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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21094, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791684

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Excessive ingestion of licorice can cause pseudohyperaldosteronism. A few case reports in the available literature have described significant hypokalemia secondary to licorice consumption with clinical manifestations of muscle weakness, paralysis, or severe hypertension. To our knowledge, no report has discussed severe asymptomatic hypokalemia associated with licorice consumption. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 79-year-old man presented to the urology clinic with a several-month history of urinary frequency and a weak stream. Routine laboratory investigations revealed serum potassium (K) level of 1.8 mmol/L, and he was immediately admitted to the nephrology department. DIAGNOSES: He was in a good state of health, and systemic and neurological examinations were unremarkable. However, laboratory investigations revealed severe hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis accompanied with renal K wasting and hypertension, suggesting a state of mineralocorticoid excess. Hormonal studies revealed low serum renin and aldosterone but normal serum cortisol levels. Detailed history taking revealed that he had used licorice tea daily during the preceding 18 months. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME: The patient's serum K returned to normal levels after vigorous K replacement and discontinuation of licorice intake. He was also diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia during hospitalization and was treated. LESSONS: Chronic licorice ingestion can precipitate severe hypokalemia, although patients may remain asymptomatic. This case report indicates that the severity of a patient's clinical presentation depends on individual susceptibility, as well as the dose and duration of licorice intake.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza/efeitos adversos , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Chás de Ervas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Potássio/sangue
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21644, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769933

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The kidney is one of the common extraglandular sites involved in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) the most common pathology type. Renal involvement in pSS often presents as chronic TIN accompanied by type 1 or 2 renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Description of renal involvement as acute TIN with type III RTA in pSS has been rarely reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 37-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of dry mouth, dry eyes, and progressive muscle weakness for 17 months. Two months before admission, the patient had a blood potassium level of 1.7 mmol/L. DIAGNOSIS: Further tests confirmed pSS and type III RTA. Renal biopsy demonstrated acute TIN and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN). INTERVENTIONS: Full-dose corticosteroid (1 mg/kg/day) and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/day) were applied. OUTCOMES: The creatinine levels of the patient decreased 0.28 mg/dL (1.18-0.90 mg/dL) during 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a patient with pSS-associated kidney injury, presenting as acute TIN with type 3 RTA and TBMN. This case increases the awareness of a rare manifestation of pSS-associated kidney injury. In pSS-associated acute TIN, cyclophosphamide combined with full-dose corticosteroids may achieve good outcomes.


Assuntos
Acidose Tubular Renal/etiologia , Nefrite Intersticial/etiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Acidose Tubular Renal/fisiopatologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Creatinina/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Nefrite Intersticial/fisiopatologia , Nefrose/etiologia , Nefrose/fisiopatologia , Potássio/sangue , Síndrome de Sjogren/fisiopatologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The first phase of the published OPAL-HK study was a single-group treatment phase, which showed that patiromer normalised serum potassium at 4weeks in patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3-4 who were receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors. We utilised real-world data to provide a control comparison to evaluate patiromer's efficacy in lowering serum potassium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Salford Kidney Study (SKS) in the United Kingdom provided a matched cohort. After applying OPAL-HK inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients with an outpatient potassium level between 5.1mmol/L to <6.5mmol/L and whose next outpatient level was checked 24-42 days later were selected. Patients underwent 1:1 matching with the 243 OPAL-HK patients using propensity matching based on 6 variables: age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes, heart failure and potassium level. The study outcomes aligned with the OPAL-HK treatment phase: mean change in baseline potassium, and the proportion of patients with a potassium of 3.8 to <5.1mmol/L at follow-up. RESULTS: The study comprised 87 precisely matched patients. The mean follow-up in the 87 SKS patients was 31±5 days. At baseline, matched patients had a mean potassium of 5.5±0.3mmol/L. At follow-up, the mean level was unchanged in SKS patients but was 4.5±0.5mmol/L in the OPAL-HK group (p<0.001), a mean (±SE) change of -1.00±0.06mmol/L. The target range of 3.8 to <5.1mmol/L was reached in 80% of OPAL-HK patients compared with 0% in the SKS cohort. There were very few interventions undertaken to reduce hyperkalaemia in SKS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Using real-world data as a matched control arm for the first phase of the OPAL-HK study, we highlight a potential role for patiromer in lowering potassium levels in patients with CKD 3-4 receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors.


Assuntos
Pontuação de Propensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Potássio/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 519, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and has quickly spread across the world. The mortality rate in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is high. This study analyzed clinical and biochemical parameters between mild and severe patients, helping to identify severe or critical patients early. METHODS: In this single center, cross-sectional study, 143 patients were included and divided to mild/moderate and sever/critical groups. Correlation between the disease criticality and clinical features and peripheral blood biochemical markers was analyzed. Cut-off values for critically ill patients were speculated through the ROC curve. RESULTS: Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001), comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001), white cell count (r = 0.229, P = 0.006), neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004), lymphocyte count (r = - 0.295, P < 0.001), albumin (r = - 0.603, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = - 0.362, P < 0.001), serum potassium (r = - 0.237, P = 0.004), plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.477, P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) . CONCLUSIONS: With the following parameters such as age > 52 years, C-reactive protein > 64.79 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase > 245 U/L, D-dimer > 0.96 µg/mL, serum amyloid A > 100.02 mg/L, or albumin < 36 g/L, the progress of COVID-19 to critical stage should be closely observed and possibly prevented. Lymphocyte count, serum potassium, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and procalcitonin may also be a prognostic indicator.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Potássio/sangue , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue
5.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 241-252, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706212

RESUMO

Hyperkalemia in heart failure is a condition that can occur with relative frequency because it is related to pathophysiological aspects of the disease, and favored by drugs that form the basis of chronic cardiac failure therapy. Often, associated comorbidities, such as kidney failure or diabetes mellitus can further adversely affect potassium levels. Hyperkalemia can result in acute and even severe clinical manifestations that put patients at risk. On the other hand, the finding of hyperkalemia in a chronic context can lead to a reduction in dosages or to suspension of drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzymes inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, and mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist, first line in the treatment of the disease, with negative effects in prognostic terms. Therapies for the correction of hyperkalemia have so far mainly concerned the treatment of acute clinical pictures. Newly developed molecules, such as patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, now open new prospectives in the long-term management of hyperkalemia, and allow us to glimpse the possibility of a better titration of the cardinal drugs for heart failure, with consequent positive effects on patient prognosis. The aim of this review is to focus on the problem of hyperkalemia in the setting of heart failure, with particular regard to its incidence, its prognostic role, and the underlining pathophysiological mechanisms. The review also provides an overview of therapeutic strategies for correcting hyperkalemia in acute and chronic conditions, with a focus on the new potassium binders that promise to improve management of heart failure.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Potássio/sangue , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Quelantes/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Hiperpotassemia/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 519, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and has quickly spread across the world. The mortality rate in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is high. This study analyzed clinical and biochemical parameters between mild and severe patients, helping to identify severe or critical patients early. METHODS: In this single center, cross-sectional study, 143 patients were included and divided to mild/moderate and sever/critical groups. Correlation between the disease criticality and clinical features and peripheral blood biochemical markers was analyzed. Cut-off values for critically ill patients were speculated through the ROC curve. RESULTS: Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001), comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001), white cell count (r = 0.229, P = 0.006), neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004), lymphocyte count (r = - 0.295, P < 0.001), albumin (r = - 0.603, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = - 0.362, P < 0.001), serum potassium (r = - 0.237, P = 0.004), plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.477, P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) . CONCLUSIONS: With the following parameters such as age > 52 years, C-reactive protein > 64.79 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase > 245 U/L, D-dimer > 0.96 µg/mL, serum amyloid A > 100.02 mg/L, or albumin < 36 g/L, the progress of COVID-19 to critical stage should be closely observed and possibly prevented. Lymphocyte count, serum potassium, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and procalcitonin may also be a prognostic indicator.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Potássio/sangue , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2011122, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525548

RESUMO

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has caused a global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 of the rennin-angiotensin system, resulting in hypokalemia. Objective: To investigate the prevalence, causes, and clinical implications of hypokalemia, including its possible association with treatment outcomes, among patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted at Wenzhou Central Hospital and Sixth People's Hospital of Wenzhou, Wenzhou, China, from January 11, 2020, to February 15, 2020. Participants included patients who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 according to the criteria issued by the Chinese Health Bureau and were admitted to the hospital. The patients were classified as having severe hypokalemia (plasma potassium <3 mmol/L), hypokalemia (plasma potassium 3-3.5 mmol/L), and normokalemia (plasma potassium >3.5 mmol/L). The clinical features, therapy, and outcomes were compared between the 3 groups. Data analysis was conducted in March 2020. Interventions: The patients were given general support and antiviral therapy. Their epidemiological and clinical features were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of hypokalemia and response to treatment with potassium supplements were measured by analyzing plasma and urine potassium levels. Results: One hundred seventy-five patients (87 female patients [50%]; mean [SD] age, 45 [14] years) were classified as having severe hypokalemia (31 patients [18%]), hypokalemia (64 patients [37%]), and normokalemia (80 patients [46%]). Patients with severe hypokalemia had statistically significantly higher body temperature (mean [SD], 37.6 °C [0.9 °C]) than the patients with hypokalemia (mean [SD], 37.2 °C [0.7 °C]; difference, 0.4 °C; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6 °C; P = .02) and the patients with normokalemia (mean [SD], 37.1 °C [0.8 °C]; difference, 0.5 °C; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7 °C; P = .005). Patients with higher levels of hypokalemia also had higher creatine kinase levels (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 200 [257] U/L [median, 113 U/L; interquartile range {IQR}, 61-242 U/L]; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 97 [85] U/L; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 82 [57] U/L), higher creatine kinase-MB fraction (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 32 [39] U/L [median, 14 U/L; IQR, 11-36 U/L]; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 18 [15] U/L; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 15 [8] U/L), higher lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean [SD], severe hypokalemia, 256 [88] U/L; hypokalemia, 212 [59] U/L; and normokalemia, 199 [61] U/L), and higher C-reactive protein levels (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 29 [23] mg/L; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 18 [20] mg/L [median, 12, mg/L; IQR, 4-25 mg/L]; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 15 [18] mg/L [median, 6 U/L; IQR, 3-17 U/L]). Of 40 severely and critically ill patients, 34 (85%) had hypokalemia. Patients with severe hypokalemia were given potassium at a dose of 40 mEq per day, for a total mean (SD) of 453 (53) mEq potassium chloride, during the hospital stay. The patients responded well to potassium supplements as they recovered. Conclusions and Relevance: The correction of hypokalemia is challenging because of continuous renal potassium loss resulting from the degradation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. The high prevalence of hypokalemia among patients with COVID-19 suggests the presence of disordered rennin-angiotensin system activity, which increases as a result of reduced counteractivity of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is bound by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Hipopotassemia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Potássio/sangue , Prevalência
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2011122, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593402

RESUMO

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has caused a global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 of the rennin-angiotensin system, resulting in hypokalemia. Objective: To investigate the prevalence, causes, and clinical implications of hypokalemia, including its possible association with treatment outcomes, among patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted at Wenzhou Central Hospital and Sixth People's Hospital of Wenzhou, Wenzhou, China, from January 11, 2020, to February 15, 2020. Participants included patients who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 according to the criteria issued by the Chinese Health Bureau and were admitted to the hospital. The patients were classified as having severe hypokalemia (plasma potassium <3 mmol/L), hypokalemia (plasma potassium 3-3.5 mmol/L), and normokalemia (plasma potassium >3.5 mmol/L). The clinical features, therapy, and outcomes were compared between the 3 groups. Data analysis was conducted in March 2020. Interventions: The patients were given general support and antiviral therapy. Their epidemiological and clinical features were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of hypokalemia and response to treatment with potassium supplements were measured by analyzing plasma and urine potassium levels. Results: One hundred seventy-five patients (87 female patients [50%]; mean [SD] age, 45 [14] years) were classified as having severe hypokalemia (31 patients [18%]), hypokalemia (64 patients [37%]), and normokalemia (80 patients [46%]). Patients with severe hypokalemia had statistically significantly higher body temperature (mean [SD], 37.6 °C [0.9 °C]) than the patients with hypokalemia (mean [SD], 37.2 °C [0.7 °C]; difference, 0.4 °C; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6 °C; P = .02) and the patients with normokalemia (mean [SD], 37.1 °C [0.8 °C]; difference, 0.5 °C; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7 °C; P = .005). Patients with higher levels of hypokalemia also had higher creatine kinase levels (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 200 [257] U/L [median, 113 U/L; interquartile range {IQR}, 61-242 U/L]; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 97 [85] U/L; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 82 [57] U/L), higher creatine kinase-MB fraction (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 32 [39] U/L [median, 14 U/L; IQR, 11-36 U/L]; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 18 [15] U/L; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 15 [8] U/L), higher lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean [SD], severe hypokalemia, 256 [88] U/L; hypokalemia, 212 [59] U/L; and normokalemia, 199 [61] U/L), and higher C-reactive protein levels (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 29 [23] mg/L; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 18 [20] mg/L [median, 12, mg/L; IQR, 4-25 mg/L]; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 15 [18] mg/L [median, 6 U/L; IQR, 3-17 U/L]). Of 40 severely and critically ill patients, 34 (85%) had hypokalemia. Patients with severe hypokalemia were given potassium at a dose of 40 mEq per day, for a total mean (SD) of 453 (53) mEq potassium chloride, during the hospital stay. The patients responded well to potassium supplements as they recovered. Conclusions and Relevance: The correction of hypokalemia is challenging because of continuous renal potassium loss resulting from the degradation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. The high prevalence of hypokalemia among patients with COVID-19 suggests the presence of disordered rennin-angiotensin system activity, which increases as a result of reduced counteractivity of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is bound by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Hipopotassemia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Potássio/sangue , Prevalência
10.
Am J Nurs ; 120(6): 58-66, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443130

RESUMO

In this article, the second in a new series designed to improve acute care nurses' understanding of laboratory abnormalities, the author continues her discussion of important values in the basic metabolic panel (see Back to Basics, January, for a discussion of sodium and fluid balance). Here she addresses the electrolytes potassium and chloride as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, four values that are best considered together because they both reflect and impact renal function as well as acid-base homeostasis. Important etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment concerns are also presented. Three case studies are used to integrate select laboratory diagnostic tests with history and physical examination findings, allowing nurses to develop a thorough, focused plan of care for electrolyte abnormalities and kidney disorders commonly encountered in the medical-surgical setting.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Creatinina/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiperpotassemia/fisiopatologia , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Hipopotassemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Potássio/análise , Potássio/sangue
11.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 154(2): 242-247, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Preanalytical factors, such as hemolysis, affect many components of a test panel. Machine learning can be used to recognize these patterns, alerting clinicians and laboratories to potentially erroneous results. In particular, machine learning might identify which cases of elevated potassium from a point-of-care (POC) basic metabolic panel are likely erroneous. METHODS: Plasma potassium concentrations were compared between POC and core laboratory basic metabolic panels to identify falsely elevated POC results. A logistic regression model was created using these labels and the other analytes on the POC panel. RESULTS: This model has high predictive power in classifying POC potassium as falsely elevated or not (area under the curve of 0.995 when applied to the test data set). A rule-in and rule-out approach further improves the model's applicability with a positive predictive value of around 90% and a negative predictive value near 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning has the potential to detect laboratory errors based on the recognition of patterns in commonly requested multianalyte panels. This could be used to alert providers at the POC that a result is suspicious or used to monitor the quality of POC results.


Assuntos
Hemólise/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Potássio/sangue , Reações Falso-Positivas , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Testes Imediatos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433650

RESUMO

Trace elements and minerals are compounds that are essential for the support of a variety of biological functions and play an important role in the formation of and the defense against oxidative stress. Here we describe a technique, allowing sequential detection of the trace elements (K, Zn, Se, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg) in serum and whole blood by an ICP-MS method using single work-up, which is a simple, quick and robust method for the sequential measurement and quantification of the trace elements Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and Magnesium (Mg) in whole blood as well as Copper (Cu), Selenium (Se), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Gold (Au) and Lithium (Li) in human serum. For analysis, only 100 µl of serum or whole blood is sufficient, which make this method suitable for detecting trace element deficiency or excess in newborns and infants. All samples were processed and analyzed by ICP-MS (Agilent Technologies). The accuracy, precision, linearity and the limit of quantification (LOQ), Limit of Blank (LOB) and the limit of detection (LOD) of the method were assessed. Recovery rates were between 80-130% for most of the analyzed elements; repeatabilities (Cv %) calculated were below 15% for most of the measured elements. The validity of the proposed methodology was assessed by analyzing a certified human serum and whole blood material with known concentrations for all elements; the method described is ready for routine use in biomonitoring studies.


Assuntos
Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Oligoelementos/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Cromo/sangue , Cobre/sangue , Ouro/sangue , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Limite de Detecção , Lítio/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Manganês/sangue , Níquel/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Zinco/sangue
15.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 57(3): 262-265, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early studies have reported various electrolyte abnormalities at admission in patients who progress to the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As electrolyte imbalance may not only impact patient care, but provide insight into the pathophysiology of COVID-19, we aimed to analyse all early data reported on electrolytes in COVID-19 patients with and without severe form. METHODS: An electronic search of Medline (PubMed interface), Scopus and Web of Science was performed for articles comparing electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium) between COVID-19 patients with and without severe disease. A pooled analysis was performed to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Five studies with a total sample size of 1415 COVID-19 patients. Sodium was significantly lower in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.91 mmol/L [95% CI: -1.33 to -0.50 mmol/L]). Similarly, potassium was also significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with severe disease (WMD: -0.12 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07 mmol/L], I2=33%). For chloride, no statistical differences were observed between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (WMD: 0.30 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.41 to 1.01 mmol/L]). For calcium, a statistically significant lower concentration was noted in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.20 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.25 to -0.20 mmol/L]). CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis confirms that COVID-19 severity is associated with lower serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium. We recommend electrolytes be measured at initial presentation and serially monitored during hospitalization in order to establish timely and appropriate corrective actions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5509-5513, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307153

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to describe the stability of bovine whole-blood electrolytes, glucose, and lactate in samples collected in lithium heparin tubes and stored in thermoconductive modules immersed in ice water. A total of 99 Jersey cows (40 first-parity, 18 second-parity, and 41 third-parity or greater cows) from a commercial dairy farm in West Texas were enrolled between June and July 2018. Blood was collected from the jugular vein using a 60-mL polypropylene syringe and equally distributed into 5 spray-dried evacuated lithium heparin tubes. Baseline samples were analyzed within 90 s of collection using a benchtop blood gas analyzer. The remaining 4 tubes were stored in a thermoconductive, passive-temperature-regulating module inside a cooler with ice water. At 30 min and 2, 4, and 8 h post-collection, samples were removed from the temperature-regulating module, gently inverted for 10 s, and analyzed. Repeated-measures models were built to evaluate the effect of time on the stability of ionized Ca (iCa), ionized Mg (iMg), Na, K, Cl, glucose, and lactate. Most of the analytes investigated remained stable up to 8 h under ice water storage conditions before analysis, including iCa, iMg, Cl, glucose, and lactate. However, Na and K were significantly affected by delayed analysis: Na remained stable up to 4 h post-collection, but K was not stable starting at 2 h post-collection. The results of this study are useful in helping future researchers and consultants to recognize acceptable time delays between whole blood collection and processing or analysis for electrolytes, glucose, and lactate.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Bovinos/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , Heparina/química , Animais , Gasometria/veterinária , Glicemia/análise , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Feminino , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Lítio/química , Magnésio/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Refrigeração/veterinária , Sódio/sangue , Texas , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 57(3): 262-265, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early studies have reported various electrolyte abnormalities at admission in patients who progress to the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As electrolyte imbalance may not only impact patient care, but provide insight into the pathophysiology of COVID-19, we aimed to analyse all early data reported on electrolytes in COVID-19 patients with and without severe form. METHODS: An electronic search of Medline (PubMed interface), Scopus and Web of Science was performed for articles comparing electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium) between COVID-19 patients with and without severe disease. A pooled analysis was performed to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Five studies with a total sample size of 1415 COVID-19 patients. Sodium was significantly lower in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.91 mmol/L [95% CI: -1.33 to -0.50 mmol/L]). Similarly, potassium was also significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with severe disease (WMD: -0.12 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07 mmol/L], I2=33%). For chloride, no statistical differences were observed between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (WMD: 0.30 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.41 to 1.01 mmol/L]). For calcium, a statistically significant lower concentration was noted in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.20 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.25 to -0.20 mmol/L]). CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis confirms that COVID-19 severity is associated with lower serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium. We recommend electrolytes be measured at initial presentation and serially monitored during hospitalization in order to establish timely and appropriate corrective actions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
18.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 57(3): 262-265, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early studies have reported various electrolyte abnormalities at admission in patients who progress to the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As electrolyte imbalance may not only impact patient care, but provide insight into the pathophysiology of COVID-19, we aimed to analyse all early data reported on electrolytes in COVID-19 patients with and without severe form. METHODS: An electronic search of Medline (PubMed interface), Scopus and Web of Science was performed for articles comparing electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium) between COVID-19 patients with and without severe disease. A pooled analysis was performed to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Five studies with a total sample size of 1415 COVID-19 patients. Sodium was significantly lower in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.91 mmol/L [95% CI: -1.33 to -0.50 mmol/L]). Similarly, potassium was also significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with severe disease (WMD: -0.12 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07 mmol/L], I2=33%). For chloride, no statistical differences were observed between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (WMD: 0.30 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.41 to 1.01 mmol/L]). For calcium, a statistically significant lower concentration was noted in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.20 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.25 to -0.20 mmol/L]). CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis confirms that COVID-19 severity is associated with lower serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium. We recommend electrolytes be measured at initial presentation and serially monitored during hospitalization in order to establish timely and appropriate corrective actions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
19.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(1): 16-23, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131935

RESUMO

Objective To explore the mechanism of obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) by assessing the association between human TWIK-related acid-sensitive K + channel-1(TASK-1) gene and OSA. Methods A total of 164 patients with severe OSA and 171 patients without OSA were recruited from the Hypertension Center of People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,China,from April to December 2016.Two single nucleotide polymorphisms(rs1275988 and rs2586886) in the TASK-1 gene were selected and genotyped using a Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR genotyping system. Results In patients with blood potassium <3.95 mmol/L,the distribution of rs1275988 alleles(G vs.A)(χ 2=4.474,P=0.034) and recessive model(GG+GA vs.AA)(χ 2=4.327,P=0.038) showed significant differences between severe and non-OSA groups.The distribution of rs2586886 alleles(G vs.A)(χ 2=6.345,P=0.012) and dominant model(AA+GA vs.GA)(χ 2=4.431,P=0.035) showed significant differences between severe and non-OSA groups.The Logistic regression analysis showed that the GG genotype was a risk factor for OSA patients with blood potassium <3.95 mmol/L(OR=7.854,95% CI:1.710-36.000,P=0.008;OR=8.849,95% CI:1.816-43.117,P=0.007). Conclusions Both the GG genotypes of rs1275988 and rs2586886 in the TASK-1 gene may be potential risk factors in severe OSA patients with blood potassium <3.95 mmol/L.Serum potassium>3.95 mmol/L in patients with TASK-1 GG genotype may be conducive to reducing the incidence of severe OSA.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Potássio/sangue , Fatores de Risco
20.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(6): 475-486, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC) is a novel, highly selective potassium binder currently approved in the United States and European Union for treatment of hyperkalemia. This pilot evaluation explored the efficacy of SZC with insulin and glucose as hyperkalemia treatment in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This exploratory, phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT03337477) enrolled adult ED patients with blood potassium ≥ 5.8 mmol/L. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive SZC 10 g or placebo, up to three times during a 10-hour period, with insulin and glucose. The primary efficacy outcome was the mean change in serum potassium (sK+ ) from baseline until 4 hours after start of dosing. RESULTS: Overall, 70 patients were randomized (SZC n = 33, placebo n = 37), of whom 50.0% were male. Their mean (± standard deviation [±SD]) age was 59.0 (±13.8) years and mean initial sK+ was similar between groups (SZC 6.4 mmol/L, placebo 6.5 mmol/L). The least squares mean (±SD) sK+ change from baseline to 4 hours was -0.41 (±0.11) mmol/L and -0.27 (±0.10) mmol/L with SZC and placebo, respectively (difference = -0.13 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.44 to 0.17). A greater reduction in mean (±SD) sK+ from baseline occurred with SZC compared with placebo at 2 hours: -0.72 (±0.12) versus -0.36 (±0.11) mmol/L (LSM difference = -0.35 mmol/L, 95% CI = -0.68 to -0.02), respectively. A numerically lower proportion of patients in the SZC group required additional potassium-lowering therapy due to hyperkalemia at 0 to 4 hours versus placebo (15.6% vs. 30.6%, respectively; odds ratio = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.09 to 1.77). Comparable proportions of patients experienced adverse events in both treatment groups at 0 to 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggested that SZC with insulin and glucose may provide an incremental benefit in the emergency treatment of hyperkalemia over insulin and glucose alone.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Potássio/sangue , Silicatos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
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