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1.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225497, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, very high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-ST398 (99%) were found in Portuguese pig farms that used colistin, amoxicillin, and zinc oxide as feed additives. Since then, farms A and B banned the use of colistin, and farm C banned the use of both antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the ban of colistin and amoxicillin on pig MRSA carriage rates, clonal types and antimicrobial resistance, compared to the results obtained in 2016. METHODS: In 2018, 103 pigs (52 from farm B using amoxicillin only as a feed additive and 51 from farm C where no antibiotics were included in the feed regimen) were nasally swabbed for MRSA colonization. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterised by spa typing, SCCmec typing and MLST. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed for representative isolates. RESULTS: Overall, 96% of the pigs swabbed in 2018 carried MRSA, mostly ST398-SCCmec V-spa types t011/t108. MRSA from pigs not receiving antibiotics in the feed regimen showed susceptibility to a higher number of antibiotics, namely erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. Notably, most of these isolates (n = 52) presented an unusual erythromycin-susceptibility/clindamycin-resistance phenotype. WGS showed that these isolates lacked the erm and the lnu genes encoding resistance to macrolides and lincosamides, respectively, but carried the vgaALC gene encoding resistance to lincosamides, which is here firstly identified in S. aureus ST398. CONCLUSION: After two years the ban of colistin and amoxicillin as feed additives had no significant impact on the MRSA nasal carriage rates. Nevertheless, the MRSA strains circulating in those farms showed resistance to a lower number of antibiotic classes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Fazendas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Nariz/microbiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Suínos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108345, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521391

RESUMO

We investigated whether ASF carrier pigs that had completely recovered from an acute infection with ASFV Netherlands '86, could transmit the disease to naive pigs by direct contact transmission. For this, we used pigs that had survived an ASFV infection, had recovered from disease, and had become carriers of ASFV. These clinically healthy carriers were put together one-by-one with naive contact pigs. Two of the twelve contact pigs developed an acute ASFV infection. Using the results of the experiment we quantified the transmission parameters ßcarrier (0.039/day) and Tcarrier (25.4 days). With the survival rate of 0.3 for our ASFV isolate, these parameter values translate into the contribution of carriers to R0 in groups of pigs being 0.3. Further, we placed naive contact pigs in an ASFV contaminated environment. Here, no contact infections were observed. Our findings show that clinically healthy carriers can be a source of acute new infections, which can contribute to the persistence of ASFV in swine populations. The estimates that we provide can be used for modelling of transmission in domestic pigs and, in part, for modelling transmission in wild boar.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/fisiologia , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Animais , Portador Sadio/virologia , Suínos
3.
Virus Genes ; 55(5): 673-681, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372920

RESUMO

Astroviruses (AstV) are associated with enteric and systemic disease in mammals and birds. Astroviruses have received increased attention recently as they have been found to be associated with sporadic neurologic disease in mammals including humans. In pigs, porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) can be widely detected and has been grouped in five genotypes (PoAstV1 to PoAstV5). In the present study, we detected multiple PoAstVs in serum samples, nasal swabs, and fecal swabs collected from pigs suffering from respiratory disease or diarrhea but also from asymptomatic pigs, indicating a wide tissue tropism of the identified PoAstV genotypes. Coinfection of different genotypes in the same pig was commonly observed, and within an individual pig a high genetic diversity was observed for viruses belonging to the same PoAstV genotype. Two complete genomes of PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 and PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 were successfully obtained and characterized, with genome sizes of 6396 and 6643 nucleotides, respectively. The PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 genome showed identities of 67.2-77.4% to other known PoAstV2 genomes, and the PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 genome showed identities of 72.8-80.5% to other known PoAstV4 genomes. The predicted spike domain of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of these strains showed the highest genetic heterogeneity, with amino acid identities of 13.7-70.9% for PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 to other known PoAstV2 strains, and identities of 24.4-63.3% for the PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 to other known PoAstV4 strains. Possible recombination events were identified in each of the two sequences. Two subclades of PoAstV2 and three subclades of PoAstV4 were defined in the present analyses. The obtained data provide further evidence for extraintestinal infectivity of PoAstVs, and confirmed the high genetic diversity of PoAstVs and the coinfection potential of different PoAstV types in a single pig.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Variação Genética , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/genética , Recombinação Genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Portador Sadio/virologia , China , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soro/virologia , Suínos
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1195-1204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393224

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a high risk pathogen which can cause invasive diseases in humans. We previously reported that black-headed gulls from Dianchi Lake of Kunming carrying L. monocytogenes, while the characteristics of these isolates and the relationship with habitats of migratory gulls have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes from black-headed gulls in Dianchi Lake, and phylogenetic analysis based on core genome SNPs was used to determine the genetic relationship of the strains from Dianchi Lake and other regions. Occurrence of L. monocytogenes in black-headed gull feces in 2016, 2017 and 2018 was 1.0%, 1.0% and 0.6% respectively. The predominant serotype of 28 isolates was 4b, while the predominant sequence types were ST145 and ST201. Based on their prevalence and genomic relationships, ST5 and ST87 were likely to be sourced locally while ST145 and ST201 were likely to be non-local. L. monocytogenes may travel along the bird migration route leading to transmission over a large geographical span carried by black-headed gull. Although the prevalence of L. monocytogenes was low, its carriage by the migratory black-headed gulls poses potential public health risks in regions where the migratory birds passage and reside.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Charadriiformes , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Leptospirose/veterinária , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , China , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Lagos , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sorogrupo
5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100312, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303233

RESUMO

Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) has been practiced in Tanzania for over 20 years as a prevention measure against East Coast Fever disease. It is known that ITM, like natural ECF infection, leads to a carrier state, whereby vaccinated cattle become asymptomatic carriers of the parasite. It is expected that ECF vaccination using ITM also leads to generation of combinations of vaccine specific Theileria parva and local strains that circulate in the field what contributes to an unknown level of parasite diversity. Moreover, the long term impact of ITM on carrier state and parasite diversity in cattle are largely unknown. To address this question blood was collected from ECF-vaccinated (n = 239) and unvaccinated (n = 97) cattle from Loiborsoit, Emboreet, Esilalei, Manyara ranch and Mswakini villages in the Maasai steppe of northern Tanzania, as well as Mruazi and Leila farms in Tanga in eastern Tanzania. Screening for T. parva using nested PCR revealed an overall prevalence of T. parva to be 34.5%, with a significant higher prevalence among ECF-vaccinated cattle. Using three VNTR markers (ms2, ms5 and MS7) higher parasite genetic diversity in terms of higher number of alleles and expected heterozygosity was shown in vaccinated than unvaccinated cattle. These parameters were highest in cattle from Manyara ranch. Nevertheless, the principle component analysis (PCoA) showed no distinct clustering patterns as most T. parva alleles clustered together throughout the four quadrants implying parasite homogeneity among the sampled populations. However, some of the parasite alleles closely clustered with Muguga vaccine alleles in two of the quadrants, consistent with closer genetic relatedness between the vaccine strains and the T. parva populations from the Maasai steppe. Likewise analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed most of the genetic variation (93%) being contained within populations with only 7% being among populations. This study therefore confirms the role of ECF vaccination in enhancing carrier state and T. parva diversity in vaccinated cattle populations. Higher T. parva diversity may play an important role in carrier cattle by way of restricting breakthrough infections from field parasite strains.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Vacinas Protozoárias/administração & dosagem , Theileria parva/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Alelos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Portador Sadio/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Análise de Componente Principal , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Theileria parva/imunologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(7): e1007950, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356622

RESUMO

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the unique ability to establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and be sexually transmitted. Previous studies showed that long-term persistent infection is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene (CXCL16S) and that persistence is maintained despite the presence of local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. Here, we performed transcriptomic analysis of the ampullae, the primary site of EAV persistence in long-term EAV carrier stallions, to understand the molecular signatures of viral persistence. We demonstrated that the local CD8+ T lymphocyte response is predominantly orchestrated by the transcription factors eomesodermin (EOMES) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 2 (NFATC2), which is likely modulated by the upregulation of inhibitory receptors. Most importantly, EAV persistence is associated with an enhanced expression of CXCL16 and CXCR6 by infiltrating lymphocytes, providing evidence of the implication of this chemokine axis in the pathogenesis of persistent EAV infection in the stallion reproductive tract. Furthermore, we have established a link between the CXCL16 genotype and the gene expression profile in the ampullae of the stallion reproductive tract. Specifically, CXCL16 acts as a "hub" gene likely driving a specific transcriptional network. The findings herein are novel and strongly suggest that RNA viruses such as EAV could exploit the CXCL16/CXCR6 axis in order to modulate local inflammatory and immune responses in the male reproductive tract by inducing a dysfunctional CD8+ T lymphocyte response and unique lymphocyte homing in the reproductive tract.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Equartevirus/imunologia , Equartevirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Infecções por Arterivirus/genética , Infecções por Arterivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Arterivirus/veterinária , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Portador Sadio/virologia , Quimiocina CXCL16/genética , Quimiocina CXCL16/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genitália Masculina/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Masculino , Receptores CXCR6/genética , Receptores CXCR6/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia
7.
Anaerobe ; 58: 22-29, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220606

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile is the major etiologic agent of nosocomial bacterial diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI)involves two cytotoxic enzymes (TcdA, TcdB) that cause colonic epithelial damage, fluid accumulation and enteritis. CDI has been demonstrated in a variety of animal species and some reports have recently raised the importance of wild animals as a reservoir of this pathogen and possible transmission to humans and domestic animals. The aim of this study was to characterize C. difficile isolates obtained from pet dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 50 faecal samples were obtained from healthy and diarrheic dogs. Five of fifty samples (10%) grew C. difficile. Of those, three belonged to the PCR ribotype 106 (ST 42) and were toxigenic (A+B+). The other two strains belonged to the PCR ribotype 010 (ST 15) and were not toxin producers (A-B-). None of the isolates tested positive for the binary toxin genes. Considering the antimicrobial resistance patterns of all isolates using EUCAST breakpoints, all strains were sensitive to metronidazole and vancomycin. However, two strains (ribotype 106 and ribotype 010), were resistant to clindamycin (≤256 µg/mL). All strains were strong biofilm producers. Our study provides evidence that dogs can act as reservoirs for C. difficile epidemic ribotypes.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium difficile/classificação , Clostridium difficile/genética , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Ribotipagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 5-10, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176412

RESUMO

This work aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity, antibiotic-resistance phenotype/genotype and virulence factors in staphylococci of farm-animals. Nasal samples of 117 farm-animals (calve: 72; lamb: 37; goat: 8) were collected from one slaughterhouse in La Rioja/Spain and cultured for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) recovery. Identification was performed by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype was determined by susceptibility testing and specific PCRs. Molecular typing (spa-typing, multilocus-sequence-typing, agr-typing, SCCmec), and detection of 12 virulence genes and human Immune-evasive-cluster (IEC) genes were performed by PCR/sequencing in S. aureus. Two marker genes of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) were determined by PCR (USA300-MRSA detection). Staphylococci were identified in 50%, 54% and 21% of goat, lamb and calve samples, respectively. Among the 13 S. aureus isolates recovered, 11 were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and two were multidrug-resistant-MRSA [beta-lactams (blaZ, mecA), macrolides [(msr(A)/msr(B)] and fluoroquinolones]. The MSSA harboured either tst or enterotoxin genes, while the MRSA harboured the lukF/lukS-PV genes. Five sequence-types were detected. The two MRSA strains (from lamb and goat) were typed as t5173/ST8/agr-I/SCCmec-IVa/ACME-positive, corresponding to USA300 clone, and were IEC-B-positive. Among the 47 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), six species were identified, predominating S. simulans (n = 25) and S. sciuri (n = 11). Fifty-three percent of CoNS showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent (six multidrug-resistant strains), and the following resistance phenotypes/genotypes were detected: streptomycin [27.6%; ant(6)-Ia, str], tetracycline [23.4%; tet(M), tet(L), tet(K)], clindamycin [19.1%; lnu(A), vgaA], erythromycin [10.6%; erm(C), msr(A)/msr(B)], chloramphenicol (8.5%; fexA), tobramycin (6.4%), penicillin-cefoxitin (4.3%; blaZ, mecA), and SXT (2.1%). The detection of the MRSA-USA300 lineage in food animals is worrisome and should be further monitored.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Variação Genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus/classificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Genótipo , Cabras/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nariz/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 61-67, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176414

RESUMO

The incidence of infections with extended spectrum ß-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) is increasing both in humans and animals. There is a paucity of data about the rate of faecal carriage of ESBL-E in pets. In this study, faecal swabs collected from 586 pets (225 cats; 361 dogs) in Auckland, New Zealand, were analysed for the presence of ESBL-E by culture, and a questionnaire was delivered to the owners. The ESBL-E were characterised and data elicited by the questionnaires were used for a multivariable analysis, to investigate the factors associated with faecal ESBL-E carriage. The prevalence of ESBL-E in faecal swabs was 6.4%. The ß-lactamase genes detected in the ESBL-E were the blaCTX-M-14 (n = 2) and blaCMY-2 (n = 34). Several isolates displayed multilocus sequence types (ST) associated with human and animal infections. Multiple isolates sharing the same ST displayed different antibiograms and ß-lactamase genes, reflecting horizontal gene transfer between and within ST. Variables independently associated with increased odds of ESBL-E carriage were: animal received systemic antimicrobial treatment in the six months before the sampling; presence of household members working in veterinary clinics; presence of household members travelling overseas in the six months before the sampling. We conclude that pets are colonised by ESBL-E which are genotypically similar to the bacteria found to infect humans and animals. The statistical analysis suggested a number of eco-epidemiological factors associated with ESBL-E carriage. In particular, they suggest veterinary clinics may represent hot-spots of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/genética , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese
10.
Avian Pathol ; 48(6): 503-511, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199168

RESUMO

In backyard farms of Lao People's Democratic Republic, mixed-species rearing of poultry is a breeding-ground for cross-species transmission. Here, the epidemiology of viruses circulating among backyard poultry in Vientiane Province was assessed to guide future control strategies. Oral/tracheal and cloacal swabs, collected from 605 poultry (308 ducks, 297 chickens) between 2011 and 2015, were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), coronavirus (CoV) and chicken anaemia virus (CAV). Chicken sera were screened for anti-NDV antibodies by ELISA. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses revealed transmission patterns and relationships. Closely related strains co-circulated in chickens and ducks. While CoV RNA was detected in oral/tracheal swabs of 9.3% of the chickens and 2.4% of the ducks, rates were higher in faecal swabs of both species (27.3% and 48.2%). RNA of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and duck CoV was found in faecal swabs of chickens (19.7% and 7.1%) and ducks (4.1% and 44.1%). Moreover, DNA of the generally chicken-specific CAV was detected in oral/tracheal swabs of chickens (18.1%) and, sporadically, of ducks (2.4%). Despite serological evidence of NDV circulation or vaccination (86.9%), NDV RNA was not detected. We found a high prevalence and indication for cross-species transmission of different CoV strains in backyard poultry. Interestingly, ducks served as biological, or at least mechanical, carriers of viral strains closely related not only to IBV, but also to CAV. Bird containment and poultry species separation could be first steps to avoid cross-species transmission and emergence of novel strains with broad host range and enhanced pathogenicity. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS High rates of avian viruses were detected by PCR in backyard poultry from Lao PDR. Diverse coronavirus and chicken anemia virus strains co-circulated. Phylogenetic analyses suggested virus transmission between chickens and ducks. Serological evidence of Newcastle disease was found, but viral RNA was not detected.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Patos/virologia , Doença de Newcastle/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/genética , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Circoviridae/enzimologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Laos/epidemiologia , Doença de Newcastle/epidemiologia , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e152, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063089

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) affect patients in hospitals and in the community, but the relative importance of transmission in each setting is unknown. We developed a mathematical model of C. difficile transmission in a hospital and surrounding community that included infants, adults and transmission from animal reservoirs. We assessed the role of these transmission routes in maintaining disease and evaluated the recommended classification system for hospital- and community-acquired CDIs. The reproduction number in the hospital was 1 for nearly all scenarios without transmission from animal reservoirs (range: 1.0-1.34). However, the reproduction number for the human population was 3.5-26.0%) of human exposures originated from animal reservoirs. Symptomatic adults accounted for <10% transmission in the community. Under conservative assumptions, infants accounted for 17% of community transmission. An estimated 33-40% of community-acquired cases were reported but 28-39% of these reported cases were misclassified as hospital-acquired by recommended definitions. Transmission could be plausibly sustained by asymptomatically colonised adults and infants in the community or exposure to animal reservoirs, but not hospital transmission alone. Under-reporting of community-onset cases and systematic misclassification underplays the role of community transmission.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/transmissão , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Teóricos
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e159, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063112

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study on six dairy farms was conducted to ascertain the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in calves. Two-hundred and seventy-nine isolates of E. coli were recovered from 90 faecal samples from apparently healthy (45) and diarrhoeal (45) calves. The isolates were screened for phenotypic susceptibility to carbapenems and production of metallo ß-lactamase, as well as five carbapenemase resistance genes by PCR, and overexpression of efflux pumps. Eighty-one isolates (29.03%) were resistant to at least one of three carbapenem antibiotics [meropenem (23.30%), imipenem (2.15%) and ertapenem (1.43%)], and one isolate was positive for the blaVIM gene which was located on an Incl1 plasmid of a novel sequence type (ST 297) by multilocus sequence typing. The majority (83.95%) of isolates had an active efflux pump. Calves housed on concrete floors were approximately seven times more likely to acquire meropenem-resistant isolates than those housed on earthen floors (95% CI 1.27-41.54). In India, carbapenem drugs are not used in food animal treatment, hence carbapenem-resistant strains in calves possibly originate from the natural environment or human contact and is of public health importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM carbapenemases gene in calves from India.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/classificação , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genótipo , Índia/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
13.
Mycoses ; 62(7): 584-587, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050372

RESUMO

The zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton benhamiae has received attention due to increasing infections in human in recent years. Trichophyton benhamiae has been found on asymptomatic rodents from pet shops in several countries posing a potential risk for transmission to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of positive dermatophyte cultures from rodents in Danish pet shops in order to clarify the magnitude of potential sources of zoophilic infections and to prevent further spread. Specimen sampling was performed in 17 Danish pet shops using the brush technique (MacKenzie technique). After incubation, cultures were sent to ITS DNA sequencing for molecular species identification. Pet shop employees were asked to fulfil a five-question survey regarding purchase and procedures of diseased animals. A total of 98 animals were sampled (N = 32 rabbits, N = 32 guinea pigs and N = 34 hamsters). Trichophyton benhamiae was found in 14/98 samples (14%); 12/32 guinea pigs (38%) were positive with T benhamiae, 2/34 (6%) hamsters and 0/32 rabbits (0%). We found that hamsters and particularly guinea pigs from Danish pet shops are common asymptomatic carriers of the dermatophyte T benhamiae. Although a larger study is warranted to test this postulate, and it raises the question if infection control measures should be implemented in pet shops.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Tinha/veterinária , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia
14.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(1): 43-48, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981924

RESUMO

One hundred and seven Streptococcus suis isolates were collected from healthy pigs or asymptomatic carriers in Jiangsu, China in 2016-2017. Thirty-eight percent of the isolates were linezolid-resistant and all carried the optrA gene. Among them, one isolate, SFJ44, was resistant to all 20 of the antibiotics tested, except for ceftiofur, and thus exhibited an extensively-drug-resistant phenotype. This isolate carried the optrA gene and the bacitracin resistance locus bcrABDR on an antibiotic-resistance-associated genomic island (ARGI1), and harboured the resistance genes cfr, aadE, sat4, spw-like, aphA3, mef(A), msr(D), erm(A)-like, erm(B), tetAB(P)', tet(M) and catQ on ARGI2∼4. The IS1216E-bcrABDR-ISEnfa1 segment showed >99.9% sequence identity to corresponding sequences from other species. The cfr gene was located on ARGI4, and two IS6 family insertion sequences, IS1216E and ISTeha2, were found upstream and downstream of cfr-ΔISEnfa5, respectively. A circular intermediate of bcrABDR-ISEnfa1 was detected, suggesting the role of ISEnfa1 in dissemination of bcrABDR. Other antibiotic resistance genes might be acquired from different Gram-positive pathogens. Infection of zebrafish showed that SFJ44 exhibited a virulence level comparable to serotype 2 hypervirulent strain SC070731, highlighting the need for surveillance of the pathogenicity of multi-drug-resistant S. suis isolates. This is the first report of the co-existence of optrA and cfr, and of the bcrABDR locus in streptococci. As it has been suggested that S. suis may act as an antibiotic resistance reservoir contributing to the spread of resistance genes to major streptococcal pathogens, the potential dissemination of these resistance genes among Gram-positive bacteria is of concern and routine surveillance should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Genes Bacterianos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus suis/genética , Streptococcus suis/patogenicidade , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus suis/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus suis/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sobrevida , Suínos , Virulência , Peixe-Zebra
15.
J Vet Sci ; 20(2): e6, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944529

RESUMO

The recent emergence of Staphylococcus schleiferi in dogs with otitis externa or skin and soft tissue infections has become a significant zoonotic issues. In the current study, we investigated 1) the carriage rates of S. schleiferi among major staphylococci in healthy dogs and dogs with otitis externa, 2) antibiotic susceptibility profiles of S. schleiferi, particularly methicillin resistance (MR), and 3) virulence factors associated with skin and soft tissue infections such as ability to form biofilm, resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and carriage of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. Among the 21 S. schleiferi isolates, 5 isolates (24%) were determined to be methicillin-resistant (MRSS). Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing revealed the presence of SCCmec type V in 4 MRSS isolates and type VII in one MRSS. Higher levels of antibiotic resistance, especially multidrug resistance, were observed in MRSS isolates compared to the methicillin-susceptible S. schleiferi (MSSS) isolates. In addition, MRSS isolates exhibited enhanced ability to form biofilm under static condition and all the 5 MRSS isolates carried three or more enterotoxin genes. However, there were no significant differences in resistance to CAMPs between MRSS and MSSS isolates. These findings suggest that coagulase-negative S. schleiferi is becoming more prevalent in canine otitis externa cases. Our results also highlight the presence of multidrug-resistant MRSS isolates with enhanced biofilm production and carriage of multiple enterotoxins.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Otite Externa/veterinária , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Otite Externa/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência
16.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100275, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027589

RESUMO

Baylisascaris procyonis, the roundworm of raccoons (Procyon lotor), is an emerging helminthic zoonosis in North America. Since the larval form is capable of causing neurological disease in more than 150 species of birds and mammals including humans, understanding factors that influence carriage of the parasite by raccoons is important for mitigating risk. This review examines the current literature to identify major demographic and environmental risk factors associated with B. procyonis carriage in wild raccoons. Raccoon age and season of sample collection were most commonly identified as risk factors, with increased prevalence found in juvenile animals and when sample collection occurred in the fall. Human urbanization and agricultural land use were also observed as potential risk factors; however, there are inconsistencies in the direction of influence these risk factors have on the prevalence of infection. Further investigation into the role of environmental risk factors is required to better understand how human activities influence parasite carriage in raccoons. Additionally, future research using multivariable statistical models guided by epidemiological principles to control for confounding variables and identify interaction effects will help clarify the effect of these demographic and environmental factors. Developing a better understanding of the primary risk factors for parasite carriage in raccoons will help identify areas of higher risk for environmental contamination and will aid in the development and refinement of education and management programs to reduce the risk of human exposure.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/fisiologia , Guaxinins/parasitologia , Fatores Etários , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/transmissão , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Planejamento Social , Urbanização , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
17.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100286, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027595

RESUMO

Didelphis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia) are synanthropic mammals, whose omnivorous diet predisposes them to infections caused by endoparasites. Their higher frequency in urban areas makes them potential carriers of zoonotic protozoans and helminths, enhancing potential transmission to humans. Our purpose was to study two common species, Didelphis albiventris (54 individuals) and D. aurita (2 individuals), which were screened for blood, skin and intestinal parasites in animals captured in urban areas and in riparian forest regions associated with the Capivari River Basin, in Monte Mor's municipality, São Paulo state (SP), Brazil. Blood and tissue samples were collected for DNA extraction and PCR. Fecal samples were collected and submitted to two sedimentation and two flotation methods. 77.6% of fecal samples were positive for nematode eggs, 34.5% for trematode eggs and 32.7% for protozoans. Two D. aurita specimens were naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Molecular analysis in a D. albiventris captured on a forested rural area was positive for Leishmania sp. DNA. Several parasites were found infecting Didelphis sp., demonstrating that this group of animals can harbor important zoonotic parasites, potentially playing a role as sylvatic reservoirs for human and domestic animal pathogens.


Assuntos
Didelphis/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitemia/veterinária , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Masculino , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/transmissão , Rios , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0210847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022193

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that severely impacts global food security and is one of the greatest constraints on international trade of animal products. Extensive viral population diversity and rapid, continuous mutation of circulating FMD viruses (FMDVs) pose significant obstacles to the control and ultimate eradication of this important transboundary pathogen. The current study investigated mechanisms contributing to within-host evolution of FMDV in a natural host species (cattle). Specifically, vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle were infected with FMDV under controlled, experimental conditions and subsequently sampled for up to 35 days to monitor viral genomic changes as related to phases of disease and experimental cohorts. Consensus-level genomic changes across the entire FMDV coding region were characterized through three previously defined stages of infection: early, transitional, and persistent. The overall conclusion was that viral evolution occurred via a combination of two mechanisms: emergence of full-genomic minority haplotypes from within the inoculum super-swarm, and concurrent continuous point mutations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that individuals were infected with multiple distinct haplogroups that were pre-existent within the ancestral inoculum used to infect all animals. Multiple shifts of dominant viral haplotype took place during the early and transitional phases of infection, whereas few shifts occurred during persistent infection. Overall, this work suggests that the establishment of the carrier state is not associated with specific viral genomic characteristics. These insights into FMDV population dynamics have important implications for virus sampling methodology and molecular epidemiology.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Portador Sadio/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Haplótipos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mutação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 40-44, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955821

RESUMO

Haemophilus parasuis is a common colonizer of the upper respiratory tract of swine and frequently causes disease, especially in weaner pigs. To date, limited epidemiological data was available for H. parasuis from healthy pigs, which might be carriers of potential pathogenic strains. In this study, from September 2016 to October 2017, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of H. parasuis from healthy pigs in China. Totally, we obtained 244 isolates from 1675 nasal samples from 6 provinces. H. parasuis isolation was more successful in weaner pigs (22.6%, 192/849), followed by finisher pigs (9.3%, 43/463), and sows (2.5%, 9/363). The most prevalent serovars were 7 (20.1%, 49/244), followed by 3 (14.8%, 36/244), 2 (14.3%, 35/244), 11 (12.7%, 31/244), 5/12 (5.7%, 14/244) and 4 (2.5%, 6/244). Bimodal or multimodal distributions of MICs were observed for most of the tested drugs, which suggested the presence of non-wild type populations. It was noted that the MIC90 values of tilmicosin (64 µg/ml) was relatively higher than that reported in previous studies. Our results suggest that: 1) potentially pathogenic serovars of H. parasuis are identified in healthy pigs, and 2) elevated MICs and presence of mechanisms of resistance not yet described for clinically important antimicrobial agents would increase the burden of disease caused by H. parasuis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus parasuis/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Haemophilus parasuis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nariz/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Sorogrupo , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895173

RESUMO

In this study, we found mcr-1.1 and mcr-1.5 genes carried by IncI2 plasmids in a subset of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from commercial broiler farms in Argentina. The comparative analysis of the sequences of these plasmids with those described in human clinical isolates suggests that this replicon-type is one of the main mcr-disseminator sources in Argentina.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Plasmídeos/análise , Animais , Argentina , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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