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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833980

RESUMO

Minor grain crops are widely cultivated in northwest China and played important roles in local economic. Soil microbes play a central role in ecological function and biological stability and related to soil quality. In order to uncover the soil microbial composition differences and the factors under 5-year continuous monocropping of three minor crops (Proso millet, Common bean and Common buckwheat) in Guan-Zhong Plain, six soil nutrimental parameters, soil pH, soil moisture content, and four soil enzyme activities were analyzed and soil microbial composition were sequenced. The results showed that after 5-years of continuous monocropping, different cover crops influenced most of soil physicochemical properties, expect soil moisture content (P < 0.05), the available nutrients were significant higher in proso millet soil, and the pH was significantly higher in common buckwheat soil. soil ALP, catalase and urease activities were significantly different between soils (P< 0.01), in which soil catalase activities were significantly lower and soil ALP and urease activities were significantly higher than that of proso millet and common buckwheat. A total of 171439 sequences, 9468 OTUs and 29 phylum for bacteria, 128920 sequences, 544 OTUs and 27 phylum for fungi were obtained. In addition, no significantly difference obtained in diversity and richness between soils (P < 0.05). According to relative abundance, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant bacterial phylum in all samples, moreover, the relative abundance of Caldiserica was significantly different between soils (P < 0.05). Ascomycota (79.04%-90.21%) was dominant phylum in fungal community and phylum Phragmoplastophyta (P < 0.01) and Glomeromycota (P < 0.05) were significantly different between soils. Redundancy analysis indicated that available nutrients Nitrogen and Potassium are the strongest predictors in both bacterial and fungal community. In conclusion, different cover crops influenced soil nutrient properties, soil pH and soil microbial composition, and continuous monocropping decreased soil fertility condition. Moreover, Common bean and Common buckwheat were more sensitive to monocropping treatment.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fungos/genética , Micobioma/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , China , Variação Genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Potássio/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0230888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764750

RESUMO

Statistical modeling is commonly used to relate the performance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to fertilizer requirements. Prescribing optimal nutrient doses is challenging because of the involvement of many variables including weather, soils, land management, genotypes, and severity of pests and diseases. Where sufficient data are available, machine learning algorithms can be used to predict crop performance. The objective of this study was to determine an optimal model predicting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium requirements for high tuber yield and quality (size and specific gravity) as impacted by weather, soils and land management variables. We exploited a data set of 273 field experiments conducted from 1979 to 2017 in Quebec (Canada). We developed, evaluated and compared predictions from a hierarchical Mitscherlich model, k-nearest neighbors, random forest, neural networks and Gaussian processes. Machine learning models returned R2 values of 0.49-0.59 for tuber marketable yield prediction, which were higher than the Mitscherlich model R2 (0.37). The models were more likely to predict medium-size tubers (R2 = 0.60-0.69) and tuber specific gravity (R2 = 0.58-0.67) than large-size tubers (R2 = 0.55-0.64) and marketable yield. Response surfaces from the Mitscherlich model, neural networks and Gaussian processes returned smooth responses that agreed more with actual evidence than discontinuous curves derived from k-nearest neighbors and random forest models. When conditioned to obtain optimal dosages from dose-response surfaces given constant weather, soil and land management conditions, some disagreements occurred between models. Due to their built-in ability to develop recommendations within a probabilistic risk-assessment framework, Gaussian processes stood out as the most promising algorithm to support decisions that minimize economic or agronomic risks.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Algoritmos , Canadá , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Solo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785283

RESUMO

Blood was collected from wild captured green and Kemp's ridley turtles off the west coast of Florida, USA. Blood gases and biochemical values were analyzed using a point of care (POC) device in the field. Analytes include pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3), base excess (BE), oxygen saturation (sO2), lactate, sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), anion gap, ionized calcium, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Crea), hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hb). These are novel data for wild healthy Kemp's ridley turtles, and results for green turtles were generally consistent with past studies of green turtles with exceptions primarily in blood gas values. Ninety percent of the green turtles had fibropapillomatosis (FP), but none of the blood analytes were correlated with disease severity. Only BUN was correlated with weight of green turtles, and there was no correlation between blood parameters and weight of Kemp's ridley turtles. This study provides data that are useful in understanding the physiologic status of sea turtles specific to this region, allowing for comparisons to other populations, life stages, and disease states.


Assuntos
Gasometria/veterinária , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Veias/metabolismo , Animais , Bicarbonatos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Potássio/análise , Sódio/análise , Tartarugas/classificação
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3743, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719350

RESUMO

Ions are ubiquitous biological regulators playing a key role for vital processes in animals and plants. The combined detection of ion concentration and real-time monitoring of small variations with respect to the resting conditions is a multiscale functionality providing important information on health states. This multiscale functionality is still an open challenge for current ion sensing approaches. Here we show multiscale real-time and high-sensitivity ion detection with complementary organic electrochemical transistors amplifiers. The ion-sensing amplifier integrates in the same device both selective ion-to-electron transduction and local signal amplification demonstrating a sensitivity larger than 2300 mV V-1 dec-1, which overcomes the fundamental limit. It provides both ion detection over a range of five orders of magnitude and real-time monitoring of variations two orders of magnitude lower than the detected concentration, viz. multiscale ion detection. The approach is generally applicable to several transistor technologies and opens opportunities for multifunctional enhanced bioelectronics.


Assuntos
Amplificadores Eletrônicos , Sistemas Computacionais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Íons/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Transistores Eletrônicos , Eletricidade , Humanos , Íons/sangue , Potássio/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 333: 127423, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659660

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the effect of thickness of samples, air velocity and infrared power on the drying kinetics and quality attributes of blanched eggplant slices during infrared drying. The drying experiments were made by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Experiments were conducted at a thickness of 3, 5, and 7 mm, air velocity of 0.5, 1.25, and 2 m/s, as well as at infrared power 1000, 1500, and 2000 W. The drying time was affected by operating parameters. The drying processes increased total phenolic content and potassium content, significantly. The total color difference (ΔE) was in the range of 10.22-25.14. In the end, this process was optimized for reaching the best experimental condition.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Raios Infravermelhos , Solanum melongena/química , Fenóis/análise , Potássio/análise
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2461-2470, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607724

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to study the effect of bacteria inhabiting in buffalo dung on nutritional properties of soil and plant. Three beneficial bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter xiangfangensis were isolated from buffalo dung to evaluate for their effects individually as well as in consortium. The combined effect of P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa showed a significant enhancement in different biological parameters of Foeniculum vulgare such as primary branch (99.32%), secondary branch (98.32%), number of umbels (87.62%), number of umbellets (99.85%), number of seeds (104.94%), grain yield (62.38%), biological yield (35.99%), and harvest index (19.48%). Consortium of these potent bacteria also enhanced proximate constituents such as total ash (49.79%), ether extract (63.06%), crude fibre (48.91%), moisture content (33.40%), dry matter (31.45%), acid insoluble ash (33.20%), and crude protein (40.73%). A highly significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) was found between nitrogen (r = 0.97), phosphorous (r = 0.95), and potassium (r = 0.97) contents of soil. This research enhances the knowledge of the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on nutrient properties of soil and fennel which deliver a new index for healthier use in organic agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fezes/microbiologia , Foeniculum/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Búfalos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Solo/química
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20190277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491138

RESUMO

Precision agriculture is an alternative for reducing costs. This study evaluated and economically compared three sampling methods used in precision agriculture with respect to the acquisition of inputs and machines and equipment. The sampling methods used were zone management by elevation (ZME), grid sampling (GS) and sampling guided by apparent electrical conductivity of the soil (OS). Soil samples for the ZME were collected after the definition of zones according to the elevations of the plots. The sample mesh was in a georeferenced mesh of 100 x 100 m. The targeted sampling was performed after a ground proximity sensor was used to identify the apparent electrical conductivity of the soil to define the management areas. From the results of the laboratory tests, the application costs were calculated for lime, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen to allow a comparison between the methods, volumes and costs. This approach considered the costs of depreciation, insurance, interest, operating costs, labor, maintenance and fuel. With this study, it was possible to compare the volumes of the recommended fertilizers and estimate the overall economic cost of using the technology via sensor. Taking the GS as a reference, the ZME presented as the best alternative compared to other methods.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/economia , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110732, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460049

RESUMO

This paper reports the role of exogenous glycine betaine (25 and 50 mM GB at a rate of 50 mL per plant) in enhancing NaCl-stress tolerance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Irrigating plants by simulated saline water, containing 0, 50 and 100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl), significantly reduced the growth dynamics, photosynthetic pigments (i.e., Chl a, Chl b, and carotenoids), membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC), and pod yield. While, malondialdehyde (MDA), endogenous proline, and glutathione contents, electrolyte leakage (EL), antioxidant defense system, and Na+ accumulation markedly increased upon exposure to NaCl-stress. However, the application of exogenous GB significantly improved salt tolerance of common bean as it increased the antioxidant defense including both enzymatic (i.e., peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) and nonenzymatic (i.e., proline and glutathione) agents. Consequently, MSI, RWC, EL, and photosynthetic pigments have been improved recording significantly higher values than the control. Moreover, the pod yield increased by 29.8 and 59.4% when plants grown under 50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively, were sprayed with 25 mM GB. Our results show that GB-induced slat tolerance in common bean plants mainly depends on the osmoregulation effect of GB and to a lesser extent on its antioxidant capacity. Foliar application of GB significantly reduced the accumulation of Na+ and at the same time induced K+ uptake maintaining a higher K+/Na+ ratio. Despite some changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes induced by the application of GB, no consistent contribution in the salt tolerance could be cited in this study. Therefore, we suggest that salt tolerance is largely unrelated to the antioxidant defense ability of GB in common bean. While the potential role of GB in ameliorating salt tolerance is mainly due to the adjustment of ions uptake through limiting Na+ uptake and alternatively increasing K+ accumulation in plant tissues.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Cátions , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Osmorregulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/enzimologia , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/análise , Prolina/metabolismo , Sódio/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
9.
Am J Nurs ; 120(6): 58-66, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443130

RESUMO

In this article, the second in a new series designed to improve acute care nurses' understanding of laboratory abnormalities, the author continues her discussion of important values in the basic metabolic panel (see Back to Basics, January, for a discussion of sodium and fluid balance). Here she addresses the electrolytes potassium and chloride as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, four values that are best considered together because they both reflect and impact renal function as well as acid-base homeostasis. Important etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment concerns are also presented. Three case studies are used to integrate select laboratory diagnostic tests with history and physical examination findings, allowing nurses to develop a thorough, focused plan of care for electrolyte abnormalities and kidney disorders commonly encountered in the medical-surgical setting.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Creatinina/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiperpotassemia/fisiopatologia , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Hipopotassemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Potássio/análise , Potássio/sangue
10.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(1): 93-107, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108587

RESUMO

The measurement performance of 13 biochemistry parameters (CEA, CA 19-9, amylase, lipase, sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, glucose, protein, albumin, LDH, triglycerides) was tested in a panel of biological fluids other than blood and urine (peritoneal, pleural, pancreatic fluids ...). Our protocol, based on a risk analysis, allowed us to justify our choices and compare the performance obtained with those of the serum or plasma matrix already validated. Thus, the coefficients of variation obtained in body fluids are comparable. The assessment of accuracy (spiking and dilution tests) shows the absence of bias, which is consistent with the absence of matrix effect. The linearity studied by dilution tests shows that the upper limits of the measurement interval communicated by the supplier are applicable to body fluids. The absence of contamination and stability have been also confirmed. All analytes are stable for 3 days at room temperature, 7 days between 2 and 8̊C, and 6 months at -20̊C; except LDH and lipase. For most analytes, at least one interference (hemolysis, icterus, lipemia) was found. Finally, a bibliographical study, confronted with the experience of prescribers, led us to define optimal thresholds to help interpret patients' results. In conclusion, this work has allowed us to validate analytical methods for body fluids testing after relying on their comparability to the blood matrix. We have also been able to adapt our practices and finally be accredited according to the standard NF IN ISO 15189.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Líquidos Corporais/química , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Albuminas/análise , Albuminas/metabolismo , Amilases/análise , Amilases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Antígeno CA-19-9/análise , Antígeno CA-19-9/metabolismo , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/análise , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Creatinina/análise , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glucose/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/análise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lipase/análise , Lipase/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sódio/análise , Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
11.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(1): 87-90, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044746

RESUMO

Gitelman syndrome is one of the salt losing tubulopathies. Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia appear in the setting of the partial blockade of salt absorption in the distal tubule. We conducted a descriptive study of a case series of five patients with Gitelman syndrome (4 women, from 28 to 85 years) in our institution, between the years 2004 and 2015. The most frequent form of diagnosis in our series was by laboratory finding. The only acknowledged clinical symptom was malaise. Regarding laboratory findings, the mean potassemia was of 2.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l, with a minimum value of 2.1 mmol/l. Additionally, the serum magnesium value was of 1.3 ± 0.3 mg/dl. In conclusion, we observed that the forms of presentation consist of biochemical alterations with or without nonspecific manifestations, which currently represents the greatest diagnostic difficulty and reinforces the importance to achieve a timely diagnosis, especially in young patients with critical serum potassium values.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Gitelman/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Gitelman/terapia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astenia/diagnóstico , Cálcio/análise , Feminino , Síndrome de Gitelman/metabolismo , Humanos , Magnésio/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/análise
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228641, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053630

RESUMO

The use of plant tissue analysis as a tool for attaining low cyanogenic glucoside levels in cassava roots, has hardly been investigated. Just as the quality of crops is improved through the use of plant tissue analysis, the same can probably be done to consistently attain the lowest possible cyanogenic glucoside levels in cassava roots. High levels of cyanogenic glucosides in consumed fresh cassava roots or in their products have the potential of causing cyanide intoxication, hence the need to lower them. An experiment was thus conducted to assess the occurrence of meaningful relationships between plant nutritional status and cyanogenic glucoside production in cassava roots. Total hydrogen cyanide (HCN) levels in cassava roots were used to assess cyanogenic glucoside production. Using NPK fertiliser application to induce changes in plant nutritional status, the main objective of the study was investigated using the following sub-objectives; (1) to determine the effects of increased NPK fertiliser application on cassava root HCN levels; (2) and to show the occurrence of relationships between changes in nutrient levels in plant 'indicator tissue' and HCN levels in cassava roots. The study was a field experiment laid out as a split-plot in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. It was repeated in two consecutive years, with soil nutrient deficiencies only being corrected in the second year. The varieties Salanga, Kalinda, Supa and Kiroba were used in the experiment, while the NPK fertiliser treatments included; a control with no fertiliser applied; a moderate NPK treatment (50 kg N + 10 kg P + 50 kg K /ha); and a high NPK treatment (100 kg N + 25 kg P + 100 kg K /ha). A potassium only treatment (50 kg K/ha) was also included, but mainly for comparison. The root HCN levels of Salanga, Kalinda and Kiroba were significantly influenced by NPK fertiliser application in at least one of the two field experiments, while those of Supa remained uninfluenced. Changes in plant nutritional status in response to fertiliser application were thus shown to influence cyanogenic glucoside production. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis for the first field experiment, generally showed that the root HCN levels of some cassava varieties could have been 'reduced' by decreasing concentrations of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in plants, or by improving plant calcium concentrations along with NPK fertiliser application. However, in the second field experiment (with corrected soil nutrient deficiencies) the regression analysis generally showed that the root HCN levels of some cassava varieties could have been 'reduced' by improving either one or a combination of the nutrients phosphorous, zinc and potassium in plants along with NPK fertiliser application. Although the results obtained in the two experiments had been contradicting due to slight differences in how they were conducted, the study had nonetheless demonstrated the occurrence of meaningful relationships between plant nutritional status and cyanogenic glucoside production; confirming the possible use of plant tissue analysis in predicting fertiliser needs for the consistent attainment of low cyanogenic glucosides in cassava roots.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Glucosídeos/análise , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Manihot/química , Nitrilos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Cianetos/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Lineares , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Solo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986482

RESUMO

We investigated the response of two Sicilian grapevine cultivars, Catarratto and Nero d'Avola, to potassium deficiency and drought stress. Two-year-old plants grafted on 1103 Paulsen were grown in agriperlite, with or without potassium in the fertigation solution for six weeks, and subjected to moderate drought stress by suspending irrigation for one week. Potassium content of leaves, roots and xylem sap were measured with an ion-selective electrode. Changes in stomatal conductance, stem and leaf water potential and hydraulic conductance were compared between genotypes and treatments. Potassium deficiency led to significant decreases in leaf potassium content in both cultivars and under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. Potassium content in xylem sap showed no significant differences between cultivars and was correlated with stem hydraulic conductance, particularly in the drought stress treatments. Under drought stress conditions, potassium availability led to an increase in stomatal conductance, particularly in Nero d'Avola. Both cultivars showed a rather isohydric behavior under these experimental conditions, and the level of isohydry varied with potassium availability. These results can be useful for the development of optimal fertigation practices and the selection of drought tolerant varieties.


Assuntos
Secas , Potássio , Vitis , Água , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Vitis/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Xilema/química
14.
J Fluoresc ; 30(1): 27-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965403

RESUMO

Using fluorescence to detect biologically relevant metals has been studied extensively due to its rapid and low detection limit ability. Sodium and potassium differentiation is significant in diagnosis of many medical conditions. For this, we designed coumarin dimers as flexible fluorescent probes using ethylene glycol units for differentiation of sodium and potassium. To our best knowledge, use of these easy-to-synthesize coumarin dimers linked through ethylene glycol units are first in the literature. In fluorescence titration experiments, diethylene glycol linked coumarin-3-carboxylate dimer is responsive for sodium ions but not for potassium ions. The driving force for the complexation of metal cation and fluorescence probes is thought to be size-matching. To further explain the phenomenon, we synthesized coumarin dimer using 1,8- octanediol as the linker, and methyl ester of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid to investigate the effect of structural changes on the fluorescence intensity. These two compounds could not differentiate the sodium and potassium. Flexible coumarin dimers as fluorophores are shown to be useful for sensing sodium cation in the presence of potassium cation.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Potássio/análise , Sódio/análise , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Dimerização , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914170

RESUMO

The ecological environment of the Yellow River Delta is fragile, and the soil degradation in the region is serious. Therefore it is important to discern the status of the soil degradation in a timely manner for soil conservation and utilization. The study area of this study was Kenli County in the Yellow River Delta of China. First, physical and chemical data of the soil were obtained by field investigations and soil sample analyses, and the hyper-spectra of air-dried soil samples were obtained via spectrometer. Then, the soil degradation index (SDI) was constructed by the key indicators of soil degradation, including pH, SSC, OM, AN, AP, AK, and soil texture. Next, according to a cluster analysis, soil degradation was divided into the following three grades: light degradation, moderate degradation, and heavy degradation. Moreover, the spectral characteristics of soil degradation were analyzed, and an estimation model of SDI was established by multiple stepwise regression. The results showed that the overall level of reflectance spectra increased with increased degree of soil degradation, that both derivative transformation and waveband reorganization could enhance the spectral information of soil degradation, and that the correlation between SDI and the spectral parameter of (Rλ2+Rλ1)/(Rλ2-Rλ1) was the highest among all the spectral parameters studied. On this basis, the optimum estimation model of SDI was established with the correlation coefficient of 0.811. This study fully embodies the potential of hyper-spectral technology in the study of soil degradation and provides a technical reference for the rapid extraction of information from soil degradation. Additionally, the study area is typical and representative, and thus can indirectly reflect the soil degradation situation of the whole Yellow River Delta.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Solo/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Teóricos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/química , Potássio/análise , Potássio/química
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978201

RESUMO

Several hemipteran species feed on the phloem sap of plants and produce large amounts of honeydew that is collected by bees to produce honeydew honey. Therefore, it is important to know whether it is predominantly the hemipteran species or the host plant to influence the honeydew composition. This is particularly relevant for those botanical and zoological species from which the majority of honeydew honey originates. To investigate this issue, honeydew from two Cinara species located on Abies alba as well as from two Cinara and two Physokermes species located on Picea abies were collected. Phloem exudates of the host plants were also analyzed. Honeydew of all species contained different proportions of hexoses, sucrose, melezitose, erlose, and further di- and trisaccharides, whereas the phloem exudates of the host trees contained no trisaccharides. Moreover, the proportions of sugars differed significantly between hemipteran species feeding on the same tree species. Sucrose hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation was shown in whole-body homogenates of aphids. The type of the produced oligosaccharides in the aphid-extracts correlated with the oligosaccharide composition in the honeydew of the different aphid species. The total contents of amino acids and inorganic ions in the honeydew were much lower than the sugar content. Glutamine and glutamate were predominant amino acids in the honeydew of all six hemipteran species and also in the phloem exudates of both tree species. Potassium was the dominant inorganic ion in all honeydew samples and also in the phloem exudate. Statistical analyses reveal that the sugar composition of honeydew is determined more by the hemipteran species than by the host plant. Consequently, it can be assumed that the sugar composition of honeydew honey is also more influenced by the hemipteran species than by the host tree.


Assuntos
Abies/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Compostos Inorgânicos/análise , Picea/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Abies/química , Animais , Afídeos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Íons/química , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Floema/química , Floema/metabolismo , Picea/química , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0219229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895921

RESUMO

Reduction of waste from food industry and food services is a current concern due to the large amount of waste generated, including peels and fruit seeds. The objective of this study was to obtain a flour produced from Cantaloupe melon seeds (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and to evaluate the viability of using the product as an ingredient in cake manufacturing. In this study, different formulations were developed: standard cake-0% (F1) and cakes containing melon seed flour as substitute of wheat flour in 10% (F2), 30% (F3), and 50% (F4) concentrations. Centesimal composition, dietary fibre, structural and morphological characterization, determination of mineral composition, and evaluation of fatty acids profile in melon seed flour were carried out. To determine the overall acceptance of cake formulations, sensory analysis was performed with 135 non-trained panelists, which also included the identification of sensorial attributes using the Just About Right ideal scale test. The results showed that the melon seed flour has considerable nutritional value, with 18% proteins, 3% moisture, 4% ash, 30% lipids, and 35% dietary fibre. Melon flour also has a significantly high content of minerals, mainly phosphorus (1507.62 mg/100 g), potassium (957.35 mg/100 g), and magnesium (504.03 mg/100 g). The polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction was the most abundant in melon seed flour, with predominance of omega-6 fatty acids (17.95 g/mg of sample). Sensorial analysis disclosed good acceptance for formulations containing 10% and 30% of melon seed flour, with the 10% formulation being the most accepted. The research showed the feasibility of using the melon seed flour in cake production, as well as the possibility of using food waste in restaurants and food industries in order to adhere to sustainable production actions.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/química , Farinha/análise , Sementes/química , Resíduos/análise , Brasil , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Magnésio/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Triticum/química
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109997, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812023

RESUMO

In the current experiment, influence of NPK composition on the Cd contaminated soil-plant (Solanum nigrum L.) system as well as the phytoremediation efficiency were comprehensively studied. The composition of NPK was optimized for a sustainable phytoremediation and simultaneous agronomic technique in Cd-contaminated soil by orthogonal (L14) experiment, aimed to achieve plant productivity and maximum phytoremediation potential enhancement. Results showed that different treatments of NPK composition enhanced soil properties including saccharase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities as compared to the control treatment, however, soil pH was slightly decreased by 3.64%~6.67% with different composition of NPK treatments. Plant biomass and Cd concentration in the aboveground part (stem and leaves) of S. nigrum were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by 14.19%~48.97% and 38.50%~127.15% as compared to control plants with the addition of NPK fertilizers having different composition. Meanwhile, with the application of NPK fertilizer root/shoot Cd ratio and translocation factor (TF) was significantly decreased, however, bioconcentration factor (BCF) was increased as compared to control. Additionally, different composition of NPK fertilizers significantly increased photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids) and soluble protein in comparison to control. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in S. nigrum including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased, while malonaldehyde (MDA) and proline contents were decreased. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that N3P2K2 treatment had the highest comprehensive score amongst other studied treatments of NPK composition, owing to its optimal composition for the investigated soil-S. nigrum system. Moreover, it was found that optimal composition (N3P2K2) of fertilizer resulted in increase of the plant resistance to Cd and the efficiency of phytoextraction. Therefore, it is suggested to all the small-holder famers and scientific community that precise composition of NPK fertilizer should be utilized according to soil properties, environmental conditions and plant requirements under Cd-stress condition in order to achieve maximum biomass, Cd uptake efficiency as well phytoremediation potential in moderately Cd contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solanum nigrum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Potássio/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Physiol Plant ; 168(1): 38-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714160

RESUMO

In plants, CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES (CDPKs/CPKs) are involved in calcium signaling in response to endogenous and environmental stimuli. Here, we report that ZmCPK11, one of maize CDPKs, participates in salt stress response and tolerance. Salt stress induced expression and upregulated the activity of ZmCPK11 in maize roots and leaves. Activation of ZmCPK11 upon salt stress was also observed in roots and leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing ZmCPK11. The transgenic plants showed a long-root phenotype under control conditions and a short-root phenotype under NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA) or jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Analysis of ABA and JA content in roots indicated that ZmCPK11 can mediate root growth by regulating the levels of these phytohormones. Moreover, 4-week-old transgenic plants were more tolerant to salinity than the wild-type plants. Their leaves were less chlorotic and showed weaker symptoms of senescence accompanied by higher chlorophyll content and higher quantum efficiency of photosystem II. The expression of Na+ /K+ transporters (HKT1, SOS1 and NHX1) and transcription factors (CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ZAT6 and ZAT10) with known links to salinity tolerance was upregulated in roots of the transgenic plants upon salt stress. Furthermore, the transgenic plants accumulated less Na+ in roots and leaves under salinity, and showed a higher K+ /Na+ ratio in leaves. These results show that the improved salt tolerance in ZmCPK11-transgenic plants could be due to an upregulation of genes involved in the maintenance of intracellular Na+ and K+ homeostasis and a protection of photosystem II against damage.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Zea mays/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Potássio/análise , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Sódio , Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio-Potássio , Fatores de Transcrição , Zea mays/genética
20.
Physiol Plant ; 168(1): 27-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684269

RESUMO

Plant tolerance against a combination of abiotic stresses is a complex phenomenon, which involves various mechanisms. Physiological and biochemical analyses of salinity (NaCl) and nickel (Ni) tolerance in two contrasting tomato genotypes were performed in a hydroponics experiment. The tomato genotypes selected were proved to be tolerant (Naqeeb) and sensitive (Nadir) to both salinity and Ni stress in our previous experiment. The tomato genotypes were exposed to combinations of NaCl (0, 75 and 150 mM) and Ni (0, 15, and 20 mg l-1 ) for 28 days. The results revealed that the tolerant and sensitive tomato genotypes showed similar response to NaCl and Ni stress; however, the level of response was significantly different in both genotypes. The tolerant tomato genotype showed less reduction in growth than the sensitive genotype against both NaCl and Ni stress. Root and shoot ionic analysis showed a decrease in Na and increase in K concentration by increasing Ni levels in the growth medium. Moreover, accumulation of Na and Ni in tissues showed a decrease in membrane stability index and an increase in malondialdehyde contents. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase under NaCl and Ni stress was significantly higher in the tolerant compared to the sensitive genotype. Enhanced activity of many antioxidant enzymes in Naqeeb under stress conditions is among the other mechanisms that enabled the genotype to better detoxify reactive oxygen species and therefore Naqeeb tolerated the stresses better than Nadir.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Níquel/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Antioxidantes , Catalase , Clorofila , Genótipo , Glutationa Redutase , Malondialdeído , Peroxidase , Potássio/análise , Salinidade , Sódio/análise , Superóxido Dismutase
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