Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.280
Filtrar
1.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 55-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902124

RESUMO

Suspension training is an adjunct to traditional strength and conditioning. The effect of added instability on muscle activation during traditional exercises is unclear and depends on the exercise and type of instability. The purpose of this review was to compare the activations of different muscles in suspension training exercises and their traditional counterparts. A search of the current literature was performed without language restrictions using the electronic databases PubMed (1969-12 January 2017), SPORTDiscus (1969-12 January 2017) and Scopus (1969-12 January 2017). The inclusion criteria were: (1) descriptive studies; (2) physically active participants; and (3) studies that analysed muscle activation using normalised electromyographic signals during different suspension training exercises. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. For the push-up, inverted row, prone bridge and hamstring curl in suspension, the activation of upper-body and core muscles ranged between moderate (21-40% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)) and very high (>60% MVIC). Muscle activation in these same muscle groups was greater with suspension exercises relative to comparable traditional exercises, except for the inverted row. Muscle activation in the upper extremity and core muscles varied greatly amongst studies.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Humanos , Postura/fisiologia
2.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 30(6): 484-490, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589185

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As humans spend a considerable portion of life in the horizontal position, it is vital to better understand the effect of sleep position on glaucoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The mean positional increase from the supine position to the lateral decubitus position (LDP) in recent literature is less than 2 mmHg for each eye in its dependent position and less than 1 mmHg in the nondependent position. The right LDP is most commonly favored sleeping position. Some evidence suggests that the positional increases persist and so could lead to worse glaucomatous progression in the dependent eye. However, multiple studies failed to find a strong association. Ideally future research will identify risk factors for higher positional increases to identify patients who may benefit from a change in sleep position. To date, medications and argon laser trabeculoplasty have been ineffective in blunting the positional increase, although glaucoma surgery does reduce it. Raising the head of the bed has been linked with blunting the increase as well. SUMMARY: Certain sleeping positions appear to be associated with higher intraocular pressure, although the association between sleep position and glaucoma progression is not as clear.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Postura/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Tonometria Ocular
4.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(9-10): 343-351, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625701

RESUMO

Background and purpose: To understand if children with and without cerebral palsy share the same lumbar postural control threshold on the sagittal plane for the transition between each walking locomotor stage. Methods: Observational analysis of sagittal trunk-pelvis kinematics of 97 children with cerebral palsy and 73 with typical development, according to their locomotor stage. Results: Among children with typical development, all average and minimum measurements of the sagittal lumbar curve during the gait events were correlated with age and the locomotor stages of development. Among children with cerebral palsy, there were significant correlations between all average and minimum values of the sagittal lumbar curve and locomotor stages of development but not age. Conclusion: We conclude that, for the same locomotor level, there are no common postural patterns between children with typical development and those with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy for the position between trunk and pelvis in the sagittal plane. Maximal lordosis reduction between trunk and pelvis may change with age or even training, but does not make a positive effect on the locomotor level, while basal and maintenance capacities could explain locomotor function. Trials that failed to assess quality of movement may now have a better understanding of how different interventions improve posture towards the next functional level.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia
5.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(9-10): 353-356, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625702

RESUMO

Drop foot is defined as difficulty of dorsiflexion of the foot and ankle due to weak anterior tibial, extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Cauda equina syndrome, local peroneal nerve damage due to trauma, nerve entrapment, compartment syndrome and tumors are common etiologies. A 32-year-old male patient was applied with difficulty in dorsiflexion of both of his toes, feet and ankles after he had squatted in toilette for 6-7 hours (because of his haemorrhoid) after intense alcohol intake 2 weeks before. Acute, partial, demyelinating lesion in head of fibula segment of peroneal nerves was diagnosed by electromyography. This case was reported since prolonged squatting is an extremely rare cause of acute bilateral peroneal neuropathy. This type of neuropathy is mostly demyelination and has good prognosis with physical therapy and mechanical devices, but surgical intervention may be required due to axonal damage. People such as workers and farmers working in the squatting position for long hours should be advised to change their position as soon as the compression symptoms (numbness, tingling) appear.


Assuntos
Hemorroidas/complicações , Nervo Fibular/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Fibulares/diagnóstico , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Pé/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Nervo Fibular/cirurgia , Neuropatias Fibulares/etiologia , Neuropatias Fibulares/cirurgia
6.
Gait Posture ; 74: 142-147, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Static foot assessment is commonly performed in clinical practice to classify foot type for prescribing therapeutic interventions. Foot posture index is known to be a reliable indicator for foot position. Resting calcaneal stance position angle is used widely to determine foot posture and manufacture orthoses for pediatric flat foot patients. However, the relationship between foot posture index and resting calcaneal stance position angle in elementary school students is currently unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the relationship between foot posture index and resting calcaneal stance position angle in elementary school students. METHODS: Between January 2016 and December 2017, 208 elementary school students (average age, 10.3 years; range, 8-13 years) were enrolled for this study. All students were examined physically by one practitioner to measure foot posture index and resting calcaneal stance position angle. Age, gender, and body mass index were analyzed for factors associated with flat foot prevalence. This study was conducted as a retrospective comparative study. Associations between foot posture index and resting calcaneal stance position angle were determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE: When measured by foot posture index and resting calcaneal stance position angle, the overall prevalence of flatfoot was 29% and 24% in the right foot and 26% and 23% in the left foot, respectively. Resting calcaneal stance position angle and foot posture index score showed moderate correlation in Pearson's correlation analysis (left side foot: kappa value = 0.710; right side foot: kappa value = 0.704). CONCLUSION: There is a moderate correlation between foot posture index and resting calcaneal stance position angle in elementary school students. Thus, both foot posture index with proven validity and reliability and resting calcaneal stance position widely used in the manufacture of insoles can be used as important biomechanical evaluation tools for feet in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Calcâneo/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Descanso , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Gait Posture ; 74: 121-127, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive patellofemoral joint stress (PFJS) is thought to be a contributory factor to patellofemoral pain (PFP). Thus, treatment strategies that minimize PFJS rate and magnitude during painful activities like stair ascent may be useful for optimizing outcomes for PFP patients. Sagittal plane trunk posture has been shown to influence PFJS during running although it is unknown if a similar relationship exists during stair ascent. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does altering sagittal plane trunk posture affect PFJS rate and/or magnitude during stair ascent? METHODS: Twenty asymptomatic females (23.4±2.5 yr; height: 164.4±7.9 cm; mass: 63.0±12.2 kg) performed 5 stair ascent trials (96 steps/min) during 3 conditions: self-selected trunk (SS), flexed trunk (FLX), and extended trunk (EXT). Three-dimensional kinematics (200 Hz) and ground reaction forces (2000 Hz) were collected during each trial. A previously described mathematical model was used to calculate PFJS that included subject-specific and non-subject-specific model inputs. Dependent variables included sagittal plane trunk angle, and the rates and magnitudes of PFJS, patellofemoral joint reaction force (PFJRF), and PFJ contact area during the stance phase of stair ascent. RESULTS: Compared to SS, peak PFJS decreased during FLX (mean difference (MD)=2.6 MPa; p<0.001; 95%CI=2.2 to 2.9; effect size (ES)=5.2) and increased during EXT (MD=-3.3 MPa; p<0.001; 95%CI=-3.9 to -2.6; ES=-3.4). Similarly, PFJS rate decreased during FLX (MD=17.8 MPa/sec; p<0.001; 95%CI=13.6 to 21.9; ES=3.6) and increased during EXT (MD=-14 MPa/sec; 95%CI=-19.4 to -8.7; p<0.001; ES=-2.2). SIGNIFICANCE: Sagittal plane trunk posture influences PFJS rate and magnitude during stair ascent in asymptomatic females. Increasing and decreasing forward trunk flexion resulted in decreased and increased PFJS respectively. Future studies should examine the effects of these movement strategy modifications on pain and function in patients with PFP.


Assuntos
Articulação Patelofemoral/fisiopatologia , Postura/fisiologia , Subida de Escada/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 324-330, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488748

RESUMO

Clinical assessment of a patient, monitoring the progress of a condition, and/or titration of a therapy is dependent on the metrological characteristics of diagnostic equipment. While metrological performance of instruments is commonly assessed in research, it is not so often done in clinical practice. Physical rehabilitation applications may benefit individuals with mental health concerns and are associated with an accurate analysis of balance and gait. There is a paucity of published data regarding the metrological characteristics of commonly used clinical instruments used in posturographic measurements. We desired to assess the accuracy, trueness, precision and resolution of four posturography systems that we use clinically in practice: a Bertec BP-5050, a Vestibular Technologies CAPS® Professional and a Vestibular Technologies CAPS® Lite threecomponent balance platforms, and a NeuroCom® Balance Manager SMART EquiTest®. Metrological performance by posturography instruments was recommended in 2013 by the International Standardization Committee for Clinical Stabilometry of the International Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR). Clinical and research findings may be erroneous, or at the least misleading, if the instruments used to make clinical decisions are associated with significant error. We suggest that there is a strong need for posturographic instrumentation with appropriate metrological characteristics used in clinical applications. The ISPRG recommendations appear to be reasonable and appropriate, and our results show they are obtainable. Physical measurements and functional testing used to correlate and design mental health and physical based rehabilitation strategies are often dependent upon the accuracy and metrological integrity of diagnostic instruments used in posturography.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 756-761, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476782

RESUMO

We studied the effects of supramaximal interval exercise (SIE) with or without antihypertensive medication (AHM) on 21-hr blood pressure (BP) response. Twelve hypertensive patients chronically medicated with AHM, underwent three trials in a randomized order: a) control trial without exercise and substituting their AHM with a placebo (PLAC); b) placebo medicine and a morning bout of SIE (PLAC+SIE), and c) combining AHM and exercise (AHM+SIE). Acute and ambulatory blood pressure responses were measured for 21-hr after treatment. 20 min after treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were reduced, similar to readings after PLAC+SIE (-9.7±6.0 mmHg, P<0.001) and AHM+SIE (-10.4±7.9 mmHg, P=0.001). 21 h after treatment, SBP remained reduced after PLAC+SIE (125±12 mmHg, P=0.022) and AHM+SIE (122±12 mmHg, P=0.013) compared to PLAC (132±16 mmHg). The BP reduction in PLAC+SIE faded out at 4 a.m., while in AHM+SIE it continued overnight. At night, BP reduction was larger in AHM+SIE than PLAC+SIE (-5.6±4.0 mmHg, P=0.006). Our data shows that a bout of supramaximal aerobic interval exercise in combination with ARB medication in the morning elicits a sustained blood pressure reduction lasting at least 21-h. Thus, the combination of exercise and angiotensin receptor blocker medication seems superior to exercise alone for acutely decreasing blood pressure.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/métodos , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
10.
Vet J ; 251: 105352, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492391

RESUMO

Pneumonia is one of the potential complications of general anaesthesia in horses. Anaesthesia is known to increase neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of horses after lateral recumbency, but studies after dorsal recumbency are lacking. Our primary aim was to determine when lung inflammation reaches its maximum and how rapidly BALF cytology returns to baseline after anaesthesia in dorsal recumbency. A secondary aim was to investigate the possible effect of vatinoxan, a novel drug, on the BALF cytology results. Six healthy experimental horses were enrolled in this observational crossover study. The horses were subject to repeated BALF and blood sampling for 7 days after general anaesthesia with two treatment protocols, and without anaesthesia (control). During the two treatments, the horses received either medetomidine-vatinoxan or medetomidine-placebo as premedication, and anaesthesia was induced with ketamine-midazolam and maintained with isoflurane for 1h in dorsal recumbency. The differences in BALF and blood variables between the two anaesthesia protocols and control were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance models. In this study, anaesthesia in dorsal recumbency resulted in no clinically relevant changes in airway cytology that could be differentiated from the effect of repeated BALF sampling. No differences in BALF matrix metalloproteinase gelatinolytic activity could be detected between the two treatments or the control series. Marked increase in serum amyloid A was detected in some animals. Vatinoxan as premedication did not consistently affect lung cytology or blood inflammatory markers after anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Estudos Cross-Over , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Inflamação , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Postura/fisiologia , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica
11.
Gait Posture ; 74: 66-70, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Back pain prevalence may increase with lumbar lordosis during standing in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Multiple interventions undertaken in individuals with CP have been shown to increase anterior pelvic tilt. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are pelvic tilt and trunk tilt (proxy measurements for lumbar lordosis) during gait associated with back pain prevalence in ambulatory individuals with CP? METHODS: A retrospective investigation was performed among all patients with cerebral palsy visiting a single clinical motion analysis laboratory over a 3.5 year period (January 2015 - May 2018) who also had complete pain questionnaire data. Back pain prevalence and its association with sagittal plane kinematic parameters (pelvic tilt and trunk tilt) were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 700 patients that met the inclusion criteria, 594 were children and 106 were adults. Back pain prevalence was 11.1% in children and 36.8% in adults. As pelvic tilt and age increased, back pain increased (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.002-1.061 and 1.052-1.109, respectively). Walking with an assistive device was not associated with back pain, nor was trunk tilt. SIGNIFICANCE: Back pain was more common with increasing age in ambulatory individuals with CP. After controlling for assistive device use and age, there was a weak relationship between pelvic tilt and back pain. Future studies are needed to determine if this is this a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Marcha/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Lordose/fisiopatologia , Postura/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dor nas Costas/etiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(3): 141-150, jul.-sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-3788

RESUMO

Introduction: those who use voice for professional purposes know how crucial it is to regulate posture, breath and voice to get the best vocal performance. Pilates, a fitness system that focuses on breathing and postural control, should be beneficial in optimizing singers' voice. The present study aims to demonstrate that the practice of Pilates improves the quality of artistic vocal production. Materials and methods: we collected a sample of 15 singing students that underwent ENT examination and filled in a first questionnaire. After that we proceeded to voice recording and acoustic analysis through software Praat. Next, together with a fully qualified Pilates teacher, we identified a few exercises acting on the respiratory muscles, that were explained and practiced during a Pilates lesson. These exercises were performed by each subject on his/her own at least three times a week for two months and together during other two Pilates group lessons. Finally, a second voice recording was performed, using the Praat software and under the very same condition of the first recording and a second self-assessment questionnaire was filled in. Results: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test revealed that the Fo and Jitter parameters were not normally distributed, while the Shimmer and HNR resulted to be normally distributed. The averages of Shimmer and HNR parameters were thus analyzed through the T Test, while the F0 and Jitter parameters were analyzed through the Wilcoxon test. The analysis revealed that all the four parameters underwent statistically significant changes after the Pilates practice. Questionnaire results revealed that Pilates had a positive effect on voice production (15/15), especially on postural alignment (15/15) and respiratory capacity (13/15). Discussion: in our study the F0 increased after Pilates practice. This finding should be due to changes in the vocal folds length and tension, probably related to the postural exercises that had been performed, which conferred greater elasticity to the muscles. Contrariwise the Jitter parameter after exercising had decreased allowing us to conclude that Pilates helps to reduce vibratory perturbations of the vocal cords during vocal emission. This should have been obtained through a greater control of the respiratory dynamics provided by the exercises. The Shimmer parameter had also diminished, allowing us to hypothesize that the Pilates exercises, acting on the respiratory mechanisms, minimize intensity variations. On the contrary, HNR had increased suggesting that the amount of periodic signal in the voice after Pilates practice is greater than before. Since voices with a higher average HNR tend to be judged as more attractive, our results point to the fact that Pilates practice improves voice quality, as subjectively reported by the participants themselves. Conclusion: our study has highlighted the positive role of Pilates on vocal production in singing students: in a relatively short time, simple exercises - performed regularly - have shown a significant impact on vocal quality. It is likely that the very same positive effects could also be obtained by other occupational voice users


Introducción: los que usan la voz con fines profesionales saben lo importante que es regular postura, respiración y voz para obtener la mejor interpretación vocal. Pilates, un sistema de fitness que se enfoca en el control de la respiración y de la postura, puede ser beneficioso para optimizar la voz de los cantantes. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo demostrar que la práctica de pilates mejora la calidad de producción vocal artística. Materiales y métodos: recolectamos 15 estudiantes de canto que se sometieron a un examen otorrinolaringológico y rellenado en un primer cuestionario. Después de eso procedimos a la grabación de voz y análisis acústico a través del software Praat. A continuación, junto con un profesor de Pilates completamente calificado, se identificaron algunos ejercicios que actúan sobre los músculos respiratorios, que fueron explicados y practicados durante una lección de pilates. Estos ejercicios fueron realizados por cada sujeto por su cuenta en por lo menos tres veces por semana durante dos meses y juntos durante otras dos clases grupales de pilates. Finalmente, se realizó una segunda grabación de voz, utilizando el software Praat y bajo el mismo se completó la misma condición de la primera grabación y un segundo cuestionario de autoevaluación. Resultados: la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov reveló que los parámetros de Fo y Jitter no fueron normalmente distribuidos, mientras que Shimmer y HNR resultaron ser distribuidos normalmente. Los promedios de los parámetros Shimmer y HNR se analizaron por medio de la prueba T, mientras que los parámetros F0 y Jitter fueron analizados a través de la prueba de Wilcoxon. El análisis reveló que todos los cuatro parámetros sufrieron cambios estadísticamente significativos después de la práctica de pilates. Los resultados del cuestionario revelaron que Pilates tuvo un efecto positivo en la producción de voz (15/15), especialmente en alineación postural (15/15) y capacidad respiratoria (13/15). Discusión: en nuestro estudio, el F0 aumentó después de la práctica de pilates. Este hallazgo se debe a cambios en la longitud y tensión de los pliegues vocales, probablemente relacionados con los ejercicios posturales que se han realizado, que confieren mayor elasticidad a los músculos...


Assuntos
Humanos , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Canto , Voz , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia
13.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 38(1): 9, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-resolution ultrasound is being widely used in carpal tunnel examination to understand morphological and biomechanical characteristics of the median nerve and surrounding anatomy structures. MAIN BODY: Healthy young and elderly men were recruited. The median nerve at proximal wrist region was examined by ultrasound imaging technique. A total of seven wrist angle was examined. Generally, the median nerve cross-sectional area of the elderly group is significantly larger than the young group. SHORT CONCLUSION: Wrist posture in greater flexion or extension caused a larger decrease in the median nerve cross-sectional area across both groups.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Mediano/diagnóstico por imagem , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Ultrassonografia , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102510, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442623

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the level of inter- and intra-individual variability in the kinematic profiles of the back squat movement among skilled weightlifters. Ten competitive weightlifters volunteered for participation in this study. Barbell velocity (VBarbell) and angular velocity of the ankle (ωAnkle), knee (ωKnee) and hip joint (ωHip) were obtained by kinematic recording of six trials at 90% of 1RM in the back squat. Inter-individual variability was assessed by analysing inter-individual differences in the velocity curves through the statistical parametric mapping method. Intra-individual variability was assessed through a correlation analysis between the barbell velocity curves of each trial for each participant. Partial least squares regression analysis, was performed to relate changes in intra-individual variability to movement and anthropometric characteristics. Significant inter- and intra-individual differences were identified in VBarbell, ωAnkle, ωKnee, and ωHip (p ≤ 0.05). Having a short trunk and thigh, and a long shin in combination with greater anterior-posterior displacement of the barbell and slower velocities during the acceleration phase increased intra-individual movement consistency over movement variability. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate that skilled weightlifters display both significant inter- and intra-individual variability in the successful execution of the back squat.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(16)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434320

RESUMO

Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent diseases in Western societies. A large percentage of European and American populations suffer from back pain at some point in their lives. One successful approach to address lower back pain is postural training, which can be supported by wearable devices, providing real-time feedback about the user's posture. In this work, we analyze the changes in posture induced by postural training. To this end, we compare snapshots before and after training, as measured by the Gokhale SpineTracker™. Considering pairs of before and after snapshots in different positions (standing, sitting, and bending), we introduce a feature space, that allows for unsupervised clustering. We show that resulting clusters represent certain groups of postural changes, which are meaningful to professional posture trainers.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/reabilitação , Monitorização Fisiológica , Postura/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1817906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467870

RESUMO

Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the effects of body position on the level and severity of stuttering in young adults with developmental stuttering. Methods: A total of 24 subjects (male: 17; female: 7; mean age: 24.9 ± 6.2 years) with developmental stuttering participated. The participants were asked to perform oral reading and spontaneous monologue-speaking tasks in different body postures while their speech was recorded. During reading and speaking tasks, the Stuttering Severity Instrument was used to quantify the severity of stuttering. The effects of different body postures on stuttering severity, reading task, and speaking task scores were analyzed. Results: Significant differences in stuttering severity, reading task, and speaking task scores were found for different body postures. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant difference in stuttering severity, reading task, and speaking task scores when subjects were sitting on a chair with no arm support compared to lying down (p<0.05). Similarly, there were significant differences for two sitting positions (sitting on a chair with no arm support vs sitting on a chair with arm support (p<0.05)). Conclusions: Body postures or body segment positions that relax and facilitate the muscles of the neck and shoulders may potentially improve speech fluency in young adults with developmental stuttering.


Assuntos
Postura/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Gagueira/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Knee ; 26(5): 988-1002, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427245

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Kneeling is an activity of daily living which becomes difficult with knee pathology and increasing age. This study aimed to capture kneeling kinematics in six-degrees-of-freedom in healthy adults as a function of age. METHODS: 67 healthy knee participants aged from 20 to 90 years were categorised into four 20-year age-groups. 3D knee kinematics were captured using 3D/2D image-registration of CT scan and fluoroscopy during kneeling. Kinematic variables of position, displacement and rate-of-change in six-degrees-of-freedom were compared between age-groups while controlling for University of California Los Angeles activity scale and the Assessment of Quality of Life physical score. RESULTS: Over the entire kneeling cycle there were few differences between the age-groups. Results are reported as pairwise contrasts. At 110° flexion, 80+ knees were more varus than 20-39 and 40-69 (4.9° (95%CI: 0.6°, 9.1°) and 6.4° (2.1°, 10.7°), respectively). At 120° flexion, the 80+ age-group femur was 5.5 (0.0, 11.0) mm more anterior than 20-39. Between 120° to maximum flexion, 80+ knees rotated into valgus more than 20-39, 40-59 and 60-79 (5.5° (1.2°, 9.8°); 5.5° (1.1°, 9.8°); and 4.5° (0.9°, 7.5°), respectively). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report kneeling knee kinematics of ageing using 3D/2D image registration. We found that ageing does not change knee kinematics under 80 years, and there are minimal changes between 120° and maximum flexion between the younger and 80+ age-groups. Thus, difficulty kneeling should not be considered to be an inevitable consequence of ageing.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102508, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415961

RESUMO

Joint position sense is important for performing activities of daily living and recreational activities. The objective of this study was to develop new insights into the proprioceptive capabilities of the shoulder using a novel virtual reality paradigm where participants actively recreated shoulder positions in all three dimensions. This allows for better identification of changes in joint position sense across different shoulder postures. Ten males and ten female healthy adults matched a cursor controlled by shoulder rotations calculated from motion capture tracking, to a target shoulder position presented in a virtual environment with the use of a virtual reality headset. Four elevation angles, three plane of elevation angles, and three rotation angles were investigated, totaling thirty-six angles that encompassed the range of motion of the shoulder. Joint position sense was enhanced as the elevation angle was increased, and further enhanced when the arm was more externally rotated and elevated. As elevation angle increased to 90°, joint position sense significantly increased. There was also a significant interaction of external rotation on elevation angle. As elevation angle increased, participants were more accurate when the arm was externally, but exhibited greater variability. These improvements in joint position sense are likely produced by increased tension in muscles and capsuloligamentous mechanoreceptors within the shoulder. As many sports and activities of daily living require joint position sense to complete a task, the ability to elevate and externally rotate is important for adequate shoulder proprioception and control.


Assuntos
Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Algoritmos , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Postura/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 65, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pooling data from thigh-worn accelerometers across multiple studies has great potential to advance evidence on the health benefits of physical activity. This requires harmonization of information on body postures, physical activity types, volumes and time patterns across different brands of devices. The aim of this study is to compare the physical behavior estimates provided by three different brands of thigh-worn accelerometers. METHODS: Twenty participants volunteered for a 7-day free-living measurement. Three accelerometers - ActiGraph GT3X+, Axivity AX3 and ActivPAL Micro4 - were randomly placed in a vertical line on the midsection of the right thigh. Raw data from each accelerometer was processed and classified into 8 physical activities and postures using the Acti4 software. Absolute differences between estimates and the respective coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. RESULTS: We observed very minor differences between physical behavior estimates from three different accelerometer brands. When averaged over 24 h (1,440 min), the absolute difference (CV) between accelerometers were: 1.2 mins (0.001) for lying/sitting, 3.4 mins (0.02) for standing, 3.5 mins (0.06) for moving, 1.9 mins (0.03) for walking, 0.1 mins (0.19) for running, 1.2 mins (0.19) for stair climbing, 1.9 mins (0.07) for cycling. Moreover, there was an average absolute difference of 282 steps (0.03) per 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: Physical behaviors were classified with negligible difference between the accelerometer brands. These results support harmonization of data from different thigh-worn accelerometers across multiple cohorts when analyzed in an identical manner.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Exercício/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Sono/fisiologia , Humanos , Postura/fisiologia , Software , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia
20.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(5): 723-732, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 15° forward (FW) seat inclination and foot-support in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on postural adjustments during reaching. DESIGN: Observational study repeated-measures design; step two of two-step-project. SETTING: Laboratory unit within University Hospital and two special education schools. PARTICIPANTS: 19 children (ten unilateral spastic CP (US-CP); nine bilateral spastic CP (BS-CP); Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III; 6-12 years old). Participants were able to take part for one one-hour session. INTERVENTION: Reaching while sitting in four seating conditions (FW or horizontal seat; with or without foot-support) applied in randomized order. OUTCOME MEASURES: Simultaneously, surface electromyography (EMG) of neck, trunk and arm muscles and kinematics of head and reaching arm (step one of two-step-project) were recorded. Primary outcome parameters were the ability to modulate EMG-amplitudes at baseline and during reaching (phasic muscle activity). Other EMG-parameters were direction-specificity (1st control level), and 2nd level of control parameters: recruitment order, and anticipatory postural activity. Motor behaviour measures: ability to modulate EMG-amplitudes to kinematic characteristics of reaching and head stability. RESULTS: Only foot-support was associated with increased tonic background EMG-amplitudes and decreased phasic EMG-amplitudes of the trunk extensors in children with US-CP and BS-CP (mixed-models analyses; p-values <0.01). The foot-support effect was also associated with better kinematics of reaching (Spearman's Rho; p-values <0.01). CONCLUSION: In terms of postural adjustments during forward reaching, foot-support enhanced the children's capacity to modulate trunk extensor activity, which was associated with improved reaching quality. FW-tilting did not affect postural muscle activity.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Postura/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Criança , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA