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1.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3474, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to investigate the factors associated with the practice of sex under the influence of drugs (chemsex) among Portuguese men who have sex with men during the period of social distancing to prevent the COVID-19. METHOD: online survey applied in May 2020 to a sample of 1,301 participants living in Portugal, recruited according to Respondent Driven Sampling and via social media Facebook®. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed along with logistic regression to calculate adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa). RESULTS: the prevalence of chemsex was 20.2%. The likelihood of practicing chemsex increased with group sex (ORa: 28.4, 95%CI 16.93-47.49); unprotected sex (ORa: 7.1 95%CI 4.57-10.99); the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent COVID-19 (ORa: 4.2, 95%CI 2.71-6.39) and COVID-19 testing (ORa: 1.9, 95%CI 1.15-3.10). CONCLUSION: the practice of chemsex among men who have sex with men during the COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal was very frequent and may support greater understanding of the role and impact of sexual behavior on the COVID-19 transmission rates and the current pandemic situation in Portugal.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444845

RESUMO

Rapid worldwide decreases in physical activity (PA), an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) and poorer dietary patterns have been reported during COVID-19 confinement periods. However, as national variability has been observed, this study sought to describe PA, SB and eating patterns, and to explore their gender as well as other socio-demographic correlates and how they interrelate in a representative sample of Portuguese adults during the COVID-19 first mandatory social confinement. The survey was applied online and by telephone to 5856 adults (mean age = 45.8 years; 42.6% women). The majority reported high (46.0%) or moderate (20.5%) PA levels. Men, younger participants, those with higher education levels and a favourable perception of their financial situation reported higher PA levels, with the opposite pattern for SB. Physical fitness activities and household chores were more reported by women, with more strength training and running activities reported by men. Regarding eating behaviours, 45.1% reported changes, positive (58%) and negative (42%), with 18.2% reporting increases in consumption of fruit, vegetables, and fish and other seafood consumption, while 10.8% (most with lower educational level and less comfortable with their income) reported an increase in consumption of ready-to-eat meals, soft drinks, savoury snacks, and take-away and delivered meals. Two clusters-a health-enhancing vs. risky pattern-emerged through multiple correspondence analysis characterized by co-occurrence of high vs. low PA levels, positive vs. negative eating changes, awareness or not of the COVID-19 PA and dietary recommendations, perceived financial situation, higher vs. lower educational level and time in social confinement. In conclusion, while in social confinement, both positive and negative PA and eating behaviours and trends were displayed, highlighting the role of key sociodemographic correlates contributing to healthy vs. risky patterns. Results may inform future health interventions and policies to be more targeted to those at risk, and also advocate the promotion of PA and healthy eating in an integrated fashion.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Euro Surveill ; 26(33)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414882

RESUMO

BackgroundDeterminants of hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death are still unclear for COVID-19. Few studies have adjusted for confounding for different clinical outcomes including all reported cases within a country.AimWe used routine surveillance data from Portugal to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes, and to support risk stratification, public health interventions, and planning of healthcare resources.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study including 20,293 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 reported between 1 March and 28 April 2020 through the national epidemiological surveillance system. We calculated absolute risk, relative risk (RR) and adjusted relative risk (aRR) to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with hospitalisation, ICU admission and death using Poisson regressions.ResultsIncreasing age (≥ 60 years) was the major determinant for all outcomes. Age ≥ 90 years was the strongest determinant of hospital admission (aRR: 6.1), and 70-79 years for ICU (aRR: 10.4). Comorbidities of cardiovascular, immunodeficiency, kidney and lung disease (aRR: 4.3, 2.8, 2.4, 2.0, respectively) had stronger associations with ICU admission, while for death they were kidney, cardiovascular and chronic neurological disease (aRR: 2.9, 2.6, 2.0).ConclusionsOlder age was the strongest risk factor for all severe outcomes. These findings from the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic support risk-stratified public health measures that should prioritise protecting older people. Epidemiological scenarios and clinical guidelines should consider this, even though under-ascertainment should also be considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444589

RESUMO

(1) Background: In an ageing society, social relationships may benefit cognitive performance with an impact on the health of older people. This study aims to estimate the effect of different social support sources on the risk of cognitive impairment in a sample of older Portuguese people. (2) Methods: From the Portuguese EpiPorto cohort study, we followed a sample of participants with 60 to 85 years (N = 656) between 2009 and 2015 (4.63 mean years of follow-up). The participants' perception of social support from family, friends and significant others was evaluated. Cox's regression models were used to investigate the association between this and sociodemographic variables. (3) Results: It was found that social support from friends reduces the risk of cognitive impairment. Men, participants aged 60 to 64 and those not married have a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for other variables. Participants between 80 and 85 years old (p = 0.021), those with less than four years of education (p < 0.001), and those with cognitive impairment (p = 0.007) have perception of less social support from friends. (4) Conclusions: A social support network from friends reduces the risk of cognitive impairment for older people.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Apoio Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16430, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385527

RESUMO

Until there is an effective implementation of COVID-19 vaccination program, a robust testing strategy, along with prevention measures, will continue to be the most viable way to control disease spread. Such a strategy should rely on disparate diagnostic tests to prevent a slowdown in testing due to lack of materials and reagents imposed by supply chain problems, which happened at the beginning of the pandemic. In this study, we have established a single-tube test based on RT-LAMP that enables the visual detection of less than 100 viral genome copies of SARS-CoV-2 within 30 min. We benchmarked the assay against the gold standard test for COVID-19 diagnosis, RT-PCR, using 177 nasopharyngeal RNA samples. For viral loads above 100 copies, the RT-LAMP assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.1%. Additionally, we set up a RNA extraction-free RT-LAMP test capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2 directly from saliva samples, albeit with lower sensitivity. The saliva was self-collected and the collection tube remained closed until inactivation, thereby ensuring the protection of the testing personnel. As expected, RNA extraction from saliva samples increased the sensitivity of the test. To lower the costs associated with RNA extraction, we performed this step using an alternative protocol that uses plasmid DNA extraction columns. We also produced the enzymes needed for the assay and established an in-house-made RT-LAMP test independent of specific distribution channels. Finally, we developed a new colorimetric method that allowed the detection of LAMP products by the visualization of an evident color shift, regardless of the reaction pH.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Colorimetria/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/química , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444302

RESUMO

Literature reports that SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients may be associated with higher severity and mortality, nevertheless the knowledge is limited. We aimed to describe patients' demographic characteristics and COVID-19 disease outcomes in Portuguese cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19. A total of 127 individuals were included: 46.5% males and 53.5% females, with a median age of 72 years. Clinicopathological characteristics were used in univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratios for each variable with outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Our cohort revealed that 84.3% of patients had more than one risk factor for severe disease rather than cancer. In total, 36.2% of patients were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, 14.2% developed severe disease, 1.6% required Intensive Care Unit, and mortality was observed in 11.8%. Severe COVID-19 disease was associated with unfit (ECOG PS > 2) patients (p = 0.009; OR = 6.39; 95% CI: 1.60-25.59), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.004; OR = 20.7; 95% CI: 2.64-162.8), immunosuppression (p < 0.001; OR = 10.3; 95% CI: 2.58-41.2), and presence of respiratory symptoms at diagnosis (p = 0.033; OR = 5.05; 95% CI: 1.14-22.4). Increased risk for mortality was associated with unfit patients (p = 0.036; OR = 4.22; 95% CI: 1.10-16.3), cardiac disease (p = 0.003; OR = 8.26; 95% CI: 2.03-33.6) and immunosuppression (p = 0.022; OR = 5.06; 95% CI: 1.27-20.18). Our results demonstrated that unfit and immunosuppressed patients, with chronic kidney disease and cardiac disease, have, respectively, an increased risk for severe disease and mortality related to COVID-19. Hence, this study provides important information on risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease and associated mortality in a Portuguese cancer population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444482

RESUMO

Italy, Greece, Spain, and Portugal have all been strongly affected by the 2008 financial crisis, which has had a negative impact on health. We systematically evaluated the effects of the crisis on lifestyle and socioeconomic inequalities. We conducted a literature search using MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and health economics databases for studies reporting quantitative comparisons before and after (or during) the crisis on the following risk behaviors: alcohol consumption, smoking habit, healthy diet, physical activity, and psychotropic drugs and substance abuse, without setting any age restrictions. We selected 34 original articles published between 2011 and 2020. During/after the crisis, alcohol consumption and substance abuse decreased, while psychotropic drug use increased. We also observed a deterioration in healthy eating behavior, with a reduction in fruit and vegetable consumption. Smoking habit and physical activity showed a more complex, controversial trend. Socioeconomic inequalities were affected by the recession, and the negative effects on unhealthy lifestyle tended to be more pronounced among the disadvantaged. These results suggest the need to implement health policies and interventions aimed at monitoring risk behaviors, with special regard to disadvantaged people, and considering the potential additional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Recessão Econômica , Grécia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360296

RESUMO

(1) Background: Nursing homes' preparedness in managing a public health emergency has been poor, with effects on safety culture. The objective of this study was to assess nursing homes' COVID-19 preparedness in southern Portugal, including staff's work experiences during the pandemic. (2) Methods: We used a COVID-19 preparedness checklist to be completed by management teams, followed by follow-up calls to nursing homes. Thereafter, a survey of staff was applied. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and thematic analysis of open-end questions. (3) Results: In total, 71% (138/195) of eligible nursing homes returned the preparedness checklist. We conducted 83 follow-up calls and received 720 replies to the staff survey. On average, 25% of nursing homes did not have an adequate decision-making structure to respond to the pandemic. Outbreak capacity and training were areas for improvement among nursing homes' contingency plans. We identified teamwork as an area of strength for safety culture, whereas compliance with procedures and nonpunitive response to mistakes need improvement. (4) Conclusions: To strengthen how nursing homes cope with upcoming phases of the COVID-19 pandemic or future public health emergencies, nursing homes' preparedness and safety culture should be fostered and closely monitored.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 673959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368050

RESUMO

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) have been increasingly available in Europe. Due to the high burden of HIV in key populations, these could benefit from their use. In 2016, in Portugal, an open, non-interval, prospective cohort study was established in a network of 26 community-based voluntary HIV/STI counseling and testing centers. Data collected included questions on PEP and PrEP knowledge and use. We aimed to estimate the proportion of PEP and PrEP knowledge and its use among key populations, visiting the centers between 2016 and 2019. Method and results: Individuals who self-identify as being among at least one key population for HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), sex workers (SW), migrants, and male-to-female transgender individuals (MTF), responded to questions on PEP and PrEP knowledge and use while waiting for their test results between 2016 and 2019 (n = 12,893 for PEP; n = 10,973 for PrEP). Reported knowledge was low in all key populations for both tools: 15.7% of respondents reported knowing about PEP and 10.9% about PrEP over the course of 4 years. PEP was used by 1.8% and PrEP by 0.4% of the respondents, MSM being 88.9% of PrEP users, and 52.8% of PEP users. Multivariate logistic regression showed multiple factors associated with knowing the tools, including age, education, country of birth, gender, year of test, having a reactive HIV test in the same visit, reporting an STI or condomless sex in the last 12 months, and identifying with being MSM or SW. Conclusions: Knowledge and use of PEP and PrEP remain low among key populations in Portugal. The need remains to increase knowledge and use among those at risk for HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 40(8): 573-580, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392900

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2, was discovered as the agent of COVID-19 disease. Cardiac arrhythmias have been reported as frequent but their incidence is unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the real incidence of cardiac arrhythmias among COVID-19 patients admitted to Portuguese hospitals and to understand the underlying prognostic implications. METHODS: The Portuguese Association of Arrhythmology, Pacing and Electrophysiology (APAPE) conducted a survey in Portuguese hospitals to assess the occurrence of arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients, their clinical characteristics, the use of experimental therapies and the impact on QT interval. RESULTS: Twenty hospitals participated, reporting 692 hospitalized patients. An arrhythmic episode occurred in 81 (11.7%) and 64 (79%) had detailed information on these episodes. New onset arrhythmias occurred in 41 (64%) patients, 45 (70.3%) male, median age 73.5 (61-80.3) years. There were 51 (79.7%) with associated comorbidities, mainly arterial hypertension (41, 64.1%). Of 53 patients (82.3%) on experimental therapy, 7 (10.9%) had an increased QTc interval. Regarding arrhythmias, two patients (3.1%) had ventricular tachycardia, 5 (7.8%) sinus bradycardia, 17 (26.6%) paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and 40 (62.5%) atrial fibrillation or flutter. At the time of reporting, there had been no deaths due to arrhythmic syndrome or related complications. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of COVID-19 patients. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias is high but not associated with increased cardiac mortality although it does though occur frequently in extremely ill patients and with multiple organ failure. Regardless of the use of experimental drugs, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias is low and atrial fibrillation and other supraventricular arrhythmias are the most prevalent arrythmias.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , COVID-19 , Idoso , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 40(7): 465-471, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274091

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to significant changes in healthcare systems and its impact on the treatment of cardiovascular conditions, such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), is unknown in countries where the healthcare systems were not saturated, as was the case in Portugal. As such, we aimed to assess the effect on STEMI admissions and outcomes in Portuguese centers. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, observational, retrospective study including all patients admitted to our hospital due to STEMI between the date of the first SARS-CoV-2 case diagnosed in Portugal and the end of the state of emergency (March and April 2020). Patient characteristics and outcomes were assessed and compared with the same period of 2019. RESULTS: A total of 104 STEMI patients were assessed, 55 in 2019 and 49 in 2020 (-11%). There were no significant differences between groups regarding age (62±12 vs. 65±14 years, p=0.308), gender (84.8% vs. 77.6% males, p=0.295) or comorbidities. In the 2020 group, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of patients transported to the hospital in pre-hospital emergency medical transportation (38.2% vs. 20.4%, p=0.038), an increase in system delay (49 [30-110.25] vs. 140 [90-180] minutes, p=0.019), a higher Killip-Kimball class, with a decrease in class I (74.5% vs. 51%) and an increase in class III (1.8% vs. 8.2%) and IV (5.5% vs. 18.4%) (p=0.038), a greater incidence of vasoactive support (3.7% vs. 26.5%, p=0.001), invasive mechanic ventilation usage (3.6% vs. 14.3%, p=0.056), and an increase in severe left ventricular dysfunction at hospital discharge (3.6% vs. 16.3%, p=0.03). In-hospital mortality was 14.3% in the 2020 group and 7.3% in the 2019 group p=0.200). CONCLUSION: Despite a lack of significant variation in the absolute number of STEMI admissions, there was an increase in STEMI clinical severity and significantly worse outcomes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. An increase in system delay, impaired pre-hospital care and patient fear of in-hospital infection can partially justify these results and should be the target of future actions in further waves of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , Dados Preliminares , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia
12.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 648-653, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among workers of the three public higher education institutions of Porto, Portugal, up to July 2020. METHODS: A rapid point-of-care test for specific IgM and IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 was offered to all workers (SD Biosensor STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Duo and STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Combo). Testing was performed and a questionnaire was completed by 4592 workers on a voluntary basis from 21 May to 31 July 2020. We computed the apparent IgM, IgG, and combined IgM or IgG prevalence, along with the true prevalence and 95% credible intervals (95% CrI) using Bayesian inference. RESULTS: We found an apparent prevalence of 3.1% for IgM, 1.0% for IgG and 3.9% for either. The estimated true prevalence was 2.0% (95% CrI 0.1% to 4.3%) for IgM, 0.6% (95% CrI 0.0% to 1.3%) for IgG, and 2.5% (95% CrI 0.1% to 5.3%) for IgM or IgG. A SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis was reported by 21 (0.5%) workers; and of these, 90.5% had a reactive IgG result. Seroprevalence was higher among those reporting contacts with confirmed cases, having been quarantined, having a previous molecular negative test or having had symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence among workers from the three public higher education institutions of Porto after the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to national estimates for the same age working population. However, the estimated true seroprevalence was approximately five times higher than the reported SARS-CoV-2 infection based on a molecular test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
J Community Psychol ; 49(7): 2209-2220, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252981

RESUMO

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the exponential increase in cases, educational institutions worldwide were forced to close, making way for digital learning. After a period of confinement and an online teaching methodology, a new school year has begun. However, this new school year included the application of a wide range of measures that transformed the educative setting. The present study aimed to understand the health consequences for adolescents and young adults (AYA) during the back to school period after the COVID-19 lockdown. This mixed-method study included 304 participants between 16 and 24 years old (M = 18.4, SD = 2.12), female (71.1%), Portuguese (90.8%) and students (85.2%). In general, it was with a pessimistic perspective that young people in general, particularly girls and university students, understood the new school reality postconfinement, the effects on friendship relations, leisure activities and physical activity. By demonstrating AYA's ability and competence to identify and expose their problems, this study intends to raise awareness of the need for their involvement in the issues that affect them.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Educação à Distância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281029

RESUMO

Currently, the main public health concern worldwide is the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, which was recently discovered and described. Due to its high pathogenicity and infectiousness, it is necessary to determine the risk healthcare professionals face every day while dealing with infected patients and contaminated biological samples. The purpose of this study was to assess Portuguese Biomedical Scientists' risk of COVID-19 exposure and related stress appraisals. One hundred and forty participants completed online versions of the WHO's Risk Assessment and Management of Exposure Survey and the Stress Appraisal Measure. Participants worked mainly in outpatient settings (45%), and in emergency services (28%). Twenty three percent of participants were exposed to COVID-19 through community exposure, and 39% through occupational exposure. Although 95% reported using personal protective equipment (PPE), 83.6% were at high risk of infection. However, the use of some types of PPE was related to the risk of exposure. Participants reported moderate perceptions of stress and threat, but also moderate perceptions of control over the situation. These results may contribute to a more efficient risk management of these professionals and prevent disease transmission in hospitals and communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209522

RESUMO

Not many studies assessing the impact of internet addiction (IA) and job satisfaction (JS) on mental health symptoms (MHS) among active workers exist. Therefore, the purpose of this study was as follows: (a) to assess the presence of criteria for IA among a sample of active workers; (b) to analyze differences in IA, JS and MHS, by gender; (c) to analyze association levels among IA, JS, and MHS; and (d) to determine the predictive effect of IA and JS on MHS. In total, 1064 participants (Mage = 40.66; SD = 12.02) completed a survey containing four categories of measures: demographic information, internet addiction, job satisfaction, and mental health symptoms (anxiety and depression). Results showed a presence of 13.3% for IA among the sample. Male participants showed higher scores of IA and JS but lower scores of overall MSH than female participants did. Significant positive correlations were found between overall IA and MHS, and significant negative correlations were found between IA and JS, and MHS and JS. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that strong predictors of MHS were age (being older), gender (being female), not having enough economic funds, being unsatisfied with the leadership in the job, being unsatisfied with the nature of the job, and having higher scores in salience and excessive use regarding IA. In conclusion, addiction to internet technology is a risk factor with implications for occupational satisfaction and mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia
16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze nurses' attitudes toward death in a hospital context after the critical period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal. METHOD: this quantitative, descriptive, exploratory study was conducted in a university hospital and addressed 995 nurses. Revised Death Attitude Profile (DAP-R) was used to collect data, which were analyzed using analytical and inferential statistics. RESULTS: the nurses most frequently agreed with the statements concerning the Neutral/Neutrality Acceptance and Fear. Age, marital status, profession, and unit of work influenced the nurses' attitudes toward death. During the critical pandemic period, the nurses providing care to patients with COVID-19 presented the following means: Fear (28.89/±8.521) and Avoidance Acceptance (18.35/±7.116), which were higher than the mean obtained in the Escape Acceptance dimension, with significant differences (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: the nurses held Fear and Avoidance attitudes, revealing the need to qualify and support Nursing workers to cope with the death of those they provide care and manage pandemics and catastrophes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Morte , Humanos , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 700279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277558

RESUMO

The population aging in Europe imposes challenges to societies that require adaptations and responses at various levels to minimize impacts and figuring out opportunities. Portugal has been committed to the World Health Organization and European Union's values and policy frameworks concerning active and healthy aging. In 2017, an inter-ministerial working group developed the National Strategy for Active and Healthy Aging. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic that exposed the vulnerabilities of older populations, the launch of the Decade of Healthy Aging 2021-2030 and its baseline report and the 2018 Active Aging Index Analytical Report may constitute an opportunity to strategically think about the aging of the population as a national purpose in Portugal and in the other European countries that face similar challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Envelhecimento Saudável , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3422, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the vulnerabilities of children in the access to primary health care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and Portugal. METHOD: documentary study based on Brazilian and Portuguese governmental guidelines issued between March and August 2020 regarding access of children to primary health care. Thematic analysis was based on the precepts of health vulnerability. RESULTS: 13 documents were issued in both countries addressing access to vaccination and childcare. Due to the SARS-CoV-2, restrictions were imposed on the circulation of people in social environments, health services, and social protection, decreasing the demand for health services. Both countries continued programs to promote the health of breastfeeding infants. In-person childcare consultations were suspended for low-risk children in both countries. Portugal maintained routine vaccination while Brazil interrupted vaccination in the first 15 days of the pandemic. The countries adopted remote care strategies - telemonitoring, teleconsultation, and mobile applications - to maintain the bond between children and health services. CONCLUSION: longitudinality was affected due to restricted access of children to health promotion actions, determining greater programmatic vulnerability. Individual vulnerabilities are related to exposure to preventable and primary health care-sensitive diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207424

RESUMO

Environmental factors play an important role in obesity-related behaviors. Evidence indicates significant associations between weight and urban green spaces in adults, but it is not clear whether this relationship applies to adolescents. Therefore, our aim was to determine the associations between urban green spaces, greenness exposure and species richness in residential environments with physical activity and body mass index. Sixty-two adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age answered a self-administered questionnaire, providing information on height, weight, age, sex and home address. Data on socioeconomic deprivation were obtained from the European Index of Deprivation for Small Portuguese Areas. Physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometers. Urban green space counts and the normalized difference vegetation index values were measured using buffers along the roads with distances of 300, 500, 1000 and 1500 m from each participant's residence. To quantify the species richness, the species richness index was used. Linear regression models were fitted to analyze whether urban green spaces, exposure to green spaces and species richness counts for each distance were associated with physical activity and self-reported body mass index. We did not find significant associations between the independent variables and the probability of overweight or obesity. The relationship between environmental variables, adolescents' physical activity and body weight seems to be complex and further studies may contribute to better understanding of the topic.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiologia
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