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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0269326, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662730

RESUMO

The pitch perturbation technique is a validated technique that has been used for over 30 years to understand how people control their voice. This technique involves altering a person's voice pitch in real-time while they produce a vowel (commonly, a prolonged /a/ sound). Although post-task changes in the voice have been observed in several studies (e.g., a change in mean fo across the duration of the experiment), the potential for using the pitch perturbation technique as a training tool for voice pitch regulation and/or modification has not been explored. The present study examined changes in event related potentials (ERPs) and voice pitch in three groups of subjects due to altered voice auditory feedback following a brief, four-day training period. Participants in the opposing group were trained to change their voice fo in the opposite direction of a pitch perturbation stimulus. Participants in the following group were trained to change their voice fo in the same direction as the pitch perturbation stimulus. Participants in the non-varying group did not voluntarily change their pitch, but instead were asked to hold their voice constant when they heard pitch perturbations. Results showed that all three types of training affected the ERPs and the voice pitch-shift response from pre-training to post-training (i.e., "hold your voice pitch steady" task; an indicator of voice pitch regulation). Across all training tasks, the N1 and P2 components of the ERPs occurred earlier, and the P2 component of the ERPs occurred with larger amplitude post-training. The voice responses also occurred earlier but with a smaller amplitude following training. These results demonstrate that participation in pitch-shifted auditory feedback tasks even for brief periods of time can modulate the automatic tendency to compensate for alterations in voice pitch feedback and has therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Voz , Humanos , Treinamento da Voz , Retroalimentação , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia
2.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 184: 100-109, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The error-related negativity (ERN) reflects individual differences in error monitoring. However, findings on the ERN in adult and adolescent depression have been inconsistent. Analyzing electroencephalographic (EEG) data in both the time- and time-frequency domain can be useful to better quantify neural response to errors. The present study aimed at examining electrocortical measures of error monitoring in early adolescents with and without depression. METHOD: EEG activity was collected during an arrowhead version of the flanker task in 29 (25 females) early adolescents with depression and 34 without MDD (29 females). RESULTS: The depression group showed reduced ERN amplitude, reduced error-related theta power and increased error-related beta power compared to the control group. When all variables that related to MDD diagnosis were considered simultaneously, both theta and beta power, but not the ERN, were independently related to an increased likelihood of being diagnosed with depression. CONCLUSIONS: By examining both time-domain and separate time-frequency measures, the present study provided novel evidence on error monitoring alterations in youth depression, suggesting that depression during adolescence may be characterized by reduced error monitoring (i.e., reduced ERN and error-related theta) and post-error inhibition (i.e., greater error-related beta power). These results support that time-frequency measures might be better suited for examining error-related neural activity in MDD relative to time-domain measures.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Encéfalo , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
3.
PeerJ ; 11: e14583, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632142

RESUMO

Emotional categorisation (deciding whether a word is emotional or not) is a task that employs the explicit analysis of the emotional meaning of words. Therefore, it allows for assessing the role of emotional factors, i.e., valence, arousal, and subjective significance, in emotional word processing. The aim of the current experiment was to investigate the role of subjective significance, a reflective form of activation that is similar to arousal (the automatic form), in the processing of emotional meaning. We applied the orthogonal manipulation of three emotional factors. Thus, we were able to precisely differentiate the effects of each factor and search for interactions between them. We expected valence to shape the late positive complex LPC component, while subjective significance and arousal were expected to shape the P300 and N400 components. We observed the effects of subjective significance throughout the whole span of processing, while the arousal effect was present only in the LPC component. We also observed that amplitudes for N400 and LPC discriminated negative from positive valence. The results showed that all factors included in the analysis should be taken into account while explaining the processing of emotion-laden words; especially interesting is the subjective significance, which was shown to shape processing individually, as well as to come into interaction with valence and arousal.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia
4.
Neuropsychologia ; 179: 108447, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521630

RESUMO

Mental rotations of body-related stimuli are known to engage the motor system and activate body schema. Sensorimotor deficits following spinal cord injury (SCI) alter the representation of the body with a negative impact on the performance during motor-related tasks, such as mental rotation of body parts. Here we investigated the relationship between event-related potentials in SCI participants and the difficulty in mentally rotating a body-part. Participants with SCI and healthy control subjects performed a laterality judgment task, in which left or right images of hands, feet or animals (as a control stimulus) were presented in two different orientation angles (75° and 150°), and participants reported the laterality of the stimulus. We found that reaction times of participants with SCI were slower for the rotation of body-related stimuli compared to non-body-related stimuli and healthy controls. At the brain level, we found that relative to healthy controls SCI participants show: 1) reduced amplitudes of the posterior P100 and anterior N100 and larger amplitudes of the anterior P200 for overall stimuli; 2) an absence of the modulation of the rotation related negativity by stimulus type and rotation angles. Our results show that body representation changes after SCI affecting both components of early stimulus processing and late components that process high-order cognitive aspects of body-representation and task complexity.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Mãos/fisiologia
5.
Neurosci Lett ; 792: 136957, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347341

RESUMO

Flexible switching between different tasks is an important cognitive ability for humans and it is often studied using the task-switching paradigm. Although the neural mechanisms of task switching have been extensively explored in previous studies using event-related potentials techniques, the activity and process mechanisms of non-phase-locked electroencephalography (EEG) have rarely been revealed. For this reason, this paper discusses the processing of non-phase-locked EEG oscillations in task switching based on frequency-band delineation. First, the roles of each frequency band in local brain regions were summarized. In particular, during the proactive control process (the cue-stimulus interval), delta, theta, and alpha oscillations played more roles in the switch condition while beta played more roles in repeat task. In the reactive control process (post-target), delta, alpha, and beta are all related to sensorimotor function. Then, utilizing the functional connectivity (FC) method, delta connections in the frontotemporal regions and theta connections located in the parietal-to-occipital sites are involved in the preparatory period before task switching, while alpha connections located in the sensorimotor areas and beta connections located in the frontal-parietal cortex are involved in response inhibition. Finally, cross-frequency coupling (CFC) play an important role in working memory among different band oscillation. The present study shows that in addition to the processing mechanisms specific to each frequency band, there are some shared and interactive neural mechanism in task switching by using different analysis techniques.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia
6.
Neuropsychologia ; 178: 108443, 2023 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481257

RESUMO

The current study examines the extent to which hearing individual-level names (e.g., Jimmy) and category-level labels (e.g., Hitchel) paired with novel objects impacts neural responses across a brief (6 min) learning period. Event-related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while adult participants (n = 44) viewed and heard exemplars of two different species of named novel objects. ERPs were examined for each labeling condition and compared across the first and second half of the learning trials (∼3 min/half). Mean amplitude decreased for the P1 and increased for the N170 from the first to the second half of trials. The decrease in P1 was right lateralized. In addition, the P1 amplitude recorded over right occipitotemporal regions was greater than left occipitotemporal areas, but only for objects paired with individual-level labels. Category-level labels did not show regional P1 differences. The N250 component was greatest over the right occipitotemporal region and was enhanced for objects labeled with individual-level relative to category-level names during the second half of trials. Overall, these findings highlight the unfolding of label-dependent visual processing across a short training period in adults. The results suggest that linguistic labels have an important, top-down impact, on visual processing and that label specificity shapes visuo-cortical responses within a 6-min learning period.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Adulto , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
7.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 59: 101190, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549147

RESUMO

Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study investigated how the brains of Chinese children of different ages extract and encode relational patterns contained in orthographic input. Ninety-nine Chinese children in Grades 1-3 performed an artificial orthography statistical learning task that comprised logographic components embedded in characters with high (100%), moderate (80%), and low (60%) positional consistency. The behavioral results indicated that across grades, participants more accurately recognized characters with high rather than low consistency. The neurophysiological results revealed that in each grade, the amplitude of some ERP components differed, with a larger P1 effect in the high consistency condition and a larger N170 and left-lateralized P300 effect in the low consistency condition. A smaller N170 effect occurred in Grade 3 than in Grade 1, and a larger P300 effect occurred in Grade 1 than in either Grade 2 or 3. These findings suggest the dynamic nature of statistical learning by showing that neural adaptation associated with N170, and attention and working memory related to P1 and P300, regulate different types of structural input, and that children's abilities to prioritize these mechanisms vary with context and age.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Humanos , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
8.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 184: 84-93, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566782

RESUMO

Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we tested the hypothesis of valent word forms (Kissler et al., 2006, Prog Brain Res) stating that the mere visual shapes of emotional words acquire valence through numerous co-occurrences with affective activation over an experienced reader's life. Thereby, associations between neuronal representations of visual word forms and affect are strengthened. If so, selective attention to a specific level of the valence of single visual words should not only pre-activate neuronal representations of that level of valence, but this activation should also spread to the associated word forms. This should improve their processing and/or affective discrimination. In a valence-detection task, N = 53 participants made speeded responses only to words of the current target level of valence (negative, neutral, or positive), which varied across separate blocks. We focused on posterior visual P1 and N170 components, two well-established ERP markers of low-level and structural word form processing, respectively. P1 increased from negative over neutral to positive words; this effect was stronger in target compared to nontarget words. N170 was larger for emotional compared to neutral target words, whereas nontarget words showed a strong reverse pattern. The P1 effect for target words and the N170 effect for nontarget words both were driven by good task performers in terms of fast hit responses. Results support the idea of valent word forms that can be tuned by selective attention to valence, which implies both, facilitated affective discrimination and processing of target words, and inhibition of the processing of nontarget words.


Assuntos
Emoções , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Eletroencefalografia
9.
J Neurophysiol ; 129(1): 199-210, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541609

RESUMO

Brain dynamics recorded via electroencephalography (EEG) is conceptualized as a sum of two components: "phase-locked" and "non-phase-locked" to the stimulus. Phase-locked activity is often implicitly studied as event-related potentials (ERPs), and the trial-averaged estimates-evoked potentials (EP) considered both time-locked and phase-locked to the stimulus. The non-phase-locked activity, on the other hand, refers to an increase in power in a narrow band or broadband frequencies in the signal emerging at variable phases from stimulus initiation. Both components are understood to stem from different neuronal mechanisms; hence, accurately characterizing them is of immense importance to neuroscientific studies. Here, we discuss the drawbacks of currently used methods to separate the phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity and propose a novel concurrent phaser method (CPM) that simultaneously decomposes the two components. First, we establish that the single-trial separation of phase-locked and non-phase-locked power is an ill-posed problem. Second, using simulations where ground truth validation is possible, we elucidate how the estimation of non-phase-locked power gets biased by phase-locked power in the state-of-the-art averaging method and ways to resolve the issue using CPM. Next, we use two experimental EEG datasets-audio oddball and auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) to show that empirical signal-to-noise estimates warrant the usage of CPM to separate phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity. Thus, using ground truth validation from simulations and demonstration in real experimental scenarios, the efficacy of the proposed CPM is established.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Parametric models for estimation of phase-locked and non-phase-locked brain signals reveals how estimation of non-phase-locked component is biased by the variability of phase-locked component and at the level of single trial becomes an ill-posed problem. Furthermore, the modeling framework delimits the boundaries where traditional averaging approach can be trusted to estimate the phase-locked and non-phase-locked components.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Cognição
10.
Biol Psychol ; 176: 108479, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566011

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that looming emotional faces are processed rapidly by the neural system, and that this apparent approach further interacts with emotion, causing an enhanced neural response for angry expressions. However, previous research has not demonstrated unequivocally if these effects are due to low-level visual features, or if they are indeed due to the emotional content of the stimuli. To address this question, the current study presented upright and inverted angry and neutral faces, which either expanded or contracted in size on a constant depth-cued background, such that they appeared to approach or retreat from the viewer. EEG/ERP measures were used to identify the time course of brain activity for these stimuli. The results showed that when faces were upright, both the P1 and N170 were enhanced for angry expressions, with the P1 being further increased with looming angry faces. The inversion of the faces caused an increase in both the P1 and N170 amplitudes, but no modulation was found for emotions. These findings show an early modulation of brain activity for upright looming angry faces and rule out the influence of low-level visual features as a contributing factor.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Expressão Facial
11.
Psychophysiology ; 60(1): e14135, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775733

RESUMO

Previous studies have revealed the effect of set size (the number of activated items) on object switching in working memory, but the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. In this study, participants were asked to first remember two (small size) or three (large size) two-digit numbers and the corresponding geometrical figures as different references for numerical comparison and then compare a series of numbers (10-99) to the reference numbers cued by different geometrical figures. The cue repeated or switched across trials. Behavioral results revealed that the switch cost was greater in the large-size condition than in the small-size condition. Event-related potential results showed that in the N2 component, an interaction was observed between set size and transition, with a significant transition effect (switch minus repeat) in the large-size condition and a non-significant transition effect in the small-size condition. The same interaction was observed in the P3 component, with a larger amplitude difference (switch minus repeat) in the large-size condition than in the small-size condition. These results suggested that when set size is increased, the effort to inhibit the irrelevant items increases, resulting in large cost of object switching in working memory.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia)
12.
Psychophysiology ; 60(1): e14147, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819753

RESUMO

Previous reports suggest that East-Asians may show larger face-elicited N170 components in the ERP as compared to Caucasian participants. Since the N170 can be modulated by perceptual expertise, such group differences may be accounted for by differential experience, for example, with logographic versus alphabetic scripts (script system hypothesis) or by exposure to abundant novel faces during the immersion into a new social and/or ethnic environment (social immersion hypothesis). We conducted experiments in Hong Kong and Berlin, recording ERPs in a series of one-back tasks, using same- and other-ethnicity face stimuli in upright and inverted orientation and doodle stimuli. In Hong Kong we tested local Chinese residents and foreign guest students who could not read the logographic script; in Berlin we tested German residents who could not read the logographic script and foreign Chinese visitors. In both experiments, we found significantly larger N170 amplitudes to faces, regardless of ethnicity, in the foreign than in the local groups. Moreover, this effect did not depend on stimulus orientation, suggesting that the N170 group differences do not reflect differences in configural visual processing. A group of short-term German residents in Berlin did not differ in N170 amplitude from long-term residents. Together, these findings indicate that the extensive confrontation with novel other-ethnicity faces during immersion in a foreign culture may enhance the neural response to faces, reflecting the short-term plasticity of the underlying neural system.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Etnicidade , Humanos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Face
13.
Psychophysiology ; 60(1): e14145, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834644

RESUMO

Self-positivity bias is a common psychological phenomenon in which individuals often associate positive information with themselves. However, little is known about how self-positivity bias is modulated by different language contexts (e.g., a first vs. second language). To this end, we analyzed behavioral and electrophysiological data to examine whether first or second languages play differential roles in the self-positivity bias effect. We used a modified self-positivity bias task which required Chinese-English bilinguals to judge strings of letters or characters as realwords or not and match associations between identity (self, other) and a geometric shape (circle, triangle). The target words in the experiment consisted of positive, negative, and neutral emotional words. The results showed that in the L2 context, the self-positivity condition elicited a smaller N400 effect relative to the self-negativity condition and a larger late positive component effect relative to the self-negativity and self-neutrality conditions. Furthermore, the other-positivity condition elicited a stronger N400 effect than the other-neutrality condition. These patterns did not emerge in the L1 context. We discuss the implications and contributions of these findings to better understand the interaction between emotion and self-concept in different language contexts.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Multilinguismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Idioma , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia
14.
Psychophysiology ; 60(1): e14152, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867964

RESUMO

Some aspects of our memory are enhanced by emotion, whereas others can be unaffected or even hindered. Previous studies reported impaired associative memory of emotional content, an effect termed associative "emotional interference". The current study used EEG and an associative recognition paradigm to investigate the cognitive and neural mechanisms associated with this effect. In two experiments, participants studied negative and neutral stimulus-pairs that were either semantically related or unrelated. In Experiment 1 emotions were relevant to the encoding task (valence judgment) whereas in Experiment 2 emotions were irrelevant (familiarity judgment). In a subsequent associative recognition test, EEG was recorded while participants discriminated between intact, rearranged, and new pairs. An associative emotional interference effect was observed in both experiments, but was attenuated for semantically related pairs in Experiment 1, where valence was relevant to the task. Moreover, a modulation of an early associative memory ERP component (300-550 ms) occurred for negative pairs when valence was task-relevant (Experiment 1), but for semantically related pairs when valence was irrelevant (Experiment 2). A later ERP component (550-800 ms) showed a more general pattern, and was observed in all experimental conditions. These results suggest that both valence and semantic relations can act as an organizing principle that promotes associative binding. Their ability to contribute to successful retrieval depends on specific task demands.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Semântica , Humanos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Emoções
15.
Psychophysiology ; 60(1): e14193, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256483

RESUMO

This review focuses on research my colleagues and I have conducted on etiological pathways to depression. Much of this work has focused on the measurement of neural responses to appetitive cues, using two event-related brain potential (ERP) components, the Late Positive Potential (LPP) and the Reward Positivity (RewP). Reductions in each of these components have been associated with current symptoms of depression, and in some cases have been shown to differentiate anxious from depressive phenotypes. In this review, I will describe three broad and related approaches we have taken in our research to address a series of interdependent issuess. The first attempts to understand different sources of variation in the LPP and RewP, and how these sources interact with one another. The second tries to identify whether variation in the processes measured by these ERP components might reflect a latent vulnerability to depression and its symptoms, that is evident prior to illness onset. And the third examines the possibility that the processes reflected in the LPP and RewP might play a mechanistic role in the development of depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Eletroencefalografia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Recompensa
16.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 79: 103401, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516650

RESUMO

Cognitive theories suggest that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) constantly negatively evaluate their self-referential information. Unlike Westerners with an independent self, self-representation is strongly influenced by cultural differences; the Chinese self may include others (interdependent self). This study uses a self-referential effect task combined with event-related potentials (ERP), and 34 patients with MDD and 54 healthy controls (HC) were asked to judge whether an adjective was suitable for describing the self, mother, or a public person, followed by an unexpected recognition task. They were required to judge whether a word was presented during the encoding phase. The results reveal that during the encoding phase, for both self- and mother-referential adjectives, patients with MDD endorsed fewer positive adjectives and more negative adjectives than the HCs. During the recognition phase, both groups showed a typical task effect (self = mother > other), while patients recognized more self-referential adjectives than the HCs. ERP data reveal that patients with MDD show larger P2 amplitudes during the encoding stage than healthy individuals. During the recognition phase, negative adjectives evoked larger P2 amplitudes in patients than in HCs under the self-referential condition. These findings shed important light on the information processes that may contribute to our understanding of depression and may offer implications for clinical interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Cognição/fisiologia , Mães , Autoimagem
17.
Brain Lang ; 236: 105215, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502770

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is known to affect expressive and receptive communication abilities. This study examined individual differences in neural mechanisms underlying speech processing in children with AS (n = 24, M age = 10.01 years) and typical development (n = 30, M age = 10.82 years) using auditory event-related potentials during passive listening to common English words and novel pseudowords. A group of adults with AS (n = 7, M = 31.78 years) provided data about the upper developmental range. The typically developing group demonstrated the expected more negative amplitudes in response to words than pseudowords within 250-500 ms after stimulus onset at the left temporal scalp region. Children and adults with AS exhibited a similar left-lateralized pattern of word-pseudoword differentiation at temporal and parietal regions, but not the midline parietal memory response for known words observed in the typically developing group, suggesting typical-like word-pseudoword differentiation along with possible alterations in the automatic recall of word meaning. These results have important implications for understanding receptive and expressive communication processes in AS and support the use of auditory neural responses for characterizing individual differences in neurodevelopmental disorders with limited speech.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Processamento de Texto , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Idioma , Comunicação , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
18.
Biol Psychol ; 176: 108475, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review analyzes brain responses at later stages of neuronal processing (P3 at 300-500 ms, and LPP at 300-700 ms). Both P3 and LPP are implicated in attentional threat bias in disorders grouped into fear and distress dimensions of the anxiety spectrum described by the Hierarchical Taxonomy Model of Psychopathology (HiTOP), but there are no consistent findings so far. METHOD: Meta-analyses with between- (32 studies, n = 1631) and within-groups design (31 studies, n = 1699) were performed for assessing P3 and LPP modulation in negative, positive, and neutral stimuli, while also considering differences between controls and anxious individuals. Relevant moderators (e.g., age, sex, task) were controlled for and negative stimuli were further decomposed in terms of category (Relevant, Fear/Threat, or Unpleasant). RESULTS: Increased P3 and LPP amplitudes were found for negative and positive stimuli, when compared to neutral stimuli (within-subjects analysis), confirming that both components are elicited by emotionally arousing information. Within-effects for negative and positive stimuli were higher for the anxious groups. Nonetheless, between-groups analyses showed that attentional threat bias occurs only in anxious groups when negative, personally relevant-threat information is presented. The HiTOP fear dimension moderated the findings. LIMITATIONS: Potential missed studies; ERPs time windows' heterogeneity; adult sample only; the uneven number of computed effects; categorical analyses. CONCLUSION: Attentional bias toward disorder-congruent threatening cues can be a transdiagnostic mechanism of HiTOP fear disorders, clustered within the anxiety spectrum.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Adulto , Humanos , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 179: 108441, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539059

RESUMO

To understand how neural networks in the left (LH) and right (RH) cerebral hemispheres contribute to different aspects of language comprehension, in two experiments we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) as right-handed participants read sentences, some of which contained morphosyntactic and thematic role violations. Replicating prior work (Kuperberg et al., 2006), in Experiment 1 thematic role violations elicited both an N400 and a (semantic) P600 effect. Morphosyntactic violations elicited effects that differed as a function of participants' familial sinistrality (the presence [FS+] or absence [FS-] of a left-handed biological relative): FS+ participants showed a (syntactic) P600 effect whereas FS- participants showed a biphasic N400 and P600 response. To assess whether this difference reflects different underlying patterns of lateralization, in Experiment 2 target words were presented using visual half-field (VF) presentation. Indeed, for morphosyntactic violations, the FS- group elicited an asymmetric pattern, showing a P600 effect only with LH-biased presentation and an N400 effect in both VFs (cf. Lee and Federmeier, 2015). In contrast, FS+ participants showed a bilateral (N400-only) response pattern. This provides further evidence of FS-based differences in hemispheric contributions to syntactic processing. Strikingly, we found that, when lateralized, thematic role violations did not elicit a P600 effect, suggesting that this effect requires contributions from both hemispheres. The different response patterns for morphosyntactic and thematic role animacy violations across FS and VF also point to a processing difference in the comprehension mechanisms underlying the semantic and syntactic P600, which had heretofore been assumed to be variants of the same component.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Semântica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Idioma , Leitura , Compreensão/fisiologia
20.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 184: 76-83, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581044

RESUMO

Enhanced error monitoring has been associated with higher levels of anxiety. This has been consistently demonstrated in its most reliable electrophysiological index, the error-related negativity (ERN), such that increased ERN is related with elevated anxiety symptomology. However, it is still unclear whether the structural properties of the brain are associated with individual differences in ERN amplitude. Moreover, the relationship between ERN and anxiety has recently been suggested to be moderated by sex, but the degree to which sex moderates the association between brain structure and ERN amplitude is unknown. The present study investigated the association between gray matter volume (GMV) and ERN amplitude in individuals with high trait anxiety (N = 98) as well as the role of sex in moderating this association. The ERN was elicited from a flanker task, whereas structural MRI images were obtained from whole brain structural T1-weighted MRI scans. The results of voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that the relationship between ERN difference scores and GMV was moderated by sex in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). This sex difference was derived from a negative correlation between ERN difference scores and dACC GMV in females and a positive correlation in males. Our findings are in accordance with the critical role of the dACC serving as a neural substrate of error monitoring. It also provides further evidence for sex-specific associations with brain structures related to error monitoring.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
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