared to 69% of subclinical animals. This study further elucidates within-herd FMD transmission dynamics during the acute-phase and characterizes duration of FMDV persistence and seroprevalence of FMD under natural conditions in an endemic setting.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Índia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(1): 253-260, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251837

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to characterize the properties and duration of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) carrier state and associated serological responses subsequent to vaccination and naturally occurring infection at two farms in northern India. Despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of FMD occurred in October 2013 within a subset of animals at the farms containing juvenile-yearling heifers and steers (Farm A) and adult dairy cattle (Farm B). Subsequent to the outbreak, FMD virus (FMDV) asymptomatic carriers were identified in both herds by seroreactivity to FMDV non-structural proteins and detection of FMDV genomic RNA in oropharyngeal fluid. Carriers' seroreactivity and FMDV genome detection status were subsequently monitored monthly for 23 months. The mean extinction time of the carrier state was 13.1 ± 0.2 months, with extinction having occurred significantly faster amongst adult dairy cattle at Farm B compared to younger animals at Farm A. The rate of decrease in the proportion of carrier animals was calculated to be 0.07 per month. Seroprevalence against FMDV non-structural proteins decreased over the course of the study period, but was found to increase transiently following repeated vaccinations. These data provide novel insights into viral and host factors associated with the FMDV carrier state under natural conditions. The findings reported herein may be relevant to field veterinarians and governmental regulatory entities engaged in FMD response and control measures.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(16): 3438-3448, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173242

RESUMO

Infectious diseases frequently have multiple potential routes of intraspecific transmission of pathogens within wildlife and other populations. For pathogens causing zoonotic diseases, knowing whether these transmission routes occur in the wild and their relative importance, is critical for understanding maintenance, improving control measures and ultimately preventing human disease. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the primary reservoir of leptospirosis in the urban slums of Salvador, Brazil. There is biological evidence for potentially three different transmission routes of leptospire infection occurring in the rodent population. Using newly obtained prevalence data from rodents trapped at an urban slum field site, we present changes in cumulative risk of infection in relation to age-dependent transmission routes to infer which intra-specific transmission routes occur in the wild. We found that a significant proportion of animals leave the nest with infection and that the risk of infection increases throughout the lifetime of Norway rats. We did not observe a significant effect of sexual maturity on the risk of infection. In conclusion, our results suggest that vertical and environmental transmission of leptospirosis both occur in wild populations of Norway rats.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Doenças dos Roedores , Envelhecimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Feminino , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/transmissão , Leptospirose/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 146: 103-113, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992914

RESUMO

Many countries have implemented control programmes aiming to eradicate Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV). After obtaining the free status, a risk of re-introduction of the virus through import may remain. Therefore the risk of introduction of BVDV through cattle imports in the Netherlands was quantified and the effectiveness of subsequent intervention measures was assessed. Data, literature and expert opinion were used to estimate values for input parameters to feed a stochastic simulation model. The probability that BVDV was imported was differentiated into persistently infected (PI) cattle, trojan cows that transmitted the virus vertically resulting in a PI foetus (TR) and transient infected cattle (TI). The import risk was stratified to beef, dairy, small scale, suckler, trade, veal and young stock herds. The intervention scenarios that were evaluated consisted of virus testing, a combination of virus testing and antibody testing in pregnant cows, abolishment of imports from high risk countries (i.e. countries with a BVDV prevalence >15%) and a combination of import restrictions and testing prior to import. Each year, 334 (5th and 95th percentile: 65-902) Dutch cattle herds were estimated to be infected with BVDV through import. Veal herds account for most infections associated with import (87%), whereas in the other herd types, only 9 beef, 6 dairy, 2 small scale, 16 suckler, 10 trade and 2 young stock herds are infected through imports per year. Import of PI cattle is the most important risk for introduction in veal herds, while import of TR cows is the main source of BVDV introduction in dairy, small scale and suckler herds. With the intervention scenarios, the number of BVDV infected herds in the Netherlands could be reduced to 81 and 58 herds per year when respectively virus testing or a combination of virus and antibody testing was applied or to 108 herds when import from high risk countries was abolished. With the scenario in which both import from high risk countries was abolished combined with virus and antibody testing, the number of BVDV infected herds could be reduced to 17 herds per year. The risk assessment showed that BVDV is regularly imported in the Netherlands. The import risk can effectively be reduced by implementing diagnostic testing prior to import and only import cattle with a favourable result, eventually combined with certain trade restrictions.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/prevenção & controle , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/transmissão , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/virologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Feminino , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Processos Estocásticos
20.
J Microbiol Methods ; 142: 90-95, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888869

RESUMO

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius commonly colonizes the skin of dogs, whilst nasal carriage may occur in humans who are in contact with dogs or the environment of veterinary hospitals. Genes encoding cell wall-associated (CWA) proteins have been described in Staphylococcus aureus but knowledge of their occurrence in S. pseudintermedius is still limited. The aim of the study was to develop a method to detect S. pseudintermedius surface protein genes (sps) encoding CWA proteins, and to examine the distribution of the genes in isolates from different sources. Four multiplex PCR assays (mPCR) were developed for detection of 18 sps genes, with 4-5 genes detected per mPCR. These were applied to 135 S. pseudintermedius isolates from carriage sites (n=35) and infected sites (n=35) in dogs, from the nasal cavity of humans (n=25), and from the environment of a veterinary hospital (n=40). The mPCRs were shown to detect all 18 known sps genes, and no discrepancies were found between uniplex and mPCR results. The mPCRs could detect at least 1pg/µl of DNA template. A total of 23 sps gene profiles were found among the 135 isolates, with diverse gene combinations. Only spsD, spsF, spsI, spsO, spsP, and spsQ were not detected in all isolates. spsP and spsQ were more frequently detected in the canine isolates from infected sites than from carriage sites. This finding suggests that these two genes may play a role in pathogenicity, whereas the presence of the 12 sps genes may contribute to adherence function at all surfaces where carriage occurs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Humanos , Pele/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
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