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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 118-129, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428974

RESUMO

How interpreting training may enhance semantic integration in general language processing (instead of language processing during interpreting) was not clear, and its neural correlates remained unexplored. Two groups of university students with different amounts of interpreting training experience (more-IE and less-IE) performed a second language (L2) reading task, in which the target sentence ended with three types of lateralized words: expected words, words of related semantic violation (related violation), and words of unrelated semantic violation (unrelated violation). N400 responses elicited by the final words were used to index semantic integration. Two major findings suggested potential contributions of interpreting training to L2 semantic integration. First, the more-IE group exhibited smaller N400 amplitudes than the less-IE group for expected words, and no group differences were obtained for the two violations. Second, N400 amplitudes for related violations were generally smaller than those for unrelated violations in the right visual field, and this difference was more fully captured (more broadly distributed over the scalp) in the more-IE group than in the less-IE group. Therefore, smaller N400 amplitudes for expected words but not for violations, and broader scalp distribution of the differences between related and unrelated violations constitute the neural correlates for the potential contributions of interpreting training to general L2 semantic integration. The results also suggest possible connections between different types of language experience.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
2.
Appetite ; 168: 105687, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509546

RESUMO

It has been proposed that some individuals succumb to maladaptive eating behaviors because, like those with addiction, they attribute high incentive salience to food-associated cues. Here, we tested whether women that attribute high incentive salience to food-associated cues report high food addiction symptomatology. In 76 college women, we assessed self-reported food addiction symptoms using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs, a direct measure of brain activity) to preferred food, erotic, unpleasant, and neutral images. We used the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP, a component of the ERPs) as an index of the incentive salience attributed to the images. Using a multivariate classification algorithm (k-means cluster analysis), we identified two neuroaffective reactivity profiles that have been previously associated with individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues and with differences in vulnerability to addictive behaviors. Results showed that women with elevated LPP responses to preferred food cues relative to erotic images report higher food addiction symptoms than women with low LPP responses to preferred food cues relative to other motivationally relevant stimuli. These results support the hypothesis that individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to food cues play an important role in modulating food addiction symptomatology.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Dependência de Alimentos , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Motivação , Recompensa
3.
Appetite ; 168: 105722, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597743

RESUMO

The interactions between social and eating behaviors can be quite pronounced and are mediated by overlapping neural circuits. The present event-related potential study tested whether the imagery of a specific prosocial behavior (giving chocolates to grateful children) can influence food cue reactivity. A total of 92 females (mean age = 23.5 years) were randomly assigned to one of three guided imagery conditions. The participants listened to an audio recording and were instructed to imagine one of three possible scenes; giving 30 M&Ms to children, eating 30 M&Ms, or sorting 30 marbles. Directly after the imagery task, the participants were presented with images of M&Ms and marbles while their electroencephalogram was recorded. We examined the Late Positive Potential (LPP) across a fronto-central and a parieto-occipital cluster, M&M craving, and subsequent consumption of (real) M&Ms. The mental imagery of offering M&Ms to children was associated with lower M&M craving and higher fronto-central LPP amplitudes (300-600 ms after picture onset) compared to the other imagery conditions. The consumption of M&Ms did not differ between the groups. The LPP is sensitive to the implementation of craving regulation strategies. Furthermore, heightened LPPs are reliably observed in response to motivationally significant stimuli, conflict, and social context. Future studies are needed to specify the specific psychological processes that are associated with the observed LPP effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that mental imagery of receiving a social reward from giving food to others can change components of food cue reactivity in healthy females.


Assuntos
Fissura , Imagens, Psicoterapia , Adulto , Encéfalo , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 157, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the N400 effect and event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited from congruent and incongruent stimuli in patients who have migraines with aura (MwA). METHODS: A total of 33 MwA patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were studied. They were balanced in age (35.12 ± 8.94 vs 34.70 ± 9.59 years, p = 0.872) and sex (69.7 vs 75.0% females, p = 0.761). ERPs were measured in response to both stimuli, where pictures were preceded with an object name that either matched or mismatched with the object. Averaged amplitudes, peaks, peak latencies, difference waves and topography were compared between MwA and HCs. RESULTS: MwA patients had significantly lower averaged amplitudes at the Fz and F4 sites during incongruent stimuli, as well as reduced peaks at the C3 and Pz sites. Topography showed a more widespread N400 effect over scalp relative to HCs. The difference ERP waveforms did not differ in the N400 effect between groups, but the P600 effect was significantly stronger in the HCs group relative to the MwA group at the Pz (6.52 ± 2.57 vs. 3.50 ± 3.15, p = 0.001) and P4 (5.86 ± 2.79 vs. 3.95 ± 3.64, p = 0.040) sites. CONCLUSIONS: Picture-word matching tasks could serve as a potential new method for the investigation of semantic processing in MwA patients.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Enxaqueca com Aura , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 284: 333-335, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920540

RESUMO

Current tests of disease status in Parkinson's disease suffer from high variability, limiting their ability to determine disease severity and prognosis. Event-related potentials, in conjunction with machine learning, may provide a more objective assessment. In this study, we will use event-related potentials to develop machine learning models, aiming to provide an objective way to assess disease status and predict disease progression in Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Progressão da Doença , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948651

RESUMO

This study explored the behavioral and neural correlates of mindfulness meditation improvement in musical aesthetic emotion processing (MAEP) in young adults, using the revised across-modal priming paradigm. Sixty-two participants were selected from 652 college students who assessed their mindfulness traits using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). According to the 27% ratio of the high and low total scores, participants were divided into two subgroups: high trait group (n = 31) and low trait group (n = 31). Participants underwent facial recognition and emotional arousal tasks while listening to music, and simultaneously recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). The N400, P3, and late positive component (LPC) were investigated. The behavioral results showed that mindfulness meditation improved executive control abilities in emotional face processing and effectively regulated the emotional arousal of repeated listening to familiar music among young adults. These improvements were associated with positive changes in key neural signatures of facial recognition (smaller P3 and larger LPC effects) and emotional arousal (smaller N400 and larger LPC effects). Our results show that P3, N400, and LPC are important neural markers for the improvement of executive control and regulating emotional arousal in musical aesthetic emotion processing, providing new evidence for exploring attention training and emotional processing. We revised the affecting priming paradigm and E-prime 3.0 procedure to fulfill the simultaneous measurement of music listening and experimental tasks and provide a new experimental paradigm to simultaneously detect the behavioral and neural correlates of mindfulness-based musical aesthetic processing.


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Música , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Estética , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neurodiagn J ; 61(4): 203-213, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919501

RESUMO

Spinal cord stimulation is used to treat patients with severe neuropathic pain and other forms of debilitating back pain. Spinal cord stimulators (SCS) can either be placed under sedation or general anesthesia (GA). This study evaluated the utility of neurogenic evoked potentials in enabling multimodal spinal cord mapping (MSCM) for the placement of SCSs under GA. The goal of our MSCM paradigm, which integrated recordings from multiple antidromic and orthodromic generators, was to enable the use of precise neuromonitoring techniques, typically used for localizing the midline of the dorsal spinal cord in intramedullary tumor cases, for the safe placement of SCSs. Two distinct modalities were incorporated - orthodromic responses from the somatosensory cortex (Cp3-Cp4 cancellation) and antidromic stimulation via the SCS which resulted in compound nerve action potentials of the extremities. In addition, two incidental findings were made. First, our results suggest that previous investigations may have incorrectly identified compound muscle action potentials as compound nerve action potentials. Additionally, anti D-wave responses, that are theorized to be the equivalent of a D-wave, were observed. This manuscript describes the first use of MSCM, which will ultimately provide neurophysiologists more information during SCS implantation, enabling them to confirm midline placement more confidently. MSCM also allows the application of techniques typically used in spinal cord tumors, allowing the neurophysiologist to maintain proficiency with these techniques on more common procedures. The parallel collection of several sources of data will allow for future studies that better define which mapping methods are the most accurate.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Medula Espinal , Anestesia Geral , Humanos
8.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(10): 1395-1408, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766822

RESUMO

Unwanted intrusive thoughts (UITs) are negative ruminations that occur commonly and show similar characteristics between clinical and nonclinical forms. Despite their prevalence and impact, the control processes of UITs remain unclear. This study aimed to capture the effects of three thought-control strategies on UITs through an interventional design with individualized choking thoughts among Elite athletes, while measuring behavioral and brain responses. Ninety athletes recollected recent "choking" experiences prior to being randomized into one of three groups that used either acceptance, suppression, or passive monitoring (control condition). The activation of choking thoughts during and after the thought control intervention was gauged through three measurement approaches, including conscious presence in mind, priming, as well as the amplitudes of the P3b and N400 event-related potentials (ERPs). To strengthen the causal inferences concerning thought control strategies, athletes' working memory capacity was measured and controlled at baseline. Results indicated that, relative to passive monitoring, suppression led to enhanced priming and reduced conscious presence of UITs, whereas acceptance resulted in an opposite pattern of reduced priming and increased conscious presence of UITs. Moreover, UIT-related stimuli elicited less negative-going N400 amplitudes and more positive-going P3b amplitudes than UIT-irrelevant stimuli, although no effect of thought control strategies was identified on the ERPs. These findings contribute to the theoretical and mechanistic understanding of UIT control processes by revealing subtle effects of two fundamental UIT control strategies: suppression and acceptance. Such insights also bear meaningful applied implications. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Atletas , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770482

RESUMO

This paper introduces a cognitive psychological experiment that was conducted to analyze how traditional film editing methods and the application of cognitive event segmentation theory perform in virtual reality (VR). Thirty volunteers were recruited and asked to watch a series of short VR videos designed in three dimensions: time, action (characters), and space. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded simultaneously during their participation. Subjective results show that any of the editing methods used would lead to an increased load and reduced immersion. Furthermore, the cognition of event segmentation theory also plays an instructive role in VR editing, with differences mainly focusing on frontal, parietal, and central regions. On this basis, visual evoked potential (VEP) analysis was performed, and the standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) traceability method was used to analyze the data. The results of the VEP analysis suggest that shearing usually elicits a late event-related potential component, while the sources of VEP are mainly the frontal and parietal lobes. The insights derived from this work can be used as guidance for VR content creation, allowing VR image editing to reveal greater richness and unique beauty.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Humanos
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG)-derived event-related potentials (ERPs) provide information about a variety of brain functions, but often suffer from low inherent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To overcome the low SNR, techniques that pool data from multiple sensors have been applied. However, such pooling implicitly assumes that the SNR among sensors is equal, which is not necessarily valid. This study presents a novel approach for signal pooling that accounts for differential SNR among sensors. METHODS: The new technique involves pooling together signals from multiple EEG channels weighted by their respective SNRs relative to the overall SNR of all channels. We compared ERP responses derived using this new technique with those derived using both individual channels as well as traditional averaged-based channel pooling. The outcomes were evaluated in both simulated data and real data from healthy adult volunteers (n = 37). Responses corresponding to a range of ERP components indexing auditory sensation (N100), attention (P300) and language processing (N400) were evaluated. RESULTS: Simulation results demonstrate that, compared to traditional pooling technique, the new SNR-weighted channel pooling technique improved ERP response effect size in cases of unequal noise among channels (p's < 0.001). Similarly, results from real-world experimental data showed that the new technique resulted in significantly greater ERP effect sizes compared to either traditional pooling or individual channel approach for all three ERP components (p's < 0.001). Furthermore, the new channel pooling approach also resulted in larger ERP signal amplitudes as well as greater differences among experimental conditions (p's < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the new technique improves the capture of ERP responses relative to traditional techniques. As such, SNR-weighted channel pooling can further enable widespread applications of ERP techniques, especially those that require rapid assessments in noisy out-of-laboratory environments.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Razão Sinal-Ruído
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770581

RESUMO

We investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity due to sudden events during monotonous driving and how it changes with vigilance level. Two types of sudden events, emergency stop and car drifting, were presented using driving simulator, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured. From the ERPs of both types of events, an early component representing sensory information processing and a late component were observed. The early component was expected to represent sensory information processing, which corresponded to visual and somatosensory/vestibular information processing for the sudden stop and lane departure tasks, respectively. The late components showed spatiotemporal characteristics of the well-known P300 component for both types of events. Common characteristic brain activities occurred in response to sudden events, regardless of the type. The modulation of brain activity due to the vigilance level also shared common characteristics between the two types. We expect that our results will contribute to the development of an effective means to assist drivers' reactions to ambulatory situations.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Potenciais Evocados
12.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(7): 785-796, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780232

RESUMO

Psychotic disorders have been associated with visual deficits and deviant semantic processing, making it unclear whether object detection abnormalities in psychosis originate from low-level or higher-order visual processes. The current study investigated how high-level visual processing is affected in psychosis by presenting object stimuli with equivalent low-level visual features. Outpatients with affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders, first-degree biological relatives, and psychiatrically unaffected individuals (N = 130) completed the Fragmented Ambiguous Object Task (FAOT) to assess recognition of objects in ambiguous stimuli. During the task, we recorded electroencephalography, quantified event-related potential (ERP) components (P1, N1, negative closure [NCL], N400), and derived four spatiotemporal event-related potential factors using principal components analysis (PCA). In addition to traditional diagnoses, psychosis was characterized using a dimensional measure of individual differences in self-reported sensory experiences (perceptual absorption) calculated from scales that tap the psychotic domain of the hierarchical structure of psychopathology. Rates of detecting objects within fragmented stimuli failed to differ across diagnostic groups or significantly predict perceptual absorption (p = .057). PCA factors that reflected smaller N1 and larger NCL amplitudes were associated with detecting objects. Exploratory analyses revealed that higher perceptual absorption was associated with reductions in the N400 and a late positive PCA factor. Although early and midlatency brain responses modulate during object detection, late brain responses tied to semantic appraisal of objects are related to perceptual aberrations often reported by individuals with severe psychopathology. Dimensional measures of personality appear sensitive to variation in biological systems relevant to psychotic symptomatology and object perception. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção , Transtornos Psicóticos , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato , Semântica
13.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 2858536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603644

RESUMO

The risk perception and decision-making ability of grassroots managers is the key to the normal operation of enterprises. This study used event-related potential indicators (ERPs) to reveal the process of risk perception and decision-making behaviour of coal mine grassroots managers in different fatigue states. The ERP components, such as CNV, P300, MMN, and FRN, during risk perception, decision-making, and postperception periods were obtained and evaluated. The peak value and variation characteristics of ERP components of grassroots managers under fatigue and nonfatigue conditions were analysed. Accordingly, the effectiveness of decision-making behaviour in different periods was determined. The results showed that the P300 component is a key indicator in measurements of the deviation of grassroots managers' decision-making behaviour, and FRN could reflect the negative emotions in the decision-making process and reflect the sensitivity of the risk perception of grassroots managers. There was a significant difference between the peak voltages of the ERP components of the grassroots managers in fatigue and nonfatigue states. The peak voltage of the ERP components of the grassroots managers in a fatigue state was generally greater than 10 µV; therefore, the quality of decision-making by the grassroots managers could be evaluated according to the characteristics of the ERP components. This study provides a risk decision-making reference for grassroots managers of coal mine enterprises.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Fadiga , Humanos , Percepção
14.
Exp Brain Res ; 239(12): 3671-3686, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618196

RESUMO

The present study aimed to determine whether exposure to an analogue traumatic event affects attentional processing of emotional information. Two groups of non-clinical participants matched on anxiety level, depression symptoms and stressful life events viewed either a trauma or a neutral film. They then performed an emotional Stroop task during which both continuous electroencephalographic activity was recorded and intrusive memories were measured. Results revealed that the valence effect (measured by the difference between emotional and neutral conditions) for the P1 amplitude was significantly greater in participants who viewed the trauma film than in participants who viewed the neutral film. This interaction was specific to words semantically related to the analogue trauma event and did not extend to all negative words. Further analyses revealed a relationship between intrusions frequency, P1 amplitude and emotional Stroop interference, indicating a link between attention and intrusive memories. Our findings suggest that exposure to potentially traumatic events has an important impact on neurocognitive function, even in the absence of psychopathology, and that this impact occurs at an early, possibly automatic stage of processing.


Assuntos
Atenção , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Cognição , Emoções , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos
15.
Perception ; 50(10): 842-860, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623190

RESUMO

It is well known that adults spontaneously classify people into social categories and this categorization in turn guides their cognition and behavior. A wealth of research has examined how people perceive race and investigated the effect of race on social behavior. But what about race encoding? Although considerable behavioral research has investigated the encoding of race, that is, the social categorization by race, the neural underpinning of it is largely underexplored. To investigate the time course of race encoding, the current study employed a modified category verification task and a multivariate analyzing approach. We found that racial information became decodable from event-related potential topographies as early as about 200 ms after stimulus onset. At this stage, the brain can differentiate different races in a task-relevant manner. Nonetheless, it is not until 100 ms later that racial information is encoded in a socially relevant manner (own- versus other-race). Importantly, perceptual differentiation not only occurs before the encoding of the race but actually influences it: the faces that are more easily perceptually categorized are actually encoded more readily. Together, we posit that the detection and the encoding of race are decoupled although they are not completely independent. Our results provide powerful constraints toward the theory-building of race.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Encéfalo , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0242753, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624029

RESUMO

Humans are constantly exposed to a rich tapestry of visual information in a potentially changing environment. To cope with the computational burden this engenders, our perceptual system must use prior context to simultaneously prioritise stimuli of importance and suppress irrelevant surroundings. This study investigated the influence of prediction and attention in visual perception by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs) often associated with these processes, N170 and N2pc for prediction and attention, respectively. A contextual trajectory paradigm was used which violated visual predictions and neglected to predetermine areas of spatial interest, to account for the potentially unpredictable nature of a real-life visual scene. Participants (N = 36) viewed a visual display of cued and non-cued shapes rotating in a five-step predictable trajectory, with the fifth and final position of either the cued or non-cued shape occurring in a predictable or unpredictable spatial location. To investigate the predictive coding theory of attention we used factors of attention and prediction, whereby attention was manipulated as either cued or non-cued conditions, and prediction manipulated in either predictable or unpredictable conditions. Results showed both enhanced N170 and N2pc amplitudes to unpredictable compared to predictable stimuli. Stimulus cueing status also increased N170 amplitude, but this did not interact with stimulus predictability. The N2pc amplitude was not affected by stimulus cueing status. In accordance with previous research these results suggest the N170 is in part a visual prediction error response with respect to higher-level visual processes, and furthermore the N2pc may index attention reorientation. The results demonstrate prior context influences the sensitivity of the N170 and N2pc electrophysiological responses. These findings add further support to the role of N170 as a prediction error signal and suggest that the N2pc may reflect attentional reorientation in response to unpredicted stimulus locations.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neuropsychologia ; 162: 108051, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624260

RESUMO

Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to explore the effects of iconicity and structural visual alignment between a picture-prime and a sign-target in a picture-sign matching task in American Sign Language (ASL). Half the targets were iconic signs and were presented after a) a matching visually-aligned picture (e.g., the shape and location of the hands in the sign COW align with the depiction of a cow with visible horns), b) a matching visually-nonaligned picture (e.g., the cow's horns were not clearly shown), and c) a non-matching picture (e.g., a picture of a swing instead of a cow). The other half of the targets were filler signs. Trials in the matching condition were responded to faster than those in the non-matching condition and were associated with smaller N400 amplitudes in deaf ASL signers. These effects were also observed for hearing non-signers performing the same task with spoken-English targets. Trials where the picture-prime was aligned with the sign target were responded to faster than non-aligned trials and were associated with a reduced P3 amplitude rather than a reduced N400, suggesting that picture-sign alignment facilitated the decision process, rather than lexical access. These ERP and behavioral effects of alignment were found only for the ASL signers. The results indicate that iconicity effects on sign comprehension may reflect a task-dependent strategic use of iconicity, rather than facilitation of lexical access.


Assuntos
Surdez , Línguas de Sinais , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Semântica , Estados Unidos
18.
Biol Psychol ; 165: 108198, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624402

RESUMO

Standard measures of interoception are typically limited to the conscious perception of heartbeats. However, the fundamental purpose of interoceptive signaling, is to regulate the body. We present a novel biofeedback paradigm to explore the neurobehavioral consequences of three different types of engagement with cardiac interoception (Attend, Feel, Regulate) while participants perform a 'cardiac recognition' task. For both the Feel and Regulate conditions, participants displayed enhanced recognition of their own heartbeat, accompanied by larger heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), suggesting that these approaches could be used interchangeably. Importantly, meta-cognitive interoceptive insight was highest in the Regulate condition, indicative of stronger engagement with interoceptive signals in addition to greater ecological validity. Only in the passive interoception condition (Feel) was a significant association found between accuracy in recognising one's own heartbeat and the amplitude of HEPs. Overall, our results imply that active conditions have an important role to play in future investigation of interoception.


Assuntos
Interocepção , Conscientização , Emoções , Potenciais Evocados , Coração , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 162: 108043, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600892

RESUMO

A fearful face as second visual target (T2) was detected better than a neutral T2 in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) task. The advantage of fear over neutral emotion was originally attributed to a limited-capacity mechanism, in which fearful stimuli are prioritized for attention over neutral stimuli. However, more recent studies have shown that the prioritization of the processing of fear is strongly dependent on the emotional task relevance. Combining the RSVP task and Garner's paradigm, by varying the expression (fearful and neutral faces) and the emotional task relevance of the T2 (relevance: emotion classification task; irrelevance: gender classification task), this study aims to investigate the role of emotional task relevance on the advantage of fear during an RSVP task in which participants have to identify two visual targets in a stream of distractors. The behavioral results revealed that there was no significant effect of the expression on the task performance in the gender classification task. Fearful faces were easier to detect than neutral faces, but the T2 accuracy of fearful faces was lower than that of neutral faces in the emotion classification task. Furthermore, we found that the vertex positive potential and P100 components were enhanced for fearful faces compared to neutral faces independent of the emotional task relevance. For the P300 component, there was no significant difference in the gender classification task, but fearful faces elicited enhanced P300 amplitudes compared to neutral faces in the emotion classification task. These results indicated that the early processing of fear is automatic, while the late processing of fear is dependent on the emotional task relevance under limited attentional resources.


Assuntos
Intermitência na Atenção Visual , Emoções , Potenciais Evocados , Expressão Facial , Medo , Humanos
20.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 43(6): 623-636, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neuropsychological assessment of spatial orientation in post-acute patients with large brain lesions is often limited due to additional cognitive disorders like aphasia, apraxia, or reduced responsiveness. METHODS: To cope with these limitations, we developed a paradigm using passive audiospatial event-related potentials (pAERPs): Participants were requested to merely listen over headphones to horizontally moving tones followed by a short tone ("target"), presented either on the side to which the cue moved or on the opposite side. Two runs of 120 trials were presented and we registered AERPs with two electrodes, mounted at C3 and C4. Nine sub-acute patients with large left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) lesions and nine controls participated. RESULTS: Patients had no problems completing the assessment. RH patients showed a reduced N100 for left-sided targets in all conditions. LH patients showed a diminished N100 for invalid trials and contralesional targets. CONCLUSION: Measuring AERPs for moving auditory cues and with two electrodes allows investigating spatial attentional deficits in patients with large RH and LH lesions, who are often unable to perform clinical tests. Our procedure can be implemented easily in an acute and rehabilitation setting and might enable investigating spatial attentional processes even in patients with minimal conscious awareness.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Potenciais Evocados , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
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