Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.239
Filtrar
1.
Zootaxa ; 4748(2): zootaxa.4748.2.10, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230081

RESUMO

Aphelonotus schuhi sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pachynomidae: Aphelonotinae) is described from Puerto Rico based on a single male collected by flight interception trap. The new species is morphologically similar to A. taino Schuh, Weirauch Grillo, 2015 and A. xenos Schuh, Weirauch Grillo, 2015, being distinguished from them by the combination of the presence of a stout subapical spine on the protibia and the characteristic shape of the parameres. An informal A. xenos species-group is proposed to accommodate these three species.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Holometábolos , Masculino , Porto Rico
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3061-3070, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059103

RESUMO

Pyrethroids are one of the most commonly used classes of insecticides, and their acid and alcohol components are esterase degradation products, usually considered to be biologically inactive. In this study, it was found that several pyrethroid acids had a spatial repellent activity that was greater than DEET, often more active than the parent pyrethroids, and showed little cross resistance in a pyrethroid-resistant Puerto Rico strain of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Further investigation revealed that the acids can synergize not only contact repellent standards but also other pyrethroid components as well as the parent pyrethroids themselves. Synergism by the pyrethroid acids is expressed as both increased spatial repellency and vapor toxicity as well as human bite protection. Electrophysiological studies confirmed that pyrethroid acids (100 µM) had no effect on neuronal discharge in larval Drosophila melanogaster CNS and were detected by electroantennography, and there was little resistance to olfactory sensing of these acids in antennae from Puerto Rico strain mosquitoes carrying kdr mutations. Thus, the data suggest that the pyrethroid acids have a different mode of action than the parent pyrethroids, unrelated to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. The results highlight the potential of pyrethroid acids to be useful in future repellent formulations.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/química , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Ácidos/química , Ácidos/toxicidade , Aedes/genética , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/toxicidade , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estrutura Molecular , Controle de Mosquitos , Porto Rico
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(7): 183-188, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078592

RESUMO

In 2015, an estimated 17.7 million U.S. persons were informal caregivers who provided substantial services through in-home, unpaid assistance to their family members and friends (1). Caregiving can have many benefits, such as enhancing the bond between caregiver and recipient, but it can also place an emotional and physical strain on caregivers, leading to higher rates of depression, lower quality of life, and poorer overall health (2). As the U.S. population continues to age (3), the need for informal caregivers will likely increase. However, little nationally representative information on prevalence of caregivers is available. This study examined demographic characteristics and health status of informal caregivers from 44 states,* the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico, based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) collected during 2015-2017. Overall, approximately one in five adults reported that they had provided care to a family member or friend in the preceding 30 days. Fifty-eight percent of caregivers were women, and a majority were non-Hispanic white, with at least some college education, and married or living with a partner. Across all states, 19.2% of caregivers reported being in fair or poor health, although significant state-to-state variation occurred. Caregivers provide important support to family members, friends, and the health care system and might compromise their own health to provide this support (1,2). Better understanding of caregivers and the challenges they face could inform implementation of improvements in support systems that could enhance not only the health of the caregiver, but that of the care recipient as well. For example, additional data regarding demographics at the state level might aid in more effective planning and support of caregivers with evidence-based programs and assistance (https://www.cdc.gov/aging/publications/features/caring-for-yourself.html).


Assuntos
Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , District of Columbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico , Estados Unidos
4.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(3): 278-288, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093818

RESUMO

This paper uses Endsley's three-level model of situational awareness to analyse the challenges faced by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) when coordinating the relief efforts in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria made landfall. Most obviously, obtaining data about the impacted area was highly challenging, making it much harder to comprehend the magnitude of the event. In turn, this made it difficult to know where to focus recovery efforts as the event unfolded. The situation was further exacerbated by Puerto Rico's remote location with respect to the US mainland, and the fact that FEMA was not logistically prepared for Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria to spread its resources so thin. The paper concludes that for US disaster responses to be successful, all levels of government and the private sector should pool resources in a complementary manner in order to streamline supply chain and inventory management practices.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Conscientização , Desastres , Porto Rico
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007971, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is an important arboviral disease with about 100 million dengue cases per year, of which, ~5% result in severe disease. Clinical differentiation of dengue from other acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is difficult, and diagnostic blood tests are costly. We evaluated the utility of anti-DENV IgM in urine to identify dengue cases among AFI patients enrolled in a clinical study. METHODS: Between May 2012-March 2013, 1538 study participants with fever for ≤7 days were enrolled, a medical history was obtained, and serum and urine specimens were collected. Serum was tested for DENV RNA and anti-DENV IgM. Urine was tested for anti-DENV IgM, and its sensitivity and specificity to detect sera laboratory-positive dengue cases were calculated. We evaluated if urine anti-DENV IgM positivity early (≤5 days post-illness onset [DPO]) and late (6-14 DPO) in the clinical course was associated with dengue severity. RESULTS: Urine anti-DENV IgM sensitivity and specificity were 47.4% and 98.5%, respectively, when compared with serum anti-DENV IgM ELISA results, and 29.7% and 91.1% when compared with serum rRT-PCR results. There was no correlation between urine anti-DENV IgM positivity and patient sex or pre-existing chronic disease. Early in the clinical course, a significantly higher proportion of those who developed dengue with warning signs had anti-DENV IgM in their urine when compared to those without warning signs (20.4% vs. 4.3%). There was no difference in the proportion with urine anti-DENV IgM positivity between severity groups late in the clinical course. CONCLUSION: While detection of urine anti-DENV IgM lacked adequate diagnostic sensitivity, it is a highly specific marker for laboratory-positive dengue, and its presence early in the clinical course may distinguish those with more severe disease. Further assessment of urine anti-DENV IgM by DPO is warranted to determine its utility as an early diagnostic (and possibly prognostic) marker for dengue.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/urina , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/urina , Imunoglobulina M/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Dengue/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227810, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999735

RESUMO

The pre-Columbian Huecoid and Saladoid cultures were agricultural ethnic groups that supplemented their diets by fishing, hunting and scavenging. Archaeological deposits associated to these cultures contained a variety of faunal osseous remains that hinted at the cultures' diets. The present study identified zoonotic parasites that may have infected these two cultures as a result of their diets. We used metagenomic sequencing and microscopy data from 540-1,400 year old coprolites as well as the zooarchaeological data to recreate the possible interactions between zoonotic parasites and their hosts. Microscopy revealed Diphyllobothrium spp. and Dipylidium caninum eggs along with unidentified cestode and trematode eggs. DNA sequencing together with functional prediction and phylogenetic inference identified reads of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis and Schistosoma spp. The complimentary nature of the molecular, microscopy and zooarchaeology data provided additional insight into the detected zoonotic parasites' potential host range. Network modeling revealed that rodents and canids living in close proximity to these cultures were most likely the main source of these zoonotic parasite infections.


Assuntos
Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/história , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , História do Século XV , História Medieval , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Metagenômica , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/fisiologia , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995596

RESUMO

Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB). This has not been studied in Puerto Rico, an area with high PTB rates. Our objective was to develop a conceptual model describing the interrelationships between measures of psychosocial stress and depression, a result of stress, among pregnant women in Puerto Rico and to examine their associations with PTB. We used data from the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats pregnancy cohort (PROTECT, N = 1,047) to examine associations among depression and different continuous measures of psychosocial stress using path analysis. Psychosocial stress during pregnancy was assessed using validated measures of perceived stress, negative life experiences, neighborhood perceptions and social support. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between psychosocial stress measures in tertiles and PTB. Perceived stress, negative life experiences, and neighborhood perceptions influenced depression through multiple pathways. Our model indicated that perceived stress had the strongest direct effect on depression, where one standard deviation (SD) increase in perceived stress was associated with a 57% SD increase in depression. Negative life experiences were directly but also indirectly, through perceived stress, associated with depression. Finally, neighborhood perceptions directly influenced negative life experiences and perceived stress and consequently had an indirect effect on depression. Psychosocial stress was not associated with PTB across any of the measures examined. Our study examined interrelationships between multiple measures of psychosocial stress and depression among a pregnant Puerto Rican population and identified negative neighborhood perceptions as important upstream factors leading to depression. Our findings highlight the complex relationship between psychosocial stress measures and indicate that psychosocial stress and depression, assessed using 5 different scales, were not associated with PTB. Future research should investigate other environmental and behavioral risk factors contributing to higher rates of PTB in this population.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 67-71, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971935

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital brain and eye abnormalities and is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities (1-3). In areas of the United States that experienced local Zika virus transmission, the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy increased in the second half of 2016 compared with the first half (4). To update the previous report, CDC analyzed population-based surveillance data from 22 states and territories to estimate the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of laboratory evidence of or exposure to Zika virus, among pregnancies completed during January 1, 2016-June 30, 2017. Jurisdictions were categorized as those 1) with widespread local transmission of Zika virus; 2) with limited local transmission of Zika virus; and 3) without local transmission of Zika virus. Among 2,004,630 live births, 3,359 infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy were identified (1.7 per 1,000 live births, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-1.7). In areas with widespread local Zika virus transmission, the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy was significantly higher during the quarters comprising July 2016-March 2017 (July-September 2016 = 3.0; October-December 2016 = 4.0; and January-March 2017 = 5.6 per 1,000 live births) compared with the reference period (January-March 2016) (1.3 per 1,000). These findings suggest a fourfold increase (prevalence ratio [PR] = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1-8.4) in birth defects potentially related to Zika virus in widespread local transmission areas during January-March 2017 compared with that during January-March 2016, with the highest prevalence (7.0 per 1,000 live births) in February 2017. Population-based birth defects surveillance is critical for identifying infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus regardless of whether Zika virus testing was conducted, especially given the high prevalence of asymptomatic disease. These data can be used to inform follow-up care and services as well as strengthen surveillance.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Vigilância da População , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ilhas Virgens Americanas/epidemiologia
11.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 105-115, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660800

RESUMO

Fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family cause dieback, fruit rots, and stem cankers in many tropical fruit trees. To identify which species of Botryosphaeriaceae were present in tropical fruit in Puerto Rico and the symptoms they cause in rambutan and longan, a disease survey was conducted throughout the island from 2008 to 2016. Diseased organs of rambutan, longan, mango, and tangerine were collected and 39 isolates belonging to the Botryosphaeriaceae family were isolated and identified. Phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes identified nine species: six Lasiodiplodia spp. and three Neofusicoccum spp. All 39 isolates were inoculated on healthy 1-year-old rambutan and longan seedlings to confirm their pathogenicity. Dieback on both rambutan and longan was observed at 14 days after inoculation (DAI). Fourteen isolates from seven Botryosphaeriaceae species (Lasiodiplodia brasiliensis, L. hormozganensis, L. iraniensis, L. pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae, Neofusicoccum batangarum, and N. parvum) caused dieback in rambutan. Five of these pathogenic isolates were collected from rambutan, four from longan, two from mango, and three from tangerine. Ten isolates of four Lasiodiplodia spp. caused dieback in longan: L. hormozganensis, L. iraniensis, L. pseudotheobromae and L. theobromae,. Of these, three were collected from rambutan, three from longan, one from mango, and three from tangerine. Abundant development of pycnidia on branches, called corky bark, were observed on both rambutan and longan 60 DAI. Cross-inoculations showed that pathogenicity is wide in spectrum, indicating that different planting alternatives should be considered for better crop management.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas , Doenças das Plantas , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Filogenia , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , Porto Rico , Clima Tropical
12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 35-43, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802944

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) survival has improved due to recent developments in MM treatment. As a result, other co-morbid conditions may be of increasing importance to MM patients' long-term survival. This study examines trends in common causes of death among patients with MM in Puerto Rico, and in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population. We analyzed the primary cause of death among incident MM cases recorded in the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry (n = 3,018) and the US SEER Program (n = 67,733) between 1987 and 2013. We calculated the cumulative incidence of death due to the eight most common causes and analyzed temporal trends in mortality rates using joinpoint regression. Analyses of SEER were also stratified by Hispanic ethnicity. MM accounted for approximately 72% of all reported deaths among persons diagnosed with MM in Puerto Rico and in SEER. In both populations, the proportion of patients who died from MM decreased with increasing time since diagnosis. Age-standardized temporal trends showed a decreased MM-specific mortality rate among US SEER (annual percent change [APC] = -5.0) and Puerto Rican (APC = -1.8) patients during the study period, and particularly after 2003 in non-Hispanic SEER patients. Temporal decline in non-MM causes of death was also observed among US SEER (APC = -2.1) and Puerto Rican (APC = -0.1) populations. MM-specific mortality decreased, yet remained the predominant cause of death for individuals diagnosed with MM over a 26-year period. The most pronounced decreases in MM-specific death occurred after 2003, which suggests a possible influence of more recently developed MM therapies.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Programa de SEER , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Public Health ; 110(2): 196-202, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855476

RESUMO

Objectives. To identify disparities in home damage from Hurricane Maria among Puerto Rican households with different housing tenure and income levels.Methods. Using household inspection data obtained by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), including an ordinal damage severity measure, we used generalized ordered logistic regression to estimate the relative risks of damage severities between renters and homeowners, and between households with different incomes.Results. With respect to the FEMA damage-severity classifications of "minor," "major," and "destroyed," renters were more at risk than homeowners for both "major-or-destroyed" and "destroyed" outcomes. Similarly, lower-income households were at greater risk for both "major-or-destroyed" and "destroyed" outcomes. When we allowed for an interaction between income and housing tenure, the difference in risk of "destroyed" outcomes between renters and homeowners was substantially greater at lower income levels.Conclusions. These results provide evidence at the individual household level that renters and lower-income households are most vulnerable to hurricane damage. Our interaction results suggest that lower-income renters are particularly vulnerable to severe home damage.Public Health Implications. Disaster preparedness policies should raise structural standards for low-income housing to reduce risks of severe damage.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Características da Família , Habitação , Pobreza , Populações Vulneráveis , Habitação/normas , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Porto Rico , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
AIDS Behav ; 24(2): 506-515, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865516

RESUMO

Transgender female sex workers (TFSW) are highly affected by HIV, with a global prevalence of 27%. HIV self-testing (HIVST) to screen sexual partners has helped men who have sex with men and female sex workers make informed sexual decisions and avoid HIV exposure. This is the first report on TFSW's experiences screening clients using HIVST. Ten TFSW were each given ten HIVST kits and returned after 3 months to complete an online questionnaire and undergo an interview. Eight of them reported using HIVST with potential partners. Among fifty potential partners who were asked in person to test, 42 (84%) were clients. Thirty-four out of fifty (68%) accepted and 16 (32%) refused. Very few violent incidents occurred, and participants felt empowered by offering HIVST to others. Nevertheless, HIVST market cost was prohibitive for future use. HIVST use with clients could be feasible for TFSW if the cost were lowered or subsidized.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/métodos , Autoexame/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , New York/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1710, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While PWID of Puerto Rican origin have been migrating to the US for decades, the range of factors influencing their migration to the US and the resources they draw on to do so are not well understood. This is particularly true for rural Puerto Rican PWID, and the present study is the first empirical research to document migration patterns among this population. The specificities of their migration raise important challenges that need to be documented in order to implement more effective harm reduction policies at home (Puerto Rico) and abroad (US). METHODS: This paper draws from data obtained employing a modified NHBS survey which was administered to (N =296) PWID in four rural municipalities of Puerto Rico with participants 18 years or older. The primary dependent variables for this paper are the number of times a person has lived in the continental US, and if they are planning on moving to the continental US in the future. RESULTS: Findings suggest that 65% of the sample reported ever lived in the US and that 49% are planning on moving in the future. The number of times living in the US is associated with higher education and older age, but not with self-reported positive HIV or HCV statuses. Planning to move to the US is associated with knowing PWID who have moved or plan to move, negatively associated with age, and is not associated with HIV or HCV status. Around one third of those that lived in the US reported having some sort of support, with the majority receiving support from family sources. No participant received help to enter HIV/HCV treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-region approach to prevention is required to make a dent in curbing HIV/HCV transmission in this population. Understanding PWID migration patterns, risk behaviors, and health care needs in the US is now more important than ever as natural disasters prompted by human-made climate change will only increase in the future, raising demands not only for service providers but also harm reduction policies to cope with an increasing influx of "climate refugees" as PWID move across national borders.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226401, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with a Serious Mental Illness (SMI) die earlier than the general population due to preventable medical conditions. Latinos living with SMI are a particularly vulnerable population with higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions. Stigma has been identified as a factor that fosters health inequities for Latinos/as with SMI, particularly Puerto Ricans. Although personal and social consequences of stigmatization have been well documented, research regarding the role of cultural factors on healthcare interactions is scarce. Furthermore, little research has focused on addressing stigma from the perspective of healthcare professionals. METHODS: We investigated this process through a qualitative design using semi-structured individual interviews with 11 healthcare professionals (8 physicians and 3 nurses) in Puerto Rico. We conducted a thematic analysis to analyze the data. RESULTS: Following a thematic analysis, we found three main themes and nine sub-themes related to the stigmatization process. Some participants reported perceptions of dangerousness and uneasiness, social distance and inadequate care. Participants also emphasized a lack of medical training regarding SMI within the Puerto Rican context. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the need to develop culturally appropriate public health interventions targeting healthcare professionals in order to address stigma and eliminate health disparities among Latinos/as with SMI.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Estigma Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007988, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detecting and monitoring the transmission of arboviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus, and chikungunya virus is critical for prevention and control activities. Previous work has compared the ability of different human-focused surveillance strategies to detect ZIKV transmission in U.S. counties where no known transmission had occurred, but whether virological surveillance in mosquitoes could represent an effective surveillance system is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We leveraged a unique set of data from human and virological surveillance in Ae. aegypti during the 2016 ZIKV epidemic in Caguas, Puerto Rico, to compare alternative strategies for detecting and monitoring ZIKV activity. METHODS: We developed a simulation model for mosquito and human surveillance strategies and simulated different transmission scenarios with varying infection rates and mosquito trap densities. We then calculated the expected weekly number of detected infections, the probability of detecting transmission, and the number of tests needed and compared the simulations with observed data from Caguas. RESULTS: In simulated high transmission scenarios (1 infection per 1,000 people per week), the models demonstrated that both approaches had estimated probabilities of detection of greater than 78%. In simulated low incidence scenarios, vector surveillance had higher sensitivity than human surveillance and sensitivity increased with more traps, more trapping effort, and testing. In contrast, the actual data from Caguas indicated that human virological surveillance was more sensitive than vector virological surveillance during periods of both high and low transmission. CONCLUSION: In scenarios where human surveillance is not possible or when transmission intensity is very low, virological surveillance in Ae. aegypti may be able to detect and monitor ZIKV epidemic activity. However, surveillance for humans seeking care for Zika-like symptoms likely provides an equivalent or more sensitive indicator of transmission intensity in most circumstances.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Incidência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881732

RESUMO

Relocation from one's birthplace may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outcomes, but national estimates of HIV outcomes among Hispanics/Latinos by place of birth are limited. We analyzed Medical Monitoring Project data collected in 2015-2018 from 2564 HIV-positive Hispanic/Latino adults and compared clinical outcomes between mainland US-born (referent group), Puerto Rican (PR-born), and those born outside the United States (non-US-born). We reported weighted percentages of characteristics and used logistic regression with predicted marginal means to examine differences between groups (p < 0.05). PR-born Hispanics/Latinos were more likely to be prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) (94%) and retained in care (94%) than mainland-US-born (79% and 77%, respectively) and non-US-born (91% and 87%, respectively) Hispanics/Latinos. PR-born Hispanics/Latinos were more likely to have sustained viral suppression (75%) than mainland-US-born Hispanics/Latinos (57%). Non-US-born Hispanics/Latinos were more likely to be prescribed ART (91% vs. 79%), retained in care (87% vs. 77%), and have sustained viral suppression (74% vs. 57%) than mainland-US-born Hispanics/Latinos. Greater Ryan White HIV/AIDS-funded facility usage among PR-born, better mental health among non-US-born, and less drug use among PR-born and non-US-born Hispanics/Latinos may have contributed to better HIV outcomes. Expanding programs with comprehensive HIV/AIDS services, including for mental health and substance use, may reduce HIV outcome disparities among Hispanics/Latinos.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4563(2): zootaxa.4563.2.10, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716548

RESUMO

The genus Abbrosoga Caldwell (Delphacidae: Delphacinae: Delphacini) was described in Caldwell Martorell (1951) to include the single species Abbrosoga errata Caldwell, 1951. Here, a second species, Abbrosoga multispinosa n. sp. is described. Revised diagnostics are presented for the genus and A. errata, including a key to species. A compiled list of 64 delphacid species from Puerto Rico is presented, with updated nomenclature, including the new species and a new record of Delphacodes aterrima for Puerto Rico.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Porto Rico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA